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Chapter 3


Forces And Pressure


Bernoulli’s Principle
Bernoulliʼs Principle
For uniform flow of a fluid, a region of high velocity corresponds to low pressure whereas a region of low velocity corresponds to high pressure.
High pressure Water Low velocity Medium velocity High velocity Medium pressure

Low pressure


Vertical glass tube Glass tube of uniform diameter Water

The height of the water column shows the magnitude of the water pressure. The dotted line is the pressure gradient showing how the water pressure is decreasing gradually. The velocity of water is highest when it is flowing through the narrowest part of the horizontal glass tube. Hence, its water pressure is the lowest.

High pressure Water Low velocity

Low pressure Medium pressure


Vertical glass tube Glass tube of nonuniform diameter Water

High velocity

Medium velocity

Lifting force Higher air velocity Lower air pressure Aerofoil Driving force

Lifting force

Resistive force

Lower air velocity Higher air pressure


An aeroplane, with an aerofoil shape, experiences a lifting force which balances its weight.
Muzzle Petrol from tank Air Gas Float Petrol Air Jet High velocity Low pressure Mixture of petrol and air To cylinder

Air rushes in due to the lower pressure in a Bunsen burner. Air supports burning.

Air rushes in due to the lower pressure near the jet of the car engine. The mixture of air and petrol helps in burning.
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