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# Chapter 4

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Heat

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Gas Laws (III)
Pressure Law
For a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas at constant volume.
Closed metal container Gas molecules

As the gas is heated, the average velocity of its molecules increases. The rate of collisions of the gas molecules with the wall of the container increases and hence the pressure increases.
Bourdon gauge Glass tube Thermometer Ice Stirrer

Pressure Law Experiment
Air pressure Air pressure p (Pa) p (Pa)

Water bath
−273 0 Temperature θ (ºC) Celsius temperature scale Temperature T (K) Absolute temperature scale

Air

0 273 (Absolute temperature)

As the temperature of the gas increases, its pressure also increases. The pressure of the gas is measured by using a Bourdon gauge. When the graph is extrapolated to −273 ºC or (0 K), we have p p ∝ T or T = constant p1 p = 2 T1 T2

Ideal Gas Laws
Formula pV ∝ T
Boyleʼs Law p1 V1 T1

Ideal Gas Law Charlesʼs Law p2 Vʹ T1 p2 V2 T2

Equation of state: pV = constant T p1V1 pV = 2 2 T1 T2

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