You are on page 1of 376

AutoCAD Mechanical

Users Guide

6
20606-010000-5001A January 24, 2002

Copyright 2001 Autodesk, Inc.


All Rights Reserved This publication, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form, by any method, for any purpose. AUTODESK, INC. MAKES NO WARRANTY, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, REGARDING THESE MATERIALS AND MAKES SUCH MATERIALS AVAILABLE SOLELY ON AN AS-IS BASIS. IN NO EVENT SHALL AUTODESK, INC. BE LIABLE TO ANYONE FOR SPECIAL, COLLATERAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES IN CONNECTION WITH OR ARISING OUT OF PURCHASE OR USE OF THESE MATERIALS. THE SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE LIABILITY TO AUTODESK, INC., REGARDLESS OF THE FORM OF ACTION, SHALL NOT EXCEED THE PURCHASE PRICE OF THE MATERIALS DESCRIBED HEREIN. Autodesk, Inc. reserves the right to revise and improve its products as it sees fit. This publication describes the state of this product at the time of its publication, and may not reflect the product at all times in the future.

Autodesk Trademarks
The following are registered trademarks of Autodesk, Inc., in the USA and/or other countries: 3D Plan, 3D Props, 3D Studio, 3D Studio MAX, 3D Studio VIZ, 3DSurfer, ActiveShapes, ActiveShapes (logo), Actrix, ADE, ADI, Advanced Modeling Extension, AEC Authority (logo), AEC-X, AME, Animator Pro, Animator Studio, ATC, AUGI, AutoCAD, AutoCAD Data Extension, AutoCAD Development System, AutoCAD LT, AutoCAD Map, Autodesk, Autodesk Animator, Autodesk (logo), Autodesk MapGuide, Autodesk University, Autodesk View, Autodesk WalkThrough, Autodesk World, AutoLISP, AutoShade, AutoSketch, AutoSurf, AutoVision, Biped, bringing information down to earth, CAD Overlay, Character Studio, Cinepak, Cinepak (logo), Codec Central, Combustion, Design Companion, Design Your World, Design Your World (logo), Drafix, EditDV, Education by Design, Generic, Generic 3D Drafting, Generic CADD, Generic Software, Geodyssey, Heidi, HOOPS, Hyperwire, i-drop, Inside Track, Kinetix, MaterialSpec, Mechanical Desktop, Media Cleaner, MotoDV, Movie Cleaner Pro, Multimedia Explorer, NAAUG, ObjectARX, Office Series, Opus, PeopleTracker, PhotoDV, Physique, Planix, Powered with Autodesk Technology, Powered with Autodesk Technology (logo), RadioRay, Rastation, Softdesk, Softdesk (logo), Solution 3000, Terran Interactive, Texture Universe, The AEC Authority, The Auto Architect, TinkerTech, Videofusion, VISION*, Volo, WebMotion, WHIP!, WHIP! (logo), Woodbourne, WorkCenter, and World-Creating Toolkit. The following are trademarks of Autodesk, Inc., in the USA and/or other countries: 3D on the PC, 3ds max, ACAD, Advanced User Interface, AME Link, Animation Partner, Animation Player, Animation Pro Player, A Studio in Every Computer, ATLAST, Auto-Architect, AutoCAD Architectural Desktop, AutoCAD Architectural Desktop Learning Assistance, AutoCAD Learning Assistance, AutoCAD LT Learning Assistance, AutoCAD Simulator, AutoCAD SQL Extension, AutoCAD SQL Interface, Autodesk Animator Clips, Autodesk Animator Theatre, Autodesk Device Interface, Autodesk Inventor, Autodesk Map, Autodesk PhotoEDIT, Autodesk Software Developer's Kit, Autodesk Streamline, Autodesk View DwgX, AutoFlix, AutoSnap, AutoTrack, Built with ObjectARX (logo), Cinestream, Cleaner, ClearScale, Colour Warper, Concept Studio, Content Explorer, cornerStone Toolkit, Dancing Baby (image), DesignCenter, Design Doctor, Designer's Toolkit, DesignProf, DesignServer, DWG Linking, DXF, EventStream, Extending the Design Team, FLI, FLIC, GDX Driver, Generic 3D, gmax, gmax (logo), gmax ready (logo),Heads-up Design, Home Series, Intelecine, IntroDV, jobnet, Kinetix (logo), Live Sync, ObjectDBX, onscreen onair online, Ooga-Chaka, Photo Landscape, Photoscape, Plasma, Plugs and Sockets, PolarSnap, Pro Landscape, Reactor, Real-Time Roto, Render Queue, SchoolBox, Simply Smarter Diagramming, SketchTools, Sparks, Supportdesk, The Dancing Baby, Transform Ideas Into Reality, Visual LISP, Visual Syllabus, VIZable, and Where Design Connects.

Buzzsaw, Inc. Trademarks


The following are trademarks of Buzzsaw, Inc., a subsidiary of Autodesk, Inc., in the USA and/or other countries: Buzzsaw, Buzzsaw.com, Layered Document Format, LDF, Plans & Specs, ProjectPoint, Repro Desk.

Discreet Logic Inc. Trademarks


The following are registered trademarks of Discreet Logic Inc., in the USA and/or Canada, and/or other countries: fire, flame, flint, flint RT, frost, glass, inferno, MountStone, riot, river, smoke, stone, stream, vapour, wire. The following are trademarks of Discreet Logic Inc., in the USA, Canada, and/or other countries: backburner, backdraft, discreet, heatwave, MultiMaster Editing.

Third Party Trademarks


All other brand names, product names or trademarks belong to their respective holders.

Third Party Software Program Credits ACIS Copyright 1989-2001 Spatial Corp. Anderson, et. al. LAPACK Users Guide, Third Edition. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1999. Portions Copyright 1991-1996 Arthur D. Applegate. All rights reserved. Typefaces from the Bitstream typeface library copyright 1992. Cypress Enable, Cypress Software, Inc. dBASE is a registered trademark of Ksoft, Inc. Portions licensed from D-Cubed Ltd. DCM-2D and CDM are a trademark of D-Cubed Ltd. DCM-2D Copyright D-Cubed Ltd. 1989-2001. CDM Copyright D-Cubed Ltd. 1998-2001. SPEC is a registered trademark of Associated Spring/Barnes Group, Inc. Portions of this software are based on the work of the Independent JPEG Group. InstallShield 3.0. Copyright 1997 InstallShield Software Corporation. All rights reserved. Licensing Technology Copyright C-Dilla Ltd. UK 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001. MD5C.C - RSA Data Security, Inc., MD5 message-digest algorithm Copyright 1991-1992, RSA Data Security, Inc. Created 1991. All rights reserved. International CorrectSpell Spelling Correction System 1995 by Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products, N.V. All rights reserved. LUCA TCP/IP Package, Portions Copyright 1997 Langener GmbH. All rights reserved. Copyright 1997 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft HTML Help Copyright Microsoft Corporation 2001. Microsoft Internet Explorer 5 Copyright Microsoft Corporation 2001. All rights reserved Microsoft Windows NetMeeting Copyright Microsoft Corporation 2001. All rights reserved Objective Grid , Stingray Software a division of Rogue Wave Software, Inc. Typefaces from Payne Loving Trust 1996. All rights reserved. PKWARE Data Compression Library , PKWARE, Inc. SMLib 1998-2000, IntegrityWare, Inc., GeomWare, Inc., and Solid Modeling Solutions, Inc. GOVERNMENT USE Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U. S. Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in FAR 12.212 (Commercial Computer SoftwareRestricted Rights) and DFAR 227.7202 (Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software), as applicable.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Contents

Part I
Chapter 1

Getting Started with AutoCAD Mechanical 6 .


Where to Start . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 1
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3
.4 .4 .4 .5 .6 .6 .6 .6 .6 .7 .7 .7 .7 .8 .8 .8 .9 10 11 11 12

About AutoCAD Mechanical . . . . . Modeling with AutoCAD Mechanical 6. . Object Oriented Construction . . . Layer and Layer Groups . . . . . Linetypes, Lineweight, and Color. . Dimension Styles . . . . . . . Text Styles and Text Fonts . . . . Scale Factors . . . . . . . . Rescaling Objects . . . . . . . Starting AutoCAD Mechanical . . . . Where to Go First . . . . . . . . New AutoCAD User . . . . . . New AutoCAD Mechanical 6 User . Upgrading User . . . . . . . Compatibility . . . . . . . . Accessing AutoCAD Mechanical Commands Migration Assistance . . . . . . . AutoCAD Mechanical Today . . . . . Printed and Online Manuals . . . . . AutoCAD Mechanical Printed Manual AutoCAD Printed Manual . . . .

iii

Online Installation Guide . . . . . . . . AutoCAD 2002 Documentation . . . . . . AutoCAD Mechanical Help . . . . . . . . . Product Support Assistance in Help . . . . . . . Updating the Support Assistance Knowledge Base Learning and Training Resources . . . . . . . . Internet Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . Typographical Conventions . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

12 13 14 14 14 15 15 16

Chapter 2

Features and Commands .

.
. .

.
. .

.
. .

.
. .

.
. .

.
. .

.
. .

.
. .

.
. . . .

. 17
18 22

Key Features in AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Command Summary . . . . . .

Chapter 3

New and Revised Commands .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 37

New and Revised Command Summary . AMBALLOON . . . . . . . AMBELL2D . . . . . . . . AMBOM . . . . . . . . AMCAM . . . . . . . . AMCOMP2D . . . . . . . AMCOMP2D . . . . . . . AMHOLECHART . . . . . . AMMANIPULATE . . . . . . AMNOTE . . . . . . . . AMOPTIONS . . . . . . . AMPARTLIST . . . . . . . AMSTLSHAP2D. . . . . . . AMTOR2D . . . . . . . . SAVEAS . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 38 . . 38 . . 38 . . 39 . . 39 . . 39 . . 39 . . 40 . . 40 . . 41 . . 41 . . 41 . . 42 . . 42 . . 42

Part II
Chapter 4

AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Tutorials .


Working with Templates . . .
. . . . .

.
. .
. . . . . . . . . .

.
.
. . . . .

.
.
. . . . .

.
.
. . . . .

.
.
. . . . .

. 43
.
. . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . .

.
. . . . .

. 45
46 47 47 48 49

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . Working with Templates . . . . Setting up the Starting Layer . Setting the Mechanical Options Specifying the Drawing Limits.

iv

Contents

Saving a Template . . . Using a Template . . . Setting a Default Template

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

. 50 . 51 . 52

Chapter 5

Working with Layers and Layer Groups .


Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . Working with Layers and Layer Groups . . Getting Started . . . . . . . . Changing a Layer By Selecting Objects Creating Layer Groups . . . . . . Using a Layer Group to Copy Objects . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . .

.
. . . . . .

.
. . . . . .

.
. . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . .

. 55
. 56 . 57 . 57 . 58 . 59 . 64

Chapter 6

Designing Levers

.
. . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . .

. 69
. 70 . 71 . 71 . 73 . 74 . 77 . 79 . 82 . 84 . 85 . 87

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extending the Design . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Library to Insert Parts . . . . . . . Preliminary Settings: Snap Configuration . . . . Creating Construction Lines (C-Lines) . . . . . Creating additional C-Lines . . . . . . . . Creating a Contour and Applying a Fillet . . . . Creating a Contour and Trimming Projecting Edges Cross-Hatching the Lever . . . . . . . . . Dimensioning the Lever . . . . . . . . . Creating a Detail and Additional Dimensions . .

Chapter 7

Working with Model Space and Layouts .


Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . Working with Model Space and Layouts . . Getting Started . . . . . . . . Creating a Scale Area . . . . . . Creating a Detail . . . . . . . Generating a New Viewport . . . . Inserting a User Through Hole . . . Creating a Subassembly in a New Layout . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

. 93
. 94 . 95 . 95 . 95 . 98 . 99 101 106

Chapter 8

Dimensioning

.
. . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . .

. 111
112 113 113 116 120 121 123

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dimensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . Automatic Dimensioning . . . . . . . Editing Dimensions with Power Commands . Breaking Dimension Lines . . . . . . Inserting a Drawing Border . . . . . . Inserting a Fits List . . . . . . . . .

Contents

Chapter 9

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes .

.
. . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

125
126 127 128 130 133 134 137

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes . . . . Defining a 2D Hide Situation . . . . . . . Inserting a 2D Steel Shape . . . . . . . . Modifying Steel Shapes using Power Commands . Editing a 2D Hide Situation . . . . . . . Copying and Moving a 2D Hide Situation . . .

Chapter 10

Working with Standard Parts .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

141
142 143 144 149 151 160 162 165 168 170 172 173 174

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Working with Standard Parts . . . . . . . . Inserting Screw Connections . . . . . . Copying Screw Connections with Power Copy Creating Screw Templates . . . . . . . Editing Screw Connections with Power Edit . Working with Power View . . . . . . . Deleting with Power Erase . . . . . . . Inserting Holes . . . . . . . . . . Inserting Pins . . . . . . . . . . . Turning Off Centerlines in Configurations . . Hiding Construction Lines . . . . . . . Simplifying Representations of Standard Parts.

Chapter 11

Working with BOMs and Parts Lists .

.
. . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

177
178 179 179 182 183 188 194 197 198 201

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Working with Parts Lists . . . . . . . . . Inserting a Part Reference . . . . . . . Editing Part References . . . . . . . . Placing Balloons . . . . . . . . . . Creating a Parts List . . . . . . . . . Merging and Splitting Items in a Parts List . . Collecting Balloons . . . . . . . . . Sorting and Renumbering Items on a Parts List Using Filters . . . . . . . . . . .

vi

Contents

Chapter 12

Creating Shafts With Standard Parts .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 205
206 207 207 208 210 212 213 214 215 216 216 218 219

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Shafts with Standard Parts . . . . . Configuring the Snap Options . . . . . Starting and Configuring Shaft Generators . Creating Cylindrical Shaft Sections and Gears Inserting Spline Profile. . . . . . . . Inserting Chamfer and Fillet . . . . . . Inserting Shaft Breaks . . . . . . . . Creating Side Views of Shafts. . . . . . Inserting Threads on Shafts . . . . . . Editing Shafts and Inserting Sections . . . Replacing Shaft Sections . . . . . . . Inserting Bearings . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 13

Calculating Shafts .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

. 223
224 225 226 227 229 229 232 235

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . Calculating Shafts . . . . . . . Creating Shaft Contours . . . Specifying the Material . . . Placing Shaft Supports . . . . Specifying Loads on Shafts . . Calculating and Inserting Results Calculating Strengths of Shafts .

Chapter 14

Calculating Moments of Inertia and Deflection Lines .


Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculating Moments of Inertia and Deflection Lines . Calculating Moments of Inertia . . . . . . Calculating Deflection Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . .

. 239
240 241 242 243

Chapter 15

Calculating Chains .

.
. . . . . .

.
. . . . . .

.
. . . . . .

.
. . . . . .

.
. . . . . .

.
. . . . . .

.
. . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . .

. 249
250 251 252 254 256 259

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . Chain Calculation . . . . . . . Performing Length Calculations. Optimizing the Chain Length . Inserting Sprockets . . . . . Inserting Chains. . . . . .

Contents

vii

Chapter 16

Calculating Springs .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

261
262 263 264 266 270 272 273 274

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . Calculating Spring . . . . . . . Starting Spring Calculations . . Specifying Spring Restrictions . . Calculating and Selecting Springs. Inserting Springs . . . . . . Copying Springs with Power Copy Editing Springs with Power Edit .

Chapter 17

Calculating Screw Connections .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

277
278 279 280 280 283 284 285 287 289 291 292 293

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . Methods for Calculating Screws . . . . . Using Stand Alone Screw Calculations . . . Selecting and Specifying Screws . . . Selecting and Specifying Nuts . . . . Selecting and Specifying Washers. . . Specifying Plate Geometry and Properties Specifying Contact Areas . . . . . Specifying Loads and Moments . . . Specifying Settlement Properties . . . Specifying Tightening Properties . . . Creating and Inserting Result Blocks . .

Chapter 18

Calculating Stress Using FEA .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

295
296 297 298 300 301 303 305 306

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . 2D FEA . . . . . . . . . . Calculating the Stress in a Lever Defining Loads and Supports . Calculating Results . . . . Evaluating and Refining Mesh. Refining Designs . . . . . Recalculating Stress . . . .

Chapter 19

Designing and Calculating Cams.

.
. . . . . .

.
. . . . . .

.
. . . . . .

.
. . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . .

311
312 313 314 317 324 328

Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Designing and Calculating Cams. . . . . . . Starting Cam Designs and Calculations . . . Defining Motion Sections . . . . . . . Calculating Strength for Springs . . . . . Exporting Cam Data and Viewing the Results .

viii

Contents

Appendix A Toolbar Icons .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 331
332 332 332 333 333 333 333 333 334 334 334 334 335 335 335 336 336 336 337 337 337 338 338 338 338 339 339 339 339 340 341 341 341 341 342 342 342 342 343 343

Main Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . Main Toolbar - New . . . . . . . . Main Toolbar - Basic Layer . . . . . . Main Toolbar - Layer Functions . . . . . Main Toolbar - Undo . . . . . . . . Main Toolbar - Inquiry . . . . . . . Main Toolbar - AutoCAD Mechanical Today . Main Toolbar - dbConnect . . . . . . Main Toolbar - Power Edit . . . . . . Main Toolbar - Power Erase . . . . . . Main Toolbar - Power Copy . . . . . . Main Toolbar - Power Dimensioning . . . Main Toolbar - Power Dimensioning - Units . Main Toolbar - Power Snap . . . . . . Main Toolbar - Compass Rose . . . . . Main Toolbar - UCS . . . . . . . . Zoom Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . Zoom Toolbar - RTZOOM . . . . . . . Zoom Toolbar - ZOOM2 . . . . . . . Design Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Toolbar - Draw . . . . . . . . Design Toolbar - Draw - Line . . . . . . Design Toolbar - Draw - Arc . . . . . . Design Toolbar - Draw - Rectangle . . . . Design Toolbar - Draw - Circle . . . . . Design Toolbar - Draw - Centerline . . . . Design Toolbar - Draw - Hatch . . . . . Design Toolbar - Draw - Construction . . . Design Toolbar - Draw - Construction Edit . Design Toolbar - Modify . . . . . . . Assistance Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . Assistance Toolbar - Block Create . . . . Assistance Toolbar - Xref/Block Insert . . . Assistance Toolbar - Title Block . . . . . Assistance Toolbar - Text . . . . . . . Assistance Toolbar - Paper/Model Space . . Annotation Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . Annotation Toolbar - Symbols . . . . . Annotation Toolbar - Leader . . . . . . Annotation Toolbar - BOM . . . . . .

Contents

ix

Content Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . Content - Screws . . . . . . . . . . Content - Holes . . . . . . . . . . Content - Shaft Generator . . . . . . . Content - Standardtools. . . . . . . . Content - Standard Parts . . . . . . . Content - Springs . . . . . . . . . . Content - Calculation . . . . . . . . Content - Calculation - Chain/Belt Calculation Content - Calculation - Springs . . . . . Power Snap Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . Power Snap Toolbar - Point Filter . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

344 344 344 345 345 345 346 346 346 346 347 347

Appendix B Layer Specifications

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. 349 . 353 . 357 361

Appendix C Title Block Attributes . Appendix D Accelerator Keys . Index . . . . . .

Contents

Part I
Getting Started with AutoCAD Mechanical 6

Part I provides information for getting started with your AutoCAD Mechanical 6 software. It includes an overview of the product capabilities and functionality, and information about the migration of files from previous releases. In addition, Part I provides a guide to both the print and online documentation that you received with your AutoCAD Mechanical software. Information about training courseware and Internet resources are also included.

Where to Start

In This Chapter

This chapter provides information to get you started using the AutoCAD Mechanical 6 software. It describes the basic concepts for modeling with the software, and the migration of files from previous releases. An overview of the printed and online documentation is included, along with resources for product learning, training, and support. Read this section so that any time you need product information, you will know where to locate it.

s The AutoCAD Mechanical 6

software package
s Modeling concepts s Where to go first s Migration Assistance s AutoCAD Mechanical Today s Product documentation s Internet resources s Typographical conventions

About AutoCAD Mechanical


AutoCAD Mechanical is a purpose built 2D mechanical design solution for the internet age. Built on the AutoCAD 2002 software platform, the AutoCAD Mechanical 6 design software package includes:
s s

AutoCAD Mechanical 6 with the power pack (2D Parts and Calculations) AutoCAD 2002

The AutoCAD Mechanical software provides 2D mechanical engineering and design tools, including:
s s s s s s s s s

Improved design and detailing tools, including cams, springs, holes, and notes for holes and standard parts. Improved workflow and compliance with company standards Intelligent production drawing and detailing Assembly tools for managing detailed 2D drawings and assemblies Standards based design and content, with more than half a million reusable 2D standard parts, features, holes and structural steel shapes Machinery systems generators that speed up systems creation and reduce errors Engineering calculations that provide greater accuracy Collaboration tools, including support for Autodesk Streamline Built-in IGES translator

Modeling with AutoCAD Mechanical 6


AutoCAD Mechanical 6 software contains over half a million standard parts with data for creating the parts list, standard dependent drawing borders with title blocks, symbols, calculations, and so on.

Object Oriented Construction


If you compare the AutoCAD drawing objects with the objects from AutoCAD Mechanical 6, you notice that the Mechanical objects contain contours, centerlines, symbols, shafts, screws, bearings, and so on.

Chapter 1

Where to Start

For example, if the nominal diameter of a screw connection has to be changed, all elements of the screw connection (such as edges and hatches) have to be changed manually. AutoCAD Mechanical 6 recognizes the screw connection, and changes the elements automatically. Therefore the construction is object oriented.

Layer and Layer Groups


The AutoCAD Mechanical layer system is made up of base layers, special layers, and layer groups.
s s s

Base Layer - consists of the working layers and standard part layers. Base layers are repeated in each layer group. Special Layers - serve to turn object layers on and off to make a drawing clearer, and speed up plotting. Layer Groups - you can assign associated or related items of a drawing to particular layer groups and add those layer groups to the base layer group.

If you are creating an object or inserting a part into the drawing, the object is placed on the appropriate layer automatically. For example, centerlines will be placed on base layer AM_7, hatches on base layer AM_8, and dimensions on base layer AM_5. Standard parts are placed on base layers with the suffix *N.

Modeling with AutoCAD Mechanical 6

Linetypes, Lineweight, and Color


The predefined layers have suitable lineweights, linetypes and colors assigned to them, varying depending on the set standard. Since the object attributes of almost all drawing elements are configured with the ByLayer method, centerlines, construction lines, hidden edges, and so on, are controlled automatically.

Dimension Styles
AutoCAD Mechanical 6 contains several standard dependent dimension styles, which are used automatically according to the dimension functions.

Text Styles and Text Fonts


There are four text style formats with different text heights, and alignments. Additionally AutoCAD Mechanical 6 offers font databases with a vast number of special characters, for example the diameter symbol.

Scale Factors
Dimensions, hatches, and text styles depend on the plot scale. The linetypes, symbols, and so on, are synchronized accordingly. You can set the base scale factor in the Mechanical Options dialog box, or by inserting a predefined drawing border for a new drawing. If you combine several drawing borders to a file, each of the drawings can have a different plot scale. In model space it is easy to handle more than one scale, by creating scale areas with different scale factors. These are taken into consideration automatically, for example when adding dimensions or symbols to drawing objects. When you choose a layout tab, you can create viewports with the appropriate enlargement scale. It is also possible to automatically or manually create new viewports, that are based on existing scale areas in model space.

Rescaling Objects
If you determine that the format or the scale factor for a drawing border has to be changed, AutoCAD Mechanical 6 rescales all affected drawing objects. All texts, dimensions, and symbols, will automatically be resized according to the new scale factor.

Chapter 1

Where to Start

Starting AutoCAD Mechanical


You can start AutoCAD Mechanical by using one of the following procedures:
s s

Click Start on the task bar, then choose Programs. Select AutoCAD Mechanical 6 or AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Power Pack. On the desktop double-click the desired AutoCAD Mechanical icon:

Where to Go First
Here you learn which components of the documentation are most helpful for your level of experience. See Printed and Online Manuals on page 11 for a description of the printed and online documentation components and their locations.

New AutoCAD User


If you are new to AutoCAD 2002:
s

See the AutoCAD 2002 User's Guide, which explains concepts and provides procedures for completing common drafting tasks. The glossary helps you understand AutoCAD 2002 terminology. Quick Reference Card: An at-a-glance reference to AutoCAD toolbars and accelerator keys. The card is located at the back of the printed Users Guide, but is not available online.

Once you are familiar with AutoCAD 2002, follow the suggestions in the next section for learning AutoCAD Mechanical 6.

New AutoCAD Mechanical 6 User


If you are familiar with AutoCAD, but you are new to AutoCAD Mechanical:
s s

s s

Read chapter 2, Features and Commands on page 17. This is an overview of AutoCAD Mechanical basics and the user interface. Go through the AutoCAD Mechanical tutorials in this manual. The tutorials are also offered in PDF format on the product CD and on the Web. Refer to the Glossary in the Help to familiarize yourself with AutoCAD Mechanical terminology. As you use AutoCAD Mechanical, refer to Help for information about commands, procedures, and concepts. From the Help menu, choose AutoCAD Mechanical, select the general area of information you seek, and then choose a specific topic.

Starting AutoCAD Mechanical

Upgrading User
If you are upgrading from a previous release of AutoCAD Mechanical, see chapter 3, New and Revised Commands on page 37 for all of the revised and new features in this release.

Compatibility
If you are saving a file in AutoCAD Mechanical 6 format, the drawing is not compatible with drawings saved in AutoCAD Mechanical 2000i format. However, it is possible to save AutoCAD Mechanical 6 files in AutoCAD Mechanical 2000i format with the revised Save As command.

Accessing AutoCAD Mechanical Commands


AutoCAD Mechanical provides several methods to access commands and manage your design process. The following are samples of the access methods available to you: Context Menu Toolbutton Desktop Menu Command In the graphics area, right-click and choose Power Edit. Power Edit Modify Power Commands Power Edit
AMPOWEREDIT

The step-by-step procedures in the tutorials indicate the command name in the opening procedural text. The appropriate toolbutton is displayed in the margin next to the preferred access method. In the tutorials, the context menu method is used when the menus are sensitive to what you are doing. The Browser method is used when you can save time and steps. You can use any of the alternate methods as well. Here is an example of how methods are used in the tutorials: 1 Use AMPOWEREDIT to edit a feature. Context Menu In the graphics area, right-click and choose Power Edit.

NOTE To find the location of a particular toolbutton, refer to Appendix A.

Chapter 1

Where to Start

Migration Assistance
To migrate Genius 14 parts lists, layers, and symbols to use with AutoCAD Mechanical 6, you can use the Migration Assistance. The File Migration Tool (FMT) is a component of AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Migration Assistance, an independent Visual Basic (not VBA) application located on your product CD. The FMT migrates multiple files from previous releases of AutoCAD Mechanical to the current format. You can install AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Migration Assistance during or after the installation of your Autodesk mechanical product. To install the Migration Assistance from your product CD 1 Hold down the SHIFT key while you insert the product CD into the CD-ROM drive. This prevents Setup from starting automatically. 2 In the file tree of the CD-ROM drive, navigate to the Migrate folder and double-click setup.exe. 3 Respond to the directions in the AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Migration Assistance installation dialog boxes. For more information about the Migration Assistance, refer to the AutoCAD Mechanical 6 and Mechanical Desktop 6 Installation Guide on your product CD.

Migration Assistance

AutoCAD Mechanical Today


The first time you open the AutoCAD Mechanical program, the Today window is displayed on top of the program interface along with instructions about how to use it. The Today feature is a powerful tool that makes it easy to manage drawings, communicate to design teams, and link directly to design information. In the Today window, you can expand the following options for access to the services you require. My Workplace My Drawings Bulletin Board Connect directly to files on your computer and your local network. Open existing drawings, create new ones, or access symbol libraries. Post your own Web page with links to block libraries, CAD standards, or other folders and directories on your company intranet. CAD managers can use the Bulletin Board to communicate with their design teams. An HTML bulletin board template is provided. Connect directly to the Internet. Link directly to design information and tools such as Buzzsaw.com on the Web. Use the units converter, link to Autodesk Web sites, and much more. Login and create your free account. Customize the information in Autodesk Point A for your specific needs. You can close the Today Window and use the File menu to create new drawings or open existing drawings. If you prefer not to see the Today Window when you start AutoCAD Mechanical, you can turn it off in Assist AutoCAD Options System Startup.

The Web Autodesk Point A

10

Chapter 1

Where to Start

Printed and Online Manuals


The extensive set of printed and online documentation provided with your purchase of AutoCAD Mechanical 6 software includes the printed AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Users Guide and the AutoCAD Users Guide. The online AutoCAD Mechanical 6 and Mechanical Desktop 6 Installation Guide is provided on the product CD. All of the AutoCAD Mechanical 6 manuals are available in PDF format in Help and on the AutoCAD Mechanical product page of the Autodesk Web site at http://www.autodesk.com/autocadmech Product Information Online and Print Manuals.

AutoCAD Mechanical Printed Manual


The printed AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Users Guide is divided into two parts. Part I Part II An introduction to the product and information you need to get started using the software. A set of tutorials to expand your skills in using AutoCAD Mechanical.

Whats New In the Tutorials


This release of AutoCAD Mechanical 6 has many features that will help you create drawings faster and more intuitively. In addition to the features described in the following, you will find
s s s

New tool buttons providing access to more commands Shortcut menus, accessible in the graphics area as you work on your drawing. Redesigned command prompts and user interfaces that provide more information, and make it easier to choose from command options. Working with Templates: Improved Mechanical Options dialog box and AutoCAD Mechanical Today window. Working with Layers and Layer Groups: New Visibility Enhancement dialog box. Designing Levers: New Power Dimensioning dialog box. Working with Model Space and Layouts: Improved Detail dialog box

Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7

Printed and Online Manuals

11

Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19

Dimensioning: Improved Power Dimensioning dialog box. Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes: new 2D Hide feature, and insert and modify steel shapes. Working with Standard Parts: screw assembly templates. Working with a Bill of Material and a Parts List: improved part reference behavior Creating Shafts with Standard Parts: start a new drawing and use a predefined template with AutoCAD Today. Calculating Shafts: improved shaft calculation routine and new strength calculation routine. Calculating Moments of Inertia and Deflection Lines: improved material selection dialog Calculating Chains: Improved methods to create and calculate chains or belts. Calculating Springs: improved spring calculation routine. Calculating Screw Connections: new screw calculation routine. Calculating Stress Using FEA: improved command line prompts for the FEA routine. Designing and Calculating Cams: improved cam design and calculation routine.

AutoCAD Printed Manual


The printed AutoCAD Users Guide contains comprehensive information and instructions for using AutoCAD. This manual is also available online in the AutoCAD Help.

Online Installation Guide


The AutoCAD Mechanical 6 and Mechanical Desktop 6 Installation Guide is available on the product CD. It provides the following information: Introduction Chapter 1 Whats in the software. System requirements and recommendations for installing and running the software.

12

Chapter 1

Where to Start

Chapter 2

Procedures to install, upgrade, authorize, and maintain the software for a single user, and information you need to know before you begin your installation. Information for network administrators. Instructions for installing and configuring for a network environment. Technical information about environment variables and performance enhancements to optimize performance of the software. Information about cabling and option settings, plus other information necessary to link and configure plotters and printers with AutoCAD Mechanical/Mechanical Desktop. Instructions to uninstall the software, maintain your hard disk, and recover data in case of a system failure.

Chapter 3 Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

AutoCAD 2002 Documentation


You should be familiar with AutoCAD before you use AutoCAD Mechanical. The complete set of AutoCAD 2002 documentation is available in the AutoCAD Help. It includes:
s s s s s s s s s s s s

User's Guide* Command Reference* Customization Guide* ActiveX and VBA Developer's Guide* ActiveX and VBA Reference AutoLISP Reference Visual LISPTM Developer's Guide* Visual LISPTM Tutorial* DXFTM Reference Driver Peripheral Guide Connectivity Automation Reference Network Administrators Guide

AutoCAD 2002 manuals marked with an asterisk can be ordered in print from your local reseller. The AutoCAD 2002 Learning Assistance CD that is included in your package is a multimedia learning tool for intermediate to experienced AutoCAD users. If you currently own a valid license for an Autodesk product and require replacement media or documentation, please call the Customer Service Center at 1-800-538-6401 to order.

Printed and Online Manuals

13

AutoCAD Mechanical Help


The Help in AutoCAD Mechanical provides information about AutoCAD Mechanical with the power pack. The Help is formatted for easy navigation, and includes:
s s s s s s s

Content organized by the major functional areas of AutoCAD Mechanical, with How To, Reference, and Learn About pages for each functional area Specific information about each of the features in the program Concepts and procedures for the new features in this release A keyword index and search function Printable Command Reference Guides to system variables and accelerator keys Access to Support Assistance with integrated links to solutions

For access to Help, you can choose from the following methods:
s s s s

From the Help menu, select Mechanical Help Topics. Select the Help button in the standard toolbar. Press F1. This opens the topic for an active button or command. Click the Help button within a dialog box.

Product Support Assistance in Help


When you need product support, refer to Support Assistance in the Help menu. Support Assistance ensures quick access to technical support information through an easy-to-use issue/solution format with self-help tools and a knowledge base. Product Support Assistance provides information about support options available from resellers, Autodesk System Centers (ASCs), user groups in your area, and those available directly from the Autodesk Web pages, including the Autodesk Product Support Index.

Updating the Support Assistance Knowledge Base


You can update your Support Assistance knowledge base with the latest support information about AutoCAD Mechanical by using the Documentation Update utility in the Support Assistance Welcome.

14

Chapter 1

Where to Start

To update your Support Assistance Knowledge Base 1 From the Help menu, choose Support Assistance, then choose Download. 2 Follow the prompts to update your knowledge base.

Learning and Training Resources


Many sources for learning and training are listed on the AutoCAD Mechanical Learning and Training Web page. From the AutoCAD Mechanical Web site at http://www.autodesk.com/autocadmech, navigate to Learning and Training. You can link directly to sources for
s s s

Online courses and tutorials The Autodesk Official Training Courseware (AOTC) A list of Autodesk authorized resellers and trainers

Autodesk Official Training Courseware (AOTC) is the Autodesk-endorsed courseware for instructor-led training. To register for a training course, contact an Authorized Autodesk Training Center, Authorized Autodesk Reseller, or Autodesk System Center. You can find a list of these organizations on the Autodesk Technical Assistance Web site: http://www.autodesk.com/support and click Autodesk Training Centers.

Internet Resources
Following are resources for information about Autodesk products and assistance with your AutoCAD Mechanical questions.
s s s s s

Autodesk Web site: http://www.autodesk.com Autodesk Premier Products + Support Web site: http://www.autodesk.com/supp/resource/phonespt/premier.htm AutoCAD Mechanical discussion groups: http://www.autodesk.com/autocadmech-discussion Mechanical Desktop discussion groups: http://www.autodesk.com/mechdesktop-discussion To locate an authorized reseller in your area, go to: http://www.autodesk.com/support.

Learning and Training Resources

15

Typographical Conventions
To orient you to AutoCAD Mechanical features as they appear on the screen, specific terms are set in typefaces that distinguish them from the body text. Throughout AutoCAD Mechanical documentation, the following conventions are used. Typographical conventions
Text element Example

Commands ADCENTER, DBCONNECT, SAVE AutoCAD system variables DIMBLK, DWGNAME, LTSCALE AutoCAD named-objects, such as linetypes and stylesDASHDOT, STANDARD Prompts Instructions after prompt sequences File names and file name extensions Folder or directory names Text you enter Keys you press on the keyboard Keys you press simultaneously on the keyboard Bom table [Delete/Main/Edit] <Edit>: Select objects: Select the object you want to copy acad.exe, Readme file, .dwg file extension Sample folder, c:\ACADM2000i\support At the Command prompt, enter shape. CTRL, F10, ESC, ENTER CTRL + C

16

Chapter 1

Where to Start

Features and Commands

In This Chapter

This chapter provides information on the key areas of 2D mechanical design functionality in AutoCAD Mechanical 6. A summary of commands with their toolbuttons and functions is also provided.

s The AutoCAD Mechanical 6

functionality
s Command summary

17

AutoCAD Key Features Mechanical in AutoCAD 6 Mechanical 6


AutoCAD MechanicalOverview 6 extends the basic drawing, dimensioning and Functionality documentation functionality of AutoCAD 2002. It provides 2D engineering features for optimizing6your design, features fordimensioning getting the most AutoCAD Mechanical extends the and basic drawing, andout of the intelligent standard parts in drawings. documentation functionality of your AutoCAD 2002. It provides features for getting the most out of the intelligent standard parts in your drawing, as well The following are some of the features and functionality in five key areas of as engineering features for optimizing your design. mechanical design in AutoCAD Mechanical 6:

2D 2D Standard Standard Parts Parts


To generate an object from scratch, use the parametrically generated, To generate an object from scratch, use the parametrically generated, intelligent geometry listed below: intelligent geometry listed below:
s s

s s s s s s

Standard Parts contain more than 800.000 intelligent standard parts Standard Parts contain more than 800,000 intelligent standard parts including screws, nuts, washers, pins, rivets, bushings, rings, seals, including screws, nuts, washers, pins, rivets, bushings, rings, seals, bearings, and others. bearings, and others. Standard Features contain 8,000 intelligent standard features including Standard Features contain 8,000 intelligent standard features including slots, centerholes, undercuts, keyways, and thread ends. slots, centerholes, undercuts, keyways, and thread ends. Standard Holes contain over 20,000 intelligent standard holes including Standard Holes contain over 20,000 intelligent standard holes including through holes, blind holes, counterbores, countersinks, and others. through holes, blind holes, counterbores, countersinks, and others. Standard Structural Steel Shapes contain over 44,000 intelligent standard Standard Structural Steel Shapes contain over 44,000 intelligent standard structural steel shapes. structural steel shapes.

Standard Standard Part PartsTools Tools


Almost more important than the standard parts are the tools designed for Almost more important than the standard parts are the tools designed for them. After all, how often does a design call for a screw without an them. After all, how often does a design call for a screw without an accompanying hole? In AutoCAD Mechanical 6 these tools include: accompanying hole? In AutoCAD Mechanical 6 these tools include:
s s s s s s

A Screw Connection for inserting complete fastener assemblies. A Screw Connection for inserting complete fastener assemblies. Change Representation functionality changes the representation of your Change Representation functionality changes the representation of your standard parts (symbolic, simplified, standard). standard parts (symbolic, simplified, standard). The Power View function for deriving associative orthographic views, for The Power View function for deriving associative orthographic views, for example, a side view of a standard part from a front view or vice versa. example, a side view of a standard part from a front view or vice versa.

18

Chapter 2

Features and Commands

Design Productivity
Features designed to increase productivity and reduce the number of steps needed to complete mechanical designs include:
s s

s s

Design and detailing tools, including cam and spring design and analysis, hole charts, and notes for holes and standard parts. Improved workflow and compliance with company standards, including enhancements to BOMs, grouping of a Parts list, automatic scaling of Mechanical symbols, layer group support within the AutoCAD Design Center, and enhancements. An intelligent, customizable layer management system that puts objects on the appropriate layers automatically. The existing layer groups enable separate handling of parts (as well as the appropriate hidden edges, hatches, dimensions, and so on). Power commands which provide a single command to edit, copy (with the objects intelligence), update, or recall a previous command. Double-click editing - where you can double-click any entity in AutoCAD Mechanical 6 the appropriate function needed to edit that entity is invoked. Simple commands for creating geometry typically found in mechanical drawings such as centerlines and centerline crosses, symmetrical lines, section lines, break lines, and others. Leveraging legacy data, with a built-in IGES translator and Save as previous release support.

Production Drawing Creation Tools


AutoCAD Mechanical 6 offers tools that automate the creation of typical objects found in drawings and can reduce the time needed to complete production drawing. These features include:
s

s s s s

Balloons and bills of material including support of multiple parts lists per drawing as well as features such as summation and position lists and mask editor. A feature for creating detailed views at user-specified scale and location. Functionality for creating standard sized drawing borders and title blocks in your drawing. A command for creating hole charts and charts of (X,Y) coordinates. Language conversion features for converting the text on a drawing into one of 17 different languages.

Key Features in AutoCAD Mechanical 6

19

Dimensioning and Annotation Productivity Tools


Features designed to make you more productive in dimensioning and annotating your mechanical designs include
s

s s s

Power Dimension commands provide a single command to create or edit any type of angular, linear, radial, or diameter dimension including adding fits or tolerances according to any standard. Automatic dimension commands add either ordinate, baseline, chain, or shaft dimensions to 2D geometry automatically. A feature for quick creation of leader notes. Functionality for creating surface texture symbols, geometric dimensioning and tolerances, targets, weld symbols, and other symbols commonly found in mechanical drawings.

2D Assembly Design Tools


Functionality aimed at helping you manage detailed component drawings from a 2D assembly include
s s

A 2D Hide command for performing 2D hidden line calculations based on foreground and background objects. Auto Detailing functionality for creating and managing detailed drawings of individual components from an assembly drawing.

Machinery Systems Generator


Machines that have movement required systems to transfer power and motion. AutoCAD Mechanical 6 offers the following tools to help you save time and reduce errors when designing these types of systems:
s

Shaft Generator creates shafts with commonly found features including centerholes, chamfers, cones, fillets, grooves, profiles, threads, undercuts, and wrench fittings. In addition, standard parts such as bearings, gears, retaining rings and seals, that are commonly found in shafts are also available. Spring Generator calculates, selects and inserts compression, extension and/or torsion springs, and Belleville spring washers in a design. The representation type of the spring can be controlled by the user and a spec form can be created to incorporate into the drawing. Belt and Chain Generator create sprockets and pulleys, calculate optimal lengths for chains and belts, and insert chain or belt elements in your design.

20

Chapter 2

Features and Commands

Calculation Tools
AutoCAD Mechanical 6 provides the following tools for saving you time with your engineering calculations, and insuring you get the design right the first time
s

Cam Generator creates cam plates and cylindrical cams given input border conditions. Velocity and acceleration, as well as the cam curve path can be calculated and displayed. Driven elements can be coupled to the cam and NC data can be created via the curve on the path. Beam Calculation determines the moment of inertia and deflection of beams.

Engineering Calculation
A mechanical design includes more than just proper fit and form, it also includes proper function. Insuring proper function requires incorporating Engineering know-how. AutoCAD Mechanical 6 provides the following tools for saving you time with your engineering calculations, and insuring you get the design right the first time:
s

s s s

Shaft Calculations include the deflection line, bending moment, torsion moment, supporting force, torque rotation angle, equivalent tension and safety factor for shafts with regards to influence of notches and dynamic load according to DIN 743 and ANSI. Screw Pre-Calculation selects the right size screw based on given forces, materials, and methods of tightening. Bearing Calculations select the right bearing based on load and life ratings. FEA for determining the resistance capability of an object put under a static load. This function allows you to add movable and fixed supports to the part to be analyzed and also enter stress points, lines, and areas. The Screw Calculation gives the designer a tool to check a screw connection. As a result it calculates the different safety factors. The designer can calculate high duty bolted joints with one screw.

Collaboration with Manufacturing Teams


AutoCAD Mechanical 6 provides support for Autodesk Streamline.

There is More...
There are many more productivity enhancing features and functions in AutoCAD Mechanical 6. Read the next section for a command summary listing all of the AutoCAD Mechanical 6 features.

Key Features in AutoCAD Mechanical 6

21

Command Summary
The following is a list of the AutoCAD Mechanical 6 commands, the associated toolbutton, and a brief description of each. This list does not contain the commands for AutoCAD 2002. For more information about the commands, see the option, Commands in Alphabetical Order, in the Help. Toolbutton Command Name
AM2DHIDE

Description
Hides invisible edges

AM2DHIDEDIT

Edits existing hide situations

AMADJRINGS2D

Creates an adjusting ring on a shaft

AMANALYSEDWG

Creates a file in which the current layer structure of the drawing is written Suits an existing hatch to a changed contour Displays or attaches non-attached symbols Automatically creates construction lines on selected drawing elements Creates an external detail drawing (xref) of selected elements from an assembly drawing Creates chain, baseline, ordinate in both axes, shaft, or symmetric dimensions Creates and places a balloon

AMASSOHATCH AMATTACHSYM AMAUTOCLINES

AMAUTODETAIL

AMAUTODIM

AMBALLOON

AMBEARCALC

Performs calculation on bearings

AMBELL2D

Selects, calculates, and inserts Belleville spring washers Creates a standard related blind hole

AMBHOLE2D

22

Chapter 2

Features and Commands

Toolbutton Command Name


AMBOM

Description
Creates a BOM database containing a list of attributes Breaks a line, polyline, or a spline on a specified point Draws a special spline to show the breakout borders Creates a blind slot

AMBREAKATPT

AMBROUTLINE

AMBSLOT2D

AMCAM

Starts the cam design and calculation routine

AMCENCRANGLE

Draws a centerline cross with an angle

AMCENCRCORNER

Draws a centerline cross in a corner

AMCENCRFULLCIRCLE Draws a centerline cross on a circle

AMCENCRHOLE

Draws a centerline cross with a hole

AMCENCRINHOLE

Draws a centerline cross in a hole

AMCENCROSS

Draws a centerline cross

AMCENCRPLATE

Draws a centerline cross on a plate

AMCENINBET

Draws a centerline in between two lines

AMCENTERHOLE2D

Creates a centerhole

AMCENTLINE

Draws a centerline

Command Summary

23

Toolbutton Command Name


AMCHAINDRAW

Description
Draws chain or belt links

AMCHAINLENGTHCAL Determines the tangent definition between sprockets/pulleys AMCHAM2D Bevels the edges of objects

AMCLEVISPIN2D

Creates a clevis pin

AMCLINEL

Locks or unlocks the construction line layer

AMCLINEO

Switches construction lines on/off

AMCOMP2D

Selects, calculates, and inserts compression springs. Draws construction lines

AMCONSTLINES

AMCONSTSWI

Switches construction lines between lines and rays Displays the inner contour of an object

AMCONTIN

AMCONTOUT

Displays the outer contour of an object

AMCONTRACE

Traces all points of a contour

AMCONVDWG AMCOPY

Converts the current drawing Makes copies of one or multiple selected objects.

24

Chapter 2

Features and Commands

Toolbutton Command Name


AMCOTTERPIN2D

Description
Creates a cotter pin

AMCOUNTB2D

Creates a standard related counterbore

AMCOUNTS2D

Creates a standard related countersink

AMCRIVET2D

Creates a countersunk rivet

AMCYLPIN2D

Creates a cylindrical pin

AMDATUMID

Creates a datum identifier symbol

AMDATUMTGT

Creates and edits a datum target symbol

AMDEFLINE

Calculates the deflection line or moment line of an object that has various force elements acting on it Enlarges selected parts of a drawing

AMDETAIL

AMDIMALIGN

Aligns linear, rotated, aligned, ordinate, or angular dimensions that have a base dimension of the same type Rearranges individual dimensions that lie along one axis, in respect to a reference point Creates breaks in an existing dimension

AMDIMARRANGE

AMDIMBREAK

AMDIMFORMAT AMDIMINSERT

Modifies dimensions in drawing mode Edits linear, aligned, rotated, and angular dimensions by inserting new dimensions of the same type simultaneously Edits linear, aligned, and angular (3-point or 2line) dimensions by joining similar dimensions into a single dimension

AMDIMJOIN

Command Summary

25

Toolbutton Command Name


AMDIMMEDIT

Description
Edits multiple dimensions at the same time

AMDIMSTRETCH

Shortens or lengthens linear or symmetric dimensions Creates a single drill bushing

AMDRBUSH2D

AMDRBUSHHOLE2D

Creates a drill bushing and the corresponding hole Creates edge symbols

AMEDGESYM

AMEQUATEDIT AMERASEALLCL

Generates and organizes equations Erases all construction lines

AMERASECL

Erases selected construction lines

AMEXT2D

Selects, calculates, and insertsextension springs.

AMEXTHREAD2D

Creates an external thread

AMFCFRAME

Creates feature control frame symbols

AMFEA2D

Calculates stress and deformation in a plane for plates with a given thickness or in a cross section with individual forces and stretching loads Creates feature identifier symbols

AMFEATID

AMFILLET2D

Rounds and fillets the edges of objects

AMFITSLIST

Puts existing fits and their respective dimension values into a list and inserts this fits list into your drawing

26

Chapter 2

Features and Commands

Toolbutton Command Name


AMGROOVE2D

Description
Inserts a retaining ring/circlip with the appropriate groove in a shaft Creates a grooved drive stud

AMGROOVESTUD2D

AMHATCH_135_11

Creates a 135-degree and 11 mm/0.4 inch hatch Creates a 135-degree and 2.7 mm/0.11 inch hatch Creates a 135-degree and 4.7 mm/0.19 inch hatch Creates a 45-degree and 13 mm/0.5 inch hatch

AMHATCH_135_2

AMHATCH_135_4

AMHATCH_45_13

AMHATCH_45_2

Creates a 45-degree and 2.5 mm/0.1 inch hatch

AMHATCH_45_5

Creates a 45-degree and 5 mm/0.22 inch hatch

AMHATCH_DBL

Creates a double hatch of 45- and 135-degree and 2.3 mm/0.09 inch Displays the online help

AMHELP

AMHOLECHART

Creates coordinate dimensions for holes in a work piece and generates hole charts Carries out the following tasks: center of gravity, directions of the main axes moment, moments of inertia, effective moment of inertia, deflection angle Calculates the moment of inertia for cross sections of cylinders, hollow cylinders, rectangular prisms, or hollow rectangular prisms Joins different entities

AMINERTIA

AMINERTIAPROF

AMJOIN

AMLANGCONV

Translates text strings in your drawing into another language

Command Summary

27

Toolbutton Command Name


AMLANGTEXT

Description
Displays and uses text from the Language Converter Manages the layer system

AMLAYER

AMLAYINVO

Switches invisible lines on/off

AMLAYMOVE

Moves lines to another layer

AMLAYMOVEPL

Moves lines to parts layers

AMLAYMOVEWL

Moves lines to working layers

AMLAYPARTO

Switches standard parts on/off

AMLAYPARTREFO

Switches part reference on/off

AMLAYRESET AMLAYTIBLO

Resets all layers Switches the border and title block on/off

AMLAYVISENH

Specifies the layer group setting during a working session Switches viewports on/off

AMLAYVPO

AMLGMOVE

Moves elements in a selection set to a specific layer group Displays the Library dialog box

AMLIBRARY

AMLUBRI2D

Creates a lubricator

AMMCONTV

Makes a contour visible

28

Chapter 2

Features and Commands

Toolbutton Command Name


AMMIGRATEBB

Description
Converts infopoints, position numbers, and parts lists (on a drawing) from Genius 13/Genius 14 to AutoCAD Mechanical 2002 format Converts all symbols from Genius 13/14 to AutoCAD Mechanical 2002 format Describes holes and fits, and creates notes to the drawing with a leader Creates a nut

AMMIGRATESYM

AMNOTE

AMNUT2D

AMOFFSET

Creates new objects at specified distances from an existing object or through a specified point Sets configurations Creates and places a parts list in a drawing

AMOPTIONS AMPARTLIST

AMPARTREF

Creates part references

AMPARTREFEDIT

Edits part reference data

AMPLBEAR2D

Inserts a plain bearing on a shaft or in a housing

AMPLOTDATE

Inserts the current date in the lower right corner of the title block Creates a plain rivet

AMPLRIVET2D

AMPLUG2D

Creates a plug

AMPOWERCOPY

Copies an object with its internal information to another position in the drawing Creates dimensions, or assigns tolerances or fits to any of these dimensions

AMPOWERDIM

Command Summary

29

Toolbutton Command Name


AMPOWERDIM_ANG

Description
Creates angular dimensions, or assigns tolerances or fits to dimension Starts the command with which the selected object was created to edit the object Deletes selected objects

AMPOWEREDIT

AMPOWERERASE

AMPOWERRECALL

Starts the command with which the selected object was created, to create a new object Sets object snap modes, polar snap, and filters for object snaps Creates top or side views of standard parts

AMPOWERSNAP

AMPOWERVIEW

AMPROJO

Creates a projection crosshairs used for creating orthographic views Sets user-defined snap settings on tab 1

AMPSNAP1

AMPSNAP2

Sets user-defined snap settings on tab 2

AMPSNAP3

Sets user-defined snap settings on tab 3

AMPSNAP4

Sets user-defined snap settings on tab 4

AMPSNAPCEN

Snaps the rectangle center

AMPSNAPFILTERO

Switches the entity filter on or off

AMPSNAPMID

Snaps to the middle of two points

AMPSNAPREF

Snaps to a reference point

30

Chapter 2

Features and Commands

Toolbutton Command Name


AMPSNAPREL

Description
Snaps to a relative point

AMPSNAPVINT

Snaps to a virtual intersection point of two lines

AMPSNAPZO

Switches snapping of the Z coordinate on or off

AMRECTANG

Creates a rectangle by defining its starting and endpoint Saves REFEDIT working set changes

AMREFCLOSE

AMREFCOPY

Copies objects from other blocks to the REFEDIT working set Rescales dimensions and symbols in model and layout Switches revision lists on or off

AMRESCALE

AMREV

AMREVLINE

Inserts a revision list into a drawing or adds an additional revision line to an existing revision list Updates revision lists

AMREVUPDATE

AMROLBEAR2D

Inserts a radial or axial roller bearing on a shaft or in a housing Allows scaling for entities in X and Y direction

AMSCALEXY

AMSCAREA

Creates a scale area in model space

AMSCMONITOR

Views and edits the scale of scale areas or viewports Creates a screw or bolt

AMSCREW2D

Command Summary

31

Toolbutton Command Name


AMSCREWCALC

Description
Checks a screw connection

AMSCREWCON2D

Opens the Screw Connection dialog box

AMSCREWMACRO2D

Opens the Screw Assembly Templates dialog box Generates scripts Creates a sealing ring for use under a plug

AMSCRIPT AMSEALRING2D

AMSEALS2D

Inserts a seal/O-ring with the appropriate groove in a shaft Creates cutting plane lines

AMSECTIONLINE

AMSETUPDWG AMSHAFT2D

Sets up a drawing Creates rotationally symmetric shaft parts and inner and outer shaft contours Calculates deflection line, bending moment, torsion moment, supporting force, torque rotation angle, equivalent tension, and the safety factor of shafts Creates a zigzag line, a free-hand line, or loop to represent a shaft end Inserts a parallel or woodruff key with the appropriate keyseat in a shaft Creates a shaft lock nut including the lock washer and inserts both in a shaft Creates a shim ring on a shaft

AMSHAFTCALC

AMSHAFTEND

AMSHAFTKEY2D

AMSHAFTLNUT2D

AMSHIMRING2D

AMSIMPLEWELD

Creates seam and fillet simple welds

32

Chapter 2

Features and Commands

Toolbutton Command Name


AMSPROCKET

Description
Draws sprockets or pulleys

AMSTDPLIB

Opens the Parts Database dialog box for editing and selection Changes the representation of a standard part

AMSTDPREP

AMSTLSHAP2D

Creates a steel shape

AMSTYLEITAL

Changes the text style to italic

AMSTYLESIMP

Changes the text style to simplex

AMSTYLESTAND AMSTYLETXT

Changes the text style to standard Changes the text style to TXT

AMSURFSYM

Creates surface texture symbols

AMSYMLEADER

Appends/removes a leader

AMSYMLINE

Draws symmetrical lines

AMTAPBHOLE2D

Creates a standard related tapped blind hole

AMTAPERPIN2D

Creates a taper pin

AMTAPTHOLE2D

Creates a standard related tapped through hole

AMTBFULL

Displays the Mechanical Toolbar at the left side and the Snap Toolbar at the right side Places the Mechanical Express Toolbar at the left side

AMTBLEFT

Command Summary

33

Toolbutton Command Name


AMTBRIGHT

Description
Places the Mechanical Express Toolbar at the right side Inserts mtext with 3.5 mm height

AMTEXT3

AMTEXT5

Inserts mtext with 5 mm height

AMTEXT7

Inserts mtext with 7 mm height

AMTEXTCENT

Centers text horizontally and vertically

AMTEXTHORIZ

Centers text horizontally

AMTEXTRIGHT

Aligns mtext to the right

AMTEXTSIZE

Sets text to its default size in model space and layout, and defines a height for an inserted text Creates a standard related through hole

AMTHOLE2D

AMTHREADEND2D

Creates a thread end

AMTITLE

Inserts a title block and a drawing border

AMTOR2D

Selects, calculates, and inserts torsion springs.

AMTRCONT

Traces contours on construction lines

AMTSLOT2D

Creates a standard related through slot.

AMUBHOLE2D

Creates a user-defined blind hole

34

Chapter 2

Features and Commands

Toolbutton Command Name


AMUBSLOT2D

Description
Creates a user-defined blind slot

AMUCOUNTB2D

Creates a user-defined counterbore

AMUCOUNTS2D

Creates a user-defined countersink

AMUNDERCUT2D

Creates an undercut on a shaft

AMUSERHATCH

Inserts a user-defined hatch

AMUTHOLE2D

Creates a user-defined through hole

AMUTSLOT2D

Creates a user-defined slot

AMVIEWALL AMVIEWCEN AMVIEWLL

Zooms the view according to the limits Zooms the center of the viewports Zooms the predefined lower-left quarter of the drawing Zooms the predefined lower-right quarter of the drawing Zooms the predefined upper-left quarter of the drawing Zooms the predefined upper-right quarter of the drawing Creates a viewport in layout

AMVIEWLR

AMVIEWUL

AMVIEWUR

AMVPORT

AMVPORTAUTO

Creates viewports automatically

AMVPZOOMALL

Resets the viewports to the default scale factor

Command Summary

35

Toolbutton Command Name


AMWASHER2D

Description
Creates a washer

AMWELDSYM

Creates welding symbols

AMXREFSET

Controls the representation of xrefs

AMZIGZAGLINE

Draws zigzag lines

AMZOOMVP

Displays a selected area in another viewport

36

Chapter 2

Features and Commands

New and Revised Commands

In This Chapter

This chapter contains information about the new and revised commands and functions in AutoCAD Mechanical 6.

s New and Revised Commands s New functions

37

New and Revised Command Summary


AutoCAD Mechanical 6 includes a number of new commands and commands revised from the previous version. This is an overview of the most important changes in AutoCAD Mechanical 6. For more information about new features, see Key Features in AutoCAD Mechanical 6 on page 18.

AMBALLOON
Creates and places balloons. Menu Command
s

Annotate Parts List Tools Balloons


AMBALLOON

Improved collection of different balloon types.

AMBELL2D
Selects, calculates, and inserts Belleville spring washers. Menu Command
s s s s s

Content Springs
AMBELL2D

Spring selection from Standard Parts Database. Every spring type has its own command. New user interface. Changed insertion sequence for simplified handling. Former spring blocks changed to custom entities.

38

Chapter 3

New and Revised Commands

AMBOM
Creates a BOM database containing a list of attributes. Menu Command
s s s s s

Annotate Parts List Tools BOM Database


AMBOM

Grouped by functionality in Parts List. Item number enhancement (text, increment, leading zero) Set values improvement (ascending text for item). Grid lines on/off. Improved cuts list creation.

AMCAM
Calculates various cams. Menu Command
s s s s s s s s

Content Cams
AMCAM

Completely new User Interface. Supports circular, cylindrical, and linear cams. Supports follower design and calculation. Enables strength calculations of the cam. Supports polynominals, not only fifth degree. Calculation of various motion curves is possible. Generates 3D solids for 3D representation of the cam. Enhanced export functions.

AMCOMP2D
Selects, calculates, and inserts compression springs.

Menu Command
s s s s s

Content Springs
AMSPRING

Spring selection from Standard Parts Database. Every spring type has its own command. New user interface. Changed insertion sequence for simplified handling. Former spring blocks changed to custom entities.

New and Revised Command Summary

39

AMEXT2D
Selects, calculates, and inserts extension springs. Menu Command
s s s s s

Content Springs
AMEXT2D

Spring selection from Standard Parts Database. Every spring type has its own command. New user interface. Changed insertion sequence for simplified handling. Former spring blocks changed to custom entities.

AMHOLECHART
Creates coordinate dimensions for holes in a work piece and generates hole charts. Menu Command
s s s s s

Annotate Hole Chart


AMHOLECHART

New, and improved user interface. Changed hole chart from block to custom entities. Migration of Genius hole chart to AutoCAD Mechanical 6 hole chart. Hole chart is standard dependent. Allows user-defined modifications of hole charts.

AMMANIPULATE
Dynamically moves and rotates selected geometry along/around the X, Y, Z axes. Menu Command
s s s

Modify Power Manipulator


AMMANIPULATE

User-friendly, modeless dialog. Supports tooltips. Redesigned Properties dialog.

40

Chapter 3

New and Revised Commands

AMNOTE
Describes holes and fits, and creates notes to the drawing with a leader. Menu Command
s s s s s

Annotate Note
AMNOTE

New dialog, which displays all variables of features. Can be attached to all features (standard parts, holes, and so on). Allows the creation of templates specific to a feature type. Simplified insertion of special characters. Applying of different dimension styles is possible.

AMOPTIONS
Sets the configuration Menu Command
s s

Assist Mechanical Options


AMOPTIONS

New, Hole Chart entry in Standard Settings. Note Template added to Mechanical Options.

AMPARTLIST
Creates and places a parts list in a drawing. Menu Command
s s s s

Annotate Parts List Tools Parts List


AMPARTLIST

New Grouping tool, which compares items by key definitions and groups them according to the selection. Parts List allows different increments. Grid lines on/off. Item columns can be changed from numeric entries to text entries.

New and Revised Command Summary

41

AMSTLSHAP2D
Creates a 2D steel shape. Menu Command
s

Content Steel Shapes


AMSTLSHAP2D

Simplified representation of 2D steel shapes.

AMTOR2D
Selects, calculates, and inserts torsion springs. Menu Command
s s s s s

Content Springs
AMTOR

Spring selection from Standard Parts Database. Every spring type has its own command. New user interface. Changed insertion sequence for simplified handling. Former spring blocks changed to custom entities.

SAVEAS
Saves a file into a different file format. Menu Command
s

File SaveAs
SAVEAS

Allows saving of a AutoCAD Mechanical 6 file format to a AutoCAD Mechanical 2000i format.

42

Chapter 3

New and Revised Commands

Part II
AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Tutorials

The tutorials in this section teach you how to use the AutoCAD Mechanical 6 software. The lessons include step-by-step instructions and helpful illustrations. You learn how to work with templates and layers, model space and layouts, dimensions, steel shapes and bills of material (BOMs) and parts lists. You also calculate moments of inertia and deflection lines, including chain, spring and cam calculation. You will also learn how to prepare your designs for final documentation. Specific drawing files for each lesson are included with the program. These drawing files provide design elements that help you understand and learn AutoCAD Mechanical 6 concepts.

43

44

Working with Templates

In This Chapter

In this tutorial, you learn about the predefined templates and how to create your own user-defined templates in AutoCAD Mechanical 6.

s Setting up the starting layer s Setting the mechanical options s Specifying the drawing limits s Saving a template s Using a template s Setting a default template

45

Key Terms
Term
base layer

Definition
A layer made up of working layers and standard parts layers. Base layers are repeated in every layer group. A group of associated or related items in a drawing. A major advantage of working with layer groups is that you can deactivate a specific layer group and a complete component. The drawing and its overview are enhanced with a reduction in regeneration time. A layer where the standard parts are put. All standard parts layers have the suffix AM_*N. A file with predefined settings to use for new drawings; however, any drawing can be used as a template. The layer where you are currently working.

layer group

part layers

template

working layer

46

Chapter 4

Working with Templates

Working with Templates


In AutoCAD Mechanical, you can use templates (*.dwt files) to create drawings. You can use the predefined templates, which contain settings for various drawings, such as am_iso.dwt or am_ansi.dwt, and are supplied with AutoCAD Mechanical or you can create your own templates. Any drawing can serve as a template. When you use a drawing as a template, the settings in that drawing are used in the new drawing. Although you can save any drawing as a template, you should prepare templates to include settings and drawing elements that are consistent with your office or project standards such as the following
s s s s s s s

unit type and precision drawing limits snap, grid, and ortho settings layer organization title blocks, borders, and logos dimension and text styles linetypes and lineweights

If you start a drawing from scratch, AutoCAD Mechanical reads the system defaults, which have a predefined standard, from the registry. If you create a new drawing, based on an existing template, and make changes to the drawing, those changes do not affect the template. To begin working with templates immediately, you can use the predefined template files stored in the acadm\template folder. However, for this tutorial you will create your own template. The new AutoCAD Today dialog is also covered in this tutorial. For more information about the AutoCAD Today dialog, please see the AutoCAD manual.

Setting up the Starting Layer


Each time you start AutoCAD Mechanical, layer 0 is active. Since layer 0 does not belong to the Mechanical layers, it is not displayed in the Layer Control dialog box of AutoCAD Mechanical, if you select Mechanical Layer in the Show field. Therefore, you need to specify the mechanical layer AM_0 as the default starting layer.

Working with Templates

47

To specify a starting layer 1 Start the Layer Control command. Menu Command Assist Layer / Layergroup Layer/Layer Group Control
AMLAYER

2 In the Layer Control dialog box, choose the Layer Control tab, select the layer AM_0 and choose Current.

3 Choose OK. Now, the layer AM_0 is active as you can see in the toolbar:

Setting the Mechanical Options


In the Mechanical Options dialog box, you can specify general settings for AutoCAD Mechanical.

48

Chapter 4

Working with Templates

To set the mechanical options 1 Start the Mechanical Options command. Menu Command Assist Mechanical Options
AMOPTIONS

2 In the Mechanical Options dialog box, choose the Standards tab, and specify: Standard: ISO Measurement: Metric Scale: 1:1

3 Choose OK.

NOTE All settings in this dialog, which are stored in the drawing (template)
are marked with this icon: All standard related settings are listed in the right section.

Specifying the Drawing Limits


Now, specify the drawing limits according to size A0 (840 x 1188 mm). This limits your drawing space to the specified size.

Working with Templates

49

To specify the drawing limits 1 Start the Drawing Limits command. Menu Command Assist Format Drawing Limits
LIMITS

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify lower left corner or [ON/OFF] <0.00,0.00>: Press ENTER Specify upper right corner <420.00,297.00>: Enter 840,1188 Now, the limits are expanded to A0 format.

Saving a Template
Save the previously changed drawing as a template. To save a template 1 Start the Save As command. Menu Command File Save As
SAVEAS

2 In the Save Drawing As dialog box, specify: Files of type: AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Drawing Template File (*.dwt) File name: my_own_template

Choose Save.

50

Chapter 4

Working with Templates

3 In the Template Description dialog box, specify: Description: Tutorial Template Measurement: Metric

Choose OK. 4 Close the drawing. Menu Command File Close


CLOSE

Using a Template
Now, start a new drawing and use the previously created template. To open a template 1 Start the New command. Menu Command File New
NEW

2 In the AutoCAD Today dialog box, in the section My Drawings, select the Create Drawings tab. From the Select how to begin list, select Template and choose Browse.

Working with Templates

51

3 In the Open dialog box, select my_own_template.dwt, and choose Open.

Now, you start the new drawing, using the settings of the previously saved template.

Setting a Default Template


Now, you specify your template as the default template. To set a default template 1 Start the Mechanical Options command. Menu Command Assist Mechanical Options
AMOPTIONS

52

Chapter 4

Working with Templates

2 In the Mechanical Options dialog box, choose the Standards tab, and choose Browse.

3 In the Open dialog box, select my_own_template.dwt, and choose Open. 4 In the Mechanical Options dialog box, choose OK. The template my_own_template will be used as default template from now on.

NOTE The default template is used, if a drawing does not contain any
AutoCAD Mechanical configuration. If a drawing already contains AutoCAD Mechanical configuration data or a new drawing has been created using an AutoCAD Mechanical template, the default template does not effect these settings. Now, you are at the end of this tutorial chapter.

Working with Templates

53

54

Working with Layers and Layer Groups

In This Chapter

In this tutorial, you learn more about the various commands used for working with layers and layer groups in AutoCAD Mechanical 6.

s Changing a layer by selecting

objects
s Creating layer groups s Using a layer group to copy

objects

55

Key Terms
Term
base layer

Definition
A layer made up of working layers and standard parts layers. Base layers are repeated in every layer group. A group of associated or related items in a drawing. A major advantage of working with layer groups is that you can deactivate a specific layer group and a complete component. The drawing and its overview is enhanced with a reduction in regeneration time. The layer where the standard parts are put. All standard parts layers have the suffix AM_*N. The layer where you are working.

layer group

part layers

working layer

56

Chapter 5

Working with Layers and Layer Groups

Working with Layers and Layer Groups


Layers and their colors can be customized and renamed according to your needs using the Mechanical Options dialog box > Layer / Object Settings. See the Online help for further information on this topic.
s

s s

Layer 0 is a default layer and not a mechanical layer, because this layer has special properties (by block). If you want to have these special properties available, just rename for example layer AM_0 to 0 in the Mechanical Options. Because AutoCAD 2000 always starts with Layer 0, we recommend using template files, where layer AM_0 is always the starting layer. If you move elements on layer 0 to other layer groups, you are asked if you always want to move the elements on layer group layergroupname-AM_0.

Getting Started
Open the initial drawing. To open a drawing 1 Open the file tut_ex02 in the acadm\tutorial folder. Menu Command Menu Command File Open
OPEN

2 Zoom in to the area of interest. View Zoom Window


ZOOM

Working with Layers and Layer Groups

57

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify first corner: Specify first point (1) Specify opposite corner: Specify second point (2)

Save your file under a different name or to a different directory to preserve the original tutorial file.

Changing a Layer By Selecting Objects


First, you move the layer (and layer group) containing two objects to another layer (and layer group) by selecting an object in the aforementioned layer (and layer group).

58

Chapter 5

Working with Layers and Layer Groups

To change a layer by selecting an object 1 Start the Move to another Layer command. Menu Command Modify Properties Move to another Layer
AMLAYMOVE

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select objects: Specify the centerlines of the differential gear (1, 2) Select objects: Press ENTER Specify new layer using object, layer field or keyboard (RETURN for dialog): Specify the engine centerline (3)

The centerlines of the differential gear are moved to the layer and layer group of the engine centerline. Save your file.

Creating Layer Groups


Layer groups provide an easy and intelligent way to structure assembly drawings. Using layer groups enables you to highlight single parts and lock and freeze whole parts. This gives you a better overview of your assembly drawing. First, you move a block to a layer group.

Working with Layers and Layer Groups

59

To move a block to a layer group 1 Start the Move to Another Group command. Menu Command Select objects: Select objects: Modify Properties Move to another Layer Group
AMLGMOVE

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify the gear (1) Press ENTER

3 In the Layer Control dialog box, choose the Create button, and create a new layer group called Gear. Choose OK.

60

Chapter 5

Working with Layers and Layer Groups

4 In the AutoCAD dialog box, choose Yes.

The complete block is moved to the layer group Gear. 5 In the Named Block dialog box, choose Yes. Now, you create two new layer groups and move the parts (blocks) to those groups. To create a new layer group 1 Start the Layer Group Control command. Menu Command Assist Layer / Layergroup Layer/Layer Group Control
AMLAYER

2 In the Layer Control dialog box, choose the Layer Group Control tab, and choose Create. Enter Coverplate for the layer group name. 3 Choose Create again, and create a layer group called Bushing. Choose OK.

Working with Layers and Layer Groups

61

4 Start the Move to Another Group command. Menu Command Select objects: Select objects: Modify Properties Move to another Layer Group.
AMLGMOVE

5 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify the coverplate (1) Press ENTER

6 In the Layer Control dialog box, select the layer group Coverplate, and choose OK.

7 In the AutoCAD dialog box, choose Yes. 8 In the Named Block dialog box, choose Yes.

62

Chapter 5

Working with Layers and Layer Groups

Now, move the bushing to the new Bushing layer group. To move elements to another layer group 1 Start the Move to Another Group command. Menu Command Select objects: Select objects: Modify Properties Move to another Layer Group
AMLGMOVE

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify the bushing (1) Press ENTER

3 In the Layer Control dialog box, select the layer group Bushing, and choose OK.

4 In the Named Block dialog box, choose Yes.

Working with Layers and Layer Groups

63

5 In the AutoCAD dialog box, choose Yes. The coverplate and the bushing have now been moved to their respective layer groups. Save your file.

Using a Layer Group to Copy Objects


Now, copy the objects of the layer group Shaft to a new drawing border. To copy objects of a layer group 1 Zoom to the extents of the drawing. Menu Command Menu Command View Zoom Extents
ZOOM

2 Start the Visibility Enhancement command. Assist Layer / Layergroup Visibility Enhancement
AMLAYVISENH

3 In the Visibility Enhancement dialog box, specify: Mode: Color all Inactive Layer Groups

4 Choose OK.

NOTE For a correct representation, it could be necessary to start the Regen


command. 5 Start the Layer Group Control command. Menu Command Assist Layer / Layergroup Layer/Layer Group Control
AMLAYER

64

Chapter 5

Working with Layers and Layer Groups

6 In the Layer Control dialog box, choose the Layer Group Control tab, and select the layer group Shaft. Choose the Current button, and then choose OK.

NOTE You can activate the layer group Shaft with a double-click, too.

Now copy the layer group Shaft to the second drawing border. 7 Start the Copy command, responding to the prompt. Menu Command Select objects: Modify Copy
COPY

Select the Layer Group

Working with Layers and Layer Groups

65

8 Select the layer group. Menu Command Assist Layer / Layergroup Layer/Layer Group Control
AMLAYER

In the Layer Control dialog box, choose the Layer Group Control tab, and select the layer group Shaft. Choose the Selection Set button.

9 In the AutoCAD dialog box, choose OK. 10 Choose OK.

66

Chapter 5

Working with Layers and Layer Groups

11 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select objects: Press ENTER Specify base point or displacement, or [Multiple]: Specify a point on the shaft Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: Specify another point in the drawing border on the right Now, the second drawing border looks like this:

This is the end of the tutorial chapter. Save your file.

Working with Layers and Layer Groups

67

68

Designing Levers

In This Chapter

In this tutorial, you start with a lever inserted from the parts library, and then you refine the design. You use many of the design options available in AutoCAD

s Using the library to insert a part s Preliminary settings: snap

configuration
s Creating construction lines s Creating additional construction

Mechanical 6. You also create a drawing detail and add some dimensions.

lines
s Creating a contour and applying

a fillet
s Creating a contour and

trimming projecting edges


s Cross-hatching the lever s Dimensioning the lever s Creating a detail and additional

dimensions

69

Key Terms
Term
construction lines

Definition
Lines, which are infinite in both directions or rays, which are infinite starting at a point that can be inserted into the drawing area. You use construction lines to transfer important points (for example, center points of holes) into other views or drawing areas. A line or an arc created with construction lines. Using construction geometry in 2D drawings helps define the shape of a contour. A portion of a design drawing that cannot be clearly displayed or dimensioned in the overall representation (surface texture symbols) but can be enlarged to show the details. To give the dimensions in a drawing a uniform appearance, Power Dimensioning and Automatic Dimensioning enable automatic insertion of the dimension line at a defined distance from the object being dimensioned. While dragging the dimension line dynamically, you will find that it remains fixed and is highlighted in red as soon as the required distance to the object being dimensioned is reached. A feature that makes it possible to store parts such as blocks and drawings in a library. For every inserted part, an icon can be created. The icon is put in the display section on the right side of the dialog box along with an assigned name. A collective term for the Power Copy, Power Recall, Power Edit, Power Dimensioning, Power Erase, and Power View commands. Power Dimensioning is a very useful tool for generating linear, radial and diameter dimensions, which minimizes the number of the individual actions required while generating a dimension. Power Dimensioning selects the type of linear dimension (horizontal, vertical, or aligned), based on the selected point, and the dimensions of the drawing can have a uniform style using the distance snap.

construction geometry

detail

distance snap

library

Power Command

Power Dimensioning

70

Chapter 6

Designing Levers

Extending the Design


First, you start a new drawing template with ISO standard. Then you load the initial drawing using the Library. To open a template 1 Open a new drawing. Menu Command File New
NEW

The AutoCAD Today dialog box opens. 2 In the Today dialog box, in the section My Drawings, choose the tab Create Drawings and select the template am_iso.dwt. This opens a new drawing template. Now you insert the drawing from the library.

Using the Library to Insert Parts


Insert the required part from the library.

Extending the Design

71

To insert a drawing from the library 1 Start the Library. Menu Command Insert Library
AMLIBRARY

2 Double-click the tut_ex03 file in the Library, or select Insert from the context menu.

3 Respond to the prompt as follows: Specify insertion point: Specify any point in the drawing

4 Start the Zoom Window command, responding to the prompt. Menu Command View Zoom Window
ZOOM

Specify first corner: Specify first corner (1) Specify opposite corner: Specify opposite corner (2)

72

Chapter 6

Designing Levers

Save your file under a different name or to a different directory to preserve the original tutorial file.

Preliminary Settings: Snap Configuration


In addition to the AutoCAD snap, Mechanical snap options, like arc radial, arc tangent, and so forth are available. You also have four different snap settings, which can be configured separately for a quick switch to a different snap setting. For example, you can use different snap settings for detailing or general design.

NOTE The snap defaults can be set in the Mechanical Options dialog at the
Preferences tab. Before starting the design, you should define the object snaps, which you will use in later operations.

Extending the Design

73

To configure the Power Snap settings 1 Start the Power Snap settings. Menu Command Assist Drafting Settings Power Snap Settings 1-4
AMPOWERSNAP

2 In the Power Snap Settings dialog box, specify: Setting 1: Endpoint, Intersection Setting 2: Endpoint, Center, Quadrant, Intersection, Parallel Setting 3: Perpendicular

3 After configuring the settings, activate Setting 1, and choose OK. Save your file.

NOTE Within a command, the various object snap functions are also accessible.
Hold down the SHIFT key, and right-click.

Creating Construction Lines (C-Lines)


Construction lines are very useful when you start your design process. With their help, you draw some kind of a design grid with your defined values for distance and angles. After generating the design grid, you simply trace your contour with the contour layer. Now insert the construction lines, which will help with the drawing of contour lines.

74

Chapter 6

Designing Levers

To create construction lines 1 Start the Draw Construction Lines command. Menu Command Design Construction Lines Draw Construction Lines AMCONSTCRS

If you have started the command using the menu, the Construction Lines dialog box opens. If you started the command directly using the toolbar or the command line, you can skip step 2. 2 In the Construction Lines dialog box, choose the Cross icon. 3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point: Specify insertion point: Specify the intersection of line b and line c (1) Press ENTER

4 Next, draw two lines parallel to the vertical and horizontal lines of the construction line cross. 5 Start the Draw Construction Lines command. Menu Command Design Construction Lines Draw Construction Lines
AMCONSTPAR

If you started the command using the menu, the Construction Lines dialog box is displayed.

Extending the Design

75

6 In the Construction Lines dialog box, choose the Parallel with Full Distance icon.

7 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select line, ray or xline: Select line c (1) Specify insertion point or Distance (xx|xx|xx..) <10|20|30>: Enter 3|9 Specify point on side to offset: Specify a point to the left of line c (2)

8 Insert the second set of parallel lines, and respond to the prompts as follows: Select line, ray or xline: Select line b Specify insertion point or Distance (xx|xx|xx..) <3|9>: Enter 4.5|9.5 Specify point on side to offset: Specify a point below line b (2) 9 Press ENTER. Save your file.

76

Chapter 6

Designing Levers

Creating additional C-Lines


AutoCAD Mechanical offers a choice of C-line options. To create additional construction lines 1 Activate snap setting 2. Menu Command Menu Command Assist Drafting Settings Power Snap Configuration 2
AMPSNAP2

2 Start the Draw Construction Lines command. Design Construction Lines Draw Construction Lines
AMCONSTHB

If you started the command using the menu, the Construction Lines dialog box is displayed. 3 In the Construction Lines dialog box, choose the Two Points or Angle icon.

Extending the Design

77

4 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify first point: Select the first point (1) Specify second point or Angle (xx|xx|xx..) <30|45|60>: Move the cursor over line a and then back to the rectangle. When the Parallel symbol appears, click (2).

5 Press ENTER to finish the command. Now, you draw tangential circles between the diagonal C-line and the right vertical line and lower horizontal line of the rectangle. 6 Start the Draw Construction Lines command. Menu Command Design Construction Lines Draw Construction Lines AMCONSTKR

7 In the Construction Lines dialog box, choose the Circle Tangent to 2 Lines icon.

78

Chapter 6

Designing Levers

8 Draw the two circles by responding to the prompts as follows: Select first tangent: Select tangent point (1) Select second tangent: Select tangent point (2) Specify diameter: Enter 2 Select first tangent: Select tangent point (3) Select second tangent: Select tangent point (4) Specify diameter <2>: Enter 2 9 Press ENTER to end the command.

All construction lines have been inserted, and the contour can be generated. Save your file.

Creating a Contour and Applying a Fillet


Now, you connect the two tangential circles with the right part of the rectangle, to build a filleted triangle. To create and edit a contour 1 Start the Polyline command. Menu Command Design Polyline PLINE

Extending the Design

79

2 Create the contour by responding to the prompts as follows: Specify start point: Specify the intersection point (1) Specify next point or [Arc/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: Specify next point (2) Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: Enter A Specify endpoint of arc or [Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/ Radius/Second pt/Undo/Width]: Specify next point (3) Specify endpoint of arc or [Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/ Radius/Second pt/Undo/Width]: Enter L Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: Specify next point (4) Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: Enter A Specify endpoint of arc or [Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/ Radius/Second pt/Undo/Width]: Specify next point (5) Specify endpoint of arc or [Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/ Radius/Second pt/Undo/Width]: Enter CL

Now, erase the C-Lines. You can erase all C-lines by calling one command.

80

Chapter 6

Designing Levers

3 Erase all C-Lines. Menu Command Modify Erase Erase all Construction Lines
AMERASEALLCL

NOTE You can switch construction lines on and off temporarily by choosing
Assist > Layer / Layergroup > Construction Line On/Off. 4 Apply a fillet to the corner of the triangle. Menu Command Modify Fillet
AMFILLET2D

5 Respond to the prompts as follows: (Dimension mode:OFF)(Trim mode) Current fillet radius = 2.5 Select first object or [Polyline/Setup/Dimension] <Setup>: Press ENTER 6 In the Fillet Radius dialog box, specify: Input: 1 Trim Mode: On

Choose OK.

Extending the Design

81

7 Respond to the prompts as follows: (Dimension mode:OFF)(Trim mode) Current fillet radius = 1 Select first object or [Polyline/Setup/Dimension] <Setup>: Enter P Select polyline: Select a point on the polyline near the corner

8 Press ESC to cancel the command. The triangular contour is complete. Save your file.

Creating a Contour and Trimming Projecting Edges


Now, you create another part of the contour and trim projecting edges. To create and edit a contour 1 Activate Power Snap Setting 3 command. Menu Command Assist Drafting Settings Power Snap Configuration 3
AMPSNAP3

Next, insert the next contour. 2 Start the Line command. Menu Command Design Line
LINE

82

Chapter 6

Designing Levers

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify first point: Hold down the SHIFT key, right-click, and choose Intersection _int of: Select line a (1) and: Select intersection on line b (2) Specify next point or [Undo]: Hold down the SHIFT key, right-click, and choose Perpendicular. Then trace over line e, and click the perpendicular point (3) Specify next point or [Undo]: Drag the cursor to the right, crossing over line c, and select intersection point (4) Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: Press ENTER

Now, trim the projecting edges at the upper edge of the lever. 4 Start the Trim command. Menu Command Modify Trim
TRIM

5 Respond to the prompts as follows: Current settings: Projection = UCS, Edge = None Select cutting edges: Select Objects: Select cutting edge (1) Select Objects: Select cutting edge (2) Select Objects: Press ENTER Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or [Project/Edge/Undo]: Select object to trim (3) Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or [Project/Edge/Undo]: Select object to trim (4) Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or [Project/Edge/Undo]: Press ENTER

Extending the Design

83

6 Zoom to the extents of the lever. Menu Command View Zoom Extents
ZOOM

The contour is complete and looks like this:

Save your file.

Cross-Hatching the Lever


Cross-hatching is easy with AutoCAD Mechanical. Just choose one of the predefined cross-hatching styles, and click a point within the contour to be hatched.

84

Chapter 6

Designing Levers

To hatch a contour 1 Start the Hatch command, using an angle of 45 degrees and 2.5 mm / 0.1 inch spacing. Menu Command Design Hatch Hatch 45 deg. 2.5mm/0.1 inch
AMHATCH_45_2

2 Respond to the prompt as follows: Select additional boundary or point in area to be hatched or [Select objects]: Click a point inside the contour (outside the cutouts) The lever is hatched. It looks like this:

Save your file.

Dimensioning the Lever


Now, dimension the lever, using the Power Dimensioning command.

Extending the Design

85

To dimension a contour 1 Start the Power Snap Setting 1 command. Menu Command Menu Command Assist Drafting Settings Power Snap Configuration 1
AMPSNAP1

2 Start the Power Dimensioning command. Annotate Power Dimensioning


AMPOWERDIM

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: (SINGLE) Specify first extension line origin or [Angular/Options/Baseline/Chain/ Update] <Select>: Select the first corner point of the lever opening (1) Specify second extension line origin: Select the second corner point (2) Specify dimension line location or [Options/Pickobj]: Drag the dimension line to the left until it is highlighted in red, and left-click (3)

4 In the Power Dimensioning dialog box, click the Add Tolerance icon and specify: Deviation: Upper: 0.1 Deviation: Lower: 0 Precision: Primary: 1

Choose OK.

86

Chapter 6

Designing Levers

5 Press ENTER twice to finish the command. The lever looks like this:

Save your file.

Creating a Detail and Additional Dimensions


Now, define a detail of the upper part of the lever.

Extending the Design

87

To create a detail 1 Start the Detail command. Menu Command Design Detail
AMDETAIL

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Center of circle or [Rectangle/Object]: Click a point in the center of the area to be detailed (1) Specify radius or [Diameter]: Drag the radius to the appropriate size and click (2)

3 In the Detail dialog box, specify: Detail View: Detail in Current Space

88

Chapter 6

Designing Levers

4 Choose OK, and respond to the prompts as follows: Place the detail view: Select a location to the right of the lever

NOTE Some entities such as dimensions and symbols are automatically filtered out in the detail function.

Now, add a dimension to the detail. 5 Start the Power Dimensioning command. Menu Command Annotate Power Dimensioning
AMPOWERDIM

Extending the Design

89

6 Respond to the prompts as follows: (SINGLE) Specify first extension line origin or[Angular/Options/Baseline/Chain/ Update] <Select>: Press ENTER Select arc, line, circle or dimension: Select the radius (1)

7 Select an appropriate position for the dimension. 8 In the Power Dimensioning dialog box, click the tolerances button to deactivate the tolerances and choose OK.

90

Chapter 6

Designing Levers

9 Press ENTER twice to finish the command. Now, your lever looks like this:

The Power Dimensioning command recognizes the different scale area. If you dimensioned the radius in the original drawing, the dimension value would be the same. The text height is also the same, as related to the standard. This is the end of this tutorial chapter. Save your file.

Extending the Design

91

92

Working with Model Space and Layouts

In This Chapter

In this tutorial, you learn to create scale areas and viewports as well as detail views in model space and in the layout in AutoCAD Mechanical 6.

s Creating a scale area s Creating a detail s Generating a new viewport s Inserting a user through hole s Creating a subassembly in a new

layout

93

Key Terms
Term
base layer

Definition
A layer made up of working layers and standard parts layers. Base layers are repeated in every layer group. Enlargement of a portion of the design drawing that cannot be clearly displayed or dimensioned. The overall representation (surface texture symbols, etc.) can be enlarged. A layout of drawing views in model space or layout. A group of associated or related items in a drawing. A major advantage of working with layer groups is that you can deactivate a specific layer group and a complete component. The drawing and its overview are enhanced by reduction in regeneration time. The tabbed environment in which you create and design floating viewports to be plotted. Multiple layouts can be created for each drawing. A command useful for generating linear, radial, and diameter dimensions, which minimizes the number of the individual actions while generating a dimension. Power Dimensioning automatically selects the type of the linear dimension (horizontal, vertical, aligned), based on the selected point. Defines the scale for an area of the drawing. A function to view and control the scale for any scale area. A scaled view of the model defined in a layout. The scale of a base drawing relative to the model scale. Also, the scale of dependent views relative to the base view. The layer where you are currently working.

detail

drawing layer group

layout

Power Dimensioning

scale area scale monitor viewport view scale

working layer

94

Chapter 7

Working with Model Space and Layouts

Working with Model Space and Layouts


Using model space and layouts, you can create different views with different scales from the same model. The main advantage of working with layouts is that views are associative; that is, if you make changes in one viewport, those changes are made in all other viewports as well, since each viewport is just another view of the same model.

Getting Started
In this tutorial, you work with viewports. You generate an associative detail and create a subassembly drawing. To open a file 1 Open the file tut_ex04 in the acadm\tutorial folder. Menu Command File Open
OPEN

The drawing contains parts of a four-stroke engine. Save your file under a different name or to a different directory to preserve the original tutorial file.

Creating a Scale Area


To generate correct views with correct zoom factors in a layout, you must define a scale area in model space. First, create the scale area. To create a scale area 1 Start the Viewport/Scale Area command. Menu Command View Viewports Viewport/Scale Area
AMSCAREA

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Define the border ... Specify first point or [Circle/Object]: Specify the first corner point (1) Specify second point: Specify the second corner point (2)

Working with Model Space and Layouts

95

3 In the Scale Area dialog box, specify: Scale: 1:1

4 Choose OK. In the next step, you use Viewport Auto Create to create a viewport automatically.

96

Chapter 7

Working with Model Space and Layouts

To create a viewport automatically Here, the viewport will be created, because of the defined scale area. 1 Start the Viewport Auto Create command. Menu Command View Viewports Viewport Auto Create
AMVPORTAUTO

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Enter layout name (<Return> for Layout1): Press ENTER Select target position (<Return> for current position): Place the viewport on the left, inside the drawing border

Save your file.

Working with Model Space and Layouts

97

Creating a Detail
There are two types of details, associative and non-associative. In this exercise, you create an associative detail, because you use a viewport. Create an associative detail of the valve. To create a detail 1 Start the Detail command. Menu Command Design Detail
AMDETAIL

The viewport is activated automatically. 2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Define the enlargement area for the detail ... Center of circle or [Rectangle/Object]: Select the center of the detail (3) Specify radius or [Diameter]: Drag the radius to the desired size (4) 3 In the Detail dialog box, specify the settings shown below.

4 Choose OK. 5 Respond to the prompt as follows: Select target position (<Return> for current position): Place the detail to the right of the current viewport

98

Chapter 7

Working with Model Space and Layouts

Save your file.

Generating a New Viewport


Now, you create a viewport inside a layout. To create a viewport in the layout 1 Start the Viewport/Scale Area command. Menu Command View Viewports Viewport/Scale Area
AMVPORT

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify first point or [Circle/Border/Object]: Select the point, marked with 5 in the drawing (not in the model) Specify second point: Select the point, marked with 6 in the drawing (not in the model)

Working with Model Space and Layouts

99

3 In the View dialog box, specify: Scale: 5:1

4 Choose Midpoint <. The drawing is changed to model space so that you can define the midpoint. 5 Select the endpoint of the centerline, as shown below.

6 In the View dialog box, choose OK.

100

Chapter 7

Working with Model Space and Layouts

Now, your drawing looks like this:

Save your file.

Inserting a User Through Hole


To demonstrate the main advantage of working with layouts, you will insert a user through hole in the housing. Notice that this change is immediately displayed in every view. Now, insert a user through hole in the previously created viewport. To insert a through hole 1 Activate the previously created viewport. Command
MSPACE

The viewport has a thick (highlighted) frame. 2 Start the Through Hole command. Menu Command Content Holes Through Holes
AMTHOLE2D

Working with Model Space and Layouts

101

3 In the Select a Through Hole dialog box, choose User Through Holes - Front View.

4 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point: Hold down the SHIFT key and right-click. Choose Midpoint from the shortcut menu. Specify insertion point: _mid of Select the midpoint of the housing (1) Specify hole length: Select the endpoint of the hole (2)

102

Chapter 7

Working with Model Space and Layouts

5 In the User Through Holes - Nominal Diameter dialog box, specify: Nominal Diameter: 8

6 Choose Finish. The user through hole is inserted into your drawing. Now, the drawing looks like this:

Because of the associativity, the through hole created in the viewport appears in the original view as well. In the next step, you dimension the through hole diameter in the viewport. Since the dimension is to appear only in the detail view, you generate the dimension directly in the layout without having a viewport active.

Working with Model Space and Layouts

103

To apply a dimension in the layout 1 Change to the layout. Command Menu Command PSPACE Annotate Power Dimensioning AMPOWERDIM 2 Start the Power Dimensioning command

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: (SINGLE) Specify first extension line origin for [Angular/Options/Baseline/Chain/Update] <Select>: Select the first edge of the hole (1) Specify second extension line origin: Select the second edge of the hole (2) Specify dimension line location [Options/Pickobj]: Drag the dimension line to the right until it is highlighted in red and left-click (3)

104

Chapter 7

Working with Model Space and Layouts

4 In the Power Dimensioning dialog box, choose OK.

5 Continue to respond to the prompts as follows: (SINGLE) Specify first extension line origin or [Angular/Options/Baseline/ Chain/Update] <Select>: Press ENTER Select arc, line, circle or dimension: Press ENTER Now, the viewport looks like this:

NOTE You can also dimension the hole in model space and turn off the layer
of one specific viewport. But the dimension text will only be correct in the 1:1 viewport and not in the detail view. Therefore, you can dimension directly on the layout. Save your file.

Working with Model Space and Layouts

105

Creating a Subassembly in a New Layout


If you use layer groups in your assembly drawing, you can easily create detail and subassembly drawings in layouts. You can switch off selected layer groups in the viewports, so that only the detail or subassembly is visible. Now, create an associative view of a subassembly in layout 2. To create an associative view of a subassembly 1 Change to layout 2, by selecting the Layout 2 tab on the bottom of your drawing area. 2 Start the Viewport/Scale Area command. Menu Command View Viewports Viewport/Scale Area
AMVPORT

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify first point or [Circle/Border/Object]: Select drawing point 7 Specify second point: Select drawing point 8 4 In the View dialog box, specify: Scale: 5:1

5 Choose Midpoint<. The drawing is changed to model space. 6 Specify the point, as shown in the following drawing:

106

Chapter 7

Working with Model Space and Layouts

7 In the View dialog box, choose OK. The viewport is created. It looks like this:

Other objects are still visible around the subassembly. You use the Layer Control command to hide them.

Working with Model Space and Layouts

107

To hide objects 1 Start the Layer Group Control. Menu Command Assist Layer / Layergroup Layer/Layer Group Control
AMLAYER

2 In the Layer Control dialog box, choose the Layer Group Control tab.

NOTE Steps 3 to 5 wouldnt be necessary in our case, because we have only


one viewport in the layout, but are described to show the proceeding if you have more than one viewport in the layout. 3 Move the cursor to the icon in the column Viewport Control of the layer group SUBASSEMBLY1, and right-click. 4 In the context menu, choose Select Viewports.

5 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select viewports: Select viewports: Select the viewport frame Press ENTER

The Layer Control dialog box is displayed.

108

Chapter 7

Working with Model Space and Layouts

6 In the Layer Control dialog box, move the cursor to the icon in the Viewport control column and the Base Layer Group row, and click.

Choose OK. AutoCAD Mechanical 2001 freezes the Base Layer Group, and the subassembly remains visible. Your drawing looks like this:

Working with Model Space and Layouts

109

Now, you can finish your detail drawing with text, remarks, annotations, and so on.

NOTE When you plot the drawing, the red viewport frame is turned off automatically. If you have a plotter or printer driver installed, use the plot command, and preview the drawing. This is the end of this tutorial chapter. Save your file.

110

Chapter 7

Working with Model Space and Layouts

Dimensioning

In This Chapter

In this tutorial, you learn how to add dimensions to your drawing with automatic dimensioning in AutoCAD Mechanical 6. Then you change the

s Automatic dimensioning s Editing dimensions with Power

Commands
s Breaking dimension lines s Inserting a drawing border s Inserting a fits list

dimensions with Power Commands. You also learn how to insert a drawing border.

111

Key Terms
Term
baseline dimension

Definition
A dimension that is aligned to extension lines and read from the bottom or right side of the drawing. Line in the center of a symmetrical object. A standardized frame that is used for technical drawings. Range of tightness or looseness in mating parts (for example shafts or holes). Tolerances in these dimensions are expressed in standard form. Name of the selected fit (for example H7). An option where you determine a selection set of dimensions and edit them together. Power Dimensioning is a very useful tool for generating linear, radial, angular and diameter dimensions, which minimizes the number of the individual actions required while generating a dimension. Power Dimensioning selects the type of linear dimension (horizontal, vertical, or aligned), based on the selected point, and the dimensions of the drawing can have a uniform style using the distance snap. Command for deleting. Use Power Erase when you delete part reference numbers or dimensions that were created with Power Dimensioning and Automatic Dimensioning. A title block contains a series of attributes, some already have values. The preassigned values can be modified, and the vacant attributes can be completed with new values. The total amount by which a given dimension (nominal size) may vary (for example, 20 0.1).

centerline drawing border fit

fit name multi edit

Power Dimensioning

Power Erase

title block

tolerance

112

Chapter 8

Dimensioning

Dimensioning
AutoCAD Mechanical offers various dimensioning tools. Here you will learn to use automatic dimensioning to add dimensions to a bushing. You also learn how to change these dimensions. To open a file 1 Open the file tut_ex05 in the acadm\tutorial folder. Menu Command File Open
OPEN

The file contains a drawing of a bushing.

Save your file under a different name or to a different directory to preserve the original tutorial file.

Automatic Dimensioning
First you dimension the bushing using automatic dimensioning. To dimension a contour automatically 1 Start Automatic Dimensioning. Menu Command Annotate Automatic Dimensioning
AMAUTODIM

Dimensioning

113

2 In the Automatic Dimensioning dialog box, choose the Parallel tab and specify: Type: Baseline

Choose OK. 3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select objects [Block]: Select the complete bushing by creating a window around it Select objects [Block]: Press ENTER First extension line origin: Select the lower leftmost corner of the bushing (1) Specify dimension line location or [Options/Pickobj]: Drag the dimensioning downwards until it snaps in (highlighted red), and click Starting point for next extension line: Press ENTER to end the command

In the next step, you generate the diameter dimensions using shaft dimensioning.

114

Chapter 8

Dimensioning

To dimension a shaft 1 Start Automatic Dimensioning. Menu Command Annotate Automatic Dimensioning
AMAUTODIM

2 In the Automatic Dimensioning dialog box, choose the Shaft / Symmetric tab, and specify: Type: Shaft (Front View)

Choose OK. 3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select objects [Block]: Select the complete bushing by creating a window around it Select objects [Block]: Press ENTER Select Centerline or new starting point: Select the centerline of the bushing (1) Specify dimension line location or [Options/Pickobj]: Drag the dimensioning to the right until it snaps in (highlighted red), and click Starting point for next extension line: Press ENTER to end the command

Dimensioning

115

Save your file.

Editing Dimensions with Power Commands


Some dimensions in the drawing are not necessary. In the next step, you delete the dimensions that you don't need. To delete dimensions 1 Start Power Erase. Menu Command Modify Power Commands Power Erase
AMPOWERERASE

2 Respond to the prompt as follows: Select objects: Select baseline dimensions 2 and 61, and diameter dimensions 12, 14, and 36, and then press ENTER The dimensions are deleted, and the other dimensions are rearranged. Your drawing should now look like this:

116

Chapter 8

Dimensioning

Now, add a single dimension with a fit using Power Dimensioning. To add a dimension with a fit 1 Start Power Dimensioning. Menu Command Annotate Power Dimensioning
AMPOWERDIM

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: (Single) Specify first extension line origin or [Angular/Options/Baseline/Chain/ Update] <Select>: Select the first point (1) Specify second extension line origin: Select second point (2) Specify dimension line location or [Options/Pickobj]: Drag the dimensioning to the left until it is highlighted red, and click

3 In the Power Dimensioning dialog box, choose the Add Fit button and specify: Fit: Symbol: H7

Dimensioning

117

4 Click the Special Characters button, and select the diameter symbol (upper left).

Choose OK. Now continue to apply an angular dimensioning. To apply an angular dimension 1 Respond to the prompts as follows: (Single) Specify first extension line origin or [Angular/Options/Baseline/Chain/ Update] <Select>: Enter A (Single) Select arc, circle, line or [Linear/Options/Baseline/Chain/Update] <specify vertex>: Select the line (1) Select second line: Select the second line (2) Specify dimension arc line location: Drag the dimension to a suitable position, and click

2 Press ENTER twice to finish the command. Next, you add a fit to the shaft dimensions using Multi Edit.

118

Chapter 8

Dimensioning

To add a fit using Multi Edit 1 Start Multi Edit. Menu Command Annotate Edit Dimensions Multi Edit
AMDIMMEDIT

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select dimensions: Select the dimensions 18 and 30 Select dimensions: Press ENTER 3 In the Power Dimensioning dialog box, choose the Add Fit button, and specify: Fit: Symbol: h7

4 Choose OK. The fit description h7 is added to the dimensions. Save your file.

Dimensioning

119

Breaking Dimension Lines


The automatic dimensioning process has created intersecting dimension lines. The drawing appearance can be improved by breaking these lines. To break dimension lines 1 Start the Break Dimension command. Menu Annotate Edit Dimensions Break Dimension
AMDIMBREAK

2 Respond to the prompt as follows: Select dimension or extension line to break <Multiple>: Press ENTER Select dimensions: Select baseline dimension 10 and 13, and diameter dimensions 18, 30, and 40, and then press ENTER Select Objects [Restore] <Automatic>: Press ENTER The selected dimensions are broken automatically and your drawing looks like this:

Save your file.

120

Chapter 8

Dimensioning

Inserting a Drawing Border


Now, you insert a drawing border. To insert a drawing border 1 Start the Drawing Title/Borders command. Menu Command Annotate Drawing Title/Revisions Drawing Title/Borders
AMTITLE

2 In the Drawing Borders with Title Block dialog box, specify: Paper Format: A4 (297x210mm) Title Block: ISO Title Block A Scale: 1:1

Choose OK. 3 Respond to the prompt as follows: Specify insertion point: Enter -150,0

Dimensioning

121

4 In the Edit Attributes dialog box, specify: Drawing Title: Bushing

Choose OK. 5 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select Objects: Select the complete bushing including dimensions Select Objects: Press ENTER New location for objects: Click Zoom Extents New location for objects: Place the bushing in the middle of the drawing border Now, your drawing should look like this:

122

Chapter 8

Dimensioning

Save your file.

Inserting a Fits List


Now, you insert a fits list. Fits lists describe all fits existing in a drawing. To insert a fits list 1 Start the Fits List command. Menu Command Annotate Fits List
AMFITSLIST

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Fits lists [Update all/Order/New] <New>: Press ENTER Specify insertion point: Specify the upper right corner of the title block

Dimensioning

123

The fits list is inserted above the title block and looks like this.

Finally, edit a dimension with a fit. The fits list will be updated. To edit a dimension 1 Double-click the diameter dimension (not the dimension line) 18 h7. 2 In the Power Dimensioning dialog box, specify: Fit symbol: g6

Choose OK. 3 In the AutoCAD Question dialog box, choose Yes.

Now, the fits list is updated, too. Save your file. You are at the end of this tutorial chapter.

124

Chapter 8

Dimensioning

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes

In This Chapter

In this tutorial, you learn about the new features in AutoCAD Mechanical 6 for defining the 2D hide situations, and how to work with 2D steel shapes.

s Defining a 2D hide situation s Inserting a 2D steel shape s Modifying steel shapes using

power commands
s Editing a 2D hide situation s Copying and moving a 2D hide

situation

125

Key Terms
Term
background

Definition
A contour that is covered by another contour or by objects that are lying behind another contour, in the 3D sense. A background may be a foreground for an additional contour. Objects which are lying in front of another contour in the 3D sense. A foreground may also be a background for an additional contour. Line that is not visible in a specified view. For example, in a front view, lines behind the front plane would not be visible. Steel shapes are standardized steel geometries and profiles, which are used for steel- and plant construction.

foreground

hidden line

steel shapes

126

Chapter 9

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes


Open the initial drawing. To open a drawing 1 Open the file tut_ex09 in the acadm\tutorial folder. Menu Command Menu Command File Open
OPEN

2 Zoom in to the chain drive on the right. View Zoom Window


ZOOM

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes

127

Defining a 2D Hide Situation


Now you define a 2D hide situation. You can define foreground and background contours as well as the settings for the representation of the hidden objects. To define a 2D hide situation 1 Start the Hide Invisible Edges command. Menu Command Modify 2D Hide Hide Invisible Edges
AM2DHIDE

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select objects for foreground: Select objects for foreground: Select the chain Press ENTER

3 In the Create Hide Situation dialog, specify: Representation of Hidden Objects: Dashed

4 In the Create Hide Situation dialog, choose Preview <.

NOTE As you can see, the parts of the sprockets, which should be visible, are
dashed, too. This shows that the complete area inside the outer chain contour is defined as foreground. Now, define the 2D hide situation in a way that the chain has an inner contour.

128

Chapter 9

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes

5 Continue to respond to the prompts as follows: Accept preview and exit command [Yes/No] <Yes>: Enter N

6 In the Create Hide Situation dialog, activate the Foreground tab and choose Select Inner Contours <.

7 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select point inside a hole or select a loop to remove: Select a point inside the chain (1) The inner contour of the chain is displayed green. 8 Continue to respond to the prompts as follows: Select point inside a hole or select a loop to remove: Press ENTER 9 In the Create Hide Situation dialog, choose Preview <. Now, the chain drive is displayed correctly.

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes

129

10 Respond to the prompts as follows: Accept preview and exit command [Yes/No] <Yes>: Press ENTER

Your 2D hide situation is defined correctly and you can proceed with your drawing. Save the file.

Inserting a 2D Steel Shape


Steel Shapes can easily be inserted through a selection dialog, where you can define the standard, profile, size and length of the steel shape. Now, insert a steel shape with a square hollow section on the left edge of the I-shaped girder. To insert a 2D steel shape 1 Start the Zoom All command. Menu Command Menu Command View Zoom All
ZOOM

2 Start the Steel Shape command. Content Steel Shapes


AMSTLSHAP2D

130

Chapter 9

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes

3 In the Select a Steel Shape dialog select Square / Rectangular hollow section.

4 Select ISO 657/14-1982 (Rectangular) and Top View. 5 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point: Select point P1 Specify rotation angle <0>: Press ENTER

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes

131

6 In the ISO 657/14 - 1982 (Rectangular) - Size Selection dialog, specify: Select a Size: 90x90x4.0

7 Choose Finish. 8 Respond to the prompts as follows: Drag Size: Select point P2

The steel shape is inserted. Your drawing looks like this:

Save the file. Now, modify the steel shapes using the Power Commands.

132

Chapter 9

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes

Modifying Steel Shapes using Power Commands


With the Power Commands, you can create different views of the steel shapes as well as you are able to copy, multiply or edit the steel shapes. Now, insert the steel shapes in the top view of the assembly using Power View and Power Copy. To modify a steel shape using Power Commands 1 Start the Power View command. Menu Command Modify Power Commands Power View
AMPOWERVIEW

2 Select the previously inserted steel shape. 3 In the Select new view dialog select the Front View. 4 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point: Select point P3 Specify rotation angle <0>: 180 The steel shape is inserted in the top view of the assembly. Your drawing looks like this:

NOTE A 2D hide situation will be generated automatically when inserting the


steel shape. Now, copy the previously inserted view to the other edge of the girder. 5 Start the Power Copy command. Menu Command Modify Power Commands Power Copy
AMPOWERCOPY

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes

133

6 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select object: Select the previously inserted steel shape at point P3 Specify insertion point: Select point P4 Specify rotation angle <0>: 180 The steel shape is copied. Your drawing looks like this:

Save your file.

Editing a 2D Hide Situation


The insertion of the steel shapes in the top view of the assembly has created a 2D hide situation automatically. As you can see, this 2D hide situation is not correct. Now, edit the 2D hide situation. To edit a 2D hide situation 1 Start the Edit Hidden Edges command. Menu Command Modify 2D Hide Edit Hidden Edges
AM2DHIDEDIT

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Edit the behind situation [modifY/Move/Restore/Genius12] <Update>: Y Select objects: Select the square hollow section on the left Select objects: Press ENTER

134

Chapter 9

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes

3 In the Modify Hide Situation dialog, choose Select View.

4 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select objects for foreground: Select objects for foreground: Select objects for foreground: Select the I-shaped girder Deselect the square hollow section on the left Press ENTER

NOTE You can deselect a selected part by holding the SHIFT key while clicking
the part.

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes

135

5 In the Modify Hide Situation dialog, activate the Background tab, and choose Select View.

6 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select objects for background: Select the square hollow section on the left Select objects for background: Press ENTER 7 In the Modify Hide Situation dialog, choose Preview. Now, the 2D hide situation is correct. Your drawing looks like this:

8 Respond to the prompts as follows: Accept preview and exit command [Yes/No] <Yes>: Press ENTER

Now, edit the 2D hide situation of the right edge of the girder. The Edit Hidden Edges command is still active. 9 Respond to the prompts as follows: Edit the behind situation [modifY/Move/Restore/Genius12] <Update>: Y Select objects: Select the square hollow section on the right Select objects: Press ENTER

136

Chapter 9

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes

10 In the Modify Hide Situation dialog, choose Select View. 11 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select objects for foreground: Select objects for foreground: Select objects for foreground: Select the I-shaped girder Deselect the square hollow section on the right Press ENTER

12 In the Modify Hide Situation dialog, activate the Background tab, and choose Select View. 13 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select objects for background: Select the square hollow section on the right Select objects for background: Press ENTER 14 In the Modify Hide Situation dialog, choose Preview. The 2D hide situation on the right is now correct, too. 15 Respond to the prompts as follows: Accept preview and exit command [Yes/No] <Yes>: 16 Press ESC to leave the command. Your drawing looks like this: Press ENTER

Save your file.

Copying and Moving a 2D Hide Situation


If you copy or move assemblies which contain 2D hide situations, the 2D hide information will not be lost. Now, copy the girder assembly. To copy a 2D hide situation 1 Select the I-shaped girder and the two square hollow sections. 2 Right-click and choose Copy with Base Point from the context menu. 3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify base point: Select point P3 4 Right-click and choose Paste from the context menu.

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes

137

5 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point: Select point P5

The girder assembly is copied to the new location. Your drawing looks like this:

Save your file. Now, move the chain drive from the beginning of the chapter to the top view of the assembly. To move a 2D hide situation 1 Start the Move command. Menu Command Modify Move
MOVE

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select objects: Select the complete chain drive using a window Select objects: Press ENTER Specify base point or displacement: Select point P6 Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: Select point P7

138

Chapter 9

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes

The complete chain drive is moved to the top view of the assembly. Your drawing looks like this:

Finally, you have to define the 2D hide situation for the girder assembly and the chain drive. To define a 2D hide situation 1 Start the Hide Invisible Edges command. Menu Command Modify 2D Hide Hide Invisible Edges
AM2DHIDE

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select objects for foreground: Select objects for foreground: Select the complete chain drive Press ENTER

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes

139

3 In the Create Hide Situation dialog, choose OK.

Now, the girder assembly is hidden by the chain drive. Your drawing looks like this:

This is the end of this exercise. Save your file.

140

Chapter 9

Working with 2D Hide and 2D Steel Shapes

Working with Standard Parts

In This Chapter

10

In this tutorial, you learn to work with standard parts in AutoCAD Mechanical 6. You insert a screw connection, a hole, and a pin. You also edit the standard parts with power commands.

s Inserting a screw connection s Copying a screw connection

with Power Copy


s Creating a screw template s Editing a screw connection with

Power Edit
s Working with Power View s Deleting with Power Erase s Inserting a hole s Inserting a pin s Turning off centerlines in the

configuration
s Hiding construction lines s Simplifying the representation of

standard parts

141

Key Terms
Term
background

Definition
A contour that is covered by another contour or by objects that are lying behind another contour, in the 3D sense. A background may be a foreground for an additional contour.

C-line (construction line) A line that is infinite in both directions or infinite starting at a point which can be inserted into the drawing area. You use C-lines to transfer important points (for example, center points of holes) into other views or drawing areas. countersink A chamfered hole that allows bolt and screw heads to be flush or below the part surface. The act of determining the size of a standard part with the cursor while inserting it into a side view. The standard part is displayed dynamically on the screen and can be dragged to the next possible size or length. The values (sizes) are taken from the Standard parts database. Summary term for Power Copy, Power Recall, Power Edit, Power Dimensioning, Power Erase and Power View. A command that copies a drawing object to another position in the drawing. Power Copy produces an identical copy of the original object. An edit command for all objects in your drawing. Command for intelligent deleting. Use Power Erase when you delete part reference numbers or when you delete dimensions that have been created with Power Dimensioning and Automatic Dimensioning. A command that lets you click an existing drawing object and places you in the correct command for creating that object. A tool where you can quickly and easily create a standard part top view or bottom view of a side view and vice versa. Standard parts representation in a drawing in normal, simplified, or symbolic mode.

dynamic dragging

Power Command

Power Copy

Power Edit Power Erase

Power Recall

Power View

representation

142

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

Working with Standard Parts


AutoCAD Mechanical 2001 provides a large selection of standard parts to work with, including regular and fine threads, many types of holes, fasteners and other standard parts. With the AutoCAD Mechanical, you can insert complete screw connections (screws with holes and nuts) in one step. Some intelligence has been built into this process. For example, if you select a screw with a metric thread, you get only metric threads when you add any additional parts such as tapped holes or nuts.

NOTE The ISO standard parts have to be installed for this tutorial exercise.
Open the initial drawing. To open a drawing 1 Open the file tut_ex07 in the acadm\tutorial folder. Menu Command File Open
OPEN

The drawing contains a motor with a gearbox. Some construction lines are inserted to help you working through the tutorial exercise. The gearbox is not completed yet. We want to add standard components and show, how easy it is to edit standard parts with an automatic update of the background objects. 2 Zoom in to the area of interest. Menu Command View Zoom Window
ZOOM

Working with Standard Parts

143

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify first corner: Specify the first corner point (1) Specify opposite corner: Specify the second corner point (2)

Save your file under a different name or to a different directory to preserve the original tutorial file.

Inserting Screw Connections


Now, you insert a screw connection in the differential gear housing. To insert a screw connection 1 Start the Screw Connection command. Menu Command Content Screw Connection
AMSCREWCON2D

144

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

2 In the Screw Connection dialog box, choose the Screws button.

3 In the Select a Screw dialog box, select Socket Head Types.

Working with Standard Parts

145

4 Then select ISO 4762 and Front View.

5 In the Screw Connection dialog box, choose the upper Holes button. Then select Through Cylindrical, and ISO 273 normal. 6 In the Screw Connection dialog box, choose the lower Holes button. Then select Tapped Holes, Blind, and ISO 262.

146

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

7 In the Screw Connection dialog box, specify the size M4, and choose Next >.

8 In the Screw Assembly Grip Representation - Front View dialog box, select Normal, and choose the Finish button.

Working with Standard Parts

147

9 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point of first hole: Specify first point (1) Specify endpoint of first hole [Gap between holes]: Specify second point (2) Drag Size: Drag the screw connection dynamically to size M4 x 16, and click Drag Size: Enter 12

Now, you have inserted the screw connection, specified a screw length of 16 mm, and specified a blind hole depth of 12 mm.

NOTE During dragging, the size of the screw is shown as tooltip and in the
status bar, where the coordinates are usually displayed.

148

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

The background is automatically hidden, and your drawing should look like this:

Save your file.

Copying Screw Connections with Power Copy


With Power Copy, you can copy complete objects, including the information attached to those objects. In the case of a screw connection, you copy the whole screw connection to another location. The background is automatically updated. Now, copy the previously inserted screw connection with the Power Copy command. To copy a screw connection 1 Start the Power Copy command. Menu Command Modify Power Commands Power Copy
AMPOWERCOPY

Working with Standard Parts

149

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select object: Select the previously inserted screw Specify insertion point: Specify a point Specify direction: Press ENTER

The screw is copied to the specified location. Your drawing should look like this:

Save your file.

150

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

Creating Screw Templates


Now, you create a screw template. The screw template will be stored for repeated use. This makes the insertion of identical or similar screw connections much faster. Before you create and insert the screw template, you have to zoom to the cover plate. To zoom to a window 1 Zoom to the extents of the drawing. Menu Command Menu Command View Zoom Extents
ZOOM

2 Zoom in to the coverplate. View Zoom Window


ZOOM

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify first corner: Specify first corner point (1) Specify opposite corner: Specify second corner point (2)

Now, start the screw connection and create a screw template.

Working with Standard Parts

151

To create a screw template 1 Start the Screw Connection command. Menu Command Content Screw Connection
AMSCREWCON2D

2 In the Screw Connection dialog box, choose the Screws button.

152

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

3 In the Select a Screw dialog box, select Countersink Head Type.

Working with Standard Parts

153

4 Then select ISO 10642 and Front View.

5 In the Screw Connection dialog box, choose the upper Holes button. Then select Countersinks, and ISO 7721. 6 In the Screw Connection dialog box, choose the lower Holes button. Then select Tapped Holes, Blind, and ISO 262.

154

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

7 Choose < Back to store the screw template.

8 In the Screw Assembly Templates dialog box, choose the Save icon.

Your screw connection is stored as a template and added to the list.

NOTE The screw template contains the combination of the used standard
parts. It contains no sizes, like diameters or lengths.

Working with Standard Parts

155

9 Choose Next >. 10 In the Screw Connection dialog box, choose the Pre-calculation icon.

156

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

11 In the Screw Diameter Estimation dialog box, specify: Material Class: 10.9 Applied Force: 1500 N Nature of Load: Static and Centric applied Axial Force (upper-left icon) Method for Tightening Screw: Mechanical Screw Driver The Result field displays a nominal size of M4. Choose OK.

Working with Standard Parts

157

In the Screw Connection dialog box, the pre-calculation routine has marked M4. Choose Finish.

12 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point of first hole: Specify first point (1) Specify endpoint of first hole [Gap between holes]: Specify second point (2) Drag Size: Drag screw connection dynamically to size M4 x 12, and click Drag Size: Enter 8

158

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

You have inserted the screw connection with a screw length of 12 mm and a blind hole depth of 8 mm. Your drawing should look like this:

Save your file.

Working with Standard Parts

159

Editing Screw Connections with Power Edit


Instead of having to use different editing commands for different objects, you can use just one command, Power Edit, for editing all objects in a drawing with built-in intelligence. Using Power Edit on a screw connection, the whole assembly can be edited and will be updated in your drawing with an automatic background update. Now, edit the second screw at the coverplate to get the same countersink screw. To edit a screw connection 1 Start the Power Edit command. Menu Command Modify Power Commands Power Edit
AMPOWEREDIT

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select object: Select the lower screw of the coverplate

NOTE You can also start Power Edit by double-clicking the desired part.
3 In the Screw Connection New Part Front View dialog box, choose < Back.

160

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

4 In the Screw Connection New Part Front View dialog box, double-click the previously created screw template in the list, or select it and choose the Load the template icon.

Now, the Screw Connection dialog box contains the screw connection as it has been stored in the template.

Working with Standard Parts

161

5 Choose M4, then Finish, and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point of first hole: Press ENTER Specify endpoint of first hole [Gap between holes]: Press ENTER Drag Size: Drag the screw connection dynamically to the size M4 x 12, and click Drag Size: Enter 8 The edited screw connection is inserted. Your drawing should look like this:

Save your file.

Working with Power View


With Power View, you can quickly generate a top or bottom view of a side view of a standard part and vice versa. Before you complete the top view of the coverplate, you have to zoom into it. To zoom to a window 1 Zoom to the extents of the drawing. Menu Command View Zoom Extents
ZOOM

162

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

2 Zoom in to the coverplate. Menu Command View Zoom Window


ZOOM

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify first corner: Specify first corner point (1) Specify opposite corner: Specify second corner point (2)

Now, use Power View to insert the screws into the top view of the coverplate. To insert a standard part using Power View 1 Start the Power View command. Menu Command Modify Power Commands Power View
AMPOWERVIEW

Working with Standard Parts

163

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select object: Select the screw at cover plate (1) Specify insertion point: Specify the centerline cross at top view (2)

The top view of the screw connection is inserted into the top view of the coverplate. Your drawing should look like this:

3 Repeat steps 1 and 2 to insert the top view of the screw at the other three centerline crosses of the top view of the coverplate.

164

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

The coverplate should look like this now:

Save your file.

Deleting with Power Erase


Power Erase is an intelligent erase command. It detects the object information of a part. If you delete a screw connection with Power Erase, the representation of the background is automatically corrected. Before you delete the standard part, you have to zoom into it. To zoom to a window 1 Zoom to the extents of the drawing. Menu Command Menu Command View Zoom Extents
ZOOM

2 Zoom in to the coverplate. View Zoom Window


ZOOM

Working with Standard Parts

165

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify first corner: Specify first corner point (1) Specify opposite corner: Specify second corner point (2)

Now, delete a screw using the Power Erase command. To delete a standard part 1 Start the Power Erase command. Menu Command Modify Power Commands Power Erase
AMPOWERERASE

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select object: Select the screw (1) Select object: Press ENTER

166

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

The screw connection is deleted and the lines and hatch are restored. Your drawing should look like this:

Save your file.

Working with Standard Parts

167

Inserting Holes
Now, you replace the previously deleted screw connection with a pin. You insert a blind hole for the pin first. To insert a hole 1 Start the Blind Hole command. Menu Command Content Holes Blind Holes
AMBHOLE2D

2 In the Select a Blind Hole dialog box, select acc. to ISO 273 and Front View.

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point: Specify insertion point (1) Specify rotation angle <0>: Specify a point to define insertion angle (2)

168

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

4 In the acc. to ISO 273 - Nominal Diameter dialog box, select a size of 5, and choose the Finish button.

5 Continue to respond to the prompts as follows: Drag Size: Enter 20 The blind hole is inserted. Your drawing should look like this:

Save your file.

Working with Standard Parts

169

Inserting Pins
Now, insert a pin into the blind hole. To insert a pin 1 Start the Cylindrical Pins command. Menu Command Content Fasteners Cylindrical Pins
AMCYLPIN2D

2 In the Select a Cylindrical Pin dialog box, select ISO 2338 and Front View.

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point: Specify insertion point (1) Specify rotation angle <0>: Specify a point to define insertion angle (2)

170

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

4 In the ISO 2338 - Nominal Diameter dialog box, select a size of 5, and choose the Finish button.

5 Continue to respond to the prompt as follows: Drag Size: Drag the pin to size 5 h8 x 18 - B, and left-click 6 In the Select Part Size dialog box, select 5h8 x 18 - B, and choose OK.

Working with Standard Parts

171

The pin is inserted. Your drawing should look like this:

NOTE You have inserted the blind hole first and then the pin. This results in
overlapping centerlines. In order to have a correct plot, you should turn one centerline off. To turn off a centerline 1 Select the previously inserted cylindrical pin. 2 Right-click and deactivate Centerlines on/off in the shortcut menu. Now, the centerline of the pin is turned off and only the centerline of the blind hole is displayed. Save your file.

Turning Off Centerlines in Configurations


If your drawing already contains holes with centerlines, and you would like to add standard parts, it is recommended to turn off the centerlines for standard parts in the configuration. This will avoid removing overlapped centerlines. To turn off centerlines in the configuration 1 Open the Mechanical Options dialog. Menu Command Assist Mechanical Options
AMOPTIONS

172

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

2 Select the Standard Parts Tab. 3 Uncheck 2D Draw Centerlines.

4 Choose Apply and OK.

Hiding Construction Lines


For a better overview, you can hide the construction lines by turning them off temporarily. First zoom to the extents of the drawing. To zoom to the extents 1 Zoom to the extents of the drawing. Menu Command View Zoom Extents
ZOOM

Now, turn off all construction lines.

Working with Standard Parts

173

To turn off C-lines 1 Start the Construction Line On/Off command. Menu Command Assist Layer / Layergroup Construction Line On/Off
AMCLINEO

All construction lines are turned off temporarily. Save your file.

Simplifying Representations of Standard Parts


In some cases, for example in complex assemblies, it is helpful to have a simplified representation of the standard parts for a better overview. With AutoCAD Mechanical, you can switch between different representation types without losing object or part information. Now, you change the representation of the differential gear screws. To change the representation of a standard part 1 Start the Change Representation command. Menu Command Select objects: Select objects: Content Change Representation
AMSTDPREP

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select the differential gear with a window (1, 2) Press ENTER

174

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

3 In the Switch Representation of Standard Parts dialog box, select Symbolic, and choose OK.

Working with Standard Parts

175

The representation of the selected standard parts is symbolic. Your drawing should look like this:

The AutoCAD Mechanical standard parts library is not only a simple block library, but also an intelligent library, that helps you design with standard parts in a very effective way. This is the end of this tutorial chapter. Save your file.

176

Chapter 10 Working with Standard Parts

Working with BOMs and Parts Lists

In This Chapter

11

In AutoCAD Mechanical 6, you can create parts lists and bills of material (BOMs) automatically, and modify part references and balloons. In this chapter, you insert and edit a parts list, and work with the bill of material (BOM) database.

s Inserting part references s Editing a part reference s Placing and modifying balloons s Creating a parts list s Merging and splitting items in a

parts list
s Collecting balloons s Sorting and renumbering items

on a parts list
s Using filters

177

Key Terms
Term
balloon

Definition
Circular annotation tag that identifies a bill of material item in a drawing. The number in the balloon corresponds with the number of the part in the bill of material. A dynamic database containing a list of all the parts in an assembly. Used to generate parts lists that contain associated attributes such as part number, manufacturer, and quantity. An entity that contains attributes by default (the attribute is invisible) that can add information to and describe details of a part in the drawing. The values of these attributes are transformed into the parts list attributes when converting BOM attributes and creating a parts list. Part information for a bill of material, which is attached to the part in the drawing. A dynamic list of parts and associated attributes generated from a bill of material database. The parts list automatically reflects additions and subtractions of parts from an assembly.

bill of material

BOM attribute

part reference

parts list

178

Chapter11

Working with BOMs and Parts Lists

Working with Parts Lists


Open the initial drawing. To open a drawing 1 Open the file tut_ex08 in the acadm\tutorial folder. Menu Command File Open
OPEN

The drawing contains a shaft with a housing. 2 Zoom in to the area of interest. Menu Command View Zoom Window
ZOOM

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify first corner: Specify the first corner point figure (1) Specify opposite corner: Specify the second corner point (2)

Save your file under a different name or to a different directory to preserve the original tutorial file.

Inserting a Part Reference


The part references the part information required for the bill of material. The information of the part reference is available in the parts database for creating a parts list. Here, you use the part reference command to enter part information for your part.

Working with Parts Lists

179

To insert a Part Reference 1 Start the Part Reference command. Menu Command Annotate Parts List Tools Part Reference
AMPARTREF

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select point or [Block/Copy/Reference]: Specify a point on the part (1)

3 In the Part Ref Attributes dialog box, specify: Description: Housing Partition Standard: Size 130x125x55 Material: EN-GJL-200

Choose OK. The Part Reference is inserted into the drawing.

NOTE Standard Parts get such a Part Reference containing all standard information automatically.

180

Chapter11

Working with BOMs and Parts Lists

In the next step, you create a part reference by reference. To insert a Part Reference by reference 1 Start the Part reference command again. Menu Command Annotate Parts List Tools Part Reference
AMPARTREF

2 Right-click to display the context menu and select Reference, or enter R at the Command prompt.

3 Select the previously inserted part reference in the drawing to create a reference. This means that the same part shows a quantity of 2 in the BOM database.

NOTE You can use the option Copy to create a new part with similar text information. 4 Respond to the prompt as follows: Select point or: Specify the insertion point at the circular edge (2)

5 In the Part Ref Attribute dialog box, choose OK.

NOTE This part reference looks different, because it has been attached to an
object (the circular edge) of the part. Save your file.

Working with Parts Lists

181

Editing Part References


Now, you have to edit an existing part reference. To edit a Part Reference 1 Start the Part Reference Edit command. Menu Command Annotate Parts List Tools Part Reference Edit
AMPARTREFEDIT

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select pick object: Specify the part reference of the left screw (3)

The Part Ref Attributes dialog box is displayed. 3 For Reference Quantity, enter 3, and choose OK.

NOTE For the related nut and the screw connection on the right side the reference quantity is already changed in the drawing.

182

Chapter11

Working with BOMs and Parts Lists

4 Zoom to the extents to display the entire drawing. Menu Command Save your file. View Zoom EXTENTS
ZOOM

Placing Balloons
Now, you create balloons from the part references in the drawing. To place a balloon 1 Start the Balloon command. Menu Command Annotate Parts List Tools Balloons
AMBALLOON

2 Respond to the prompt as follows: Select part/assembly or :[auTo/autoAll/Collect/Manual/One/Renumber/rEorganize]: Enter A

NOTE If you use one of the commands AMBALLOON or AMPARTLIST the BOM database will be created automatically. This means all part references will be added to the database and item numbers will be created inside the database.
To create and edit a database manually, you can use the AMBOM command. 3 Use a window to select all objects and press ENTER.

NOTE Press ENTER to change the type of arrangement (horizontal, vertical,


angle or stand-alone).

Working with Parts Lists

183

4 Place the balloons horizontally, above the assembly.

Because the balloons are numbered automatically, depending on where you have located the part references, the appearance of your drawing can be different. In the next step, you will renumber the balloons. To renumber balloons 1 Start the Balloon command again. Menu Command Annotate Parts List Tools Balloons
AMBALLOON

2 Respond to the prompt as follows: Select part/assembly or [auTo/autoAll/Collect/Manual/One/Renumber/ rEorganize]: Enter R 3 Continue to respond to the prompts as follows: Enter starting item number: <1>: Press ENTER Enter increment: <1>: Press ENTER Select balloon: Select the balloons in numerical order from 1 to 7 Select balloon: Press ENTER

184

Chapter11

Working with BOMs and Parts Lists

Your drawing needs to look like the following in order for you to continue:

NOTE Since balloon 7 has a reference, you do not have to select balloon 8. It
will get the number 7 automatically. Now, rearrange the balloons for a better representation. To rearrange balloons. 1 Drag a window from right to left to select the 6 balloons on the right. This turns on the grips.

2 Right-click to activate the context menu. Choose Reorganize. 3 Move the cursor through the center of balloon 1 to get the horizontal tracking line.

NOTE Make sure that the OTRACK function is active.


4 Move the cursor to the right, and snap along the tracking line, until you reach a distance of 120, and click.

Working with Parts Lists

185

The result needs to look like the following:

NOTE The snap distance can be controlled within the Balloon Properties dialog.
In the next step, you create a part reference and a balloon in one step with the manual option. To create a part reference and a balloon using the manual option 1 Start the Balloon command again. Menu Command Annotate Parts List Tools Balloons
AMBALLOON

2 Respond to the prompt as follows: Select part/assembly or [auTo/autoAll/Collect/Manual/One/Renumber/rEorganize]: Enter M Select point or [Block/Copy/Reference]: Select a point on the shaft

NOTE Instead of selecting a point to create a part reference, you can use Copy
or Reference from the Manual option, to get the information from an existing balloon or part reference.

186

Chapter11

Working with BOMs and Parts Lists

3 In the Part Ref Attributes dialog box, specify: Description: Shaft Standard: Size Dia. 50x150 Material: C45

4 Choose OK. 5 Press ENTER to start the leader line of the balloon in the center of the part reference. 6 Move the cursor through the center of balloon 1 to get the tracking line and the snap distance, and click the insertion point.

NOTE Instead of entering the insertion point, you can select another point to
create an extended leader line.

7 Press ENTER. Save your file.

Working with Parts Lists

187

Creating a Parts List


Now, you generate a parts list from the part reference information. To create a parts list 1 Start the Parts List command. Menu Command Annotate Parts List Tools Parts List
AMPARTLIST

2 Respond to the prompt as follows: Select border: Move the cursor over the border until tooltip ISO_A2 is displayed, and then click the highlighted border The Parts List dialog box opens.

Choose OK. The parts list appears dynamically on the cursor. 3 Move the cursor to the top of the title block. Click to insert the parts list.

188

Chapter11

Working with BOMs and Parts Lists

The parts list should look like the following:

NOTE If you are working with more than one drawing border, you can create
border-specific parts lists. In this case, a BOM database is created for each border automatically when the AMBALLOON or AMPARTLIST commands are used. You can use the AMBOM command to create or edit a BOM manually. An example of a BOM database that contains more than one border is shown below. Selecting BORDER1 or BORDER2 displays the contents for each BOM database.

In the next step, you edit balloon / parts list information using several methods. To edit parts list information 1 Start the Edit Part List/Balloon command. Command
AMEDIT

2 Respond to the prompt as follows: Select object: Select balloon 2

Working with Parts Lists

189

3 In the Balloon dialog box, enter 8.8 in the Material column.

4 Choose OK. Notice the changes in your parts list.

NOTE Choose Apply to see the results in the drawing immediately without
leaving the dialog box. All changes made in the dialog box are associative and change the data in the drawing immediately.

190

Chapter11

Working with BOMs and Parts Lists

5 Double-click the parts list. The Parts List dialog box is displayed.

You can edit your data in this dialog box. Some examples are shown next.

Working with Parts Lists

191

6 Select the Hexagon Nut entry and choose the Set values icon.

7 In the Set Value dialog box, specify: Column: Material Value: 8

8 Choose OK.

192

Chapter11

Working with BOMs and Parts Lists

The result should look like the following.

9 Now, change the material of the second bolt and nut accordingly.

NOTE Using the shortcut menu inside a field provides additional functions
such as cut, copy, and paste. Save your file.

Working with Parts Lists

193

Merging and Splitting Items in a Parts List


The Parts List function allows you to merge items which appear repeatedly. To merge parts list items 1 In the Parts List dialog box, hold down CTRL while you click the box in front of item 1 and the box in front of item 6. With items 1 and 6 selected, choose the Merge items icon.

Item 1 now has a quantity of 2, and Item 6 is missing.

Selecting several rows allows you to merge or split items. The selected rows need to have the same entries.

194

Chapter11

Working with BOMs and Parts Lists

2 Choose Apply to display the changes in the drawing. Balloon 1 is displayed twice.

NOTE Select the gray field to the left of row 1, and the Split item icon is activated.

NOTE In this case, if you choose Split item, the previously merged items will
be split again. Selecting the gray field in the upper left corner left to Item allows you to select all rows at once, as shown in the following.

Working with Parts Lists

195

NOTE In this case, the Merge item and Split item icons are active.
Selecting one of the icons allows you to merge or split all items at once. All data will be compared, and, if they are the same, they are merged together. Otherwise, if they are merged items, they are split at once. Now that you have merged the bearing, you can delete one of the balloons and add an additional leader. To delete a balloon 1 Use Power Erase, and select the left balloon with the item number 1. 2 Press ENTER to delete the balloon.

NOTE Deleting a balloon in the drawing, doesn't delete any data. Data is only
lost if you delete a part reference. You can add more than one balloon to a part reference, for example, to create a balloon with the same item number, for the same part in another view.

196

Chapter11

Working with BOMs and Parts Lists

To add an additional leader 1 Select the remaining balloon 1. 2 Right-click to display the shortcut menu. Select Add Leader and respond to the prompts as follows: Select object to attach: Select the left bearing Enter an option [Next/Accept] <Accept>: Press ENTER Next point (or F for first point): Select a point inside the balloon 1 The leader is added and your drawing should look like the following:

Save your file.

Collecting Balloons
Collecting balloons enables you to place balloons of related parts to one leader line. For example, you can place the balloons of a screw and a nut to one common leader line. To collect balloons 1 Use Zoom Window to zoom in the top view of the drawing. Menu Command View Zoom Window
ZOOM

Working with Parts Lists

197

2 Start the AMBALLOON command. Menu Command Annotate Parts List Tools Balloons
AMBALLOON

3 Respond to the prompt as follows: Select part/assembly or [auTo/autoAll/Collect/Manual/One/Renumber/rEorganize]: Enter C 4 Continue to respond to the prompts as follows: Select pick object or balloon: Select the part reference of the left nut

5 Continue to respond to the prompts as follows: Select pick object or balloon: Press ENTER Select balloon: Select balloon 2 Pick orientation: Select a vertical orientation

6 Repeat the collect balloon command for the screw and nut on the right side. The result should look like this:

Save your file.

Sorting and Renumbering Items on a Parts List


You can sort a parts list for manufacturing and sort standard parts with updated item numbers.

198

Chapter11

Working with BOMs and Parts Lists

To sort a parts list 1 Zoom to the extents of the drawing. Menu Command View Zoom Extents
ZOOM

2 Double-click the parts list to display the Parts List dialog box. 3 Choose the Sort icon.

The Sort dialog box opens.

NOTE You can sort within a selection set, otherwise you are sorting all items.
4 In the Sort dialog box, specify as shown in the following.

Working with Parts Lists

199

Choose OK. The result should look like this:

In the next step, you renumber the items. To renumber parts list items 1 Click the Item cell to select the whole Item column.

2 Choose the Set values icon. 3 In the Set Value dialog box, specify: Column: Item Start value: 10 Step: 10

4 Choose OK to return to the Parts List dialog box.

200

Chapter11

Working with BOMs and Parts Lists

5 Choose Apply to see the results. The result should look like the following.

6 Choose OK to return to the drawing. Save your file.

Using Filters
You can create and use one or more filters for every parts list you have inserted in the drawing. To use filters in a parts list 1 Double-click the parts list to display the Parts List dialog box. 2 Move the cursor over the white Filters field, and right-click.

Working with Parts Lists

201

3 Select Add Filter to display the List of Filters dialog box.

4 Select Custom and choose OK. The details for this filter are displayed. 5 Set the following values to define the filter.

6 Activate the filter with the Custom check box. 7 Choose Apply in the Parts List dialog box.

202

Chapter11

Working with BOMs and Parts Lists

The Standards that contain ISO are displayed.

The filtered parts list is displayed in the drawing. The defined filters are saved with the parts list and can be used again later. If you only want to print the filtered list, choose the Print icon. 8 Deactivate the custom filter and close the dialog box with OK. The filter will not be used in this drawing.

Working with Parts Lists

203

The result looks like the following:

This is the end of this tutorial chapter. Save your file.

204

Chapter11

Working with BOMs and Parts Lists

Creating Shafts With Standard Parts

In This Chapter

12

In AutoCAD Mechanical 6, you learn how to use the shaft generator to create and edit shafts. You learn to insert bearings and perform bearing calculations.

s Configuring the snap options s Starting and configuring the shaft

generator
s Creating shaft sections s Inserting a profile s Inserting a chamfer and a fillet s Inserting a shaft break s Creating a side view s Inserting a thread s Editing and inserting a shaft

section
s Replacing a shaft section s Inserting a bearing

205

Key Terms
Term
bearing calculation

Definition
Calculates limiting value, dynamic and static load rating, dynamic and static equivalent load, and fatigue life in revolutions and hours. A beveled surface between two faces or surfaces. Calculation required for a revolving bearing. The result is the Adjusted Rating Life. This is the life associated with 90% reliability with contemporary, commonly used material, and under conventional operating conditions. With the number of revolutions you get the life in working hours. The act of determining the size of a standard part with the cursor while inserting it into a side view. The standard part is displayed dynamically on the screen and can be dragged to the next possible size and length. The values (sizes) are taken from the Standard parts database. A curved transition from one part face or surface to another. The transition cuts off the outside edge or fills in the inside edge. Any several arrangements, especially of toothed wheels in a machine, which allow power to be passed from one part to another to control the power, speed, or direction of movement. Thin line that represents the radius in the side or top view. Interruption of a shaft. A shaft can be interrupted at a point, and the shaft break symbols are inserted in a suitable size. Tool to draw rotationally symmetrical parts. A shaft is usually created from left to right using different sections. These sections are positioned automatically one after the other. Additionally, any shaft section can be inserted, deleted, or edited.

chamfer dynamic calculation

dynamic dragging

fillet

gear

radius reflection line shaft break

shaft generator

206

Chapter 12 Creating Shafts With Standard Parts

Creating Shafts with Standard Parts


In this section you generate a shaft with standard parts with the shaft generator. You also perform a bearing calculation. First, you have to start with an ISO drawing template. To open a template 1 Open a new drawing. Menu Command File New
NEW

The AutoCAD Today dialog box is displayed. 2 In the Today dialog box, in the section My Drawings, change to the tab Create Drawings and select the template am_iso.dwt.

This opens a new drawing template.

NOTE The ISO standard part standard has to be installed for this tutorial
exercise.

Configuring the Snap Options


First, you configure the snap options.

Creating Shafts with Standard Parts

207

To configure the snap options 1 Start the Power Snap Settings. Menu Command Assist Drafting Settings Power Snap Settings 1-4
AMPOWERSNAP

2 In the Power Snap Settings dialog box, activate the tab Setting 4 and specify: Snap Modes: Endpoint, Midpoint, Intersection

Choose OK Save your file.

Starting and Configuring Shaft Generators


In the next steps, you start and configure the shaft generator. To start and configure the shaft generator 1 Start the Shaft Generator command. Menu Command Content Shaft Generator
AMSHAFT2D

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify starting point or select center line [New shaft]: Specify centerline endpoint: Enter 240,150 Enter 150,150

NOTE The start and endpoints of the centerline are only important in determining the direction. The length of the centerline is automatically adapted to the length of the shaft.

208

Chapter 12 Creating Shafts With Standard Parts

3 In the Shaft Generator dialog box, press the appropriate button, and enter the values as indicated in the following:

4 Choose the Config button to start the Shaft Generator Configuration, and specify: For Segment inserted: Insert Stationary Shaft End: Left Adjust Centerline: Yes Front View: Radius Reflection Line, Check contour Side and Sectional Views: Sectional with Background, Always update View of Interrupt: Hatch If shaft is in background, hide standard part too: Yes

Choose OK. You return to the Shaft Generator dialog box.

Creating Shafts with Standard Parts

209

Creating Cylindrical Shaft Sections and Gears


The shaft generator is configured. Now you want to generate the first shaft segments. To create shaft segments 1 Choose the lower cylinder button to define a cylinder section, and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify length <50>: Enter 12 Specify diameter <40>: Enter 20 2 Choose the gear button, and enter the values for module, number of teeth, and length as shown in the following figure:

NOTE Here, the DIN standard requires that you indicate the module. The
ANSI standard requires the reciprocal 1/module. You can switch between these two representations using the DIN and ANSI toggle. 3 Choose the lower cylinder button to define a further cylinder section and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify length <10>: Enter 5 Specify diameter <20>: Enter 20

210

Chapter 12 Creating Shafts With Standard Parts

4 Choose the gear button, and enter the values for module, number of teeth and length as shown in the following figure:

5 Choose the lower cylinder button to define another cylinder section, and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify length <10>: Enter 4 Specify diameter <20>: Enter 24 6 Choose the lower cylinder button to define another cylinder section, and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify length <4>: Enter 33 Specify diameter <24>: Enter 20 Now, you have created the first five sections of the shaft as represented in the following figure:

Creating Shafts with Standard Parts

211

Inserting Spline Profile


Now, you add a spline profile to the shaft. To create a profiled segment 1 Choose the Profile button. 2 Choose ISO 14 in the database browser. 3 In the Splined Shaft ISO 14 dialog box, select the standard size 6 x 13 x 16 and define a length of 26. Choose OK.

Now, you have created another section of the shaft as represented in the following figure:

212

Chapter 12 Creating Shafts With Standard Parts

Inserting Chamfer and Fillet


In this step, you apply a chamfer and a fillet to the shaft. To apply a chamfer and a fillet 1 Choose the Chamfer button to apply a chamfer to a shaft section, and respond to the prompts as follows: Select object: Select the leftmost cylinder section (1) Specify length (max. 12) <2.5>: Enter 2 Specify angle (0-79) or [Distance] <45>: Enter 45

2 Choose the Fillet button to apply a fillet to a shaft section, and respond to the prompts as follows: Select object: Select the cylinder section between the two gears near the second gear (1) Enter radius (max. 5.00) <2.50>: Enter 2

NOTE The fillet will be applied to the edge of the selected section, which is
closer to the selected point on the section.

Creating Shafts with Standard Parts

213

After applying the chamfer and the fillet, the shaft looks like the following figure:

Inserting Shaft Breaks


Here, you insert a shaft break in the drawing. To insert a shaft break 1 Choose the Break button to insert a shaft break, and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify point: Select the midpoint of the cylindrical section (1) Specify length (min. 4.00) <6>: Enter 10

NOTE You can insert the break to the left, if you enter a negative value.

214

Chapter 12 Creating Shafts With Standard Parts

The shaft break is inserted.

Creating Side Views of Shafts


Next, you insert a side view of the shaft. To insert a side view 1 Choose the Side view button. 2 In the Side view from dialog box, select Right. Choose OK. 3 Respond to the prompt as follows: Specify insertion point: Press ENTER

The right side view is inserted at the proposed position as shown in the following figure:

Creating Shafts with Standard Parts

215

Inserting Threads on Shafts


Now, you add a thread to the shaft. To insert a thread on a shaft 1 Choose the Thread button to insert a thread, and select ISO 261 in the browser. 2 In the Thread ISO 261 dialog box, select M10 and enter a length of 20. Choose OK.

The thread is added to the shaft, which looks like this now:

Editing Shafts and Inserting Sections


In this section, you edit an existing shaft section and insert a new section. To edit and insert a shaft section 1 Choose the Edit button, and respond to the prompts as follows: Select object: Select the first cylindrical section (1) Specify length <12>: Press ENTER Specify diameter <20>: Enter 18

216

Chapter 12 Creating Shafts With Standard Parts

The diameter is changed to 18 while the length remains 12. 2 Choose the Insert button, and respond to the prompt as follows: Specify point: Select a point after the second gear (1)

3 Choose the Slope button, and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify length or [Dialog] <20>: Enter 4 Specify diameter at starting point <24>: Enter 28 Specify diameter at endpoint or [Slope/Angle] <20>: Enter 22

Creating Shafts with Standard Parts

217

Replacing Shaft Sections


The previously inserted slope needs to be deleted again. To replace a shaft section 1 Choose the Undo button. The previous slope insertion is undone. Now, replace an existing shaft section. To do this, you change the settings in the configuration. 2 Choose the Config button to start the shaft generator configuration, and specify: For Segment inserted: Overdraw

3 Choose OK. 4 Choose the Slope button, and respond to the prompt as follows: Specify length or [Dialog] <4>: Enter D

218

Chapter 12 Creating Shafts With Standard Parts

5 In the Shaft Generator - Cone dialog box, make the following settings and choose OK.

The slope replaces the cylindrical shaft section.

Inserting Bearings
Here, you insert a bearing and perform a bearing calculation. To insert a bearing 1 Choose the Standard Parts button, and select a radial roller bearing ISO 355 in the browser. Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point on shaft contour: Specify the insertion point (1) Direction to [Left]: Select a point to the right (2)

Creating Shafts with Standard Parts

219

2 In the ISO 355 dialog box, choose Next >.

3 In the ISO 355 dialog box, specify the loads and activate Work Hours as shown in the following, and choose Next >.

220

Chapter 12 Creating Shafts With Standard Parts

4 In the ISO 355 dialog box, select the bearing 2BD - 20 x 37 x 12, and choose Finish.

The bearing is inserted, and you can select the available sizes by dragging. 5 Choose 2BD - 20 x 37 x 12 and press ENTER. The bearing is inserted. 6 Choose Close.

This is the end of this tutorial chapter. Save your file.

Creating Shafts with Standard Parts

221

222

Calculating Shafts

In This Chapter

13

In this AutoCAD Mechanical 6 tutorial, you perform a calculation on an existing shaft and apply various loads to a supported shaft. Then you insert the results into a drawing.

s Creating the shaft contour s Specifying the material s Placing the supports s Specifying the loads s Calculating and inserting the

results
s Calculating the strength

223

Key Terms
Term
deflection line

Definition
Deflection line calculations are based on the predefined force direction (F) or the radial direction (s). Deflection moment calculations are based on the predefined force direction (F) or the radial direction (s). A summary term for all safety factors, which are necessary to determine the safety against endurance or fatigue fractures. A support that is fixed to a part and cannot be moved. Any several arrangements, especially of toothed wheels in a machine which allows power to be passed from one part to another so as to control the power speed or the direction of movement. The forces and moments that act on a part. A support that is not fixed. A change of cross section, for example undercuts, grooves, holes or shoulders. Notches lead to a higher stress in the part. The flux of the stress is interrupted or redirected. A force that is concentrated on a point. A summary term for all forces and moments, thus loads and stress, which act on a part. Force or pressure on a part. Stress is the force per area. A summary term for all safety factors, which are necessary to determine the safety against overload fracture under maximum load.

deflection moment

fatigue factor

fixed support gear

load movable support notch

point force strength

stress yield factor

224

Chapter 13 Calculating Shafts

Calculating Shafts
With AutoCAD Mechanical, you can perform a shaft calculation using a contour created with the Shaft Generator or any other symmetric shaft contour. The function provides a static calculation, which is important for the design of the shaft and the bearing load.

NOTE The ISO standard parts have to be installed for this tutorial exercise.
In this tutorial, you calculate a gear box shaft. The general way to calculate an existing shaft is to define the contour and insert forces and supports. The routine calculates all necessary values and draws the respective graphs for moment and deflection. First, you load the initial drawing. To open a file 1 Open the file tut_ex11 in the acadm\tutorial folder. Menu Command File Open
OPEN

The drawing contains a shaft in front and side view. 2 Zoom in to the shaft. Menu Command View Zoom Window
ZOOM

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify first corner: Specify the first corner point (1) Specify opposite corner: Specify the second corner point (2)

Save your file under a different name or to a different directory to preserve the original tutorial file.

Calculating Shafts

225

Creating Shaft Contours


Before you can perform any calculations on a shaft, you have to create the shaft contour. To create a shaft contour 1 Start the Shaft Calculator. Menu Command Content Calculations Shaft Calculation
AMSHAFTCALC

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select contour or [Create contour/Strength] <Create>: Enter C Select objects: Select the complete shaft Select objects: Press ENTER 3 In the AutoCAD Question dialog box, choose Yes.

4 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify contour position: Press ENTER

NOTE The calculation routine recognizes hollow shafts and uses the contour
for the calculation.

226

Chapter 13 Calculating Shafts

After you have created the shaft contour, the Shaft Calculation dialog box is displayed so that you can select the boundary conditions, the material, and the representation of the calculation results.

Specifying Material
You specify the material by selecting it from a table containing the most commonly used materials. You are also able to enter the characteristics for other materials using the option Edit. To specify a material 1 From the Material section, choose Edit. The Material Properties dialog box is displayed. 2 In the Material Properties dialog box, choose Table, and select the ANSI standard.

Calculating Shafts

227

3 In the Material dialog box, select the material Steel SAE 1045 from the table. Choose OK.

NOTE If the ANSI standard is not installed on your system, you can select a
different standard, but the results may differ from the results in this tutorial (if you select DIN for example, you can select a similar material like, E335, to achieve similar results).

NOTE Some material properties are not complete. In this case, you have to
complete them to obtain calculation results. 4 In the Material Properties dialog box, complete the ANSI material properties if necessary:

5 Choose OK.

228

Chapter 13 Calculating Shafts

Placing Shaft Supports


Now, you have to specify the shaft supports. To place a support 1 In the Shaft Calculation dialog box, select the Movable Support icon, and respond to the prompt as follows: Specify insertion point: Select the midpoint of the leftmost shaft section 2 Now, select the Fixed Support icon, and respond to the prompt as follows: Specify insertion point: Select the midpoint of the third cylindrical shaft section Now, you have specified the shaft supports and your result should look like this:

Specifying Loads on Shafts


Now, you have to specify the effective loads. AutoCAD Mechanical uses geometry from the drawing for load calculations.

NOTE The loads depend on the setting Calculated Part. There are three possibilities: Rotating Shaft, Rotating Axle and Not rotating Axle. A shaft is able to transfer torque and rotating axles result in different stress values than static axles. To specify a load 1 From the Calculated Part drop-down list, choose Rotating Shaft. 2 Choose the Gear icon and respond to the prompt as follows: Specify insertion point: Select the midpoint of the second gear

Calculating Shafts

229

3 In the Gear dialog box, activate the tab Inputs, and specify: Gear Load: Driven Torque: 15

NOTE The Components tab displays the force components. Changes in one
tab are automatically reflected in the other tab. 4 Choose OK. 5 Choose the Point Load icon and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point: Select the midpoint of the profile section Specify rotation angle: Press ENTER

230

Chapter 13 Calculating Shafts

6 In the Point Load dialog box, activate the Resultant tab, and specify: Point Load: 2500

7 Choose OK. 8 Choose the Torque icon and respond to the prompt as follows: Specify insertion point: Select the midpoint of the profile section

9 In the Torque dialog box, specify: Torque: 15

Choose OK. Now, you have specified the loads and your result should look like this:

Calculating Shafts

231

You have specified all boundary conditions necessary for a shaft calculation.

Calculating and Inserting Results


Now, you perform a calculation of the moments and deformations, and insert the results in your drawing. To perform a shaft calculation 1 Choose the Moments and Deformations button.

232

Chapter 13 Calculating Shafts

2 In the Select Graph dialog box, specify: Bend: Bending Moment in Y - Axis, Deflection in Y - Axis Torsion: Torsion Moment in X - Direction Stresses: Result Bending Stress Table Title: Shaft Calculation Exercise

3 Choose OK, and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point: Select an appropriate point to the right of the shaft

The result block as well as the deflection and torsion moment graphs are inserted. 4 Choose Close to exit the Shaft Calculation dialog box.

Calculating Shafts

233

Now, your drawing should look like this:

The result block provides the most important information about your calculated shaft such as the maximum stress deflection and moment values.

234

Chapter 13 Calculating Shafts

Save your file.

Calculating Strengths of Shafts


Now, check the strength at a critical place of the shaft, for example a notch. To calculate the strength at a notch 1 Restart the Shaft Calculation Menu Command Content Calculations Shaft Calculation
AMSHAFTCALC

2 Respond to the prompt as follows: Select contour or [Create contour/Strength] <Create>: Select the shaft contour The Shaft Calculation dialog box opens again and you are able to continue with calculations on the previously specified shaft.

Calculating Shafts

235

3 In the Shaft Calculation dialog box, choose the Strength button, and respond to the prompt as follows: Specify calculation position on shaft or [Graph]: Specify the notch at the end of the conical section (1) (make sure you dont select the endpoint of the cylindrical shaft section)

NOTE This notch has been selected because the calculation established that
the highest bending stress is close to this place. The Strength Calculation dialog box opens.

236

Chapter 13 Calculating Shafts

The Strength Calculation dialog box enables you to specify the properties of the notch more detailed and displays all important strength values and factors. 4 Choose OK and respond to the prompt as follows: Specify next point <Symbol>: Specify next point <Symbol>: Specify a point below the shaft Press ENTER

The result block is inserted in the drawing.

As you can see, the safety factors are higher than 1.2. The shaft doesnt need to be redesigned at this notch. 5 Choose Close to leave the Shaft Calculation dialog box. This is the end of this tutorial chapter. Save your file.

Calculating Shafts

237

238

Calculating Moments of Inertia and Deflection Lines

In This Chapter

14

In this AutoCAD Mechanical 6 tutorial, you can calculate the moment of inertia for a profile section and calculate the deflection line on a beam based on the profile calculation.

s Calculating the moment of

inertia
s Calculating the deflection line

239

Key Terms
Term
deflection line

Definition
Deflection lines are calculated based on the predefined force direction (F) or to radial direction (s). Deflection moment is calculated based on the predefined force direction (F) or to radial direction (s). A force that is spread over a certain area. A support that is fixed to the part and cannot be moved. Forces and moments, which act on a part. An important property of areas and solid bodies. Standard formulas are derived by multiplying elementary particles of area and mass by the squares of their distances from reference axes. Moments of inertia, therefore, depend on the location of reference axes. Support that is not fixed. A force that is concentrated on a point.

deflection moment

distributed force fixed support load moment of inertia

movable support point force

240

Chapter 14 Calculating Moments of Inertia and Deflection Lines

Calculating Moments of Inertia and Deflection Lines


The measurement unit for the moment of inertia is mm4 or inches4. These are geometrical values, which appear at deflection, torsion, and buckling calculation. AutoCAD Mechanical uses the result of the moment of inertia calculation for the deflection line calculation. Moment of inertia calculations are performed on cross sections of beams or on other objects that can be represented as closed contours. Calculations can be performed on a cross section of any shape, as long as the geometry of the cross section forms a closed contour. AutoCAD Mechanical determines the center of gravity for a cross section, draws the main axes, and calculates the moment of inertia for each of those axes. You can also select a load direction for a cross section; AutoCAD Mechanical calculates the moment of inertia and angle of deflection for that load.

NOTE The ISO standard part standard has to be installed for this tutorial exercise.
First, you load the initial drawing. To open a file 1 Open the file tut_ex12 in the acadm\tutorial folder. Menu Command File Open
OPEN

The drawing contains this profile:

Save your file under a different name or to a different directory to preserve the original tutorial file.

Calculating Moments of Inertia and Deflection Lines

241

Calculating Moments of Inertia


Before you can perform any calculations on a profile, you need to know its moment of inertia. To calculate the moment of inertia 1 Start the calculation for the moment of inertia. Menu Command Content Calculations Moment of Inertia
AMINERTIA

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify interior point: Click a point inside the profile Specify interior point: Press ENTER Is the area filled correctly? (Yes/No)? <Yes>: Press ENTER The coordinates of the centroid and the moment of inertia along the principle axes are displayed on the command line, as follows: Coordinates of centroid (in user coordinates): X coordinate: 228.071933 Y coordinate: 150.027674 Moments of inertia along principal axes: I1: 2.359e+004 I2: 1.4095e+004 Axis angle for major moment (I1): 5.3 Now, define the direction of the loads: they must be in one plane. 3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify direction of load forces (must all lie in one plane): Enter 270

The data for this load direction is displayed on the command line, as follows: Effective moment of inertia for this load direction: 2.341e+004 Angle of deflection: 266.5 Maximum distances neutral line - border: Extension side: 16.690 Compression side: 14.444 Now, you have to enter a description for the calculated profile and locate the block with the calculation data in the drawing.

242

Chapter 14 Calculating Moments of Inertia and Deflection Lines

4 Respond to the prompts as follows: Enter description: Enter Frame Profile Specify insertion point: Place the calculation block next to the profile Your drawing looks like this:

NOTE The main axes, 1 and 2, are the axes with the most and least deflection.
The F arrow displays the direction of the force, the s arrow displays the resultant deflection. The moment of inertia block shows the moments related to the main axis, the maximum distances from the edges, and the calculated area. For more detailed information, see the online help. A side view of the profile has been created for the deflection line. 5 Zoom to the extents of the drawing. Menu Command Save your file. View Zoom Extents
ZOOM

Calculating Moments of Inertia and Deflection Lines

243

Calculating Deflection Lines


The calculation of the deflection line requires the calculation result from the moment of inertia calculation. Now, you calculate the deflection line under a specific load situation. To calculate the deflection line 1 Start the deflection line calculation. Menu Command Content Calculations Deflection Line AMDEFLINE

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select moment of inertia block: Select the calculation block (1) Specify starting point or [Existing beam]: Select the left end of the beam (2) Specify endpoint: Select the right end of the beam (3)

3 In the Beam Calculation dialog box, choose Table.

244

Chapter 14 Calculating Moments of Inertia and Deflection Lines

4 In the Material dialog box, select ANSI standard and the material Al. Bronze Cast.

NOTE If you have not installed ANSI standard, selecting a different standard
according to your preference is also possible, but the results will differ from the results in this tutorial exercise (if you select DIN for example, you can select a similar material like AlMgSi0.5F22 to achieve similar results).

Next, you define the supports and the loads. 5 Choose the Fixed Support icon, and respond to the prompt as follows: Specify insertion point: Select the left edge of the beam (1)

NOTE The support can only be placed along the beam.


6 Choose the Movable Support icon, and respond to the prompt as follows: Specify insertion point: Select the right edge of the beam (2)

Calculating Moments of Inertia and Deflection Lines

245

7 Choose the Uniform Load icon, and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point: Select the left edge of the beam (3) Specify endpoint: Select the midpoint of the beam using midpoint snap (4) Line Load [N/mm]<50>: Enter 10

8 Choose the Moment icon, and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point: Select a point in the center of the uniform load (5) Bending moment (Nm)<10>: Enter 3

9 In the Beam Calculation dialog box, choose Moments and Deflection. 10 In the Select Graph dialog box, select the options as shown in the figure below, and choose OK.

11 Respond to the prompts as follows: Enter scale for bending moment line (drawing unit:Nm)<1:1.3913>: Press ENTER Enter scale for deflection (drawing unit:mm)<37.208:1>: Press ENTER Specify insertion point: Select a point in the drawing

246

Chapter 14 Calculating Moments of Inertia and Deflection Lines

The result looks like this:

The calculation result block displays all important data on your calculation:

This is the end of this tutorial chapter. Save your file.

Calculating Moments of Inertia and Deflection Lines

247

248

Calculating Chains

In This Chapter

15

In this AutoCAD Mechanical 6 tutorial, you calculate a chain length, and insert sprockets and chain links into a drawing.

s Performing a length calculation s Optimizing the chain length s Inserting Sprockets s Inserting a Chain

249

Key Terms
Term
partition

Definition
Distance in mm or inches between centers of adjacent joint members. Other dimensions are proportional to the pitch. Also known as pitch. The diameter of the pitch circle that passes through the centers of the link pins as the chain is wrapped on the sprocket. A roller chain is made up of two kinds of links: roller links and pin links alternately and evenly spaced throughout the length of the chain. A toothed wheel that transfers the power from the chain to the shaft or the other way round.

pitch diameter

roller chain

sprocket

250

Chapter 15 Calculating Chains

Chain Calculation
Before you begin this tutorial exercise, be sure the ISO standard parts are installed on your system. First, load the initial drawing. To open a drawing 1 Open the file tut_ex13 in the acadm\tutorial folder. Menu Command File Open
OPEN

2 Zoom in to the chain housing. Menu Command View Zoom Window


ZOOM

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify first corner: Specify first corner point (1) Specify opposite corner: Specify second corner point (2)

The drawing contains a chain housing, sprocket positions, and points. Save your file under a different name or to a different directory to preserve the original tutorial file.

Chain Calculation

251

Performing Length Calculations


First, you calculate the required length of the chain. To perform a length calculation 1 Start the Length Calculation command. Menu Command Content Chains / Belts Length Calculation
AMCHAINLENGTHCAL

2 In the Belt and Chain Length Calculation dialog box, choose Library.

3 In the Library, select ISO 606 metric.

252

Chapter 15 Calculating Chains

4 In the Select Part Size dialog box, specify: Standard: ISO 606 - 05B - 1

Choose OK. 5 In the Belt and Chain Length Calculation dialog box, choose OK, and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify 1st point for tangent or [Undo] <exit>: Select circle a (1) Specify 2nd point for tangent: Select circle c (2) Specify 1st point for tangent or [Undo] <exit>: Select circle c (3) Specify 2nd point for tangent: Select circle b (4) Specify 1st point for tangent or [Undo] <exit>: Select circle b (5) Specify 2nd point for tangent: Select circle a (6) Specify 1st point for tangent or [Undo] <exit>: Press ENTER Select circle to store tangents: Select circle a

Chain Calculation

253

The tangent definition is finished, and the length of the chain is calculated. Because the length is divided into whole numbers of links, one sprocket has to be moved to achieve such a length. 6 Continue responding to the prompts as follows: Select pulleys or sprockets to be moved. Select objects: Select circle b Select objects: Press ENTER Specify base point of displacement: Select the center of circle b Specify second point of displacement: Select the center of the cross (8) Select pulleys or sprockets to be moved. Select objects: Press ENTER AutoCAD has calculated the new length, which is still not a multiple of the chain division: Number of links in chain: 121 Distance to next link: 6.88567 mm Length:974.8857

NOTE You can view the results by resizing the command line or opening the
AutoCAD Text Window using F2. Therefore, the chain arrangement has to be optimized. Save your file.

Optimizing the Chain Length


Now, optimize the chain length. To optimize the chain length 1 Start the Length Calculation command. Menu Command Content Chains / Belts Length Calculation
AMCHAINLENGTHCAL

254

Chapter 15 Calculating Chains

2 In the Belt and Chain Length Calculation dialog box, check Auto Optimization, Move, and specify: Required number of links: 122

Choose OK. 3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select pulleys or sprockets to be moved. Select objects: Select the relocated circle b Select objects: Press ENTER Specify direction angle to move: Enter 90 Sprocket b is moved until a chain length of 122 links is achieved. 4 In the Belt and Chain Length Calculation dialog box, choose Cancel, to cancel the optimization.

Chain Calculation

255

Now, your drawing looks like this:

Save your file.

Inserting Sprockets
Now, insert the sprockets. To insert a sprocket 1 Start the Draw Sprocket/Pulley command. Menu Command Content Chains / Belts Draw Sprocket/Pulley
AMSPROCKET

2 In the Pulleys and Sprockets dialog box, specify: Number of teeth: 21 Number of Teeth to Draw: 21

Choose OK.

256

Chapter 15 Calculating Chains

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify center of wheel: Select the center of circle a The sprocket is inserted into the drawing. Now, insert the next two sprockets. 4 Start the Draw Sprocket/Pulley command again. Menu Command Content Chains / Belts Draw Sprocket/Pulley
AMSPROCKET

5 In the Pulleys and Sprockets dialog box, specify: Number of teeth: 13 Number of Teeth to Draw: 13

Choose OK. 6 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify center of wheel: Select the center of circle b 7 Start the Draw Sprocket/Pulley command again. Menu Command Content Chains / Belts Draw Sprocket/Pulley
AMSPROCKET

Chain Calculation

257

8 In the Pulleys and Sprockets dialog box, specify: Number of teeth: 51 Number of Teeth to Draw: 3 Insertion Angle for Sprocket/Pulley: 180

Choose OK. 9 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify center of wheel: Select the center of circle c The last sprocket is inserted as a simplified representation with only three teeth, as specified in the dialog box. Now, your drawing looks like this:

Save your file.

258

Chapter 15 Calculating Chains

Inserting Chains
Finally, insert a chain. To insert a chain 1 Start the Draw Chain/Belt Links command. Menu Command Content Chains / Belts Draw Chain/Belt Links
AMCHAINDRAW

2 In the Draw Chain/Belt dialog box, specify: Number of Links to Draw: 122

Choose OK. 3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select polyline and starting point: Select the polyline near point 9 Please wait... calculating number of chain links Number of links in chain: 122 Distance to next link: 0 mm Please wait... calculating number of chain links Is position of link correct [Yes/No] <Yes>: Press ENTER The chain is inserted.

Chain Calculation

259

Your drawing looks like this:

This is the end of this tutorial chapter. Save your file.

260

Calculating Springs

In This Chapter

16

In this tutorial, you calculate a spring for existing boundary conditions and insert the spring into a drawing. You copy and edit the spring using the Power Copy and Power Edit commands in AutoCAD Mechanical 6.

s Starting the spring calculation s Specifying the spring restrictions s Calculating and selecting the

spring
s Inserting the spring s Copying the spring with Power

Copy
s Editing the spring with Power

Edit

261

Key Terms
Term
Belleville spring washer

Definition
A washer-type spring that can sustain relatively large loads with small deflections. The loads and deflections can be increased by stacking the springs. A spring type that can be compressed and can absorb pressure forces. The act of determining the size of a standard part with the cursor while inserting the part into a side view. The standard part is displayed dynamically on the screen and can be dragged to the next possible size and length. The values (sizes) are taken from the Standard parts database. A spring type that can absorb tension forces. A command that copies a drawing object to another position in the drawing. Power Copy produces an identical copy of the copied object. A single edit command for all objects in a drawing. A spring type that can absorb torque forces.

compression spring dynamic dragging

extension spring Power Copy

Power Edit torsion spring

262

Chapter 16 Calculating Springs

Calculating Springs
With the AutoCAD Mechanical Power Pack spring function, you can insert compression, extension, and torsion springs, as well as Belleville spring washers. The calculation is carried out in accordance with DIN 2098 or ANSI. The standard sizes of the springs can be selected from various standard catalogs.

NOTE The ISO standard parts have to be installed for this tutorial exercise.
In this tutorial, you create a compression spring in two different compression situations. You calculate and insert the spring in an existing drawing. First, you open the initial drawing. To open a drawing 1 Open the file tut_ex14 in the acadm\tutorial folder. Menu Command File Open
OPEN

2 Zoom in to the area of the spring housings. Menu Command View Zoom Window
ZOOM

Calculating Springs

263

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify first corner: Specify first corner (1) Specify opposite corner: Specify opposite corner (2)

The drawing shows two views (A and B) of the lever and spring housing, to reflect two different states of compression. Save your file under a different name or to a different directory to preserve the original tutorial file.

Starting Spring Calculations


First, you specify the spring and the location. To specify a spring 1 Start the Compression Spring command. Menu Command Content Springs Compression
AMCOMP2D

264

Chapter 16 Calculating Springs

2 In the Select Compression Spring dialog, choose Standards SPEC Catalog A and Front View.

3 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify starting point: Specify the starting point (1) Specify direction: Specify endpoint (2)

Calculating Springs

265

Specifying Spring Restrictions


Now, you specify the spring restrictions. The Compression Springs dialog allows you to restrict the spring selection in various ways. To specify the spring restrictions 1 In the Compression Springs - Select from Tables [mm] dialog, specify: Specification: 2 Loads, 2 Lengths Absolute Set: Lengths

2 In the Compression Springs - Select from Tables [mm] dialog, choose the Da button.

266

Chapter 16 Calculating Springs

A row for specifying the outer diameter Da is added to the restrictions table. 3 Click into the value field for the diameter Da and choose the now appearing pick icon.

4 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify point for spring diameter: Select a point on the inner spring housing contour (1)

Now, define the initial spring length.

Calculating Springs

267

5 In the Compression Springs - Select from Tables [mm] dialog, click into the value field for the length L1 and choose the now appearing pick icon.

6 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify point for spring length L1: Select a point on the spring pressure plate (1)

Use view B of the lever and spring housing to define the compressed spring length.

268

Chapter 16 Calculating Springs

7 In the Compression Springs dialog, click into the value field for the length L2 and choose the now appearing pick icon.

8 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify point for spring length L2: Select a point on the spring pressure plate in view B (1)

Now, you have defined the geometric boundary conditions, and you can proceed with the calculation.

Calculating Springs

269

Calculating and Selecting Springs


Now, make the calculation settings and calculate the possible springs. To calculate and select a spring 1 In the Compression Springs - Select from Tables [mm] dialog, choose the Additional Calculation Settings button. 2 In the Compression Springs - Additional Calculation [ANSI] dialog, select the left buckling case, and choose OK.

270

Chapter 16 Calculating Springs

3 In the Compression Springs - Select from Tables [mm] dialog, choose Next >.

The possible springs are calculated and the results are displayed in the Compression Springs - Select from Tables [mm] dialog. 4 Choose Select All to select all possible springs for the dynamic dragging process.

Choose Finish.

Calculating Springs

271

Inserting Springs
Now, you can drag the cursor dynamically to switch between the selected possible springs. The outline of the spring is displayed in the drawing and the spring description is displayed in the tooltip. To insert a spring 1 Select SPEC - 1.6 x 14.1 x 36 and click the left mouse button. 2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Topical Length (14.28 - 36) [Force/Deflection] <32.01>: Select a point on the spring pressure plate (1)

3 Continue to respond to the prompts as follows: Select rod (only closed contours) <Enter=continue>: Select objects: Press ENTER The spring is inserted as shown below.

Save your file.

272

Chapter 16 Calculating Springs

Copying Springs with Power Copy


Now, copy the previously inserted spring from view A to view B, using the Power Copy command. To copy a spring 1 Start the Power Copy command Menu Command Modify Power Commands Power Copy
AMPOWERCOPY

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select objects: Select the spring in view A Specify starting point: Select point (1) in view B Specify direction: Select point (2) in view B

3 Continue responding to the prompts as follows: Select rod (only closed contours) <Enter=continue>: Select objects: Press ENTER Insert part reference: Press ENTER The spring is copied into view B. However, you need to adjust the length of the spring in view B.

Calculating Springs

273

Editing Springs with Power Edit


NOTE You can also start Power Edit by double-clicking the object you want to
edit - in this case the spring. To edit a spring 1 Start the Power Edit command. Menu Command Modify Power Commands Power Edit
AMPOWEREDIT

2 Respond to the prompt as follows: Select object: Select the spring in view B The Compression Spring - Select from Tables [mm] dialog is displayed. 3 In the Compression Springs - Select from Tables [mm] dialog, choose Finish.

4 Respond to the prompt as follows: Topical Length (14.28 - 36) [Force/Deflection] <32.01>: Select the lower contact point of the compressed spring (1)

274

Chapter 16 Calculating Springs

5 Continue to respond to the prompts as follows: Select rod (only closed contours) <Enter=continue>: Select objects: Press ENTER AutoCAD Mechanical reinserts the spring in its new compressed length into the housing.

NOTE If there is a rod in the center of the compression spring, you have to select
the rod so that the representation of the background will be displayed correctly. The Spring command provides a very useful tool for generating complex springs in your design. This is the end of this tutorial chapter. Save your file.

Calculating Springs

275

276

Calculating Screw Connections

In This Chapter

17

In this tutorial, you can calculate a screw connection using the stand-alone screw calculation function in AutoCAD Mechanical 6.

s Starting the screw calculation s Selecting and specifying a screw s Selecting and specifying a nut s Selecting and specifying a washer s Specifying the plate geometry

and properties
s Specifying the contact area s Specifying the loads and

moments
s Specifying the settlement s Specifying the tightening s Creating and inserting the result

block

277

Key Terms
Term
axial force contact area safety factor shear force stress

Definition
A force parallel to the screw axis The touching surfaces of the plates which are effective for the calculation The safety factor is the ratio of effective load and safe load A force perpendicular to the screw axis A force or pressure on a part. Stress is the force per area

278

Chapter 17 Calculating Screw Connections

Methods for Calculating Screws


The Screw Calculation provides two different ways to calculate a screw connection:
s s

Stand-alone calculation: All data and properties are specified by the user. Calculation of an existing screw connection: The user selects an existing screw connection to be calculated. All geometrical and standard-related data is taken from the screw connection and cannot be edited.

In this exercise, we use the stand-alone Screw Calculation. The stand-alone calculation enables you to calculate a screw connection without any prerequisites. You can specify the screw connection in detail (material, geometric, load, settlement and tightening properties). In this exercise, you are provided with the drawing of a screw calculation. Some values will be selected from tables, some will be entered manually, and some will be taken directly from the drawing. Open the initial drawing. To open a drawing 1 Open the file tut_ex19 in the acadm\tutorial folder. Menu Command File Open OPEN

The drawing contains the representation of a screw connection. Save your file under a different name or to a different directory to preserve the original tutorial file.

Methods for Calculating Screws

279

Terms of reference: Two hollow shafts made of Cq 45 with forged coupling flanges are to be connected by 13 hex-head bolts ISO 4017 M12 x 45 - 10.9, which are arranged at a pitch diameter of 130 mm. The through holes are according to ISO 273 close. The bolts are safeguarded against loosening by gluing the threads ( = 0.14). The tightening takes place manually using a torque wrench (k = 1.8). The flanged connection is to be designed for a alternating torque of T = 2405 Nm and non-skid (seal safety of plates 1).

Using Stand Alone Screw Calculations


First, you have to start the Screw Calculation. To start the Screw Calculation 1 Start the Screw Calculation command. Menu Command Content Calculations Screw Calculation AMSCREWCALC

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Select screw connection <Stand alone calculation>: Press ENTER The Screw Calculation dialog box opens. Now, you have to specify the screw connection.

Selecting and Specifying Screws


In this section of the screw calculation, you can select the screw standard and size as well as the material properties. You are also able to enter the geometrical properties of a user-defined screw, for example in detail. Now, select and specify the screw.

280

Chapter 17 Calculating Screw Connections

To specify a screw 1 On the Screw: Geometry tab, choose Table of Screws.

2 In the Select a Screw dialog box, choose Hex Head Types and ISO 4017 (Regular Thread). 3 In the Select a Row dialog box, choose the standard M12x45. Choose OK.

Now, the geometrical values of the standard screw ISO 4017 M12x45 are entered and you have to specify the property class.

Using Stand Alone Screw Calculations

281

4 Choose the Screw: Material tab. 5 In the property class section, specify: Standard: DIN Property class: 10.9

With this, the screw is specified completely and you have to specify the nut. 6 Choose Next or the Definition of NUT icon in the top row to proceed.

282

Chapter 17 Calculating Screw Connections

Selecting and Specifying Nuts


In this section of the screw calculation, you can select the nut standard and size. To specify a nut 1 On the Nut tab, choose Table of Nuts.

2 In the Select a Nut dialog box, choose Hex Nuts and ISO 4032 (Regular Thread). You dont have to specify a size, because the size is determined by the screw size. Now, you have to specify the washers. 3 Choose Next or the Definition of WASHERS icon in the top row to proceed.

Using Stand Alone Screw Calculations

283

Selecting and Specifying Washers


In this section of the screw calculation, you can select the washer standard and size as well as the positions of the washers. To specify a washer 1 Choose the Washer under: Head 1 tab. 2 Clear the check box Washer.

3 Choose the Washer under: Nut 1 tab. 4 Choose Table of Washers. 5 In the Select a Washer dialog box, choose ISO 7091. Now, you have to specify the plates. 6 Choose Next or the Definition of PLATES icon in the top row to proceed.

284

Chapter 17 Calculating Screw Connections

Specifying Plate Geometry and Properties


In this section of the screw calculation, you can select the plate materials and their geometric properties. To specify the plates 1 On the plates tab, specify: Hole diameter dh: 13 Number of Plates: 2 Height of plate 1 h1: 13 Height of plate 2 h2: 13 2 For the definition of both plate materials, choose Table.

3 In the dialog box, choose DIN material. 4 Choose the material Cq 45. Choose OK. Now, you have to specify the contact area.

Using Stand Alone Screw Calculations

285

5 Choose the Gaps and Chamfers tab and choose the pick button of the value gr.

6 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify first point: Select the point (1) Second point: Select the point (2) as shown in the following figure

7 Choose Next or the Definition of CONTACT AREA icon in the top row to proceed.

286

Chapter 17 Calculating Screw Connections

Specifying Contact Areas


In this section of the screw calculation, you can specify the geometric properties of the contact area. To specify the contact area 1 On the contact area tab, choose the Type of Contact Area icon. 2 In the Select the Type of Contact Area dialog box, choose the third of the predefined icons.

3 Select the check box User Changes. 4 In the entry field, specify: ang: 27.5

Using Stand Alone Screw Calculations

287

5 For the outer radius ro, choose the pick button next to the entry field and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify first point: Select the point (1) Second point: Select the point (2) 6 For the inner radius ri, choose the pick button next to the entry field and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify first point: Select the point (1) Second point: Select the point (3)

Now, you have to specify the loads and moments. 7 Choose Next or the Definition of LOADS icon in the top row to proceed.

288

Chapter 17 Calculating Screw Connections

Specifying Loads and Moments


In this section of the screw calculation, you can specify the loads and moments as well as their points of application. To specify loads and moments 1 On the Axial Loads tab, clear the check box Dynamic and specify: Force FB: 0

Using Stand Alone Screw Calculations

289

2 Choose the Shear Loads tab and specify: Torsion Moment T[Nm]: 185 Radius R: 65 Coefficient of Friction mt: 0.14

NOTE The torsion moment of 185 Nm results from the total torsion moment
of 2405 Nm as given in the terms of reference divided by the 13 bolts.

Now, you have to specify the settlement. 3 Choose Next or the Definition of SETTLEMENT icon in the top row to proceed.

290

Chapter 17 Calculating Screw Connections

Specifying Settlement Properties


In this section of the screw calculation, you can specify settlement properties. To specify the settlement 1 Activate Calculate from Roughness and >= 1.6 micro m.

Now, you have to specify the tightening. 2 Choose Next or the Definition of TIGHTEN icon in the top row to proceed.

Using Stand Alone Screw Calculations

291

Specifying Tightening Properties


In this section of the screw calculation, you can specify the tightening method and properties. To specify the tightening 1 Specify as follows: Tightening Factor kA: 1.8 Coefficient of Friction in Thread miG: 0.14

Now, you have to insert the result block. 2 Choose Next or the RESULTS icon in the top row to proceed.

292

Chapter 17 Calculating Screw Connections

Creating and Inserting Result Blocks


In this section of the screw calculation, you can take a look at the results. You have a complete overview of the results of the screw calculation.

Now, insert the result block.

Using Stand Alone Screw Calculations

293

To insert a result block 1 Choose Finish and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify start point: Specify a point right of the screw connection Specify next point <Symbol>: Press ENTER Now, the result block is inserted at the specified location.

This is the end of this tutorial chapter. Save your file.

294

Calculating Stress Using FEA

In This Chapter

18

In this tutorial, you calculate the stresses in a lever using the finite element analysis (FEA) in AutoCAD Mechanical 6. You use the results to improve the design of the lever.

s Calculating the stress in a lever s Defining loads and supports s Calculating the results s Evaluating and refining the mesh s Improving the design s Recalculating the stress

295

Key Terms
Term
distributed force FEA

Definition
A force that is spread over an area. Finite Element Analysis. A calculation routine, or method. Calculates stress and deformation in a plane for plates with a specified thickness, or in a cross section with individual forces, stretching loads, and fixed and/or movable supports. The FEA routine uses its own layer group for input and output. A support that is fixed to a part and is fixed in axial direction. Forces and moments that act on a part. A support that is not fixed in axial direction. A single edit command for the objects in your drawing. Force or pressure on a part. Stress is force per area.

fixed support load movable support Power Edit stress

296

Chapter 18 Calculating Stress Using FEA

2D FEA
Design sophistication in the area of mechanical engineering and construction is increasing. Therefore, the calculations relating to these designs have to be performed using more advanced tools in order to assure reliability. To determine the stability and durability of a given structure under various loading situations, you need to observe the stress and deformation in the components while they are being loaded. A structure is considered to be durable if the maximum stress is less than what the material permits. Various computational methods have been developed for calculating deformation and stress conditions. One of these methods is called the Finite Element Analysis. The knowledge gained from this stress rating may lead to changing the structure in certain areas, which in turn necessitates changes to the design. The FEA routine uses its own layer group for input and output. Note that FEA is not designed for solving all special FEA tasks. Its purpose is to provide you with a quick idea of the stress and deformation distributions.

NOTE The ISO standard parts have to be installed for this tutorial exercise.
To open a drawing 1 Open the file tut_ex20 in the acadm\tutorial folder. Menu Command File Open
OPEN

The drawing contains a lever, which is the basis for your calculations. 2 Zoom in to the lever. Menu Command View Zoom Window
ZOOM

2D FEA

297

The complete lever should be displayed on your screen.

Save your file under a different name or to a different directory to preserve the original tutorial file.

Calculating the Stress in a Lever


Before you calculate the stress in a part, you have to specify the border conditions. To specify the border conditions 1 Activate the FEA calculation Menu Command Content Calculations FEA
AMFEA2D

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify interior point: Specify a point inside the contour

298

Chapter 18 Calculating Stress Using FEA

The FEA 2D Calculation dialog box opens so that you can define border conditions and perform calculations.

Select the thickness and the material of the lever. 3 In the Default section, enter a thickness of 10. 4 Choose Table, and select the material from your preferred standard table: Select Al. Alloys Diecast if you prefer to use ANSI materials. 5 Choose Config to open the FEA Configuration dialog box, and specify: Scale Factor for Symbols: 0.1

6 Choose OK to return to the FEA 2D - calculation dialog box.

2D FEA

299

Defining Loads and Supports


To perform calculations, you need to define the loads and supports. To specify loads and supports 1 Choose the fixed line support button, and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point <Enter=Dialogbox>: Specify point (1) Specify endpoint: Specify point (2) Specify side from endpoint: Specify a point above the contour

2 Choose the movable line support button, and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point <Enter=Dialogbox>: Hold down the SHIFT key, right-click, and choose Quadrant _ qua of: Specify point (3) Specify endpoint: Press ENTER to define the starting point as the endpoint

300

Chapter 18 Calculating Stress Using FEA

3 Choose the line force button, and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point <Enter=Dialogbox>: Specify point (5) Specify endpoint: Specify point (4) Specify side from endpoint: Specify a point to the right of the specified points Enter a new value <1000 N/mm>: Enter 500

4 Choose the line force button again, and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify insertion point <Enter=Dialogbox>: Specify point (6) Specify endpoint: Specify point (7) Specify side from endpoint: Specify a point to the right of the specified points Enter a new value <1000 N/mm>: Enter 500

2D FEA

301

Calculating Results
Before you calculate the results, you need to generate a mesh.

NOTE If you calculate results without creating a mesh in advance, the mesh
will be created automatically. To calculate the results 1 Choose the mesh button and press ENTER to return to the dialog. 2 Choose the isolines (isoareas) button. 3 In the FEA 2D Isolines (Isoareas) dialog box, select the Graphic Representation button on the right, and choose OK.

4 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify base point <Return = in boundary>: Press ENTER to place the isoareas in the boundary Insertion point: Select a point to place the table to the left of the part <Return>: Press ENTER to return to the dialog box

302

Chapter 18 Calculating Stress Using FEA

The result looks like this:

After calculation, the support forces are displayed near the support symbol.

Evaluating and Refining Mesh


The stress table allocation relative to the lever shows heavy concentration of local stress near drawing points 8 and 9. Refine the mesh near these points to obtain more exact calculation results for the points of interest.

2D FEA

303

To refine the mesh 1 Choose the left refining button, and respond to the prompts as follows: Specify center point <Return=Continue>: Specify the points near points 8 and 9 Specify center point <Return=Continue>: Press ENTER to continue meshing <Return>: Press ENTER to return to the dialog box

After this step, you get a refined mesh at the specified points. Recalculate the stress representation. 2 Choose the isolines (isoareas) button. 3 In the FEA 2D Isolines (Isoareas) dialog box, choose the Graphic Representation button on the right, and choose OK.

Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify base point <Return = in boundary>: Press ENTER Insertion point: To the left of the part, select a location for the table <Return>: Press ENTER to return to the dialog box

304

Chapter 18 Calculating Stress Using FEA

Refining Designs
The results show a critical area around point 8 that can be improved by applying a larger radius. Before changing the geometry, the results and solutions have to be deleted. To edit the geometry 1 Choose the Delete Solution button. 2 In the AutoCAD Question dialog box, choose Yes to delete the solutions and results.

3 In the AutoCAD Question dialog box, choose No to keep the loads and supports.

4 Start Power Edit to change the radius, and respond to the prompt as follows: Menu Command Select objects: Modify Power Commands Power Edit
AMPOWEREDIT

Select the radius at point 8

2D FEA

305

5 In the Fillet Radius dialog box, specify: Input: 10

Choose OK. Select objects: Press ENTER to cancel the command

The radius of the fillet is changed to 10. 1 Zoom to the extents of the drawing. Menu Command Save your file. View Zoom Extents
ZOOM

Recalculating Stress
Before recalculating the stress division of the lever, calculate and display the deformation. To calculate the stress 1 Restart the FEA routine. Menu Command Content Calculations FEA
AMFEA2D

2 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify interior point: Specify a point inside the contour Select the thickness and the material of the lever again, as you did it before. 3 In the Default section, enter a thickness of 10. 4 Choose Table, and select the material from your preferred standard table: Select Al. Alloys Diecast if you prefer to use ANSI materials.

306

Chapter 18 Calculating Stress Using FEA

5 Choose the deformation button in the Results field. 6 In the FEA 2D - Displacements dialog box, choose OK.

7 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify base point <Return = in boundary>: Press ENTER Insertion point: To the right of the part, select a location for the table <Return>: Press ENTER to return to the dialog box The result looks like this:

Recalculate the stress division of the lever.

2D FEA

307

8 Choose the isolines (isoareas) button. 9 In the FEA 2D Isolines (Isoareas) dialog box, choose the Graphic Representation button on the right, and choose OK.

10 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify base point <Return = in boundary>: Press ENTER Specify insertion point: To the left of the part, select a location for the table <Return>: Press ENTER to return to the dialog box 11 Choose Close to leave the FEA 2D - Calculation.

308

Chapter 18 Calculating Stress Using FEA

The final result looks like this:

NOTE You can return to the FEA 2D - Calculation using Power Edit.
This is the end of this tutorial chapter. Save your file.

2D FEA

309

310

Designing and Calculating Cams

In This Chapter

19

AutoCAD Mechanical 6 provides tools for cam design and calculations. The cam contour is calculated and based on existing boundary conditions while data for NC production is also created.

s Starting the cam design and

calculation
s Defining the motion sections s Calculating the Strength s Exporting cam data and viewing

the results

311

Key Terms
Term
acceleration

Definition
Graph of acceleration of the straight driven element of the rotation angle acceleration of a rocker and the cam plate angle of rotation. Types of gears for obtaining unusual and irregular motions that would be difficult to produce otherwise. Geometric shape of the cam. The representation of the cam as a graph of the lift and the angle of rotation of the cam plate (straight driven element). If the driven element is a rocker, the lift corresponds to an angle of rotation of the rocker. Part of the motion diagram. Some sections are defined by design. For example, the maximum lift of 15 mm is reached at an angle of 90. Numerical Control. Used in the manufacturing industry to represent the control on machine tool motion through numeric data for 2 to 5 axis machining. Controls the precision of curves. A low value increases computing time. Use a higher value for initial design. Graph of the speed of the straight driven element, or the rotation angle of a rocker and the cam plate angle of rotation.

cam

curve path motion diagram

motion section

NC

resolution

step width

312

Chapter 19 Designing and Calculating Cams

Designing and Calculating Cams


With cam design and calculation, you can implement all motions required in the scope of process control with a minimum number of gear elements. The basis for systematic design procedures is offered using standardized laws of movement in the development of new cam gears. With AutoCAD Mechanical, you are able to create cams (linear, circular, and cylindrical cams) based on sections drawn in a motion diagram. You can also calculate velocity and acceleration of an existing section of the motion diagram. The cam curve path can be determined with the calculated cam sections. An existing curve path can be scanned and transferred in the motion diagram. A driven element can be coupled to the cam. NC data can be created using the curve path. With cam design and calculation, you generate a circular cam and a swinging follower with a single roller. You also calculate the spring of the follower. The cam and the follower will be inserted in the drawing together with the motion diagrams. At the end you generate the NC data for the cam production. First, you have to start with an ISO drawing template. To open a template 1 Open a new drawing. Menu Command File New
NEW

The AutoCAD Today dialog box is displayed. 2 In the Today dialog box, in the section My Drawings, change to the tab Create Drawings and select the template am_iso.dwt.

This opens a new drawing template. Save your file under a descriptive name (for example cam_tutorial.dwg).

Designing and Calculating Cams

313

Starting Cam Designs and Calculations


The first task is to start the cam routine. To start cam design and calculation 1 Start the cam design and calculation. Menu Command Content Cams
AMCAM

First, specify the cam. 2 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, on the Cam tab, specify: Type: Circular Revolutions [1/min]: 100 Diameter of Body [mm]: 50

3 Choose the Follower button.

NOTE You can also step through the dialog using the Next> button.
4 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, on the Follower tab, choose the Movement button.

314

Chapter 19 Designing and Calculating Cams

5 In the Type of Follower dialog box, choose the Swinging button.

6 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, on the Follower tab, specify the following settings, and choose the Profile button.

Now, specify the profile. Here, you can select between a power-contact profile (inner or outer) or a form-contact profile (both outer). We specify a inner profile which requires a spring to keep contact.

Designing and Calculating Cams

315

7 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, on the Profile tab, specify the following settings, and choose the Location button.

The dialog box will be hidden to specify a location for the cam and the follower in the drawing. 8 Respond to the prompts as follows: Specify center of cam: 100,100 Specify center of follower swing [Undo]: @100,0 Specify start of movement [Undo]: @90<157.36 Specify origin of movement diagram [Undo/Window] <Window>: Specify a point next to the cam Specify length of movement diagram [Undo]: @360,0 The cam and the follower are inserted into the drawing with the motion diagram. Your drawing looks like this:

316

Chapter 19 Designing and Calculating Cams

The Cam Design and Calculation dialog box is opened again.

Defining Motion Sections


Now, we define 5 motion sections to describe the cam. To specify motions 1 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, choose the Motions button. 2 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, on the Motion tab, choose the New button.

Designing and Calculating Cams

317

In the Select Method to Add New Section dialog box, you are asked whether you want to insert or append a new motion section. 3 Choose Append.

Now, define the first motion section. 4 In the Motion - New mode dialog, specify the following settings, and choose OK. Position [deg] <from - to> 0 -: 90 Elevation [deg] 0 -: 0

The motion is inserted into the drawing and you are reverted back to the Cam Design and Calculation dialog. Now, define the next motions to describe the cam.

318

Chapter 19 Designing and Calculating Cams

5 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, on the Motion tab, choose the New button.

6 In the Select Method to Add New Section dialog box, choose Append. 7 In the Motion - New mode dialog, specify the following settings, and choose the Context of Follower movement button. Position [deg] <from - to> 0 -: 150 Elevation [deg] 0 -: 5

Designing and Calculating Cams

319

8 Choose Dwell - Constant Velocity (second button from left).

9 In the Motion - New mode dialog, specify the following settings, and choose OK. Curve: 5th polynomial Velocity [rad/s] 0 -: 2

The next motion section has to be Constant Velocity since the motion section before is Dwell - Constant Velocity. 10 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, on the Motion tab, choose the New button. 11 In the Select Method to Add New Section dialog box, choose Append.

320

Chapter 19 Designing and Calculating Cams

12 In the Motion - New mode dialog, specify the following settings, and choose the Context of Follower movement button. Position [deg] <from - to> 0 -: 180 Elevation [deg] 0 -: 8

13 Choose Constant Velocity (first button from left). The routine has recalculated the elevation and inserted the correct value 10.73. Choose OK. 14 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, on the Motion tab, choose the New button. 15 In the Select Method to Add New Section dialog box, choose Append. 16 In the Motion - New mode dialog, specify the following settings, and choose the Context of Follower movement button. Position [deg] <from - to> 180 -: 220 Elevation [deg] 0 -: 16 17 Choose Constant Velocity - Reverse (fourth button from left).

Designing and Calculating Cams

321

18 In the Motion - New mode dialog, specify the following settings, and choose OK. Acceleration [rad/s^2] 0 -: -60

Now, define the last motion section to complete the 360 degrees. 19 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, on the Motion tab, choose the New button. 20 In the Select Method to Add New Section dialog box, choose Append. 21 In the Motion - New mode dialog, specify the following settings, and choose the Context of Follower movement button. Position [deg] <from - to> 220 -: 360 22 The routine calculates the correct values for the end position automatically. 23 In the Motion - New mode dialog, specify the following settings, and choose OK. Curve: Harmonic Combination

322

Chapter 19 Designing and Calculating Cams

The definition of the motion section is completed. All motion sections are displayed in the list.

The definition of the geometry is finished with this.

Designing and Calculating Cams

323

Calculating Strength for Springs


Now, we perform a strength calculation for the spring. To calculate the strength 1 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, check Strength, and choose the Strength button. 2 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, on the Loads tab, specify the following settings: External Force [N] Fe =: 20 Reduced Mass of the Follower [kg] mf =: 0.1 Reduced Inert Mass [kg] mi =: 0.07

324

Chapter 19 Designing and Calculating Cams

3 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, on the Spring tab, specify the following settings: Preload [N] F0 =: 10 Mass of Spring [kg] ms =: 0.08 Spring Location [mm] ls =: 45 Spring Rate [N/mm] R: User Change:

30

NOTE You have to check User Change to enter the Spring Rate.

In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, on the Material tab, you can specify the material for cam and roller. We want to use the default material.

Designing and Calculating Cams

325

4 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, on the Arm tab, specify the following settings: Dimensions of Arm [mm] d =: 8

5 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, choose Results. You can choose other types of cross sections for the arms.

6 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, choose Calculation. All calculation results are displayed clearly on the respective tabs: Geometry: Displays the geometric properties and enables to optimize the cam position.

326

Chapter 19 Designing and Calculating Cams

Pressure: Displays the Hertz pressure safety. You can display the pressure at any point of the cam by choosing Simulation and dragging the mouse pointer over the cam. Frequency: Displays the resonance frequency and the safety against resonance effects. Shaft: Displays the loads on the shaft as well as the necessary drive power for the cam. You can display the shaft loads at any point of the cam by choosing Simulation and dragging the mouse pointer over the cam. Arm: Displays the stress on the arm. You can display the arm stress at any point of the cam by choosing Simulation and dragging the mouse pointer over the cam. Bearing: Displays the middle normal force on the bearing. Spring: Displays the results of the spring calculation. You can display the results at any point of the cam by choosing Simulation and dragging the mouse pointer over the cam. 3D Cam: Enables you to generate a 3D body of the cam.

Designing and Calculating Cams

327

Exporting Cam Data and Viewing the Results


In this exercise, we export TXT cam data for a NC machine. To export cam data 1 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, choose the Export button. 2 In the Cam Design and Calculation dialog box, on the File tab, specify the following, and choose Generate File. Export Curves: Inner Precision [mm]: 0.01 Data Type: File: TXT Data Type: Coordinates: Polar

Save the file under a descriptive name. 3 In the Save As dialog specify a file name and location, and choose Save. Now, your cam is completely designed and calculated. 4 Choose Finish to view your results. 5 Respond to prompts as follows: Specify insertion point of result table: Specify a location for the result table

328

Chapter 19 Designing and Calculating Cams

Your drawing looks like this:

This is the end of the tutorial chapter. Save your file.

Designing and Calculating Cams

329

330

Toolbar Icons

In This Appendix

Use this appendix as a guide to become acquainted with AutoCAD Mechanical 6 toolbar icons.

331

Main Toolbar
Undo Inquiry AutoCAD MchanicalToday Publish to Web eTransmit dbConnect AutoCAD DesignCenter Power Edit Power Erase Power Copy Power Dimensioning Power Snap Compass Rose UCS Redraw All

New Open Save Basic Layer Layer Functions

Main Toolbar - New


New Print Preview Plot Spelling

Main Toolbar - Basic Layer


Contour Contour Contour Hidden Hidden Narrow Auxiliary Line Dimension/Annotation Text Centerline Wide Centerline Narrow Hatch Section Line Phantom

332

Appendix A Toolbar Icons

Help

Main Toolbar - Layer Functions


Layer/Layer Group Control Visibility Enhancement Move to Another Layer Move to Another Group Make Objects Layer Current C-Lines On/Off Partref On/Off Invisible Lines On/Off Title Block On/Off

Main Toolbar - Undo


Undo Redo

Main Toolbar - Inquiry


List Locate Point Distance Area Calculator

Main Toolbar - AutoCAD Mechanical Today


AutoCAD Mechanical Today Autodesk Point A Streamline Meet Now

Main Toolbar - dbConnect


dbConnect Library Insert Hyperlink

Main Toolbar

333

Main Toolbar - Power Edit


Power Edit Object Properties Match Properties Edit Polyline Edit Spline Edit Reference

Main Toolbar - Power Erase


Power Erase Erase OOPs

Main Toolbar - Power Copy


Power Copy Power Recall Power View Power Manipulator

Main Toolbar - Power Dimensioning


Power Dimensioning Automatic Dimensioning Dimension Angle Hole Charts Fits List Multi Edit Arrange Dimensions Linear/Symmetric Stretch Align Dimension Join Dimensions Insert Dimension Break Dimension Units 0 Decimal Place

334

Appendix A Toolbar Icons

Main Toolbar - Power Dimensioning - Units


Units 0 Decimal Place Units 1 Decimal Place Units 2 Decimal Places Units 3 Decimal Places Units 4 Decimal Places

Main Toolbar - Power Snap


User Configuration User Configuration 1 User Configuration 2 User Configuration 3 User Configuration 4

Main Toolbar - Compass Rose


Relative Point Rel. Ang. 0 deg Rel. Ang. 45 deg Rel. Ang. 90 deg Rel. Ang. 135 deg Rel. Ang. 180 deg Rel. Ang. 225 deg Rel. Ang. 270 deg Rel. Ang. 315 deg

Main Toolbar

335

Main Toolbar - UCS


UCS Named UCS Preset UCS UCS Previous World UCS Object UCS Face UCS View UCS Origin UCS Z Axis Vector UCS 3 Point UCS X Axis Rotate UCS Y Axis Rotate UCS Z Axis Rotate UCS Apply UCS

Zoom Toolbar
Zoom Realtime Pan Realtime Zoom Window Zoom Extents Zoom Previous

Zoom Toolbar - RTZOOM


Zoom Realtime 3D Orbit

336

Appendix A Toolbar Icons

Zoom Toolbar - ZOOM2


Zoom Window Zoom Dynamic Zoom Scale Zoom Center Zoom In Zoom Out Zoom All

Design Toolbar
Launches Draw Toolbar Launches Edit Toolbar Detail 2D Hide Xref

Design Toolbar - Draw


Launches Draw Toolbar Polyline Line Arc Spline Rectangle Polygon Circle Centerline Hatch Construction Line Construction Edit

Design Toolbar

337

Design Toolbar - Draw - Line


Line Symmetrical Lines Break Out Line Section Line Zig-Zag Line

Design Toolbar - Draw - Arc


Arc 3 Points Arc Start Center End Arc Start Center Angle Arc Start End Angle Arc Start End Radius Arc Center Start End Arc Center Start Angle

Design Toolbar - Draw - Rectangle


Rectangle Rectangle-Full Base-Full Height Rectangle-Base Middle-Second Corner Rectangle-Base Middle-Full Base-Full Height Rectangle-Base Middle-Half Base-Full Height Rectangle-Height Middle-Second Corner Rectangle-Height Middle-Full Base-Full Height Rectangle-Height Middle-Full Base-Half Height Rectangle-Center-Second Corner Rectangle-Center-Full Base-Full Height

Design Toolbar - Draw - Circle


Circle Center Radius Circle Center Diameter Circle 2 Point Circle 3 Point Circle Tan Tan Radius Ellipse Donut

338

Appendix A Toolbar Icons

Design Toolbar - Draw - Centerline


Centerlines Centerline Cross Centerline Cross with Hole

Design Toolbar - Draw - Hatch


Hatch 45 deg., 2.5 mm/0.1 inch Hatch 45 deg., 5 mm/0.22 inch Hatch 45 deg., 13 mm/0.5 inch Hatch 135 deg., 2.7mm/0.11 inch Hatch 135 deg., 4.7 mm/0.19 inch Hatch 135 deg., 11 mm/0.4 inch User-Defined Hatch Double Hatch 45/135 deg., 2.3 mm/0.09 inch

Design Toolbar - Draw - Construction


Horizontal Vertical Cross 2 Points or Angle Relative Angle from Line Parallel with Full Distance Parallel with Half Distance Perpendicular to 2 Points Circle Perpendicular to Line Bi-sect More C-Lines

Design Toolbar - Draw - Construction Edit


Erase C-Lines Erase All C-Lines Automatic C-Line Creation Trace Contour Switch Ray / Xline

Design Toolbar

339

Design Toolbar - Modify


Launches Edit Toolbar Rotate Move Align Copy 2D Operations Offset Extend Trim Lengthen Join Entities Break Stretch Fillet Chamfer

Design Toolbar - Modify - 2D Operations


Mirror Array

Design Toolbar - Modify - Break


Break Break at 1Point Select and Break

Design Toolbar - Modify - Stretch


Stretch Scale X, Y Scale

Design Toolbar - 2D Hide


Hide Invisible Edges Edit Hidden Edges

340

Appendix A Toolbar Icons

Design Toolbar - Xref


Auto Detailing External Reference External Reference Setting External Reference Bind

Assistance Toolbar
Block Create Xref/Insert Block Title Block Text Paper/Model Space

Assistance Toolbar - Block Create


Create Block WBlock

Assistance Toolbar - Xref/Block Insert


Insert Block External Reference Attach Explode

Assistance Toolbar - Title Block


Drawing Title/Borders Plot Date in Title Add One Revision Line

Assistance Toolbar

341

Assistance Toolbar - Text


M Text DTEXT Language Converter Text from Language Converter Text M=7.0 Text M=5.0 Text M=3.5

Assistance Toolbar - Paper/Model Space


Mspace <-> Pspace Viewport/Scale Area Scale Monitor Zoom All Viewports Viewport Auto Create

Annotation Toolbar
Symbols Leader Note BOM Database

Annotation Toolbar - Symbols


Surface Texture Feature Control Frame Datum Identifier Datum Target Feature Identifier Welding Symbol Simple Weld Edge Symbols

342

Appendix A Toolbar Icons

Annotation Toolbar - Leader


Leader Note Append Leader

Annotation Toolbar - BOM


BOM Database Balloon Part Reference Parts List Part Reference Edit Part List/Balloons

Annotation Toolbar

343

Content Toolbar
Screws Holes Shaft Generator Standardtools Standard Parts Calculations

Content - Screws
Screw Connection Screw Template Screw Nut Washer

Content - Holes
Through Holes Tapped Through Holes External Threads Blind Holes Tapped Blind Holes Counterbores Countersinks Thread Ends Through Slots Blind Slots

344

Appendix A Toolbar Icons

Content - Shaft Generator


Shaft Generator Parallel/Woodruff Keys Retaining Rings/Circlips Seals Adjusting Rings Centerholes Undercuts Shaft Breaks Roller Bearings Plain Bearings Shaft Lock Nuts Shim Rings

Content - Standardtools
Change Representation Leader Note

Content - Standard Parts


Parts Library Steel Shapes Cylindrical Pins Taper Pins Grooved Drive Studs Split/Cotter Pins Plain Rivets Countersunk Rivets Clevis Pins Plugs Lubricators Sealing Rings Drill Bushings Drill Bushings with Hole Springs

Content Toolbar

345

Content - Springs
Compression Springs Extension Springs Torsion Springs Belleville Springs

Content - Calculation
FEA Screw Calculation Shaft Calculator Moment of Inertia Predefined Profile Section Deflection Line Bearing Calculator Cam Configuration Draw Sprocket / Pulley Springs

Content - Calculation - Chain/Belt Calculation


Draw Sprocket/Pulley Length Calculation Draw Chain/Belt Links

Content - Calculation - Springs


Compression Springs Extension Springs Torsion Springs Belleville Springs

346

Appendix A Toolbar Icons

Power Snap Toolbar


Temporary Tracking Point Snap From Point Filter Entity Filter On/Off Ignore Z Coordinate On/Off Endpoint Midpoint Intersection Apparent Intersection Rectangle Center Virtual Intersection Mid of 2 Points Symmetry Center Quadrant Perpendicular Tangent Node Insertion Snap to Parallel Nearest None

Power Snap Toolbar - Point Filter


X Filter Y Filter XY Filter Z Filter XZ Filter YZ Filter

l8

Layer AM_8AMLAY

Power Snap Toolbar

347

348

Layer Specifications

In This Appendix

This appendix contains a list of the layer specifications for AutoCAD Mechanical 6.

s Layer Specifications

349

Layer Specification Listing


The AutoCAD Mechanical layer system is comprised of the following layers: Description
Contour

Name
AM_0

Color Linetype
7 ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous

Lineweight
ISO: 0.5mm/ANSI: 0.3mm=0.012 ISO: 0.5mm/ANSI: 0.3mm=0.012 ISO: 0.5mm/ANSI: 0.3mm=0.012

Base
no

Contour

AM_1

14

no

Contour

AM_2

no

Hidden

AM_3

ISO: AM_ISO02W050 ISO: 0.25mm/ANSI: no ANSI: Hidden 0.15mm=0.006 ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: 0.25mm/ANSI: no 0.15mm=0.006 ISO: 0.25mm/ANSI: no 0.15mm=0.006 ISO: 0.35mm/ANSI: no 0.3mm=0.012

Auxiliary Line

AM_4

Dimension/ Annotation Text

AM_5

AM_6

Centerline

AM_7

ISO: AM_ISO08W050 ISO: 0.25mm/ANSI: no ANSI: Center 0.15mm=0.006 ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: 0.25mm/ANSI: no 0.15mm=0.006 0 no

Hatch

AM_8

Behind

AM_9

253

Section Line

AM_10

ISO: AM_ISO08W050 ISO: 0.5mm/ANSI: ANSI: Center 0.3mm=0.012

no

Phantom

AM_11

ISO: AM_ISO09W050 ISO: 0.25mm/ANSI: no ANSI: Phantom2 0.15mm=0.006 ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: 0.5mm/ANSI: 0.3mm=0.012 ISO: 0.5mm/ANSI: 0.3mm=0.012 ISO: 0.5mm/ANSI: 0.3mm=0.012 no

Part Reference Objects

AM_12

Std. Parts: Contour AM_0N

no

Std. Parts: Contour AM_1N

14

no

350

Appendix B Layer Specifications

Description

Name

Color Linetype
5 ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous

Lineweight
ISO: 0.5mm/ANSI: 0.3mm=0.012

Base
no

Std. Parts: Contour AM_2N

Std. Parts: Hidden AM_3N

ISO: AM_ISO02W050 ISO: 0.25mm/ANSI: no ANSI: Hidden 0.15mm=0.006 ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: 0.25mm/ANSI: no 0.15mm=0.006 ISO: 0.25mm/ANSI: no 0.15mm=0.006

Std. Parts: Auxiliary AM_4N Line Std. Parts: Dimension /Annotation Std. Parts: Text AM_5N

AM_6N

ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous

ISO: 0.35mm/ANSI: no 0.3mm=0.012

Std. Parts: Centerline Std. Parts: Hatch

AM_7N

ISO: AM_ISO08W050 ISO: 0.25mm/ANSI: no ANSI: Center 0.15mm=0.006 ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: 0.25mm/ANSI: no 0.15mm=0.006 0 no

AM_8N

Std. Parts: Behind AM_9N

253

Std. Parts: Section AM_10N Line Std. Parts: Phantom AM_11N

ISO: AM_ISO08W050 ISO: 0.5mm/ANSI: ANSI: Center 0.3mm=0.012

no

ISO: AM_ISO09W050 ISO: 0.25mm/ANSI: no ANSI: Phantom2 0.15mm=0.006 ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: Amconstr ANSI: Amconstr ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: Continuous ANSI: Continuous ISO: 0.5mm/ANSI: 0.3mm=0.012 no

Std. Parts: Part AM_12N Reference Objects Construction Line AM_CL

ISO: 0.25mm/ANSI: yes 0.15mm=0.006 ISO: 0.25mm/ANSI: yes 0.15mm=0.006 ISO: 0.5mm/ANSI: 0.3mm=0.012 yes

Part Reference

AM_PAREF

Border/Title Block AM_BOR

Viewport

AM_VIEWS

ISO: 0.25mm/ANSI: yes 0.15mm=0.006 0 yes

Behind (extra)

AM_INV

253

Trailing Line

AM_TR

ISO: 0.25mm/ANSI: yes 0.15mm=0.006

Layer Specification Listing

351

352

Title Block Attributes

In This Appendix

This appendix will help you to learn about the AutoCAD Mechanical 6 title block attributes.

s Title Block Attributes

353

Title Block Attributes


AutoCAD Mechanical 6 offers several different title blocks you can choose from. To customize these title blocks, it is important to understand their attributes. This appendix will give you an overview which text and attributes are available in a title block, and their location within the title block structure.

Attributes for Title Block


When a title block drawing is inserted, it is displayed with attributes, curly brackets, and text messages, that refer to the message files from which the attribute is called.

Attribute Definitions
The following definitions are assigned to the attributes used in the title block: Attribute Definitions for Title Block and Drawing Border
Attribute GEN-TITLE-NR GEN-TITLE-DWG GEN-TITLE-MAT1 GEN-TITLE-MAT2 GEN-TITLE-DES1 GEN-TITLE-DES2 GEN-TITLE-NAME Definition Drawing Number File Name Material Material (second line) Drawing Name Subtitle Name of the Draftsperson

354

Appendix C

Title Block Attributes

Attribute Definitions for Title Block and Drawing Border


GEN-TITLE-QTY GEN-TITLE-SCA GEN-TITLE-POSI GEN-TITLE-CHKM GEN-TITLE-CHKD GEN-TITLE-DAT GEN-TITLE-SHEET GEN-TITLE-PLOT Quantity Scale Factor Position Number Checked By Check Date Completion Date Page Plot Date

Curly Brackets
The curly brackets behind the attribute display the ratio of the defined width for the text to the text height. Example: If you want to enter a text with the height of 5 units, and the width of the available space is 100 units, the value {20} has to be entered. In this case the text is fit exactly. If a text with a greater height is inserted afterwards (for example 8), the value in the curly brackets also has to be adjusted (to {12.5}); otherwise, the text is displayed outside the available space.

Message Files
Message files are text files that contain the attributes which are displayed in the Change Title Block Entry dialog when you are inserting a drawing border. These attributes change, depending on the selected drawing border and standard. The message files can be found in the acadm/translator directory. You can modify or extend the message files to meet your specifications.

Title Block Attributes

355

356

Accelerator Keys

In This Appendix

Use this appendix as a guide to help you get acquainted with AutoCAD Mechanical 6 accelerator keys.

s Using Accelerator Keys

357

Accelerator Keys
Many frequently used commands are accessible using automated shortcuts known as accelerator keys. Accelerator keys are available for AutoCAD as well as for AutoCAD Mechanical.

WARNING! Accelerator keys are automatically loaded when you install


AutoCAD Mechanical 6. Accelerator keys specific to AutoCAD Mechanical 6 are appended at the end of the acad.pgp file. If you have created custom accelerator keys with the same letter combinations as those in the following table, they will be superseded because the last entry in the file is activated by the keystrokes. To restore your custom accelerator keys, move the definition to the end of the acad.pgp file.

To use an accelerator key to start a command


1 On the command line, enter the key(s) that correspond to the command you want to use. 2 Press ENTER, the spacebar, or the right mouse button to execute the command. Accelerator keys available in AutoCAD Mechanical 6
Key bal cb cha cl clin cloo cr cs dan dau dmed Function Place Balloon Centerline Cross with Hole Chamfer Centerline Draw C-Lines C-Lines ON/OFF Copy+Rotate+Move Centerline Cross Angle Dimensioning Automatic Dimensioning Multi Edit Command AMBALLOON AMCENCRHOLE AMCHAM2D AMCENTLINE AMCONSTLINES AMCLINEO AMCOPYRM AMCENCROSS AMPOWERDIM_ANG AMAUTODIM AMDIMMEDIT

358

Appendix C

Accelerator Keys

Accelerator keys available in AutoCAD Mechanical 6


f h hioo l0 l1 l2 l3 l4 l5 l6 l7 l8 l10 l11 lib lg lgmo lgv lmo o oo par pc pd ped Fillet User Defined Hatch Invisible Lines ON/OFF Layer AM_0 Layer AM_1 Layer AM_2 Layer AM_3 Layer AM_4 Layer AM_5 Layer AM_6 Layer AM_7 Layer AM_8 Layer AM_10 Layer AM_11 Library Layer/Layer Group Control Move to another Layer Group Layer Group Visibility Move to another Layer Offset 3DOrbit Create Part Reference Power Copy Power Dimensioning Power Edit AMFILLET2D AMUSERHATCH AMLAYINVO AMLAYER AMLAYER AMLAYER AMLAYER AMLAYER AMLAYER AMLAYER AMLAYER AMLAYER AMLAYER AMLAYER AMLIBRARY AMLAYER AMLGMOVE AMLAYVISENH AMLAYMOVE AMOFFSET 3DORBIT AMPARTREF AMPOWERCOPY AMPOWERDIM AMPOWEREDIT

Accelerator Keys

359

Accelerator keys available in AutoCAD Mechanical 6


per prc proo pss rec s1 s2 s3 s4 sm stoo tioo txl u0 u1 u2 u3 u4 v1 v2 v3 v4 v5 val vpoo Power Erase Power Recall Part Reference Layer ON/OFF Power Snap Settings 1-4 Rectangle Power Snap Settings 1 Power Snap Settings 2 Power Snap Settings 3 Power Snap Settings 4 Scale Monitor Standard Parts Layer ON/OFF Title Block Layer ON/OFF Language Converter Units 0 Units 1 Units 2 Units 3 Units 4 Upper Left Upper Right Lower Left Lower Right Center View All Viewport Layer ON/OFF AMPOWERERASE AMPOWERRECALL AMLAYPARTREFO AMPOWERSNAP AMRECTANG AMPSNAP1 AMPSNAP2 AMPSNAP3 AMPSNAP4 AMSCMONITOR AMLAYPARTO AMLAYTIBLO AMLANGCONV AMUNIT_0 AMUNIT_1 AMUNIT_2 AMUNIT_3 AMUNIT_4 AMVIEWUL AMVIEWUR AMVIEWLL AMVIEWLR AMVIEWCEN AMVIEWALL AMLAYVPO

360

Appendix C

Accelerator Keys

Index

A
acceleration 312 adjusting ring 22 angular dimensioning 118 angular dimensions 30 annotating 20 associative view 106 Authorized Autodesk Reseller 15 Authorized Autodesk Training Center 15 auto detailing 20 AutoCAD Today dialog box 51, 71, 207, 313 AutoCAD Users Guide 7 Autodesk Official Training Courseware 15 Autodesk Point A 10 Autodesk System Center 15 Autodesk Technical Assistance Web site 15 automatic dimensioning 20, 113 Automatic Dimensioning dialog box 114

BOM database 38, 183, 189 border conditions 299 break dimensions 120 break lines 19 breaks 25 Browser command access 8 Bulletin Board 10

C
calculation on bearing 22 calculation tools 21 cam 312 cam design and calculation 311 Cam Design and Calculation dialog box 314, 315, 316, 317, 319, 320, 321, 322, 324, 325, 326, 328 cam generator 21 center text horizontally 34 centerhole 23 centerline 172 centerline crosses 19 centerlines 19, 112 centroid 242 chain 24, 259 chain calculation 249 chain length 249 chain links 249 chamfer 206, 213 Change 18 change representation 18 circlip 27 clevis pin 24 command access methods 8 command summary 22 compression springs 24, 262 configuration 40 construction lines 26, 70, 74, 142, 173 Construction Lines dialog box 75 contact area 287

B
background 126, 142 balloons 19, 178, 183 base layer 46, 56, 94 baseline dimensions 112 Beam Calculation dialog box 244, 246 beam calculations 21 bearing 219 bearing calculation 206, 219 bearing calculations 21 Belleville spring washers 22, 262 belt 24 belt and chain generator 20 Belt and Chain Length Calculation dialog box 252, 255 bending moment 32 bills of material 19, 178 blind hole 22, 168 blind slot 23 bolt 31

361

Context Menu command access 8 contour 28 contour lines 74 copy 64 cotter pin 25 counterbore 25 countersink 25, 142 countersunk rivet 25 create viewport 35 crosshairs 30 cross-hatching 84 curve path 312 custom filter 203 cutting plane 32 cylinder 210 cylindrical pin 25

F
fatigue factor 224 FEA 21, 296 FEA 2D Calculation dialog box 299 FEA 2D Isolines (Isoareas) dialog box 302 FEA Configuration dialog box 299 feature control frame symbols 26 feature identifier symbols 26 features, standard 18 fillet 81, 206, 213 Fillet Radius dialog box 81 fillets 26 filters 201 finite element analysis 297 fit 112 fits 26 fits list 123 fixed support 224, 229, 240, 296, 300 foreground 126 frequently used commands 358

D
default layer 57 default scale factor 35 default template 52 deflection line 32, 224, 240, 243 deflection moment 224, 240 design productivity 19 Desktop Menu command access 8 detail 70, 87, 94, 98 Detail dialog box 88 detailed views 19 deviation 86 dialog boxes Mechanical Options 6 Migration Assistance installation 9 dimension styles 6 dimensioning 20, 85 dimensions 111 dimensions, adding 6 distance snap 70 distributed force 240, 296 Documentation Update utility 14 double-click editing 19 Draw Chain/Belt dialog box 259 drawing border 19, 34, 112, 121 Drawing Borders with Title Block dialog box 121 drawing limits 47, 49 drill bushing 26 durability 297 dynamic calculation 206 dynamic dragging 142, 206, 262

G
gear 206, 210, 224 Gear dialog box 230 geometric dimensioning 20 glossary of terms 7 Grid lines 38 grooved drive stud 26

H
hatch 27, 85 hidden lines 126 hide feature, 2D 20 Hide Invisible Edges 128 hole charts 19 holes, standard 18 hollow cylinders 27

I
inner shaft contours 32 isoareas 301 isolines 301

K
keyseat 32

L
language conversion 19 language converter 28 Layer Control dialog box 48, 60, 61, 65, 108 layer group 28, 46, 56, 59, 94 layer management system 19 layer organization 47 Layer Specifications 349 layer system 28, 350 layers and layer groups 5 layout 95

E
edge symbols 26 Edit Attributes dialog box 122 edit hidden edges 134 engineering calculation 21 engineering features 18 extension springs 26, 262 external thread 26

362

Index

layouts 6, 94 leader 29, 33 leader line 187, 197 leader note 20 length calculation 252 library 70 Library dialog 28 line 82 line force 300 linetypes 6 lineweights 6 List of Filters dialog box 202 load 224, 240, 289, 296 loads 26 lock washer 32 lubricator 28

P
parallel or woodruff key 32 part information 179 part layer 46, 56 Part Ref Attributes dialog box 180, 182, 187 part reference 29, 178, 179 partition 250 Parts Database dialog 33 parts layers 28 Parts List 38 parts list 29, 40, 178, 188, 201 Parts List dialog box 191, 202 pin 170 pitch diameter 250 plain bearing 29 plain rivet 29 plug 29, 32 point force 224, 240 Point Load dialog box 231 polyline 79 Power Commands 70 power commands 19 Power Copy 142, 149, 262, 273 power copy 133 power dimension 20 Power Dimensioning 70, 94, 112 Power Dimensioning dialog box 86, 90, 105, 117 Power Edit 142, 160, 262, 274, 296, 305 Power Erase 112, 142, 165, 196 Power Recall 142 Power Snap Settings dialog box 74, 208 Power View 142, 162 power view 18, 133 precalculation 156 precision 86 predefined templates 47 printed documentation 7, 11 produce support resources 15 product support 14 production drawing creation tools 19 profile 212 property class 282 pulleys 33 Pulleys and Sprockets dialog box 256

M
manage drawings 20 manuals, printed and online 11 Material dialog box 228, 245 material properties 280 Material Properties dialog box 227, 228 mechanical layer 47, 57 Mechanical Options dialog box 6, 48 mechanical toolbar 33 merge 194 mesh 301, 304 migrating files 9 Migration Assistance installation dialog 9 model space 31, 95, 100 module 210 moment 289 moment of inertia 27, 240 movable support 224, 229, 240, 296, 300 movement diagram 312 movement section 312 mtext 34 multi edit 112, 118

N
NC 312 New and Revised Commands 37 new drawing 51 Nominal Diameter dialog box 103 notch 224 nut 29

Q
quick reference card 7

O
object oriented construction 4 object snap modes 30 object snaps 73 online documentation 7, 11 online help 22 o-ring 32 outer shaft contours 32

R
radius reflection line 206 rectangle 30 reference point 31 relative point 30 representation 142, 174 representation of a standard part 33

Index

363

rescaling objects 6 resolution 312 result block 293 retaining ring 27 revision lists 31 roller bearing 31 roller chain 250

S
safety factor of shaft 32 Save Drawing As dialog box 50 scale area 31, 94, 95 Scale Area dialog box 96 scale areas 6 scale factors 6 scale monitor 94 scaling 31 screw 31 Screw Assembly Grip Representation - Front View dialog box 147 Screw Assembly Templates dialog 32 Screw Assembly Templates dialog box 155 screw calculation 21, 279 Screw Calculation dialog box 280 screw connection 18, 32, 279 Screw Connection dialog 32 Screw Connection dialog box 145, 152, 156 Screw Connection New Part Front View dialog box 161 Screw Diameter Estimation dialog box 157 Screw Pre-Calculation 21 screw template 151 script 32 sealing ring 32 section lines 19 Select a Blind Hole dialog box 168 Select a Cylindrical Pin dialog box 170 Select a Nut dialog box 283 Select a Row dialog box 281 Select a Screw dialog box 145, 281 Select Graph dialog box 233, 246 Select Part Size dialog box 171, 253 Set Value dialog box 192, 200 settlement 291 shaft 29, 35 shaft break 206, 214 shaft calculation 225, 232 Shaft Calculation dialog box 227, 235 shaft calculations 21 shaft end 32 shaft generator 20, 206, 225 Shaft Generator dialog box 209 shaft lock nut 32 shapes, steel 18 shim ring 32 shortcuts 358 side view 215

simple welds 32 slope 217 snap distance 187 snap settings 30, 73 snap toolbar 33 sort 199 Sort dialog box 199 special characters 118 split 194 springs 22, 24, 26, 34 spring calculation 263 spring generator 20 spring layout 266 sprocket 250, 256 sprockets 33 sprockets/pulleys 24 stability 297 stand-alone screw calculation 279 standard features 18 standard parts 18, 30, 143 standard parts, 2D 18 starting layer 47 steel shape 130 steel shapes 18, 33, 41, 126 step width 312 strength 224, 235 Strength Calculation dialog box 236 stress 224, 296 stress calculation 26 stress division 306 stress representation 304 stress table 303 structural steel shapes 18 support assistance 14 supporting force 32 surface texture symbols 20, 33 Switch Representation of Standard Parts dialog box 175 symmetric shaft parts 32 symmetrical lines 19, 33

T
tangent definition 254 taper pin 33 tapped blind hole 33 tapped through hole 33 technical support 14 Template Description dialog box 51 text fonts 6 text styles 6, 33 thread 216 thread end 34 through hole 34 through slot 34 tightening 292 title block 29, 34, 112 title blocks 19

364

Index

Today window 10 tolerance 112 tolerances 20, 29, 86 Toolbutton command access 8 torque 32 Torque dialog box 231 torque rotation angle 32 torsion moment 32 torsion springs 34, 262 trace contours 34 tracking line 187 translate text 27 trim 83 Type of Follower dialog box 315 typographical conventions 16

V
View dialog box 100, 106, 107 view scale 94 viewports 28, 94, 95, 98 viewports, creating 6 virtual intersection 31 Visibility Enhancement dialog box 64

W
washer 36, 284 Web site, Autodesk support 15 weld 20 weld symbols 20, 36 working layer 46, 56, 94

U
undercut 35 user-defined blind hole 34 user-defined blind slot 35 user-defined counterbore 35 user-defined countersink 35 user-defined hatch 35 user-defined through hole 35

X
xrefs 36

Y
yield factor 224

Z
z coordinate 31 zigzag line 32, 36 zoom 35

Index

365