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Note: 1 m = 100 cm Converting g/cm3 to kg/m3

1 m2 = 10 000 cm2

1 m3 = 1 000 000 cm3

For copper, = 8.9 103 kg/m3 Pressure, P

water, = 1.0 103 kg/m3

Force, F

Pressure is the amount of force acting on a unit surface area:

Pressure is measured in N/m2 or Pa (Pascal). Area, A Question Calculate the amount of pressure exerted on the sole of each shoe when you are standing. (Note: 1 kg = 2.21 lbs) Jason on Converses: Mass = 75 kg Weight = 735 N Force exerted on each shoe = 367.5 N Surface area of the sole of Jasons shoe = 0.0189 m2 (189 cm2)

Compare this with Jasmine on high heels: 3.8 104 N/m2. Even though she has the smaller mass, her weight is distributed over a very tiny area. Therefore, the pressure she exerts on the sole of each heel is greater than the pressure which Jason exerts on the sole of each Converse.

Pressure Underwater The fish has a gauge pressure* of 4 104 N/m2 exerted upon it. How deep is it? : 1 g/mL = 1000 kg/m3

(*Pgauge = Pabsolute Patm, where Patm = 101.3 kPa = 101 300 Pa = 101 300 N/m2) In general, for a fluid with density in kg/m3,

where P is the pressure above Patm (ie. gauge pressure), h is the depth in m, and g is 9.8 N/kg. Bermuda Triangle and Bubbles?! One theory states that there are methane gas chambers under the Bermuda Triangle. Rising bubbles increase in volume, engulfing ships going through. Question: The pressure on the feet when wearing high heels is approximately 4 104 N/m2. How deep in water must you go to sense that pressure acting on your entire body?

Buoyancy Why do things float in water? Why does a rubber ducky rise when you put it under water in your bathtub? Objects which are less dense than the fluid it is put in will float. Water Surface All objects, irrespective of their densities, will have an upwards force acting on them when they are submerged. This force is called the buoyant force, and it is due to the difference in pressure at different depths.

This net force is the buoyant force, , where is the fluids density and V is the volume of the fluid displaced. Note: is also the weight of the water displaced by the object. Archimedes Principle: The weight of an object floating in water is equal to the weight of the water displaced by it.

Question 1: Calculate the volume of water displaced by a 100-tonne ship. 1 tonne = 1000 kg

Question 2: What volume of helium is needed if a balloon with a mass of 800 kg (empty balloon and load) is to be lifted off the ground? Densities: weight of balloon = weight of air displaced

Pressure applied to a confined fluid is constant throughout the closed system:

A is the cross sectional area at that location

Question 3: Design a hydraulic system which can lift a car by had power. What would the crosssectional areas be where the force is applied and where the car is positioned? Hypothetical Data: Mass of car = 1300 kg Area under car = 1.5 m 1.5 m Mass which hand can lift = 20 kg Area where force is applied = ?

Continuity Equation

Question 4: The radius of the aorta is 1 cm and blood passes through it at 0.3 m/s. A capillary has a radius of 0.0004 cm and blood flows through it at 0.0005 m/s. How many capillaries are there in your body?

Bernoullis Principle Bernoulli noted that a difference in fluid speeds would cause a pressure difference. For example, the speed of air over the top of a wing is faster than at the bottom of the wing. This causes a greater pressure at the bottom compared to the top and thus a net force upwards called lift.

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Question: What is the lift due to Bernoullis principle on a wing of area 80 m 2 if the air passes over the top and bottom surfaces at 340 m/s and 290 m/s, respectively? Knowns Unknown