From Bi 150 Lecture 0 October 4, 2012 An introduction to molecular biology . . .

but you will learn the cell biology in this course

1

3 x 109 base pairs Lander et al .

Little Alberts Fig 5-12 . A. © Garland. plus the X and Y. Each chromosome is “painted” with a unique combination of fluorescent dyes B. females are XX. We have arranged the chromosomes to form pairs. Males are XY.Humans have 22 pairs of chromosomes.

Genes can be localized crudely by hybridizing a fluorescent nucleotide probe to chromosomes 2 m 6 distinct genes are probed b di in this hi i image Little Alberts Fig 10-16 Seuss 1959 .

Complete DNA sequence as scripture (surf NCBI) single-nucleotide g polymorphisms (SNPs) orthologs in other species mutations that cause disease basic sequence proteins that bind to the sequence and regulate expression chromosomal location RNA splicing RNA sequence RNA abundance protein sequence protein function protein structure 5 .

. . or < 1% of the genome! g The remainder .000 genes x 400 codons/protein x 3 bases/codon = 26. 1. Introns 6 . Repetitive elements (junk? selfish DNA?) 2.4 million base pairs. Regulatory regions 3.How much coding sequence is in the genome? 22.

8-15 © Garland publishing 7 .Gene activation involves regulatory regions Little Alberts Fig.

Components of Expression Gene (DNA) coding sequences noncoding g sequences q exon intron transcription (mRNA synthesis) splicing (introns removed) messenger RNA (mRNA) translated sequences translation untranslated sequences protein 8 .

synthesis B.Protein synthesis and degradation A. breakdown Modified from Little Alberts Panel 2-5 9 . degradation proteolysis “proteolysis” protein + Greek.

the tRNA synthetase translates the genetic code. other parts of the tRNA (b) the anticodon loop 10 . because it contacts (a) the amino acid (c) in some cases.

“first” 11 .receptor a molecule on the cell surface or in the cell interior that has an affinity for a specific molecule (the ligand). Latin. Greek. “to tie” Most drug receptors are proteins.

Protein Folding vs. “Inverse Folding” = Computational Protein Design Protein Folding (no degeneracy) Set of All Structures Inverse Folding (large degeneracy) Set of All Sequences Several ways y to make an arch Individual amino acids 12 .

organelle of expression 13 .Protein degradation is accomplished primarily by proteolytic enzymes The genome encodes hundreds of proteolytic enzymes. They vary in -.sequence specificity for the “cut” cut -.cellular expression -.

ubiquitin. strings of ubiquitin to be proteolyzed other protein modified from Little Alberts Fig 18-7 14 .Cells often mark proteins for proteolysis by attaching strings of the protein.

Controlled proteolysis takes place in the proteasome shorter modified from Little Alberts 1st edition Fig 7-32 15 .

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