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# Chapter 4

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Heat

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Thermal Equilibrium
Two objects are said to be in thermal equilibrium if there is no net heat flow between them. A and B not in thermal contact A and C in thermal equilibrium B and C in thermal equilibrium
A

θ1
A C

θ2

B

B C

Temperatures of object A and object B are θ 1 and θ 2 respectively. If object A and object C, and object B and object C are in thermal equilibrium with each other respectively, then object A and object B are in thermal equilibrium. Hence,

θ1 = θ2

Calibration Of Temperature Scale Of A Liquid-In-Glass Thermometer
Steam point Ice point Melting ice Filter funnel Conical flask Steam Boiling water To determine steam point

The volume of the liquid in the thermometer increases as the temperature increases. As the volume of the liquid increases, the length of the liquid also increases.

To determine ice point

Upper fixed point
l100

l100 lθ
l0

100 ºC (Steam point) l100 − l0 θ
lθ − l0
0 ºC (Ice point)

Lower fixed point

l0
In boiling water In warm water

In melting ice

Temperature θ =

lθ − l0 × 100 ºC l100 − l0

Types Of Liquid-In-Glass Thermometer

Clinical thermometer

Alcohol-in-glass thermometer
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