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SINGAPORE RED CROSS YOUTH DIVISION RED CROSS KNOWLEDGE (BRONZE) WORKSHOP

RED CROSS MOTTO, PROMISE, SONG RED CROSS MOTTO Serve One Another RED CROSS PROMISE We, as members of the Singapore Red Cross Society, promise to serve my country, and to join with others all over the world to help the sick and the suffering RED CROSS SONG Come let us pledge again, Each heart and hand, To thee the flag we serve, Friends in every land. Come let us give anew, Each thought and mind, To be a light to shine Over all mankind. So may our emblem be proudly unfurled, To link the chain of youth for service through the world Oh give us strength to prove, Sure and sublime, To make the cause we serve, Shine over the hills of time.

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SINGAPORE RED CROSS YOUTH DIVISION RED CROSS KNOWLEDGE (BRONZE) WORKSHOP

RED CROSS BASIC PRINCIPLES THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT MOVEMENT Unanimously adopted by the Council of Delegates of the International Red Cross, Prague, 5th October 1961 and by the XXth International Conference of the Red Cross, 1965. Humanity International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, born of a desire to bring assistance without discrimination to the wounded on the battlefield, endeavours, in its international and national capacity, to prevent and alleviate wherever it may be found. Its purpose is to protect life and health and to ensure respect for the human being. It promotes mutual understanding, friendship, cooperation and lasting peace amongst all peoples. Impartiality It makes no discrimination to nationality, race, religious beliefs, class or political opinions. It endeavours to relieve the suffering of individuals, being guided solely by their needs, and to give priority to the most urgent cases of distress. Neutrality In order to continue to enjoy the confidence of all, the Movement may not take sides in hostilities or engage at any time in controversies of a political, racial, religious or ideological nature. Independence The Movement is independent. The National Societies, while auxiliaries in the humanitarian services of their governments and subject to the laws of their respective countries, must always maintain their autonomy so that they may be able at all times to act in accordance with the principles of the Movement. Voluntary Service It is a voluntary relief movement not prompted in any manner by desire or gain. Unity

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There can only be one Red Cross or one Red Crescent Society in any one country. It must be open to all. It must carry on its humanitarian network throughout its territory. Universality The Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, in which all Societies have equal status and share equal responsibilities duties in helping each other, is worldwide.

RED CROSS EMBLEM

Red Cross and Sun

Red Crescent

Red Lion

The adoption of a distinctive emblem for the people and establishment placed under this special protection was an important part of this international agreement. In honour of Switzerland, a red cross on a white background obtained by reversing the colours of the Swiss flag. The Red Cross emblem (5 red squares on a white background) was adopted in 1863. However, the red cross raised a problem in some countries, for although the red cross is not a religious symbol and never figured as such among the Christian countries which adopted it proved unacceptable to Turkey, the first non-Christian country to establish a relief society. In 1876, Turkey dissolved its ‘Aid Society to the Wounded’ formed eight years before, and re-established it with the name and emblem of the red crescent. The Red Crescent on a white background was mostly used as an emblem by Islamic countries.

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SINGAPORE RED CROSS YOUTH DIVISION RED CROSS KNOWLEDGE (BRONZE) WORKSHOP
These two distinctive emblems are equally recognized and protected since the diplomatic Conference of 1929. Their purpose is to ensure the protection of the war-wounded and of all the persons caring for them. Any abuse of these emblems endangers the entire system and constitutes a grave breach of international law. In 1922, the Persian (Iran) – Muslims of a different rite from the Turks, took the emblem of the Red Lion and Sun. This emblem was later revoked in 1980 and the red crescent emblem was used in place of the Red Lion and Sun.

INTRODUCTION TO SINGAPORE RED CROSS Brief History The Singapore Red Cross Society began as part of the British Red Cross in 1949 during the colonization of Singapore. Our first premises were a small borrowed office in a government in Empress Place. It was then shifted to the former Maxwell Road Outpatient Dispensary and then on to the Asia Insurance Building. Before Singapore gained independence, we ceased to be part of the British Red Cross in 1964 and was incorporated into the Malaysian Red Crescent on 1 July 1965. With the separation of Singapore and Malaysia on 9 August 1965, the Singapore Red Cross Society became an independent organization. The SRCS then initiated steps to constitute itself into a National Red Cross Society and work towards international operation. The Singapore Red Cross Society (SRCS) was incorporated by an Act of Parliament on 6 April 1973 and it was admitted into the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) as the 120th National Society in November 1973. 4

SINGAPORE RED CROSS YOUTH DIVISION RED CROSS KNOWLEDGE (BRONZE) WORKSHOP
The Singapore Red Cross Society moved to its current location in 1 July 1961. Red Cross Campsite was shifted to the former Opera Estate Primary School at 62 Jalan Khairuddin Singapore 457524. Organisation SRCS is governed by a Council which is responsible for pursuing the objectives of the Society as in accordance to the Act of Parliament and its Constitution. SRCS is part of a world-wide, non-political, nonreligious movement, which based its work on the fundamental principles of Red Cross. As an independent humanitarian organization, it raises its own funds in serving humanity and furthering the work of the Red Cross locally and internationally. The Council of the SRCS is a body comprising of 30 members with the Chairman appointed by the President of the Republic of Singapore, the Patron of the SRCS. The Council consults 3 appointed Commissions providing expertise, namely the Finance Commission, the Legal Commission, and the Medical Commission. The general management is overseen by the Executive Committee, with operational responsibilities vested in the Red Cross Youth Division, the Welfare Division, the Adult Volunteer Division, Standing Committees, Task Forces and Resource Panels.

Location The address of Singapore Red Cross is: Red Cross House 15 Penang Lane Singapore 238486 The Red Cross House is behind Park Mall, neighbouring Stansfield College. The nearest MRT to the Red Cross House is Dhoby Ghaut MRT Station, which is directly accessible by the North-South Line, the NorthEast Line, and in the near future, the Circle Line. 5

SINGAPORE RED CROSS YOUTH DIVISION RED CROSS KNOWLEDGE (BRONZE) WORKSHOP
Places of several divisions in Red Cross House: • Volunteer Development Division (1st Floor) • Red Cross Training Centre (3rd Floor) Services The following services are offered by the Red Cross: • Red Cross Home for the Disabled (RCHD) o Address: 72 Elizabeth Drive S(660000) • Red Cross Hostel for Handicapped Workers • Red Cross Blood Donation Recruitment Programme • Red Cross Ambulance Service o Telephone No.: 6337 3333 o Opening Hours: Monday to Saturday, 8am to 10pm • Red Cross Training Centre o Set up in 1992 to expand its First Aid and CPR courses to commercial sectors • First Aid Public Duty • Information & Referral Key Appiontment Holders Patron of SRC His Excellency, Mr S R Nathan, President of the Republic of Singapore Chairman of SRC Lieutanent-General Winston Choo (Retd) Secretary-General Mrs Geri Lau

INTRODUCTION TO RED CROSS YOUTH Brief History & Information The Red Cross Youth was formed in 1952, with Raffles Girls’ School (Secondary) having it’s first cadet unit. The Red Cross run school-based youth programmes and is an CoCurricular Activity (CCA) recognized by the Ministry of Education. The 6

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Red Cross Youth has two programmes, one for the primary school children (Link programme), and another for secondary school youths (Cadet programme). The organization of youth activities under this system has produced good results with both the Link units and Cadet units, enthusiastically pursuing a series of activities ranging from social/recreational to community programmes. The Red Cross Youth Division is also comprised of HQ-based volunteers who are Pre-university students, Polytechnic students, University students or working adults. More commonly known as the RCY Division, the Red Cross Youth has maintained its presence in the youth community with the motto: “Serve One Another” To date, there are 52 cadet units and 48 link units with a total membership of 5266 of which 3123 are cadet members. Objectives of Red Cross Youth The Red Cross Youth seeks to: • promote and encourage the participation of children and young persons in the work of the Red Cross. • inculcate healthy living habits • develop a sense of social responsibility • strengthen the band of international friendship existing between Red Cross youth members throughout the world. Key Appointment Holders (RCY) Director Mr Lau Hock Soon Deputy Director Mrs Gloria Gurung Honourary Secretary Mr Tang Chun Tuck Honourary Treasurer Mrs Tan Sin Yen Assistant Director (Districts) Mr Ling Khoon Chow 7

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Assistant Director (Projects) Mr Simon-Peter Lum Assistant Director (Special Duties) Mr Andrew Ong Other People You Should Know District Assistant Directors (DADs) & District Development Officers (DDOs) DDOs (Link): Mr Joel Haw Mrs Hoong Swee Huang North DAD (Link): Mr Eric Chia DAD (Cadet): Mr Andrew Ong DDOs (Cadet): Mr Wilson Boey Mr Desmond Chien Ms Loh Wai Min East DAD (Link): Mrs Tan Chin Ai DAD (Cadet): Ms Chow Oi Ling DDOs (Cadet): Mr Alfian Aluyi Ms Doreen Tan South DAD (Link): Mrs Jacquelin Yeo DAD (Cadet): Mrs Chua-Tan Ai Kiang DDOs (Cadet): Mr Edwin Seah Mr Lawrence Quek Mr Kevin Yeo West DADs (Link): Mrs Betty Chan Mrs Janice See DAD (Cadet): Mr Simon-Peter Lum DDOs (Cadet): Mr Justin Seow Mr Loh Chiu Weng

RCY Executive Ms Angeline Kwa Sale of RCY Uniform Accessories Contact Persons: Ms Khairani Abdul Rahman / Ms Santhi Lionel Operating hours:- Tuesdays & Thursdays 9.30am to 12.00pm, 2.00pm to 5.30pm)

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HISTORY OF RED CROSS Henri Dunant, founder of Red Cross Jean Henri Dunant was born in Geneva on 8 May 1828. His character and education impelled him to help the distressed and the unfortunate and to be concerned about social work. In 1853, he was appointed as an accountant to a subsidiary company in Algeria, which entailed a certain amount of travelling. On 24 June 1859, Dunant arrived at Solferino where he witnessed one of the fiercest battles of the nineteenth century. The Battle of Solferino lasted for more than 15 hours and more than 40,000 were wounded. Dunant was filled with horror and pity as he viewed the appalling spectacle of human suffering. With the help of the villagers at Castiglione, he worked tirelessly, without sleep for three days, giving comfort and what medical care he could to the injured men. Back at Geneva, Dunant was haunted by visions of the terrible battle and he devoted all his strength to ensure that the terrible sufferings he had witnessed never occurred again. In 1862, Dunant wrote and published a book entitled "A Memory of Solferino", which he put forward his ideas to foster the creation in every country of a society for the relief of the military wounded and capable of helping the army medical services to carry out their tasks. More information about Jean Henri http://nobelprize.org/peace/laureates/1901/dunant-bio.html Birth of Red Cross To help promote the aims of the book, the Committee of Five was founded in February 1863. Committee of Five: Chairman – Gustave Moynier (Lawyer) Secretary – Henri Dunant (Banker) General Guillaume Henri Dufour (Swiss Army) Dr Louis Appia Dr Theodore Maunoir They met for the first time on 17 February 1863. Gustave Moynier, a prominent lawyer in Geneva and president of the city's Society of Public Welfare, showed immediate interest in Dunant's 9 Dunant:

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ideas. Moynier lost no time in setting up the Permanent International Committee of the Relief of the Wounded, which was later known as the International Committee of the Red Cross.

Delegates from sixteen countries met at Geneva from 26 to 29 October 1863 and agreed to approve the resolutions of the Geneva Committee. It was decided that the States foster the creation in their own territories of inter-related private societies to complement the work of military medical services. Relief workers and their medical equipment were to be protected by a distinctive emblem, a red cross on a white background. In August 1864, the Swiss government convened at Geneva, a Diplomatic Conference bringing together representatives from twelve States. The First Geneva Convention was signed on 22 August 1864 by the representatives, with others soon to follow. Until then war and law were considered irreconcilable, but the First Geneva Convention showed that law could operate even in wartime to impose certain humanitarian rules. International Red Cross Motto is “Inter Arma Caritas” which means “Charity in the Clashes of Arms”. Development of the Red Cross The founders of the Red Cross set themselves the task of fostering the creation of National Societies. By 1874, twenty-two national societies in European countries and soon the Red Cross movement spread to other continents. In 1876, when Turkey was at war with Russia, they informed the Swiss Government that it was adopting for its ambulances the emblem of the Red Crescent instead of the Red Cross. The Red Crescent emblem was then used by most of the Islamic countries. During the wars and internal disturbances, which broke out between 1864 and 1914, the Red Cross and Red Crescent were on the scene wherever men were suffering. Above all, it was during the First World War that the Red Cross was called upon to operate on a scale never before paralleled. All Red Cross Societies of the belligerent countries organised hospitals and ambulances. 10

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The activities of the International Committee of the Red Cross also expanded greatly, particularly following the creation at Geneva of the Central Tracing Agency. The Agency received from the fighting force lists of the wounded and of the prisoners they had taken, and passed on the information to their Governments. Later prisoners were given the right to correspond with their families and the Agency was given the responsibility of receiving, checking and forwarding the enormous flow of mail. Delegates of the International Committee visited the prisoners-of-war and, in their confidential reports, called for improvements in conditions for captives.

Mr Henry Pomeroy Davison, President of the War Committee of the American Red Cross, suggested that the Red Cross Societies of the United States, France, Great Britain, Italy and Japan should devote their resources to action in the public health field and to the organisation of relief in case of natural disaster. The League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies was started in 1919 with its headquarters in Geneva, in coordinating role and work of National Societies at international level. The Red Cross new orientation towards humanitarian work in peacetime did not affect the continuing work of the International Committee of the Red Cross. It indicated that the First World War had demonstrated the urgent need to protect many parties, including the civilians. In the years that followed, the successive signings of the Geneva Conventions served these protections. During the Second World War, the International Committee intervened to improve the treatment of victims, avoid reprisals and ensure that camps were established in safe and healthy places. The four conventions and additional protocols After the war, the Red Cross resumed the task of preparing for a Convention on the protection of civilians in times of war. A diplomatic Conference was convened in Geneva in April 1949 and on 22 August 11

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1949, it adopted the four Geneva Conventions on the protection of victims of armed conflicts. Post-war events developed apace, however, and both the experience of the first conflicts to take place after 1945 and the development of nuclear weapons led the International Committee of Red Cross to make new proposals for the protection of civilians. Since 1945, there has been much reflection and discussion within the Red Cross about its fundamental objectives. The seven fundamental principles of the Red Cross were unanimous adopted by the 20th International Conference in Vienna, in October 1965. In 1968, after consultations with the United Nations, the International Committee of Red Cross organised meetings of governmental legal advisors who prepared the way for a Diplomatic Conference. The two protocols additional to the Geneva Conventions were adopted in 10 June 1977. Post-war period to the present day The period since 1945 has seen a tremendous increase in Red Cross relief activities for the victims of natural disasters, for which the League is responsible at the international level. In countries subject to disasters, National Societies have been seeking to develop, in agreement with their governments, their capacity to intervene in relief operations and to prepare themselves for the task of receiving and distributing relief from abroad when an international appeal is launched.

The League, which has engaged in large-scale relief work in the past, is now concentrating on coordinating relief and action between donor and recipient National Societies and between the Red Cross and the United Nations. The activities of National Societies have since changed to reflect the requirements, to move from curative to preventive medicine and to concentrate on broader problems of public health and hygiene. The blood transfusion programme was developed and Red Cross has played an effective part in persuading people to give blood. At the same time, the Red Cross, in almost every part of the world, is doing an active role in nursing and social welfare. National Societies 12

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have shown an increasing interest in the recruitment of young people and various programmes in schools are developed, which include first aid, evacuation, fire-fighting, nursing, social welfare services, etc. GENEVA CONVENTIONS, ADDITIONAL PROTOCOLS & HUMAN RIGHTS Geneva Conventions The four Geneva Conventions contain more than 400 articles governing the conduct of nations involved in armed conflicts. The conventions have been adopted – or ratified- by 186 nations, more than 100 countries have signed one or both of the protocols. No other international treaties have been so widely accepted. Nations that ratify the conventions and protocols promise to abide by them. Each country is responsible for violations committed by its military officers and other individuals. Violators of the conventions and protocols may be subject to international sanctions, or punishments, such as the withdrawal of trade and loans. The First Geneva Convention was signed in 1864 to save the wounded soldiers on battlefields. It provides for the protection, care, medical treatment and exchange of family news of the persons concerned, and the return of medical and religious personnel. Parties of the conflict are obliged to search for the dead and to give information about them to the Red Cross. The Convention forbids attacks on wounded soldiers. Similarly, those who surrender cannot be attacked. The sick and wounded should be kept in a hospital zone safe from attacks. The Convention also prohibits all attacks on medical personnel, hospitals and staff personnel in the hospital. The Second Geneva Convention was signed in 1906 to extend the principles of the First Convention to the victims of naval warfare including shipwrecked men. It was only natural that the protection that has been afforded ambulances and hospitals should be extended to lifeboats, hospital ships and their personnel. Under this Convention, hospital ships, medical aircraft used exclusively for the evacuation or rescue of the sick and wounded are treated as medical establishments on the land, and protected in the same way. Similar privileges were also extended to the means of transport used by the Red Cross for these operations.

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The Third Geneva Convention was signed in 1929 to protect the welfare of prisoners-of-war and it contains elaborate and detailed rules for their treatment. Under this Convention, the detaining power has the obligation to arrange for their free maintenance, accommodation, food and clothing as well as medical care. The prisoners have the right to send and receive family messages and to speak in private with ICRC delegates who visit them in their camps. Prisoners are protected at all times against violence, intimidation, insults and public curiosity. Women must be treated with dignity due to their sex. The Fourth Geneva Convention was signed in 1949 contains rules to ensure the safety of civilians to an occupied territory and those who happen to be in the enemy country during the war. Under this Convention, there should be safety zones for wounded and sick civilians, old people, expectant mother and mothers of little babies. Special care should be taken of orphans and children separated from their parents. The occupying powers must ensure adequate supply of food and other essential things, which should be imported, if necessary. No hostages should be taken from among civilians. Looting and acts of violence are strictly forbidden. Senseless destruction of private property is not allowed. Representatives of National Red Cross Societies, delegates of Protecting Powers and of the ICRC shall be allowed to give relief to the civilians. The Additional Protocols On 8 June 1977, representatives of some 100 States met in Geneva to sign the Final Act of the Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law. Two additional protocols were drawn up to improve protection of civilians against the dangers of indiscriminate warfare of the effects of total war. Protocol I concerns international armed conflicts. It prohibits random attacks against civilians and the things which civilians need to survive such as crops and livestock. It prohibits massive air bombardments. The parties involved in the conflict must provide medical aid and food to civilians, otherwise to permit relief supplies by the ICRC. Protocol II concerns internal conflict or civil war in which the government of a country finds itself at grips with rebel forces. It covers the protection of rebel forces and the like. It provides a body of rules aimed at safeguarding certain basic values such as respect for the physical and moral integrity of the individual and the decent treatment for persons deprived of their freedom.

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948 PREAMBLE Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people. Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law, Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations, Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in cooperation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge, Now Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures,

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national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction. Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. Article 3. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. Article 4. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. Article 5. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Article 6. Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law. Article 7. All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. Article 8. Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law. 16

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Article 9. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. Article 10. Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. Article 11. (1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence. (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed. Article 12. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks. Article 13. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state. (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country. Article 14. (1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution. (2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. Article 15. (1) Everyone has the right to a nationality. (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

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Article 16. (1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. (2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. (3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. Article 17. (1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property. Article 18. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance. Article 19. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. Article 20. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. (2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association. Article 21. (1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. (2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country. (3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

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Article 22. Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. Article 23. (1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. Article 24. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay. Article 25. (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. (2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection. Article 26. (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights

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and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children. Article 27. (1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. (2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author. Article 28. Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized. Article 29. (1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible. (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society. (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. Article 30. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

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RANKING STRUCTURE Links The Links are primary school students. They wear cloth badges above the left chest pockets of their uniform. Currently, the badges are in the order of Bronze Star, Silver Star and Gold Star. Cadets The Cadets are secondary school members. The various ranks for a Cadets are Lance Corporal (LCP), Corporal (CPL), Sergeant (SGT), Staff Sergeant (SSG), Warrant Officer (WO) and Senior Warrant Officer (SWO). The Senior Warrant Officer rank is recommended to the respective school Youth Officers upon successful completion of the Unit Leaders’ Programme. Cadet Officers Cadet Officers are volunteers who completed their secondary school education. With their exposure in secondary school cadet units, they serve as volunteers, rendering services to meet the objectives of the RCY This ranges from training of links and cadets, community service, . fund raising, and international exchange. The various ranks for Cadet Officers are Assistant Cadet Officer (ACO), Cadet Officer (CO), Senior Cadet Officer (SCO), and Principal Cadet Officer (PCO). Youth Officers Youth Officers are basically adult volunteers or school teachers who provide guidance to the Cadet and Cadet Officers. The various ranks for Youth Officers are Assistant Youth Officer (AYO), Youth Officer (YO), and Senior Youth Officer (SYO). Divisional Officers Divisional Officers are adult volunteers designated with specific responsibilities and to provide guidance to the various working groups 21

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within the RCY This ranges from managing RCY school districts or RCY . Focus Committees. Divisional Officers consists of Assistant Divisional Officer (ADO), Divisional Officer (DO), and Senior Divisional Officer (SDO). Director and Deputy Director The Director and Deputy Director of RCY are appointed by the SRC Council.

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ADDITIONAL NOTES

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