Chapter 5

Transparency

Light

38

Refraction Of Light
The refraction of light is caused by the change in velocity of light when it passes from a medium to a different medium. Refractive index, Speed of light in vacuum n= Speed of light in a medium
Incident ray Air Glass Normal Angle of incidence

i r

Angle of refraction Refracted ray

The straight line graph shows that sin i ∝ sin r Refractive index, n= sin i sin r

sin r

0

sin i

Refractive index, Real depth n= Apparent depth
Image Water

i i r r
Real depth

Phenomena

Object

The refraction of light enables the setting sun to stay longer on the horizon.

The apparent bending of a pencil in a glass of water is due to the refraction of light.

Different colours of light are refracted at different angles. This enables the formation of a light spectrum.
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