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The Costs and Benefits of Economic Migration IMPACT ON ORIGIN / SOURCE COUNTRY

ECONOMIC COSTS
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Loss of young adult labour force Loss of skills base and entrepreneurs - could slow economic development out - migration may cause spital of decline which is difficult to halt (see link on NE Deindustrialisation blog) Loss of labour may discourage inward investment, increasing dependence on government support. ECONOMIC BENEFITS

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Prospect of reduced under emloyment in the source country Returning migrants bring new skills to the country which may revitalise home country economy Money sent home by migrants may be invested in the home economy or businesses Les pressure on resources including basic supplies such as food and water and essentail services such as healthcare SOCIAL COSTS

Perceived benefits of migration continue to encourage following generations to migrate with a net detrimental effect on social structure Disproportionate number of females left behind Non return of migrants leaves imbalance in population structure with long term consequences Returning retired migrants may impose social cost on the community if there is an inadequate support mechanism to cater for them SOCIAL BENEFITS

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Population density reduced and birth rate decreases (young fertile who migrate) Money sent home by migrants can finance improved education and healthcare facilities Returning retired migrants increase social expectations within the community, e.g., demand for better leisure facilities

IMPACT ON DESTINATION COUNTRY
ECONOMIC COSTS
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Cost of educating migrants' children Increasing over dependence on migrant labour to support some industries (e.g. vegetable picking in East Anglia) Leakage of money earned by migrants, including pension payments, goes back to country of origin Increased numbers of people puts pressure on existing resources such as health services and education. ECONOMIC BENEFITS

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Migrants take up less desirable jobs Host country gains skilled labour at reduced cost 'Skills gap' in host country may be filled by qualified migrant workers Retirement costs are transferred back to the source country SOCIAL COSTS

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Discrimination against minorities leads to civil unrest and political extremism The dominance of males is reinforced, especially in countries where the status of women is low, e.g., Persian Gulf states Aspects of cultural identity are lost, particularly among second and third generation migrants Segregated areas of similar ethnic groups are created, and schools become dominated by migrant children SOCAIL BENEFITS

Creation of a multicultural society increases awareness, respect and understanding of other cultures Influx of new and revitalised community services and businesses, e.g. corner shops and Turkish baths Growth of ethnic retailing and areas associated with ethnic food and textile outlets, e.g. fabric shops in Manningham, Bradford Check this link on the impact of Economic Migration http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/2019385.stm