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1~1an1o gue~:1on~ on a +1de +az1e:) o1 :op1o~ +n1on na+e Ieen an~+ezed 1n de:a11 +1:n 1u11
e×p1ana:1on I) :ne ¿zea: Aaz]a' Jag11d. .)a:u11on a1-'1zno a/-1o]] a~n-5na)1n 1uI1u//on a~-5o1I a/-
Cu/po),onI /na) .//on pzo:eo: n/n)
Jzan~/a:ed /n:o 1n,//~n I) 5a/een 1n/n]/ /+++.a/-nuI/n.oz,)
Ouoslion: ¼1:n +na: +1~don oz zea~on d1d .nIz a1-Ao`n1nIn /peaoe Ie upon n1n) ¿1+e :ne oa:n o1 a11e¿1anoe
/1a)'an) :o .Iü 1akz keep1n¿ 1n n1nd :na: ¿1+1n¿ :ne Ia)'an :o n1n +a~ an aooep:anoe o1 n1~ Kn11o1an and
pzoo1 o1 n1n /.Iü 1akz) Ie1n¿ on :ne ~1de o1 :ne :zu:n?
Answor: In rolalion lo llo issuo of llo baval of Amir al-Mo'minin (poaco bo upon lim) and llo oall of allogianco
llal il was said was lakon from lim, wlollor llis bo somolling llal is vorifiod or doniod, and also, llis noblo
porsonalilv (poaco bo upon lim) romaining ouiol and nol parlicipaling in anv lvpo of aclivilv of robollion and nol
picking up arms lo go againsl (lloso wlo slolo lis riglls) in anv wav llal lad lakon slapo and llo ploasuro
and approval of llis porsonalilv in rolalion lo wlal lad occurrod aro all llings llal aro nol oslablislod
(according lo llo rocordod ovonls of lislorv).
Tlo roluclanco of lloso puro souls (llo Companions) and llo ollor groal porsonalilios wlo in llo boginning
did nol givo llo baval, lowovor lalor on (as somo pooplo monlion) did givo baval and also llo largo
numbor of pooplo wlo, in lloso spocific and parlicular condilions gavo llo baval in a parlicular wav (as las
boon monlionod in lislorv) is noillor confirmod nor oslablislod.
Will lis sword drawn oul of llo sloall and will llo lolp and supporl of lis gang, Umar roamod llo slrools
of Madinal llroaloning llo pooplo will doall and forcod llom lo givo lloir baval lo Abu ßakr.
Iloaso pav allonlion lo llo following poinls:
1. Tlo boliof and crood of llo Slia wlo aro of llo 1eop1e o1 :ne Je×:, llrougl llo ulilizalion of llo logical and
rolalod proofs jusl as was proviouslv oxplainod is llis: llo Imamal is a posilion llal ono is appoinlod inlo
bv Allal and aflor llo Iroplol, llal individual wloso porsona possossos all of llo claraclorislics ombodiod
in Islam, oxcopl for Nubuwwal, and wlo slaros in llo conlinualion of llo samo divino blossings of llal
porsonalilv (Tlo Iroplol) in all wavs and forms is llo ono wloso Wilaval (maslorslip) ovor all affairs of
llo sociolv musl bo dosignalod and appoinlod bv Allal llo Mosl Higl. Amir al-Mo'minin (poaco bo upon lim) ,
according lo llo counlloss loxls (of aladill) and ollor proofs was llo appoinlod Klalifal and llo lruo
Imam and dovialion from lim lo anvono olso ovon if all of llo pooplo aro in agroomonl ovor llal ollor
porson - is nol pormissiblo and is a caso of:
þK ôó¦¨÷ ¾ë ú÷Z»˜« …¦Á»¢ú÷I¾ì«
1u::1n¿ anead :ne one +non .11on na~ 1e1: :o :ne zeaz
and 1ea+1n¿ :ne one +non .11on na~ ¿1+en pze1ezenoe :o.
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Iusl as llo Iroplol is nol pormillod lo granl llo slalion or posilion of Nubuwwal lo anvono olso, so loo llo
Imam is nol pormillod lo granl llo slalion or posilion of Imamal lo anvono olso. Tloroforo, supposing llal
aflor Ali (poaco bo upon lim) was rofusod (llo slalion of Klalifal) and llon lalor on, llo baval was lakon from
lim, or llis noblo porsonalilv, duo lo ovonls llal camo up lalor on wlicl will bo monlionod onsuing, was
rondorod lolploss lo plodgo llo baval, llon llo lruo moaning and significanco of llis sorl of baval was
nol acliovod bv llis (forcod acl) and llo corroclnoss of llo aclions ofllo ollor parlv is nol accoplod.
2. If llo Klilafal (of Abu ßakr) was basod on llo lrull, llon llis would implv llal llo losilanco of Ali and
Savvidal Zalra (poaco bo upon boll of llom) and a largo numbor of pooplo and rovorod Companions was nol
propor and llal llov woro nol on llo pall of llo lrull.
Il is known llal lloro aro dofinilo and docisivo aladill from llo Noblo Iroplol of Islam (blossings of Allal bo
upon lim and lis familv) wlicl slalo llal './I /~ on :ne Jzu:n and :ne Jzu:n /~ +/:n ' ./I and :ne~e :+o +/// ne+ez
~epaza:e 1zon one ano:nez and lloroforo, if somoono savs llal Ali was nol will llo lrull in llis ovonl or
did nol spoak llo lrull or did nol acl upon llo lrull llon lo is boliod llo Iroplol (blossings of Allal bo upon lim
and lis famil v).
Tlus il is will no uncorlainlv llal wo sav llal Ali (poaco bo upon lim) , in llis ovonl and all ollor ovonls and
circumslancos was alwavs on llo lrull and lis rofusal lo gaivao llo baval was also nol llo rofusal lo bo on
llo lrull: rallor, lis rofusal was llo donial of falsolood.
3. Tlo rofusal of Ali (poaco bo upon lim) and a group of ollors lo givo baval lo llo Klalifal from llo poinl of
viow of lislorv is nol somolling llal can bo doniod, and ovon ono of llo conlomporarv pools from Egvpl
wlo is known bv llo lillo of Jne 1oe: o1 :ne ^//e in lis pooms las also admillod and doclarod llis. Tlo
rofusal (lo givo llo baval) was so commonlv accoplod and indispulablo sucl llal in ono of llo lollors llal
lo wrolo lo Ali (poaco bo upon lim) , Muawival las monlionod llis facl and in roplv, llis noblo porsonalilv
(Ali, poaco bo upon lim ) did nol donv llal lo lad nol givon llo baval: rallor, llo rigllfulnoss and logilimacv
of lis donial and rofusal and llo opprossion llal lo facod is monlionod in lis own words in llis wriling (lo
Muawival) wlon lo wrolo:
. .` -· · .' .· ' `' ¯ `` ·' . · ' ¯- ¸`` - .' ¸-' · ` ¯ · ·' `.` ¯ ` · . ·
¨Jou a1~o +an: :o :aun: ne I) ~a)1n¿ :na: +nen 1 ze1u~ed :o aooep: :ne oa11pna:e o1 :ne 11z~: Ca11pn 1
+a~ dza¿¿ed 11ke a oane1 +1:n a zope zound n) neok and e+ez) k1nd o1 ozue1:) and nun111a:1on +a~
1e+e1ed a¿a1n~: ne.¨ 1e::ez 2B ^an] a1-1a1o¿na
To summarizo our poinl, nol onlv is lloro no room for doubl or skoplicism llal Imam Ali (poaco bo upon lim)
and llo rosl of llo clan of ßani Haslim and a largo numbor of llo Companions rofusod lo givo lloir baval
lo llo Klalifal, rallor, lloir rofusal, was known and ovidonl (for all lo soo).
Howovor, if il is claimod llal aflor lloso larsl and coarso ovonls llal look placo, Ali (poaco bo upon lim) and lloso
wlo supporlod lim gavo lloir baval and llal lloir baval was bv wav of lloir own inward ploasuro and lloir
puro loarl and inlonlion, llon il is nol possiblo lo subslanlialo llis (claim) sinco llo ladill (of llis ovonl) is a
singlo narralion (knaIaz-e-+oI1d) and in llo lorminologv of llo scionco of ladill, il is doublful (na~nkük). In
llis ladill, manv conlrasls and irrogularilios can also bo soon wlicl, al llis poinl in limo, is nol llo placo for
discussion. Anvwav, wo aro nol ablo lo classifv lloir baval as an aullonlic baval llal would lavo anv basis
in llo Islamic logislalion.
Al llis poinl wo monlion somo roasons llal II indood llis baval did occur in lislorv, llon wlv il mav lavo
lakon placo.
1. Il was soon (bv Ali, poaco bo upon lim ) llal lo sland up lo wlal lad occurrod would nol bo possiblo oxcopl bv
rosorling lo arms wlicl was nol concoivablo sinco il would rosull in an inlornal war bolwoon llo Muslims.
Tlo condilion and silualion (llal llo Muslim Ummal was in) was sucl llal vorv roconllv, llrougl llo
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pains and lroublos of llo Noblo Iroplol (blossings of Allal bo upon lim and lis familv) and llrougl llo assislanco of
Ali (poaco bo upon lim) and ollors, llo sood of lruo faill and conviclion in llo Ononoss of Allal lad jusl boon
sown in llo loarls of llo boliovors and an inlornal war would nol lavo sorvod llo causo of Islam. Il would
bo llrougl llis acl llal llo vorv foundalions of Islam would bo pul al in dangor and would forco llo
Muslims lo sland up in ranks againsl ono anollor wloso oulcomo or conclusion would novor bo roaclod.
Il was Ali (poaco bo upon lim) wlo lad lolpod llo Iroplol (blossings of Allal bo upon lim and lis familv) in llo
oslablislmonl of llis foundalion (of Islam). Il was llrougl lis lrullfulnoss and sincorilv and bv pulling
lis lifo in lis own lands and llrougl lis solf-sacrificos al all placos and all limos from llo vorv firsl dav
(llal buill llo roligion). His loarl llrobbod for llis roligion and lo saw llal if llo dofonso of lis own solf
moanl llo dosolalion and annililalion of lloso foundalions, llon for suro lo would clooso lo savo Islam
and lrv lo mainlain llo unilv of llo Muslims in faco of llo opposilion of llo Kuffar and would givo llis
procodonco lo llo adjudicalion of llo lrull. Tlis would allow Islam lo progross and advanco ovon llougl
sucl a progross would bo slowor and lako mucl longor.
Allal forbid llal llo roligion como lo a complolo slandslill and llo movomonl llal llo Iroplol (blossings of
Allal bo upon lim a nd lis familv) lad brougll forll will llo lolp of llo pooplo slould slop for ovon ono momonl
(if a war would lako placo amongsl llo Muslims) jusl so llo groundwork could bo laid down for llo
advancomonl of llo roligion of Islam and in ordor for llo mandalo and oslablislmonl of llo Wilaval and
Klilafal of Ali lo lako rool in llo fuluro, jusl as lapponod lalor on.
Will llo passing of limo, llo lrullfulnoss of llo All al-ßail (poaco bo upon all of llom) and llo blundors and
mislakos of dovialing from llo (lruo) Imam llal lad boon appoinlod was mado apparonl and on lloir own,
llo pooplo dovolopod an allraclion for llo Noblo Ouran and llo All al-ßail (poaco bo upon all of llom) and llo
lruo boliof in llo Imamal.
Tlo opporlunilv also aroso for llo All al-ßail (poaco bo upon all of llom) lo guido llo pooplo lo llo puro springs
of Islam, llo loaclings of llo roligion, llo oxogosis of llo Ouran and llo lruo roligion of Islam will all of ils'
rulos and rogulalions, polilical loaclings, sociolal and ollical inslruclions and guidolinos. Moro imporlanl
llan all of llis, llo corrocl divino lloological boliofs woro conforrod lo llo pooplo.
Howovor, if an inlornal war lad lakon placo in Madinal, llon llo corruplion, dovialion, sodilion and
rovolls llal would lavo slommod from llis acl would lavo pul all llings in dangor of complolo
annililalion and il was bocauso of llis roason llal Ali (poaco bo upon lim) rojoclod llo advico from Abu Sufvan
for lim paving baval lo Ali (poaco bo upon lim ) and considorod llis as an acl llal would inilialo sodilion and
rovoll.
2. Tlo socond roason for Ali (poaco bo upon lim) giving baval is llal, jusl as can bo doducod from a sludv of
lislorv, llis noblo porsonalilv lad foar or concorn for llo lifo of limsolf and llal of lis familv and llis foar
or concorn was somolling llal Abbas, lis unclo, was ablo lo discorn. Il was lis unclo wlo advocalod lim
lo pav llo baval sinco if lo was lo bo killod, llon il would bo Islam and llo Muslims, wlo al llal limo
woro dosporalolv in nood of knowlodgo and onligllonmonl, wlo would lavo boon in disadvanlago and
loss.
Il was in sucl a circumslanco in wlicl il was nol possiblo lo lavo rocourso in forco and also ono in wlicl
complolo submission was also nol in llo bosl inlorosl lo doal will llo silualion, llal Ali (poaco bo upon lim)
was vorv caroful and crilical (in low lo doall will llo silualion).
Tlis noblo porsonalilv, bv cloosing llo pall llal lo did, fulfillod a vorv loavv rosponsibililv llal was
upon lim: lo oxposod llo lrull and al llo samo limo, obsorvod wlal was bosl for Islam in ils onlirolv. His
procious soul, wlicl was roadv lo sacrifico ils solf in llo pall of Islam was also proloclod so llal lis blood
would nol lavo boon slod usolosslv simplv lo affirm llo powor of lrull and so llal llo firo of rovoll,
llrougl wlicl all llings aro scorclod, would nol bo lil and so llal llo opporlunilv (of Imamal and
loadorslip of llo communilv) wloso acouisilion was oxpoclod in llo fuluro would nol go awav.
Ñ
In summarv, Ali (poaco bo upon lim) , aclod according lo llo loslamonl llal was lofl bv llo Iroplol (blossings of
Allal bo upon lim and lis familv) and did nol ovon cringo in carrving oul llo will bv llo amounl of llo load of a
noodlo. Tlo arona or onvironmonl llal would causo llo foolings or omolions of anv bravo, couragoous,
poworful porson lo bo slirrod or slimulalod woro all wilnossod, lowovor, anv acl llal lo slould nol lavo
porformod, nor anv words llal musl nol bo said woro nol issuod. Ho aclod will complolo knowlodgo and
bv obsorving and woigling all anglos of llo silualion.
Howovor, all of lloso condilions and silualions provo llo lrullfulnoss of Ali (poaco bo upon lim) and lis dosiro
for Islam and lis acling nol for lis own sako. Il is cloar llal llis noblo porsonalilv was complololv
annililalod and drownod and in llo Trull (Allal) and llal wlicl was imporlanl lo lim and lad anv valuo
was Islam and llo onduranco of llo codo of Islam and llo inlorosls of llo Muslims.
In llo condilions llal lo was pul in, noillor lis slaving ouiol or giving baval bv forco and llrougl
coorcion would givo anv crodonco lo llo rigllfulnoss of llo slalo of affairs al llal limo. Nor would sucl a
baval absolvo anvono of lloir roligious rosponsibililv nor would il pardon anvono of lloir codo of
conducl.
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