creative thinking Web definitions creativity: the ability to create. wordnetweb.princeton.

edu/perl/webwn Creativity and Creative Thinking Combine traditional brainstorming with creative thinking techniques and you will get advanced brainstorming What is creativity? Creativity is the bringing into being of something which did not exist before, either as a product, a process or a thought. You would be demonstrating creativity if you: Invent something which has never existed before Invent something which exists elsewhere but you are not aware of Invent a new process for doing something Reapply an existing process or product into a new or different market Develop a new way of looking at something (bringing a new idea into existence) Change the way someone else looks at something In fact, we are all creative every day because we are constantly changing the ideas which we hold about the world about us. Creativity does not have to be about developing something new to the world, it is more to do with developing something new to ourselves. When we change ourselves, the world changes with us, both in the way that the world is affected by our changed actions and in the changed way that we experience the world. Creativity can be used to make products, processes and services better and it can be used to create them in the first place. It is expected that increasing your creativity will help you, your organization and your customers become happier through improvements in your quality and quantity of output. What is creative thinking? Creative thinking is the process which we use when we come up with a new idea. It is the merging of ideas which have not been merged before. Brainstorming is one form of creative thinking: it works by merging someone else's ideas with your own to create a new one. You are using the ideas of others as a stimulus for your own. This creative thinking process can be accidental or deliberate. Without using special techniques creative thinking does still occur, but usually in the accidental way; like a chance happening making you think about something in a different way and you then discovering a beneficial change. Other changes happen slowly through pure use of intelligence and logical progression. Using this accidental or logical progression process, it often takes a long time for products to develop and improve. In an accelerating and competitive world this is obviously disadvantageous.

Using special techniques, deliberate creative thinking can be used to develop new ideas. These techniques force the mergance of a wide range of ideas to spark off new thoughts and processes. Brainstorming is one of these special techniques, but traditionally it starts with unoriginal ideas. Developments of products occur much more rapidly using these deliberate techniques than by accident. Many people known for being creative use these techniques, but are not aware they are doing so because they have not been formally trained in them. If you use these deliberate techniques during advanced brainstorming sessions then you too will be more creative. With practice, ongoing creative thinking (the continuous investigation, questioning and analysis that develops through education, training and self-awareness) occurs all the time. Ongoing creativity maximizes both accidental and deliberate creative thinking. Ongoing creativity takes time and deliberate practice to become skillful at, but it's surprising how quickly it becomes an attitude, not a technique. The first step to take is to learn the creative thinking techniques so that you can deliberately use them to come up with new ideas. You will then be at an immediate advantage over those who don't know how to use them. You should then practise the techniques to increase your skill at ongoing creative thinking. (After a while you may even find it unnecessary to use specific techniques because you may be having too many ideas anyway.)

Now let's find out how creative thinking techniques work ... (or just download our specialist software Brainstorming Toolbox to make these techniques instant and interactive (free 30 day trial)) How do Creative Thinking techniques work? Creative thinking techniques work to stimulate original ideas. New ideas happen when two or more ideas are accidentally or deliberately merged when they have never been merged before. Creative thinking techniques provide the method for deliberately combining ideas in ways which you would not normally come across or think about. This combination generates a truly original idea for you. The creative thinking process looks like this:

So, that's it? Yes, creative thinking is all about merging two previously uncombined thoughts, products or processes. Well, that's the theory. In practice, of course, it can be very difficult to find the ideas to merge, and then to develop that new idea into a workable solution. Traditional brainstorming lets us believe that other people are enough of a stimulus to prompt us to think in different ways. But this is not normally enough and can leave us struggling to think of original thoughts. If we are brainstorming with people who we normally work with then we are likely to keep coming up with the same ideas as each other, simply because we are used to their ideas and our similar situations. In traditional brainstorming we keep coming up with the same ideas again and again because we keep providing each other with the same stimuli! What we need for advanced brainstorming to work (ie. lots of new ideas to merge into a solution) is easy access to a series of creative thinking tools; a library of techniques we could always refer to which would provide us with the different and alternative stimuli we seek to spark off new ideas. (Whether those new ideas are of immediate value is not a concern at this stage. It is the generation of new ideas which matters at the brainstorming stage of the problem-solving process. It is then up to you to decide at a later date if the idea is of value to you.) So, what creative thinking techniques are available? Many! The techniques we specialize in, and will be training you in, are listed below. All of them will provide you with fresh stimuli and a new way of thinking. You will be able to incorporate them into your brainstorming sessions (individual or group) to generate new ideas easily and they will make sure you'll never be stuck for a new idea. Random Word Random Picture False Rules Random Website SCAMPER Search & Reapply Challenge Facts Escape Analogies Wishful Thinking Thesaurus How do I use them? Since a computer is not influenced by preconceptions, bias or inhibitions - and because you're using one right now! - then it's the perfect partner for providing ideas which you would not have thought of merging before. In the pages that follow, this training course shows you how to use each of the techniques listed above. It is recommended that you use the techniques for real in your brainstorming sessions so that you can prove that they work for you gain experience in using them find the ones which work best for you.

You can use the generated stimulus by telling it to the group or by posing the generated question to the group for their response. If you ever get stuck for an idea, restart the process with a fresh stimulus generated by creative thinking techniques. Remember that you do not need to have a computer to get a new stimulus and all of the techniques are explained for use without a computer. Brainstorming software just brings all of the techniques together to make them quicker and easier to access. Other materials and equipment which you have in your office or home will probably work too.
Critical Thinking is the process we use to reflect on assess and judge the assumption underlying our own and others ideas and efforts.

reative thinking is

the process we use to develop ideas that are unique, usefulm and worthy of further elaboration

Creative Thinkers: Consider rejecting standardized formats for problem solving. Have an interest in a wide range of related and divergent fields. Take multiple perspectives on a problem. Use trial-and-error methods in their experimentation. Have a future orientation. Have self-confidence and trust in their own judgment. Creative Thinking Questions What would exist that does not exist now? What would be happening that does not happen now? What decisions would be made and executed? What accomplishments would be in place that are not now? What patterns of behavior that currently in place would be eliminated? Sample Questions from Reaction Engineering P4-1 Make up and solve an original problem based on the material in this chapter. In preparing your original problem, first list the principles you want to get across and why the problem is important. Also consider relevance, interest, impact of solution, time required to obtain a solution, degree of difficulty. P8-5(e) Explore the problem. Vary the activation energy, E, the heat of reaction, , or some other parameter to learn their effect in the reaction. Write a paragraph describing your findings.

BRAINSTORMING Brainstorming is one of the most important techniques to generate and develop new ideas Lateral Thinking Vertical Thinking Comments that Reduce Brainstorming to Braindrizzling That won't work That's too radical It's not our job We don't have enough time That's too much hassle .P8-5(h) Ask another question or suggest another calculation for this reaction.

always developing at least two or more alternative solutions to your problem. Have courage and self-confidence. Hobbies can also help you relax. expectations. half formed concepts and possibilities and developing them. Deepen your self-knowledge by learning your real strengths. and other literature in your field to make sure you are not using yesterday's technology to solve toady's problems. Engage in creative hobbies. . biases. fears and prejudices. trade journals.It's against our policy We haven't done it that way before That's too expensive That's not practical We can't solve this problem Improving Your Creative Abilities Keep track of your ideas at all times. Be alert in your observations. Be open and receptive to ideas (yours and others). dislike. Use cross-fertilization to bring ideas and concepts from one field or specialty to another. Look for similarities. Assume that you can and will indeed solve the problem Persist and have the tenacity to overcome obstacles that block the solution pathway. Overcome biases and preconceived notions by looking at the problem from a fresh view point. If an idea is not written down within 24 hours it will usually be forgotten Pose new questions to yourself every day. An active mind is necessary for creative growth. An inquiring mind is a creatively active one that enlarges its area of awareness. Many times ideas come at unexpected times. keep them from breaking by seizing on the tentative. Keep abreast of your field. as well as unique and distinguishing features in situations and problems. set patterns of doing things. Learn about things outside your specialty. New ideas are fragile. Learn to know and understand yourself. weaknesses. Avoid rigid. Be a paradigm pioneer. skills. differences. Read the magazines.

Humor aids in putting your problems (and yourself) in perspective. Many times it relieves tension and makes you more relaxed.. Keep your sense of humor.. etc.Adopt a risk taking attitude. and effect? Change positives to negatives? Reverse roles? Turn it backwards or upside down? Sort? Combine parts. Interchange parts? Other patterns. idea.. units. etc. material... shorter... or approacj? Minify?.. Modify?.... layouts? Transpose cause Rearrange?.. stronger.? Split up? Take something out? Make lighter. shape. Fear of failure is the major impediment to generating solutions which are risky (i. amterial. You are more creative when you are relaxed. thicker. Practicing Creative Thinking Practice creative thinking by with the following techniques: .) be used as is? What are other uses it could be adapted to? Change the meaning. Substitute?. higher. where else or what else? Other ingredient.. etc... Outlining the ways you could fail and how you would deal with these failures will reduce this obstacle to creativity. plan. Magnify?. small chance of succeeding) but would have a major impact if they are successful.. How can This (product. lower.... color....e.? Add new ingredient? Make longer.? Who else.. etc. ideas? Blend? Compromise? Combine from different categories? Combine?. Osborn's Checklist for Adding New Ideas Adapt?. odor.

and consider why you need to solve the problem.. Brainstorm ways you could work this homework problem incorrectly.. Scott Fogler and Steven E.. Include information on what you are to solve." questions are particularly effective when used with the Living Example Problems where one varies the parameters to explore the problem and to carry out sensitivity analysis. Brainstorm the reasons why your calcualtions overpredict the conversion that was measured when the reactor was put on stream. LeBlanc. For example.      First Steps in Solving Open-Ended Problems From Strategies for Creative Problem Solving by H. Assume you made no numerical errors in your calculations. Brainstorm ways to make this problem easier or more difficult. Brainstorm a list of things you learned from working this homework problem and what you think the point of the problem is. what would you say?. 1995 1. "What if.. what if someone suggested that you should double the catalyst particle diameter. Write an initial problem statement. 3. . Brainstorm ideas to ask another question or suggest another calculation that can be made for this homework assignment." questions: The "What if.

2. Generate solutions (chapter 4) A. 5. 6.Make sure you are proceeding to solve the real problem as opposed to the perceived problem (chapter 3). Find out where the problem came from Explore the problem Apply the Duncker Diagram Use the statement-restatement technique Apply Problem Analysis 4. Brainstorm 1. D. 4. Random Stimulation b. Understand what conceptual blocks can occur so that you will be aware of them when they surface. Other People's Views E. C. C. E. Perceptual Emotional Cultural Environmental Intellectual Expressive . Carry out one or more of the following: A. Free association 2. 3. Lateral Thinking a. B. Osborn’s Check List 3. 1.

1. M. Incubate. 3. 4. Let your subconscious work on the problem while you do something else. 2. Sometimes all you need is a breather to achieve that .Analogy 1.g. Futuring. Remove all possible constraints from the problem statement and solution criteria. Think to the future when these constraints may no longer exist. Today's constraints (e. computing speed. G. Take a break. Draw analogies from other disciplines State the problem Generate analogies Solve the analogy Transfer the analogy to the solution K. Cross Fertilize 1. Fishbone Diagram I. Organize the ideas/solutions that have been generated. communications) may be limiting the generation of creative solutions.

Decision Making 1. Follow Through (chapter 6) A. Wants breakthrough! 5. Evaluation . 4. Does the solution satisfy all the stated and implied criteria? B. Planning 1. 2. Adverse Consequences C. 3. Choose best alternative from the ideas generated (chapter 5) A.Is the problem you are solving still relevant? 9. Gantt Chart B. 7. Evaluate (chapter 7) A. Deployment Chart C. Musts 2. Is the solution safe to people and property? Potential Problem Consequences Preventative Action Contingent Action .

for which the right hemisphere is usually dominant. especially the frontal lobes. Large animals such as whales and elephants have larger brains in absolute terms.) Within each lobe are numerous cortical areas. Cerebral veins. called the frontal lobe. The left and right sides of the cortex are broadly similar in shape. the free encyclopedia This article is about features specific to the human brain. There are other functions. For basic information about brains. with the right hemisphere playing only a minor role. see Brain. The Human Brain Human brain and skull Cerebral lobes: the frontal lobe (pink). The human cerebral cortex is a thick layer of neural tissue that covers most of the brain. the left hemisphere is "dominant" for language. etc. This layer is folded in a way that increases the amount of surface that can fit into the volume available.C. parietal lobe. and abstract thought. but when measured using the encephalization quotient which compensates for body size. show strong lateralization. although there are many small variations. . Is the solution ethical? Human brain From Wikipedia. and most cortical areas are replicated on both sides. temporal lobe. reasoning. terminal vein. In most people. and three times as large as the brain of a chimpanzee. choroid vein. The portion of the cerebral cortex devoted to vision is also greatly enlarged in humans. cerebellar veins Precursor Neural tube The human brain has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals. basal vein. language. (Some classification systems also include a limbic lobe and treat the insular cortex as a lobe. planning. and occipital lobe. the human brain is almost twice as large as the brain of the bottlenose dolphin. though. but is larger than any other in relation to body size. parietal lobe (green) and occipital lobe (blue) Latin Cerebrum Gray's subject #184 736 System Central nervous system Artery Internal carotid arteries. each associated with a particular function such as vision. Some areas. such as spatiotemporal reasoning. which are associated with executive functions such as self-control. external veins. particularly areas that are involved in language. vertebral arteries Vein Internal jugular vein. Much of the expansion comes from the part of the brain called the cerebral cortex. motor control. The cortex is divided into four "lobes". The pattern of folds is similar across individuals.

4.4. can be used with non-human species. A number of psychiatric conditions. the techniques that are used to study the human brain differ in important ways from those that are used to study other animal species.2 Major folds 1.3 Cortical divisions 1. but for ethical reasons. although the nature of such brain anomalies is not well understood. In many cases. a stroke. is rare due to the biological barriers which protect it. Contents [hide] 1 Structure 1. humans are the only subjects who can respond to complex verbal instructions. suspended in cerebrospinal fluid. multiple sclerosis. the human brain is susceptible to many types of damage and disease.3. or poisoning by a variety of chemicals that can act as neurotoxins.Despite being protected by the thick bones of the skull. and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood–brain barrier. and Alzheimer's disease. The human brain is also susceptible to degenerative disorders. Thus. Scientifically. On the other hand. are thought to be associated with brain dysfunctions. human and non-human studies form essential complements to each other. or disabling parts of the brain in order to examine the effect on behavior.4 Effects of brain damage 7 Language 8 Pathology 9 Metabolism . Furthermore.2 Cerebral cortex 1.2 Topography 2 Cognition 3 Lateralization 4 Development 5 Evolution 6 Sources of information 6.3.1 General features 1. complex cognitive tasks can only be studied in humans. such as schizophrenia and depression. invasive techniques such as inserting electrodes into the brain.1 Electroencephalography 6. such as Parkinson's disease. The most common forms of physical damage are closed head injuries such as a blow to the head. Combining the two sources of information to yield a complete functional understanding of the human brain is an ongoing challenge for neuroscience. though serious. it is often possible to use non-invasive techniques such as functional neuroimaging or EEG recording more productively with humans than with non-humans. Infection of the brain. are generally not performed with humans.2 Magnetoencephalography 6.3 Structural and functional imaging 6.1 Cytoarchitecture 1.4 Functional divisions 1. some of the most important topics. Individual brain cells can only be studied in nonhumans. such as language.1 Four lobes 1. can hardly be studied at all except in humans. On the one hand.

The shape of the brain within the skull is also altered somewhat as a consequence of the upright position in which primates hold their heads. in proportion to body size.10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links [edit]Structure Drawing of the human brain. They are covered with a cortical layer with a convoluted topography. including the hippocampus and amygdala. As a mammalian brain. At the rear of the brain. As a rule. but in all except mammals the pallium has a relatively simple three-layered cell structure. resembling a stalk on which the cerebrum is attached.[2] Men with the same body height and body surface area as women have on average 100g heavier brains. optic tectum. The cortex of a rat or mouse is almost perfectly smooth. the cerebral cortex. and a very highly developed visual system. cerebellum. As a primate brain. including a basic division into three parts called the forebrain. a structure with a horizontally furrowed surface that makes it look different from any other brain area. showing several important structures The adult human brain weighs on average about 3 lbs.5 kg)[1] with a volume of around 1130 cubic centimetres (cm3) in women and 1260 cm3 in men. olfactory bulb. than most mammals.[3] although these differences do not correlate in any simple way with IQ or other measures of cognitive performance. pons. the human brain has special features that are common to all mammalian brains. midbrain. on the other hand. thalamus. and is given a different name. and hindbrain. The living brain is very soft. although there is substantial individual variation. In mammals it has a much more complex six-layered cell structure. is the cerebellum. most notably a six-layered cerebral cortex and a set of structures associated with it. the less convoluted the cortex. the smaller the cerebrum. basal ganglia. each with fluidfilled ventricles at their core. but are much more complex in mammals than in other vertebrates. All vertebrates have a forebrain whose upper surface is covered with a layer of neural tissue called the pallium. and a set of generic vertebrate brain structures including the medulla oblongata. (1. and many others. although they vary considerably in relative size. The cortex of a dolphin or whale. The hippocampus and amygdala also originate from the pallium. beneath the cerebrum and behind the brainstem. [edit]General features The human brain has many properties that are common to all vertebrate brains.[4] The cerebral hemispheres form the largest part of the human brain and are situated above most other brain structures.[5] Underneath the cerebrum lies the brainstem. hypothalamus. the human brain has a much larger cerebral cortex. The same structures are present in other mammals. . having a consistency similar to soft gelatin or soft tofu. is more convoluted than the cortex of a human. Despite being referred to as grey matter. the live cortex is pinkish-beige in color and slightly off-white in the interior.

Anatomists conventionally divide each hemisphere into four "lobes".3 square feet (0. has a medial zone connected mainly to subcortical motor areas. the human brain is substantially enlarged even in comparison to the brain of a typical monkey. The borders between lobes lie beneath the sutures that link the skull bones together. and a lateral zone connected primarily to the cortex. A few subcortical structures show alterations reflecting this trend. instead it follows the .[11] Anatomists call each cortical fold a sulcus. showing the cerebral cortex and underlying white matter[8] The dominant feature of the human brain is corticalization. each cerebral hemisphere has a total surface area of about 1. With one exception. The sequence of evolution from Australopithecus (four million years ago) to Homo sapiens (modern man) was marked by a steady increase in brain size. an extinct subspecies of modern humans.[7] [edit]Cerebral cortex Bisection of the head of an adult female. folded in a way that allows a large surface area to fit within the confines of the skull.As a hominid brain. occipital lobe. with left and right hemispheres that are approximate mirror images of each other. for example. which are associated with a variety of high-level cognitive functions. and temporal lobe. (It is noteworthy. this division into lobes does not derive from the structure of the cortex itself. the frontal bone. though: the lobes are named after the bones of the skull that overlie them.[6]) Humans and other primates have some differences in gene sequence. The amount of association cortex. The cerebral cortex in humans is so large that it overshadows every other part of the brain. In humans the lateral zone takes up a much larger fraction of the cerebellum than in most other mammalian species. which lies behind the corresponding suture. such as the rat and the cat. The cerebellum. parietal bone. surgical removal of the entire cerebral cortex leaves an animal that is still capable of walking around and interacting with the environment. the frontal lobe. and genes are differentially expressed in many brain regions.[10] The cerebral cortex is essentially a sheet of neural tissue. In a rat. [edit]Cortical divisions [edit]Four lobes The four lobes of the cerebral cortex The cerebral cortex is nearly symmetrical.12 m2). The exception is the border between the frontal and parietal lobes. When unfolded. temporal bone. increases dramatically as one goes from simpler mammals. though. parietal lobe. The functional differences between the human brain and the brains of other animals also arise from many gene–environment interactions. and occipital bone. such as the chimpanzee and the human. to more complex ones. comparable cerebral cortex damage produces a permanent state of coma. relative to the other two categories. Corticalization is reflected in function as well as structure.[9] In a human. that Neanderthals. and the smooth area between folds a gyrus. particularly in the frontal lobes. had larger brains at adulthood than present-day humans.

language. The main functions of the frontal lobe are to control attention. for example.[12] [edit]Major folds Major gyri and sulci on the lateral surface of the cortex Lateral surface of the cerebral cortex Medial surface of the cerebral cortex Although there are enough variations in the shape and placement of gyri and sulci (cortical folds) to make every brain unique. behavior. Primary sensory areas . Many of the gyri and sulci are named according to the location on the lobes or other major folds on the cortex. These include: Superior. which receive signals from the sensory nerves and tracts by way of relay nuclei in the thalamus. The parietal lobe. the division into lobes is convenient for reference.anatomical boundary of the central sulcus. most human brains show sufficiently consistent patterns of folding that allow them to be named. visual-spatial processing. attention.[12] The occipital lobe is the smallest lobe. and color recognition. In spite of this heterogeneity. which separates the parietal lobes from the occipital lobes. (December 2011) Researchers who study the functions of the cortex divide it into three functional categories of regions. Because of the arbitrary way most of the borders between lobes are demarcated. or areas. Middle. is seen to some small extent on the lateral surface of the hemisphere. and spatial cognition. hearing. With the exception of the occipital lobe. which separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe Lateral sulcus. abstract thinking. movement. Trans-occipital sulcus: in reference to the occipital lobe [edit]Functional divisions This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. contains areas involved in somatosensation. a deep fold in the brain's structure where the primary somatosensory cortex and primary motor cortex meet.[13] The temporal lobe controls auditory and visual memories. which separates the left and right cerebral hemispheres Precentral and Postcentral sulcus: in reference to the central sulcus. they have little functional significance. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. language. but mainly on the medial surface. and some hearing and speech. problem solving tasks. Inferior frontal gyrus: in reference to the frontal lobe Medial longitudinal fissure. its main functions are visual reception. and physical reactions and personality. One consists of the primary sensory areas. each of the lobes contains a variety of brain areas that have minimal functional relationship. which divides the frontal lobe and parietal lobe above from the temporal lobe below Parieto-occipital sulcus. a small area that is entirely dedicated to vision.

which sends axons down to motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. A second category is the primary motor area. For example. and the somatosensory area in the parietal lobe. who split the cortex into 51 different areas and assigned each a number (anatomists have since subdivided many of the Brodmann areas). Motor areas innervating each part of the body arise from a distinct zone. This area occupies the rear portion of the frontal lobe. The head. or of some more abstract entity. directly in front of the somatosensory area. Anatomists describe most of the cortex —the part they call isocortex—as having six layers. This "somatotopic" representation is not evenly distributed.[14] [edit]Cytoarchitecture Brodmann's classification of areas of the cortex Different parts of the cerebral cortex are involved in different cognitive and behavioral functions. In a number of cases. a strip of tissue running along the anterior edge of the central sulcus. the maps are retinotopic—that is. and regional differences in the cellular architecture of the cortex. and even when a layer is present. Electrical stimulation of the cortex at any point causes a muscle-contraction in the represented body part. Brodmann area 17 is the primary visual cortex. and decision making. A simple example of this type of correspondence is the primary motor cortex. regional activity patterns exposed when the brain is examined using functional imaging techniques. and Brodmann area 25 is the anterior cingulate cortex.[citation needed] The areas for the lips. where adjoining bits of the cortex correspond to adjoining parts of the body. brain areas are organized into "topographic maps". The third category consists of the remaining parts of the cortex. is represented by a region about three times as large as the zone for the entire back and trunk. shown in the image to the right. connectivity with subcortical areas. In visual areas.include the visual area of the occipital lobe. Several anatomists have constructed maps of cortical areas on the basis of variations in the appearance of the layers as seen with a microscope. fingers. they reflect the topography of the retina. however. with neighboring body parts represented by neighboring zones. One of the most widely used schemes came from Brodmann. the auditory area in parts of the temporal lobe and insular cortex. These areas receive input from the sensory areas and lower parts of the brain and are involved in the complex process that we call perception. In this case too the .[15] [edit]Topography Topography of the primary motor cortex. which are called the association areas. The size of any zone correlates to the precision of motor control and sensory discrimination possible. considering the proportional size of their represented body parts. thought. but not all layers are apparent in all areas. The differences show up in a number of ways: the effects of localized brain damage. showing which body part is controlled by each zone Many of the brain areas Brodmann defined have their own complex internal structures. the layer of light-activated neurons lining the back of the eye. its thickness and cellular organization may vary. Brodmann area 1 is the primary somatosensory cortex. for example. and tongue are particularly large.

and most of humankind along with him.[citation needed] [edit]Cognition Understanding the relationship between the brain and the mind is a great challenge. cells that respond to different edge-orientations are spatially segregated from one another. In the primary visual cortex. In auditory areas.. or damage to. contains many neurons that are most easily activated by edges with a particular orientation moving across a particular point in the visual field. or by any other type of mechanism. find only parts pushing one another. for example. and to have perception. the primary map is tonotopic. to sense. when visiting within it.representation is uneven: the fovea—the area at the center of the visual field—is greatly overrepresented compared to the periphery. The visual circuitry in the human cerebral cortex contains several dozen distinct retinotopic maps. a large body of empirical evidence for a close relationship between brain activity and mind activity has led most neuroscientists to be materialists. each devoted to analyzing the visual input stream in a particular way. however been a strong argument in the opposite direction. to dualism: the belief that the mind exists independently of the brain. respectively) can affect the mind in potent and intimate ways.[16] It is very difficult to imagine how mental entities such as thoughts and emotions could be implemented by physical entities such as neurons and synapses. that is. low pitch) by subcortical auditory areas. one should.[citation needed] The primary visual cortex (Brodmann area 17). motion. the brain (for example by drugs or diseases. and never anything by which to explain a perception. Supposing this. where the main organization is retinotopic and the main responses are to moving edges.e. high pitch vs. one could conceive it enlarged while retaining the same proportions.[20] [edit]Lateralization Main article: Lateralization of brain function . just like into a windmill. As with the visual system. Materialists believe that mental phenomena are ultimately reducible to physical phenomena. Monadology[17] Incredulity about the possibility of a mechanistic explanation of thought drove René Descartes. and this parsing is reflected by the primary auditory zone of the cortex. — Leibniz. In this line of thinking. by figures and motions. each devoted to analyzing sound in a particular way. so that one could enter into it. There is overwhelming evidence that physical manipulations of. there are a number of tonotopic cortical maps. In imagining that there is a machine whose construction would enable it to think. Sounds are parsed according to frequency (i.[19] For example.[18] There has always. The difficulty was expressed by Gottfried Leibniz in an analogy known as Leibniz's Mill: One is obliged to admit that perception and what depends upon it is inexplicable on mechanical principles. and shape. Within a topographic map there can sometimes be finer levels of spatial structure. a person suffering from Alzheimer's disease—a condition that causes physical damage to the brain—also experiences a compromised "mind". which is the main recipient of direct input from the visual part of the thalamus. Visual areas farther downstream extract features such as color.

Routing of neural signals from the two eyes to the brain Each hemisphere of the brain interacts primarily with one half of the body. as well as many subcortical connections that cross the midline. the left hemisphere is "dominant" for language: a stroke that damages a key language area in the left hemisphere can leave the victim unable to speak or understand. which crosses the midline above the level of the thalamus. the right side of the brain receives somatosensory input from the left side of the body. The result is that connections from the left half of the retina. a nerve bundle connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. and vice versa. . There are also two much smaller connections. the left and right sides of the brain are symmetrical in terms of function. Because each half of the retina receives light coming from the opposite half of the visual field. and visual input from the left side of the visual field—an arrangement that presumably is helpful for visuomotor coordination. In most people. the anterior commissure and hippocampal commissure. with the lateral ventricles directly below The two cerebral hemispheres are connected by a very large nerve bundle called the corpus callosum. go to the left side of the brain. the functional consequence is that visual input from the left side of the world goes to the right side of the brain. involving language and spatial cognition. These patients do not show unusual behavior that is immediately obvious.[citation needed] Motor connections from the brain to the spinal cord. are able to describe it verbally. in both eyes. The corpus callosum is the main avenue of communication between the two hemispheres. but in some cases can behave almost like two different people in the same body. Visual input follows a more complex rule: the optic nerves from the two eyes come together at a point called the optic chiasm. whereas equivalent damage to the right hemisphere would cause only minor impairment to language skills. both cross the midline at the level of the brainstem. Most such patients. Thus. and sensory connections from the spinal cord to the brain. There are. are unable to describe it. however. the counterpart of the left-hemisphere motor area controlling the right hand is the right-hemisphere area controlling the left hand. the connections are crossed: the left side of the brain interacts with the right side of the body. several very important exceptions. with the right hand taking an action and then the left hand undoing it. though. A substantial part of our current understanding of the interactions between the two hemispheres has come from the study of "split-brain patients"—people who underwent surgical transection of the corpus callosum in an attempt to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures. but for reasons that are unclear. The corpus callosum. whereas connections from the right half of the retina go to the right side of the brain. and half of the fibers from each nerve split off to join the other. For example. It connects each point on the cortex to the mirror-image point in the opposite hemisphere. but may be able to give an indication with the left hand of the nature of the object shown. when briefly shown a picture on the right side of the point of visual fixation. and also connects to functionally related points in different cortical areas. and vice versa. but when the picture is shown on the left. In most respects.

and parietal lobes.350 cc while the female brain has shrunk by the same relative proportion. the little Homo floresiensis. fertility and intelligence tend to be negatively correlated—that is to say. showing interior of forebrain Brain interior at 5 weeks Brain viewed at midline at 3 months [edit]Evolution See also: Brain size and Flynn effect A reconstruction of Homo habilis In the course of evolution of the Homininae. the human embryo's ectoderm forms a thickened strip called the neural plate.[edit]Development Main article: Neural development in humans Further information: Human brain development timeline During the first 3 weeks of gestation. the hippocampi. but these only account for a relatively small amount of variance in IQ.500 cc to 1. According to the model. there has been a shrinking over the past 28. used fire.[22] "As large as you need and as small as you can" has been said to summarize the opposite evolutionary constraints on human brain size. had a brain size of 1. The most consistent associations are observed within the frontal.[25][26][full citation needed] One study indicated that in humans.4) between brain volume and IQ. with a brain size of 380 cc. however. This tube flexes as it grows. as measured by IQ. Brain of human embryo at 4.3 to 0. Such research has expanded considerably in recent decades. the human brain has grown in volume from about 600 cc in Homo habilis to about 1500 cc in Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. which itself has only a partial relationship to general intelligence and real-world performance. and made stone tools at least as sophisticated as those of H.[23][24] Studies tend to indicate small to moderate correlations (averaging around 0. [edit]Sources of information Further information: Brain mapping and List of topics related to brain mapping Neuroscientists. However. The male brain has decreased from 1. study how the human brain works. the present rate of decline is predicted to be 1.34 IQ points per decade. exhibit a lower total fertility rate than the less intelligent. forming the crescent-shaped cerebral hemispheres at the head.[21] For comparison. Homo erectus. along with researchers from allied disciplines. the more intelligent. IQ is actually increasing— by as much as 3 points per decade in developed countries. erectus.000 years. and the cerebellum. a third of that of their proposed ancestor H.[27] In general.5 weeks. which is known as the Flynn effect. a relative of humans. The "Decade of the .100 cc. and the cerebellum and pons towards the tail. The neural plate then folds and closes to form the neural tube. erectus. Subsequently. temporal. hunted.

[31] Using the most powerful magnets currently available. which depend on injection of radioactive tracers into the bloodstream. As of today. The downside is that the temporal resolution is poor: when brain activity increases.[29] EEG records averaged neuronal activity from the cerebral cortex and can detect changes in activity over large areas but with low sensitivity for sub-cortical activity. however. using a methodology known as electroencephalography (EEG). The older methods are SPECT and PET. The newest method. the technology must be relatively close to the surface of the skull to detect the brains magnetic field. fMRI can localize brain activity changes to regions as small as one cubic millimeter. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [edit]Magnetoencephalography In addition to measuring the electric field directly via electrodes placed over the skull. Most EEG devices have good temporal resolution. using techniques described in the brain article. but gives little information about the . and therefore are described here. [edit]Structural and functional imaging Main article: Neuroimaging A scan of the brain using fMRI There are several methods for detecting brain activity changes by three-dimensional imaging of local changes in blood flow. MEGs can only detect the magnetic signatures of neurons located in the depths of cortical folds (sulci) that have dendrites oriented in a way that produces a field detectable by present MEG technology.Brain". Thus. EEG recordings are sensitive enough to detect tiny electrical impulses lasting only a few milliseconds. taken with intravenous contrast medium [edit]Electroencephalography By placing electrodes on the scalp it is possible to record the summed electrical activity of the cortex. an initiative of the United States Government in the 1990s. but low spatial resolution. is considered to have marked much of this increase in research. Computed tomography of human brain.[30] This technique also has good temporal resolution like EEG but with much better spatial resolution. are used mainly in humans. from base of the skull to top. fMRI is a very useful tool for learning which brain regions are involved in a given behavior. Information about the structure and function of the human brain comes from a variety of experimental methods. because the magnetic fields generated by neural activity are very subtle. the blood flow response is delayed by 1–5 seconds and lasts for at least 10 seconds.[28] It has been followed in 2013 by the BRAIN Initiative. Most information about the cellular components of the brain and how they work comes from studies of animal subjects. it is possible to measure the magnetic field that the brain generates using a method known as magnetoencephalography (MEG). The greatest disadvantage of MEG is that. Some techniques. has considerably better spatial resolution and involves no radioactivity.

Analysis of strokes is limited by the fact that damage often crosses into multiple regions of the brain. the better the recovery. The first language area within the left hemisphere that was located is Broca's area. a language disorder. making it difficult to draw firm conclusions. A major advantage for fMRI is that. it can readily be used on human subjects. stress. not along clear-cut borders.[34] Studies of children have shown that if a child has damage to the left hemisphere. People with receptive aphasia also have difficulty recalling the names of objects. the rhythm. it handles distinguishing a sentence in passive form from a simpler subject-verb-object sentence — the difference between "The girl was hit by the boy" and "The boy hit the girl. named after Paul Broca. The younger the child. if the damage occurs early enough. it is the left hemisphere that usually contains the specialized language areas. Receptive aphasia does not only affect speech comprehension. about 19% of left-handed people have their language areas in the right hemisphere and as many as 68% of them have some language abilities in both the left and the right hemisphere. who discovered the area while studying patients with aphasia. often responding with words that sound similar. Broca's area doesn't just handle getting language out in a motor sense. because it is noninvasive. [edit]Language Location of two brain areas that play a critical role in language. Broca's area and Wernicke's area In human beings.[35] German neurologist Carl Wernicke discovered the area while studying patients who also had language disorders but damage to another part of their brain than Broca's area."[citation needed] The second language area that was located is Wernicke's area in the left posterior temporal cortex.temporal dynamics of their responses.[33] The two hemispheres are thought to contribute to the processing and understanding of language: the left hemisphere processes the linguistic meaning of prosody (or. the child may develop language in the right hemisphere instead. [edit]Effects of brain damage Main article: Neuropsychology A key source of information about the function of brain regions is the effects of damage to them. while the right hemisphere processes the emotions conveyed by prosody. While this holds true for 97% of right-handed people.[32] In humans. For example. leading to a great diversity of stroke symptoms. human brains are capable of adapting to difficult circumstances. or the names of related things. as if they are having a hard time recalling word . causing damage or destruction of nearby brain tissue: the range of possible blockages is very wide. though. strokes have long provided a "natural laboratory" for studying the effects of brain damage. It seems to be more generally involved in the ability to process grammar itself. and intonation of connected speech). Most strokes result from a blood clot lodging in the brain and blocking the local blood supply. at least the more complex aspects of grammar. So. Receptive aphasia (also known as Wernicke's aphasia) is the term for the disorder occurring upon damage to a patient's Wernicke's area. although the "natural" tendency is for language to develop on the left.

nutritional deficiencies. and Huntington's disease are caused by the gradual death of individual neurons. and cognition. Head trauma caused. are suspected to be congenital as well. and Down syndrome are all linked to genetic and chromosomal errors. Some infectious diseases affecting the brain are caused by viruses and bacteria. is another major cause of death from brain damage. drug use. caused by the blockage or rupturing of blood vessels in the brain. such as clinical depression.associations[citation needed]. In other words. Certain brain disorders are treated by neurosurgeons. sometimes causing major deficits in intelligence. memory. Neurodegenerative diseases. such as Alzheimer's disease. more damage is caused by resultant edema than by the impact itself. Many brain disorders are congenital. Tay-Sachs disease. [edit]Metabolism PET image of the human brain showing energy consumption . by vehicular or industrial accidents. motor neurone disease. is a leading cause of death in youth and middle age. Other problems in the brain can be more accurately classified as diseases than as injuries. memory. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also known as "mad cow disease") is deadly in cattle and humans and is linked to prions. can lead to meningitis. In many cases. These disorders may be treated by psychotherapy. Many other syndromes. and movement. personality. Mental disorders. and encephalomyelitis. Stroke. the underlying issues and associated prognosis vary significantly between individuals. I don't know how. Patients affected with Wernicke's aphasia produce meaningless sentences such as "Feel very well. Normal development of the brain can be altered by genetic factors. psychiatric medication or social intervention and personal recovery work. the membrane that covers the brain. [36] [edit]Pathology Clinically. Things I couldn't hear from are here". Parkinson's disease. Infection of the meninges. I used to be able to work cigarettes. and infectious diseases during pregnancy. and may explain the tendency in human and some non-human species to avoid cannibalism. Injuries to the brain tend to affect large areas of the organ. Wernicke's area is always active in normal language processing as people use it to make judgments about word meanings. death is defined as an absence of brain activity as measured by EEG. and are established causes of encephalopathy. schizophrenia. Kuru is a similar prion-borne degenerative brain disease affecting humans. while others are treated by neurologists and psychiatrists. occurring during development. such as the intrinsic circadian rhythm disorders. Viral or bacterial causes have been reported in multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. leading to diminution in movement control. bipolar disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder may involve particular patterns of neuropsychological functioning related to various aspects of mental and somatic function. Both are linked to the ingestion of neural tissue. fragile X syndrome. for example.

but active regions of the cortex consume somewhat more energy than inactive regions: this fact forms the basis for the functional brain imaging methods PET and fMRI. see Creative (disambiguation). but during times of low glucose (such as fasting). 20% of total body oxygen consumption. to skeletal muscle. Creativity From Wikipedia.[37] Brain metabolism normally relies primarily upon blood glucose as an energy source. For other uses.[41] The brain mostly uses glucose for energy.[39] but the brain does make use of octanoic [2] and hexanoic [3] acids. for example.[38] Some sources assert that fatty acids do not cross the blood –brain barrier. such as bats. and 25% of total body glucose utilization. The energy consumption of the brain does not vary greatly over time. and deprivation of glucose. has led to selection for a reduction of brain size in some species. The brain can also utilize lactate during exercise. for example. the brain will primarily use ketone bodies for fuel with a smaller requirement for glucose. in contrast. to fly. can result in loss of consciousness. Although the human brain represents only 2% of the body weight. it receives 15% of the cardiac output. The brain does not store any glucose in the form of glycogen. the free encyclopedia "Creative" redirects here.[42] These are nuclear medicine imaging techniques which produce a three-dimensional image of METABOLIC ACTIVITY. as can happen in hypoglycemia. more than any other organ. traits and constructs Abstract thought Communication Creativity Emotional intelligence g factor Intelligence quotient Knowledge Learning Memory Problem solving Reaction time Reasoning Understanding Visual processing Models and theories Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory Fluid and crystallized intelligence Theory of multiple intelligences Three stratum theory Triarchic theory of intelligence PASS theory of intelligence Fields of study Cognitive epidemiology Evolution of human intelligence Psychometrics Heritability of IQ .The brain consumes up to twenty percent of the energy used by the human body. Human intelligence Abilities.[40] The need to limit body weight in order.

mental and neurological processes associated with creativity.7 Creativity and everyday imaginative thought 5 Measuring creativity 5. sociology.1 Ancient views 3. a solution. taking in the relationship between creativity and general intelligence.1 Incubation 4. It is also the impetus and motivational force behind any given act of creation. the potential for fostering creativity through education and training.2 REM sleep .1 Creativity quotient 5. psychology.2 Historical importance 2 Etymology 3 History of the concept 3. and economics. an invention etc.2 The Enlightenment and after 3. cognitive science. business studies.4 Other approaches to measurement 6 Declining US creativity? 7 Creativity and intelligence 8 Neurobiology of creativity 8.2 Convergent and divergent thinking 4. philosophy (particularly philosophy of science). linguistics.6 Honing Theory 4. education.).Impact of health on intelligence Environment and intelligence Neuroscience and intelligence Race and intelligence Religiosity and intelligence vte Creativity refers to the phenomenon whereby something new is created which has some kind of subjective value (such as a joke.1 Aspects of creativity 1.3 Twentieth century to the present day 4 Creative process 4. The range of scholarly interest in creativity includes a multitude of definitions and approaches involving several disciplines. the relationships between personality type and creative ability and between creativity and mental health. theology. Contents [hide] 1 Definition 1. and it is generally perceived to be associated with intelligence and cognition.4 The Explicit-Implicit Interaction (EII) theory 4. a painting or musical composition. and the application of creative resources to improve the effectiveness of learning and teaching processes. technology.2 Psychometric approach 5.5 Conceptual blending 4. especially as augmented by technology.3 Social-personality approach 5. a literary work.3 Creative Cognition Approach 4.1 Working memory and the cerebellum 8.

5 Creative industries and services 12.[1] Creativity can also be defined "as the process of producing something that is both original and worthwhile" or "characterized by originality and expressiveness and imaginative".6 Creativity in other professions 12.1 Creativity and positive affect relations 9. we seem to have reached a general agreement that creativity involves the production of novel. or those describing the staging of the creative process (such as Wallas) are primarily theories of creative process.7 Creativity in organizations 12.2 Creativity in diverse cultures 12.9 Creativity and affect 9. Authors have diverged dramatically in their precise definitions beyond these general commonalities: Peter Meusburger reckons that over a hundred different analyses can be found in the literature. useful products" (Mumford.8 Economic views of creativity 13 Fostering creativity 14 Understanding and enhancing the creative process with new technologies 15 Social attitudes to creativity 16 See also 17 Notes 18 References 19 Further reading 20 Videos on creativity [edit]Definition In a summary of scientific research into creativity Michael Mumford suggested: "Over the course of the last decade. see below) and in creative ideas framed as successful memes. product. 2003. however.3 Creativity and affect at work 10 Formal theory of creativity 11 Creativity and mental health 12 Creativity in various contexts 12.1 Creativity Profiles 12. A focus on creative product usually appears in attempts to measure creativity (psychometrics.process.4 Psychological examples from science and mathematics 12.[6] .[4] A focus on process is shown in cognitive approaches that try to describe thought mechanisms and techniques for creative thinking. 110). p.2 Creativity and negative affect relations 9. person and place.[2] What is produced can come in many forms and is not specifically singled out in a subject or area.[3] [edit]Aspects of creativity Theories of creativity (particularly investigation of why some people are more creative than others) have focused on a variety of aspects.[5] The psychometric approach to creativity reveals that it also involves the ability to produce more. The dominant factors are usually identified as "the four Ps" .3 Creativity in art and literature 12. Theories invoking divergent rather than convergent thinking (such as Guilford).

Pro-C (exhibited by people who are professionally or vocationally creative though not necessarily eminent) and Big-C (creativity considered great in the given field). different direction . exploratory behavior and so on. Mihály Csíkszentmihályi[12] has defined creativity in terms of those individuals judged to have made significant creative. perhaps domain-changing contributions. suggesting that there are eight types of creative contribution.J.which moves the field back to a previous point to advance in a different direction . actions and insights"). such as degrees of autonomy. expertise. replication . to indicate divine creation[14] (in The Parson's Tale[15]).[6] An article by R. However.[8] The contrast of terms "Big C" and "Little c" has been widely used.[13] [edit]Etymology The lexeme in the English word creativity comes from the Latin term creō "to create.redirection . Kaufman and Beghetto introduced a "four C" model of creativity. made a useful framework for analysing creative processes in individuals.a creative contribution that moves the field forward in the direction in which it is already moving .which moves the field in a new. the authors argued. The word "create" appeared in English as early as the 14th century.the attempt to redefine where the field is and how it is viewed forward incrementation .which advances the field past the point where others are ready for it to go . This model was intended to help accommodate models and theories of creativity that stressed competence as an essential component and the historical transformation of a creative domain as the highest mark of creativity. make": its derivational suffixes also come from Latin. notably in Chaucer. its modern meaning as an act of human creation did not emerge until after the Enlightenment.combining two or more diverse ways of thinking about the field into a single way of thinking. levels of ideation.confirming that the given field is in the correct place . Creative lifestyles are characterized by nonconforming attitudes and behaviors as well as flexibility. Beghetto and Runco use a little-c/Big-C model to review major theories of creativity [4] Margaret Boden distinguishes between h-creativity (historical) and p-creativity (personal). little-c (everyday problem solving and creative expression). mini-c ("transformative learning" involving "personally meaningful interpretations of experiences. It also.[7] [edit]Historical importance James C.moving the field to a different starting point . Simonton has analysed the career trajectories of eminent creative people in order to map patterns and predictors of creative productivity.and integration . particularly with respect to education. Sternberg in the Creativity Research Journal reviewed the "investment" theory of creativity as well as the "propulsion" theory of creative contribution.[14] [edit]History of the concept . access to resources and the nature of gatekeepers.A focus on the nature of the creative person considers more general intellectual habits.starting over/ re-initiation . Craft makes a similar distinction between "high" and "little c" creativity.redefinition .advance forward movement . autonomy. such as openness. Kozbelt.[9] Robinson[10] and Anna Craft[11] have focussed on creativity in a general population.[11] and cites Ken Robinson as referring to "high" and "democratic" creativity. A focus on place considers the circumstances in which creativity flourishes.redirection from a point in the past .

[14] According to the historian Daniel J. linked to the sacred or the divine. he answers. he merely imitates. In the Judaeo-Christian tradition. which only applied to poiesis (poetry) and to the poietes (poet.Main article: History of the concept of creativity Greek philosophers like Plato rejected the concept of creativity. In particular they refer to the work of Francis Galton.[21] [edit]The Enlightenment and after The rejection of creativity in favor of discovery and the belief that individual creation was a conduit of the divine would dominate the West probably until the Renaissance and even later. "the early Western conception of creativity was the Biblical story of creation given in the Genesis. and not God. Muses were seen as mediating inspiration from the Gods.[19] The development of the modern concept of creativity begins in the Renaissance. or "maker") who made it.[21] By the 18th century and the Age of Enlightenment. typifying the separation being made between talent (productive. creativity effectively received no attention until the 19th century. he merely imitates. Plato answers. including thinkers of Ancient Greece.[14] William Duff was one of the first to identify imagination as a quality of genius. imagination became a key element of human cognition. who . for instance.[19] A concept similar to that of Christianity existed in Greek culture. as a matter of divine inspiration. this is not creativity in the modern sense."[18] However. The ancient Greeks had no terms corresponding to "to create" or "creator" except for the expression "poiein" ("to make").[17] lacked the concept of creativity.[20] Runco and Albert argue that creativity as the subject of proper study began seriously to emerge in the late 19th century with the increased interest in individual differences inspired by the arrival of Darwinism. none of these views are similar to the modern concept of creativity. but breaking no new ground) and genius.[21] It was during the Renaissance that creativity was first seen. Plato did not believe in art as a form of creation. became more frequent."[16] [edit]Ancient views Most ancient cultures. "Will we say. of a painter. and the individual was not seen as the cause of creation until the Renaissance. Asked in The Republic. creativity was the sole province of God. of a painter. preferring to see art as a form of discovery.[20] Romans and Greeks invoked the concept of an external creative "daemon" (Greek) or "genius" (Latin). Asked in The Republic. linked with the concept of imagination. "Certainly not. humans were not considered to have the ability to create something new except as an expression of God's work. that he makes something?". when creation began to be perceived as having originated from the abilities of the individual. but from the abilities of "great men".[20] As a direct and independent topic of study. which did not arise until the Renaissance.[16] Ancient China. this shift was gradual and would not become immediately apparent until the Enlightenment. and Ancient India. Boorstin. seeing art as a form of discovery and not creation.[22] In the writing of Thomas Hobbes. mention of creativity (notably in art theory). "Will we say. However."[16] It is commonly argued that the notion of "creativity" originated in Western culture through Christianity. that he makes something?". not as a conduit for the divine. "Certainly not. However.

[14] In the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (iii) intimation (the creative person gets a "feeling" that a solution is on its way). Guilford's 1950 address to the American Psychological Association. [edit]Incubation . (iv) illumination or insight (where the creative idea bursts forth from its preconscious processing into conscious awareness). which helped popularize the topic[27] and focus attention on a scientific approach to conceptualizing creativity. Simonton[24] provides an updated perspective on this view in his book. a term that quickly became so popular. Wallas considered creativity to be a legacy of the evolutionary process. [edit]Twentieth century to the present day The insights of Poincaré and von Helmholtz were built on in early accounts of the creative process by pioneering theorists such as Graham Wallas[23] and Max Wertheimer.[26] The formal psychometric measurement of creativity. Wallas' model is often treated as four stages. Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity. Hargreaves into the Faculty of Imagination.[25] He is credited with having coined the term "creativity" to serve as the ultimate category of his metaphysical scheme: "Whitehead actually coined the term – our term. that its invention within living memory. creative insights and illuminations may be explained by a process consisting of 5 stages: (i) preparation (preparatory work on a problem that focuses the individual's mind on the problem and explores the problem's dimensions). is usually considered to have begun with J. P. and the arts. and (v) verification (where the idea is consciously verified. . In his work Art of Thought. published in 1926.through his eugenicist outlook took a keen interest in the heritability of intelligence. with "intimation" seen as a sub-stage. into which it had previously been subsumed.[28] but it did not have the same impact. elaborated.[4] [edit]Creative process There has been much empirical study in psychology and cognitive science of the processes through which creativity occurs. science. In 1927. and then applied). so omnipresent. and by Alfred North Whitehead of all people. Guilford's work suggested that above a threshold level of IQ. from the standpoint of orthodox psychological literature. still the preferred currency of exchange among literature. Alfred North Whitehead gave the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh. which allowed humans to quickly adapt to rapidly changing environments. later published as Process and Reality. (ii) incubation (where the problem is internalized into the unconscious mind and nothing appears externally to be happening). Wallas presented one of the first models of the creative process. quickly became occluded". with creativity taken as an aspect of genius. (It should be noted that the London School of Psychology had instigated psychometric studies of creativity as early as 1927 with the work of H. L. . In the Wallas stage model. leading mathematicians and scientists such as Hermann von Helmholtz (1896) and Henri Poincaré (1908) began to reflect on and publicly discuss their creative processes. the relationship between creativity and classically measured intelligence broke down.) Statistical analysis led to the recognition of creativity(as measured) as a separate aspect of human cognition to IQ-type intelligence.

The EII theory relies mainly on five basic principles. Absence of incubation may lead the problem solver to become fixated on inappropriate strategies of solving the problem. namely the Explicit-Implicit Interaction (EII) theory of creativity. This new theory constitutes an attempt at providing a more unified explanation of relevant phenomena (in part by reinterpreting/integrating various fragmentary existing theories of incubation and insight). various approaches in cognitive . 3) The redundant representation of explicit and implicit knowledge. and various other related phenomena. This work represents an initial step in the development of process-based theories of creativity encompassing incubation. in which creativity takes place in two phases: a generative phase.[37] This idea was later developed into conceptual blending. and 5) The iterative (and possibly bidirectional) processing.[34] Weisberg[35] argued. Arthur Koestler introduced the concept of bisociation —that creativity arises as a result of the intersection of two quite different frames of reference. by contrast. Other researchers have occasionally used the terms flexible thinking or fluid intelligence. proposed the "Geneplore" model. Ward[30] lists various hypotheses that have been advanced to explain why incubation may aid creative problem-solving. Divergent thinking is sometimes used as a synonym for creativity in psychology literature.[31] This work disputes the earlier hypothesis that creative solutions to problems arise mysteriously from the unconscious mind while the conscious mind is occupied on other tasks. 2) The simultaneous involvement of implicit and explicit processes in most tasks.[32] [edit]Convergent and divergent thinking J. insight. Finke et al.[29] There has been some empirical research looking at whether.[citation needed] [edit]Creative Cognition Approach In 1992. correct solution to a problem. where an individual constructs mental representations called preinventive structures. A computational implementation of the theory was developed based on the CLARION cognitive architecture and used to simulate relevant human data. and notes how some empirical evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that incubation aids creative problem-solving in that it enables "forgetting" of misleading clues. as the concept of "incubation" in Wallas' model implies. [edit]The Explicit-Implicit Interaction (EII) theory Helie and Sun[36] recently proposed a unified framework for understanding creativity in problem solving. whereas divergent thinking involves creative generation of multiple answers to a set problem.Incubation is a temporary break from creative problem solving that can result in insight. In the '90s. and an exploratory phase where those structures are used to come up with creative ideas. Convergent thinking involves aiming for a single. 4) The integration of the results of explicit and implicit processing. a period of interruption or rest from a problem may aid creative problem-solving. that creativity only involves ordinary cognitive processes yielding extraordinary results. namely 1) The co-existence of and the difference between explicit and implicit knowledge. those ideas are heavily structured in predictable ways by the properties of existing categories and concepts. Guilford[33] drew a distinction between convergent and divergent production (commonly renamed convergent and divergent thinking). Some evidence shows that when people use their imagination to develop new ideas. [edit]Conceptual blending Main article: Conceptual blending In The Act of Creation. which are roughly similar to (but not synonymous with) creativity. P.

creativity was commonly thought to be fostered by a supportive. and that this same recognizable quality even comes through in different creative outlets. Thus the creative idea may feel ‘half baked’. [edit]Honing Theory Honing theory posits that creativity arises due to the self-organizing. people often spontaneously imagine alternatives to reality when they think "if only. Midway through the creative process one may have made associations between the current task and previous experiences. For example. but by drawing upon associations that exist due to overlap in the distributed neural cell assemblies that participate in the encoding of experiences in that dealt with metaphor. which would stimulate honing. whether they be ideas.".[38] Honing theory posits that creative thought proceeds not by searching through and randomly ‘mutating’ predefined possibilities.. but as it pertains to the worldview as a whole. but not yet disambiguated which aspects of those previous experiences are relevant to the current task. research shows that creativity is actually associated with childhood adversity. However. art and humor has emerged under the label conceptual blending. according to which personal style reflects the creator's uniquely structured worldview. Honing theory also makes several predictions that differ from what would be predicted by other theories. The conception of the task changes through interaction with the worldview. self-mending nature of a worldview. This is not predicted by theories of creativity that emphasize chance processes or the accumulation of expertise.. distinguishing feature of honing theory is the notion of a potentiality state. When faced with a creatively demanding task. [edit]Creativity and everyday imaginative thought In everyday thought. This interaction is reiterated until the task is complete. This theory has been developed by Liane Gabora. Thus another distinguishing feature of honing theory is that the creative process reflects the natural tendency of a worldview to attempt to resolve dissonance and seek internal consistency amongst its components. or bits of knowledge. empirical support has been obtained using analogy problem solving experiments for the proposal that midway through the creative process one's mind is in a potentiality state. It is at that point that it can be said to be in a potentiality state. For example. but it is predicted by honing theory. but the worldview is subtly or drastically transformed. at which point not only is the task conceived of differently. there is an interaction between the conception of the task and the worldview. and that it is by way of the creative process the individual hones (and re-hones) an integrated worldview. Honing theory places equal emphasis on the externally visible creative outcome and the internal cognitive restructuring brought about by the creative process. Other experiments show that different works by the same creator exhibit a recognizable style or 'voice'. Yet another central. and a new integrative approach to the study of creativity in science. because how it will actualize depends on the different internally or externally generated contexts it interacts with. attitudes. analogy and structure mapping have been converging. and the worldview changes through interaction with the task. Indeed one factor that distinguishes it from other theories of creativity is that it focuses on not just restructuring as it pertains to the conception of the task. trustworthy environment conducive to self-actualization. nurturing.[39] Their counterfactual thinking is viewed as an example of everyday creative . it mends itself as does a body when it has been injured. Honing theory can account for many phenomena that are not readily explained by other theories of creativity.

something much closer to creativity. which were scored on: Fluency – The total number of interpretable. constructed several tests to measure creativity in 1967: Plot Titles. P.[33] which pioneered the modern psychometric study of creativity.[43] there is mentioning of a "divergence test". Torrance[44] developed the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking in 1966. these were scored for uncommonness. Figure Concepts.[48] [edit]Social-personality approach Some researchers have taken a social-personality approach to the measurement of creativity. self-confidence. And what the test is measuring isn't analytical intelligence but something profoundly different -. Unusual Uses is finding unusual uses for common everyday objects such as bricks.[41] [edit]Measuring creativity [edit]Creativity quotient Several attempts have been made to develop a creativity quotient of an individual similar to the intelligence quotient (IQ). where participants were given simple drawings of objects and individuals and asked to find qualities or features that are common by two or more drawings. Divergence tests are every bit as challenging as convergence tests. Remote Associations. Elaboration – The amount of detail in the responses." [edit]Psychometric approach J.g.[40] It has been proposed that the creation of counterfactual alternatives to reality depends on similar cognitive processes to rational thought. where participants are asked to find a word between two given words (e. where participants are given the plot of a story and asked to write original titles. personality traits such as independence of judgement. Originality – The statistical rarity of the responses among the test subjects. a self-report test that measures creative achievement across 10 domains.[42] In Malcolm Gladwell's 2008 book Outliers: The Story of Success. The Creativity Achievement Questionnaire. a divergence test requires one to use imagination and take one's mind in as many different directions as possible. As opposed to "convergence tests". however these have been unsuccessful. What the test giver is looking for are the number and uniqueness of your responses. Guilford's group. was described in 2005 and shown to be reliable and valid when compared to other measures of creativity and to independent evaluation of creative output. loss of gravity) Building on Guilford's work. In these studies. "With a divergence test. meaningful and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus. Quick Responses is a word-association test scored for uncommonness. obviously there isn't a single right answer. sometimes called Divergent Thinking (DT) tests have been both supported[47] and criticized. attraction . Hand _____ Call) Remote Consequences.[46] Such tests.[45] They involved simple tests of divergent thinking and other problem-solving skills.processes. where participants are asked to generate a list of consequences of unexpected events (e. where a test taker is asked to sort through a list of possibilities and converge on the right answer.g.

research has demonstrated subtle differences between different domains of creativity. as well as the arts. Compared to nonartists. and an annual festival to celebrate creativity education." Openness.[53] Odyssey of the Mind World Finals[54] is the pinnacle international team-based creative problem-solving competition. collaboration and communication for core academic subjects including Science. increased time spent playing computer games.[51] Among the other Big Five traits. hostile. Odyssey of the Mind helps educators easily implement 21st Century Learning Skills[55] at every learning level. ambitious. [edit]Declining US creativity? Creativity as measured by the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking increased until 1990 in the United States. and has been sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to encourage creativity education in the US. or lacking nurturing of creativity in schools.[50] Openness to experience has been shown to be consistently related to a whole host of different assessments of creativity.[52] A growing global educational reform movement commonly known as 21st Century Learning aims to promote creativity across the curriculum. hostility and impulsivity had the strongest effects of the traits listed. In general. less conventional and less conscientious. Technology. Insofar as the movement promotes a new focus on teaching/learning creativity and innovation skills through activities that promote higher order thinking skills. problem solving. Odyssey of the Mind is a non-profit educational program that provides challenging divergent problems to foster original thinking across the curriculum. and higher in the confidence-dominance facets of extraversion compared to non-scientists.[49] Within the framework of the Big Five model of personality some consistent traits have emerged. conscientious. Evidence from attempts to look at correlations . Creativity to Gruber was the product of purposeful work and this work could be described only as a confluence of forces in the specifics of the case. self-acceptance. Thereafter scores have been declining. Possible causes include increased time spent watching complexity. conscientiousness.[citation needed] There may also be a mistaken assumption that encouraging creativity in schools necessarily involve the arts when it also can be encouraged in other subjects. artists tend to have higher levels of openness to experience and lower levels of conscientiousness. while scientists are more open to experience. dominant. it advocates teaching lifelong skills such as critical thinking. as well as technical correctness.[27] A meta-analysis by Gregory Feist showed that creative people tend to be "more open to new experiences. Engineering and Math (STEM). an effect similar to the Flynn effect. it also requires the development of additional metrics to score originality and innovation. and has effectively promoted creativity education world-wide since the 1970s.[49] [edit]Other approaches to measurement Howard Gruber insisted on a case-study approach that expresses the existential and unique quality of the creator.and impulsive. more self-confident. aesthetic orientation and risk-taking are used as measures of the creativity of individuals. driven. selfaccepting.[56] [edit]Creativity and intelligence There has been debate in the psychological literature about whether intelligence (as measured by IQ) and creativity are part of the same process (the conjoint hypothesis) or represent distinct mental processes (the disjoint hypothesis).

Guilford or Wallach and Kogan.[61] [edit]Neurobiology of creativity The neurobiology of creativity has been addressed[62] in the article "Creative Innovation: Possible Brain Mechanisms.[50] Some researchers believe that creativity is the outcome of the same cognitive processes as intelligence. The frontal lobes can be seen as responsible for idea generation. While this explains the threshold. she described the creative drive as resulting from an interaction of the frontal lobes. and dopamine from the limbic system. High activity in the temporal lobe typically inhibits activity in the frontal lobe. More on both the threshold hypothesis and Renzulli's work can be found in O'Hara and Sternberg. and they are able to modulate neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine in their frontal lobe. this correlation disappears for IQs above a threshold of around 120." proposed by Ellis Paul Torrance. Thus. by authors such as Barron. the temporal lobes. and is only judged as creativity in terms of its consequences.between intelligence and creativity from the 1950s onwards. a view which Perkins has termed the "nothing special" hypothesis. although it has not gone unchallenged. the exact interaction between creativity and IQ remains unexplained. the frontal lobe appears to be the part of the cortex that is most important for creativity. and vice versa." The authors write that "creative innovation might require coactivation and communication between regions of the brain that ordinarily are not strongly connected. Renzulli's three-rings hypothesis.e. Such a model has found acceptance by many researchers.[59] A 2005 meta-Analysis found only small correlations between IQ and creativity tests and did not support the threshold theory. Alice Flaherty presented a three-factor model of the creative drive. mood and addiction disorders.[58] A study in 1962 by Getzels and Jackson among high school students concluded that high IQ and high creativity tend to be mutually exclusive with a majority of the highest scoring students being either highly creative or highly intelligent. but not both.[57] An often cited model is what has come to be known as "the threshold hypothesis. while there is a positive correlation between creativity and intelligence. when the outcome of cognitive processes happens to produce something novel. and the temporal lobes for idea editing and evaluation. i. regularly suggested that correlations between these concepts were low enough to justify treating them as distinct concepts. sees giftedness as based on both intelligence and creativity. drug studies and lesion analysis. High dopamine levels increase general arousal and goal directed .[60] An alternative perspective. In 2005. Drawing from evidence in brain imaging. they are capable of divergent thinking mediated by the frontal lobe.[57] Another view is that creativity may be particularly related to fluid intelligence. Abnormalities in the frontal lobe (such as depression or anxiety) generally decrease creativity. and depression.[33] That is. This article also explored the links between creativity and sleep." Highly creative people who excel at creative innovation tend to differ from others in three ways: they have a high level of specialized knowledge. while abnormalities in the temporal lobe often increase creativity. which holds that a high degree of intelligence appears to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for high creativity.

Vandervert has argued that when a person is confronted with a challenging new situation. music.[77][78] This has been suggested to be due to changes in cholinergic and noradrenergic neuromodulation that occurs during REM sleep.[63] [edit]Working memory and the cerebellum Vandervert[64] described how the brain's frontal lobes and the cognitive functions of the cerebellum collaborate to produce creativity and innovation. Sleep aids this process.[71] New. individualized patterning of repetitions initiated by the teaching methods of the Khan Academy.[75] Prototyping. music. it trains the cerebro-cerebellar pathways involved to become more efficient at prototyping itself. Since the cerebellum adaptively models all movement and all levels of thought and emotion. Vandervert's explanation rests on considerable evidence that all processes of working memory (responsible for processing all thought[65]) are adaptively modeled for increased efficiency by the cerebellum.[74] Vandervert and VandervertWeathers have pointed out that this blending process. [edit]REM sleep Creativity involves the forming of associative elements into new combinations that are useful or meet some requirement. not only produces new products.[77] During this period of sleep.[69] (Apparently. creative insight or the "aha" experience is then triggered in the temporal lobe. and all three effects increase the drive to generate ideas. technology. the details of creative adaptation begin in "forward" cerebellar models which are anticipatory/exploratory controls for movement and thought. because it continuously optimizes efficiencies. visual-spatial working memory and speech-related working memory are decomposed and re-composed (fractionated) by the cerebellum and then blended in the cerebral cortex in an attempt to deal with the new situation. hierarchically arranged levels of the cerebellar control architecture (HMOSAIC) develop as mental mulling in working memory is extended over time.[66] The cerebellum (consisting of 100 billion neurons. Vandervert and Vandervert-Weathers believe that this repetitive "mental prototyping" or mental rehearsal involving the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex explains the success of the self-driven. art. art. mathematics. .[70]) According to Vandervert.[76] REM rather than NREM sleep appears to be responsible. These new levels of the control architecture are fed forward to the frontal lobes. the child prodigy.behaviors and reduce latent inhibition.[73] Most recently. the design of video games. which is more than the entirety of the rest of the brain[67]) is also widely known to adaptively model all bodily movement for efficiency. or technology. he has argued that this is the same process (only involving visual-spatial working memory and pre-language vocalization) that led to the evolution of language in humans. These cerebellar processing and control architectures have been termed Hierarchical Modular Selection and Identification for Control (HMOSAIC). they argue. and thought in general. constantly improves prototyping attempts toward the invention or innovation of new ideas.[72] Vandervert's approach helps explain creativity and innovation in sports. Essentially. Further. The cerebellum's adaptive models of working memory processing are then fed back to especially frontal lobe working memory control processes[68] where creative and innovative thoughts arise. the cerebro-cerebellar blending process continues to optimize the efficiency of how working memory deals with the situation or problem. With repeated attempts to deal with challenging situations.

high levels of acetylcholine in the hippocampus suppress feedback from the hippocampus to the neocortex. the University of Kentucky's Arnold Ludwig found a slight but significant correlation between depression and level of creative achievement.[80] [edit]Creativity and positive affect relations According to Alice Isen. increasing the breadth of those elements that are treated as relevant to the problem. several systematic studies of highly creative individuals and their relatives have uncovered a higher incidence of affective disorders (primarily bipolar disorder and depression) than that found in the general population. In a study of 1. Together. in which information from the hippocampus would be reinterpreted in relation to previous semantic representations or nodes. and lower levels of acetylcholine and norepinephrine in the neocortex encourage the spread of associational activity within neocortical areas without control from the hippocampus. As noted in voting behavior the term "affect" in this context can refer to liking or disliking key aspects of the subject in question. these processes lead positive affect to have a positive influence on creativity.005 prominent 20th century individuals from over 45 different professions. some theorists have suggested that negative affect leads to greater creativity. positive emotions increase the number of cognitive elements available for association (attention scope) and the number of elements that are relevant to the problem (cognitive scope). Barbara Fredrickson in her broaden-and-build model suggests that positive emotions such as joy and love broaden a person's available repertoire of cognitions and actions. It is proposed that REM sleep adds creativity by allowing "neocortical structures to reorganize associative hierarchies. Positive affect leads to defocused attention and a more complex cognitive context. A cornerstone of this perspective is empirical evidence of a relationship between affective illness and creativity. This work largely follows from findings in psychology regarding the ways in which affective states are involved in human judgment and decisionmaking."[77] [edit]Creativity and affect Some theories suggest that creativity may be particularly susceptible to affective influence. thus enhancing creativity. increasing the probability that diverse cognitive elements will in fact become associated. positive affect has three primary effects on cognitive activity: Positive affect makes additional cognitive material available for processing. such as Baas et al. In addition. According to these researchers. (2008) of 66 studies about creativity and affect support the link between creativity and positive affect[81][82] [edit]Creativity and negative affect relations On the other hand. where higher levels of norepinephrine and acetylcholine inhibit recurrent connections in the neocortex. [edit]Creativity and affect at work . increasing the number of cognitive elements available for association. Positive affect increases cognitive flexibility.[79] This is in contrast to waking consciousness. Various meta-analyses.

and affect can occur simultaneously with creative activity. it could evoke emotion. such as finding food when hungry. But Schmidhuber's objective function to be maximized also includes an additional." Empirical evidence on this matter is still very tentative. as an indirect consequence of creativity. The weight of evidence supports a purely linear form of the affect-creativity relationship. predictably precedes creativity. Albert Einstein called his 1907 general theory of relativity "the happiest thought of my life. and whether affect and creativity occur simultaneously. It was found that not only might affect precede creativity. curiosity and interestingness are by-products of a simple computational principle for measuring and optimizing learning progress.Three patterns may exist between affect and creativity at work: positive (or negative) mood. the higher their creativity in a work setting. they found four patterns of affect and creativity: affect can operate as an antecedent to creativity. Thus. if creative performance at work is an affective event for the individual doing the creative work. creativity predictably precedes mood. the researchers found no evidence that people were more creative when they experienced both positive and negative affect on the same day.§ [edit]Formal theory of creativity Jürgen Schmidhuber's formal theory of creativity[83][84] postulates that creativity. There was even some evidence of an effect two days later. At its simplest level. but creative outcomes might provoke affect as well. it keeps improving the ." This nonstandard term motivates purely creative behavior of the agent even when there are no external goals. intrinsic term to model "wow-effects. Firstly. In general. There are extrinsic reward signals for achieving externally given goals. affective events provoke immediate and relatively fleeting emotional reactions. The agent can use a black box optimization method such as reinforcement learning to learn (through informed trial and error) sequences of actions that maximize the expected sum of its future reward signals. the more creative thinking they evidenced that day and the next day—even controlling for that next day's mood. Another longitudinal research found several insights regarding the relations between creativity and emotion at work. Research into the phenomenon is currently being done in the Netherlands. at least over the range of affect and creativity covered in our study: the more positive a person's affect. As the agent is creating and predicting and encoding the continually growing history of actions and sensory inputs. In contrast to the possible incubation effects of affective state on subsequent creativity. In addition. Thus. Qualitative research and anecdotal accounts of creative achievement in the arts and sciences suggest that creative insight is often followed by feelings of elation. the experience of creativity is itself a work event. such an effect would likely be evident only in same-day data. Finally. the affective consequences of creativity are likely to be more direct and immediate. it appears that people's feelings and creative cognitions are interwoven in several distinct ways within the complex fabric of their daily work lives. Consider an agent able to manipulate its environment and thus its own sensory inputs. and like other events in the organizational context. as a direct consequence of creativity. A wow-effect is formally defined as follows. The more positive a person's affect on a given day. or change in mood. For example. evidence shows a positive correlation between positive affect and creativity.

novel. unipolar disorder).k. related to the beginning of the story in an initially unexpected but quickly learnable way that also allows for better compression of the perceived data. creative exploration. his objective function explains the activities of scientists. poets and artists.predictor or encoder. Already known and predictable regularities also are boring. which can be implemented as an artificial neural network or some other machine learning device that can exploit regularities in the data to improve its performance over time. bipolar disorder) and depressive disorder (a. The improvements can be measured precisely. composers receive intrinsic reward for creating non-arbitrary melodies with unexpected but regular harmonies that permit wow-effects through data compression improvements. Similarly. particularly manic-depressive disorder (a. Irregular. physicists are motivated to create experiments leading to observations obeying previously unpublished physical laws permitting better data compression.[90] [edit]Creativity and mental health Main article: Creativity and mental illness A study by psychologist J. Particularly strong links have been identified between creativity and mood disorders. number of required synapses. which changes over time. Philippe Rushton found creativity to correlate with intelligence and psychoticism. In Touched with Fire: Manic-Depressive Illness and the Artistic Temperament. Kay Redfield Jamison summarizes studies of mood-disorder rates in writers. by computing the difference in computational costs (storage size. active. Three recent studies by Mark Batey and Adrian Furnham have demonstrated the relationships between schizotypal[93][94] and hypomanic personality [95] and several different measures of creativity. regular patterns in both actions and observations. This difference depends on the encoder's present subjective knowledge. It becomes an intrinsic reward signal for the action selector. In agreement with this hypothesis. time) needed to encode new observations before and after learning. According to Schmidhuber.[92] This study hypothesizes that such individuals are better at accessing both hemispheres. open-ended. allowing them to make novel associations at a faster rate.[88] He used the theory to create lowcomplexity art[89] and an attractive human face.a. She also explores research that identifies mood disorders in such famous . errors. While divergent thinking was associated with bilateral activation of the prefrontal cortex.k. Temporarily interesting are only the initially unknown.[91] Another study found creativity to be greater in schizotypal than in either normal or schizophrenic individuals. Likewise. and thus are "boring" by nature (providing no reward). ambidexterity is also associated with schizotypal and schizophrenic individuals. This motivates the agent to perform continual. The cost difference measures the strength of the present "wow-effect" due to sudden improvements in data compression or computational speed.[85][86] For example. but the theory formally takes this into account."[87] Schmidhuber argues that that ongoing computer hardware advances will greatly scale up rudimentary artificial scientists and artists[clarification needed] based on simple implementations of the basic principle since 1990. random data (or noise) do not permit any wow-effects or learning progress. a comedian gets intrinsic reward for "inventing a novel joke with an unexpected punch line.a. artists and comedians. The objective function thus motivates the action optimizer to create action sequences causing more wow-effects. schizotypal individuals were found to have much greater activation of their right prefrontal cortex.

unipolar depression. but overrepresentation for artistic occupations. Dancers and photographers were also more likely to have bipolar disorder. creativity can be obstructed through stress. the Journal of Psychiatric Research reports. innovation. PhD. found overrepresentation in creative professions for those with bipolar disorder as well as for undiagnosed siblings of those with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Writers had a higher risk of anxiety and bipolar disorders. Most of these approaches are undisciplinary. as a group. including anorexia and. Creativity has been studied from a variety of perspectives and is important in numerous contexts. The creativity of this designer in reusing this waste was used with good effects to the environment.[97] However. [96] Another study involving more than one million people.writers and artists as Ernest Hemingway (who shot himself after electroconvulsive treatment).[99] (i) Incubate (Long-term Development) (ii) Imagine (Breakthrough Ideas) (iii) Improve (Incremental Adjustments) (iv) Invest (Short-term Goals) Research by Dr Mark Batey of the Psychometrics at Work Research Group at Manchester Business School has suggested that the creative profile can be explained by four primary creativity traits with narrow facets within each . There was no overall overrepresenation. composer Robert Schumann (who died in a mental institution). autism.000 persons with schizophrenia. There was no association for those with unipolar depression or their relatives. These are referred to as the four "Creativity Profiles" that can help achieve such goals. depending on the unique people and environments it exists. speed. schizophrenia.[27] The following sections examine some of the areas in which creativity is seen as being important. although they were more likely to have a close relative with a disorder. A study looking at 300. and substance abuse. among those diagnosed with schizophrenia.[98] [edit]Creativity in various contexts An electric wire reel reused as a center table in a Rio de Janeiro decoration fair. and it is therefore difficult to form a coherent overall view. Virginia Woolf (who drowned herself when she felt a depressive episode coming on). [edit]Creativity Profiles Creativity can be expresses in a number of different forms. reported a number of correlations between creative occupations and mental illnesses. and their relatives. One model suggests that there are kinds to produce growth. and even the famed visual artist Michelangelo.[97] According to psychologist Robert Epstein. those in the creative professions were no more likely to suffer from psychiatric disorders than other people. to some extent. conducted by Swedish researchers at the Karolinska Institute. etc. A number of different theorists have suggested models of the creative person. bipolar disorder or unipolar depression. and were almost twice as likely as the general population to kill themselves.

allowing for their creativity to be expressed more in a field with less previous information. Although extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation can both increase creativity in certain cases. As ideas are continuously generated.[100] An important aspect of the creativity profiling approach is to account for the tension between predicting the creative profile of an individual. intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.[105] From a personality-traits perspective. and then have the ability to add to and build upon previous information in innovative and creative ways. Extrinsic motivation is a drive from outside of a person and might take the form of payment. are more self-confident. quantity. strictly extrinsic motivation often impedes creativity in people. goals. there are a number of traits that are associated with creativity in people. Intrinsic motivation is an internal drive within a person to participate or invest as a result of personal interest.[101] One characteristic of creative people. Motivation stems from two different sources. From an evolutionary perspective. compared to people with less creativity. yet an appropriate amount of responses to a given situation. self-accepting. the need to evolve produces a need for new ideas and developments. Often the field they chose was relatively uncharted.[103] The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking assesses the diversity. but rigid and non-nurturing. are more ambitious. and hostile. as characterised by the psychometric approach. and the evidence that team creativity is founded on diversity and difference. As a result. Most exceptionally creative people devoted almost all of their time and . students who had more knowledge on their subject on average had greater creativity within their projects. is what is called divergent production. and creative ideas to build our progress as a society. etc. and most had a highly supportive and skilled mentor in their field of interest. desires. become experts in their fields. Incubation and Illumination) (ii) "Personality" (Curiosity and Tolerance for Ambiguity) (iii) "Motivation" (Intrinsic. etc. as measured by some psychologists. fame. In a study of projects by design students. Originality. approval from others. Sharing and Implementing) This model was developed in a sample of 1000 working adults using the statistical techniques of Exploratory Factor Analysis followed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis by Structural Equation Modelling. Extrinsic and Achievement) (iv) "Confidence" (Producing. hopes. dominant. creativity may be a result of the outcome of years of generating ideas. innovative. people have been creating and developing new. Other researchers of creativity see the difference in creative people as a cognitive process of dedication to problem solving and developing expertise in the field of their creative expression.[106] Creative people tend to be more open to new experiences. Hard working people study the work of people before them and within their current area.[104] The aspect of motivation within a person's personality may predict creativity levels in the person. driven. impulsive. Creative people in history usually had supportive parents.(i) "Idea Generation" (Fluency.[107] In studying exceptionally creative people in history. some common traits in lifestyle and environment are often found. rewards. and appropriateness of participants responses to a variety of open-ended questions. Most had an interest in their field at an early age.[102] One way of measuring divergent production is by administering the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. divergent production is the ability of a person to generate a diverse assortment.

Nevertheless. even between countries or groups of countries in close proximity. Note that we conventionally expect some "creative" people (dancers. more research would be needed to establish this. For example. This investment theory of creativity views creativity in a unique perspective compared to others. while Chinese people view creativity more in terms of the social influence of creative people e.[116] [edit]Creativity in art and literature Henry Moore's Reclining Figure Most people associate creativity with the fields of art and literature. In these fields. In the investment into their craft. that language can affect thought. art.[109] [edit]Creativity in diverse cultures Creativity is viewed differently in different countries.[110] For example.[114] Creativity has been more thoroughly researched in the northern hemisphere. a person with their particular characteristics in their particular environment may see an opportunity to devote their time and energy into something that has been overlooked by others. suggests that the lack of an equivalent word for 'creativity' may affect the views of creativity among speakers of such languages. Just like in the financial world. . originality is considered to be a sufficient condition for creativity.[113] and there has also been very little research on creativity in Latin America.[117] Within the different modes of artistic expression. creativity is seen more as a process that can be applied to help solve problems. such as their aesthetic taste. one can postulate a continuum extending from "interpretation" to "innovation".[115] while in Germany.[111] Mpofu et al. surveyed 28 African languages and found that 27 had no word which directly translated to 'creativity' (the exception being Arabic). and there is certainly no suggestion that this linguistic difference makes people any less (or more) creative. what they can contribute to society. some investments are worth the buy in. Africa has a rich heritage of creative pursuits such as music. whereas original thinkers strive towards the "innovation" pole. it is true that there has been very little research on creativity in Africa. and storytelling. Their lives were marked with extreme dedication and a cycle of hard-work and breakthroughs as a result of their determination [108] Another theory of creative people is the investment theory of creativity.[112] The principle of linguistic relativity. i. unlike other fields where both originality and appropriateness are necessary. Established artistic movements and genres pull practitioners to the "interpretation" end of the scale. The creative person develops an undervalued or underrecognized idea to the point that it is established as a new and creative idea. cross-cultural research centred on Hong Kong found that Westerners view creativity more in terms of the individual attributes of a creative person. while others are less productive and do not build to the extent that the investor expected. This approach suggest that there are many individual and environmental factors that must exist in precise ways for extremelly high levels of creativity opposed to average levels of creativity. creativity is seen as an individual attitude which helps in coping with life's challenges. by asserting that creativity might rely to some extent on the right investment of effort being added to a field at the right time in the right way. and after about a decade had a creative breakthrough of fame. but here again there are cultural differences. However. in Scandinavian countries.e.g.

.[122] B. which provides the transmission of visions from divine sources such as the Muses. Many of the responses mirrored his own. orchestral members. with the first three cited by Hadamard as also having been put forth by Helmholtz:[125] Marie-Louise von Franz.. is the simultaneity with which the complete solution is intuitively perceived and which can be checked later by discursive reasoning. Hermann von Helmholtz. often accompanied by mental images that represent the entire solution to a problem.[118] Compare with invention.) to perform (interpret) while allowing others (writers.[124] To elaborate on one example.. He surveyed 100 of the leading physicists of his day (ca. after years of fruitless calculations. Contrast alternative theories. which stresses the depth of communication when the creative product is the language. such as Denis Brian."[119] The same has been reported in literature by many others. 1900). and (v) verification of the five-step Graham Wallas creative-process model. Hadamard described the experiences of the mathematicians/theoretical physicists Carl Friedrich Gauss. Hardy. Henri Poincaré and others as viewing entire solutions with "sudden spontaneity. which stresses obeying established ("classical") rules and imitating or appropriating to produce subtly different but unshockingly understandable work. as in Surrealism. for example: artistic inspiration. in his book Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field. composers. artistic evolution. van der Waerden. asking them how they did their work. artistic conversation.actors. etc. and this is always an unconscious process which cannot be detected until afterwards. L. uses introspection to describe mathematical thought processes."[120] Hadamard described the process as having steps (i) preparation.[121] Walter Heitler. painters. "Archetypes . Einstein. leaving out (iii) intimation. etc. he describes his own mathematical thinking as largely wordless. [edit]Psychological examples from science and mathematics Jacques Hadamard."[128] [edit]Creative industries and services Today.[123] and Harold Ruegg."[126] As cited by von Franz. In the art practice and theory of Davor Dzalto. In contrast to authors who identify language and cognition. suddenly had the solution to the general theory of relativity revealed in a dream "like a giant die making an indelible impress. human creativity is taken as a basic feature of both the personal existence of human being and art production. a colleague of the eminent psychiatrist Carl Jung. creativity forms the core activity of a growing section of the global economy—the socalled "creative industries"—capitalistically generating (generally non-tangible) wealth through the creation and exploitation of intellectual property or through the provision of creative . For this thinker. creativity is a basic cultural and anthropological category.[120] G. Compare with crafts. manifest themselves only through their ability to organize images and ideas. (ii) incubation. (iv) illumination.) more freedom to express the new and the different.[127] according to Jung. since it enables human manifestation in the world as a "real presence" in contrast to the progressive "virtualization" of the world. a huge map of the universe outlined itself in one clear vision. a taste of the Divine.. H." She attributes the solution presented "as an archetypal pattern or image. noted that in these unconscious scientific discoveries the "always recurring and important factor .

These fields explicitly value creativity.[129] Fields such as science and engineering have. as well as marketing. Simonton[24] shows how some of the major scientific advances of the 20th century can be attributed to the creativity of individuals. some types of teaching and curriculum design. the first step in . The creative professional workforce is becoming a more integral part of industrialized nations' economies. Creativity is also seen as being increasingly important in a variety of other professions. and more generally the fields of design and design research. Since many creative professionals (actors and writers. approximately 10 million US workers are creative professionals. It has been the topic of various research studies to establish that organizational effectiveness depends on the creativity of the workforce to a large extent. this estimate may be double. measures of effectiveness vary. related crafts. experienced a less explicit (but arguably no less important) relation to creativity. theater. In a recent global survey of approximately 1600 CEO's. nature of work. depending upon its mission. Thus. Amabile[117] has suggested that even this profession can benefit from the (ethical) application of creative thinking. strategy. This ability will also be seen as increasingly important for engineers in years to come. depending upon the depth and breadth of the definition. for example) are also employed in secondary professions. art. by contrast. who are capable of analysing the workings of their own institutions. the product or service it produces. to 'Flann O'Brien'. environmental context. The Creative Industries Mapping Document 2001 provides an overview of the creative industries in the UK. the leadership trait that was considered to be most crucial for success was creativity. rather than being simply the preserve of the creative industries. Although this term often implies unethical practices. to Anthony Trollope. Creative professions include writing.[132] [edit]Creativity in organizations Training meeting in an eco-design stainless steel company in Brazil. the civil service (opularly derided as wholly opposite to the creative). design. For any given organization. motion pictures. [edit]Creativity in other professions Isaac Newton's law of gravity is popularly attributed to a creative leap he experienced when observing a falling apple. For Architecture and industrial design are the fields most often associated with creativity. estimates of creative professionals are often inaccurate. has benefitted from employing creative writers. some aspects of scientific research and development. and more. from John Milton.[130] Accounting has also been associated with creativity with the popular euphemism creative accounting. The leaders among other things wish to cheer and encourage the workers in order to achieve a higher level of creativity. By some estimates. and journals such as Design Studies have published many studies on creativity and creative problem solving. radio. product development. television.[131] This suggests that the world of business is beginning to accept that creativity is of value in a diversity of industries. and customer demands.

Work group features – diverse. The Rise of the Creative Class. The idea must also be appropriate—useful and actionable.[137] The creative class is seen by some to be an important driver of modern economies. to describe the way in which old ways of doing things are endogenously destroyed and replaced by the new. Creative thinking skills (how flexibly and imaginatively people approach problems).the impact of creativity on economic growth. and Motivation (especially intrinsic motivation). Freedom – giving people autonomy choosing means to achieve goals. Supervisory encouragement – recognitions. and creative products are protected by intellectual property laws. There must be balance fit among resources and people. space etc. Talent and Tolerance" also have high . who examined several successful Japanese companies.[133] In particular. intrinsic motivation – comes from inside an individual. Runco and Daniel Rubenson have tried to describe a "psychoeconomic" model of creativity. three components were needed: Expertise (technical.evaluating organizational effectiveness is to understand the organization itself . similarly saw creativity and knowledge creation as being important to the success of organizations. praising. for example threats of being fired or money as a reward. Mark A. Amabile[117] argued that to enhance creativity in business.[134][135] Creative competitive intelligence is a new solution to solve this problem. creativity is the product of endowments and active investments in creativity. and the maximisation of economic creativity (innovation). Such an approach has been criticised for its view of creativity consumption as always having positive utility. how it is structured. originality is not enough. economic growth. information it functions. Organizational support – value emphasis.[136] In such a model. and for the way it analyses the value of future innovations. There are two types of motivation: extrinsic motivation – external factors. consequently. Joseph Schumpeter introduced the economic theory of creative destruction. In the early 20th century. where members share the excitement. Resources – such as time. willingness to help and recognize each other's talents. Six managerial practices to encourage motivation are: Challenge – matching people with the right assignments. cheering. economist Richard Florida popularized the notion that regions with "3 T's of economic development: Technology. money. Creativity leads to capital. enjoyment of work etc. In his 2002 book. [edit]Economic views of creativity Economic approaches to creativity have focussed on three aspects . and what it emphasizes. Some economists (such as Paul Romer) view creativity as an important element in the recombination of elements to produce new technologies and products and. According to Reijo Siltala it links creativity to innovation process and competitive intelligence to creative workers. methods of modelling markets for creativity. satisfaction. the costs and benefits of bringing creative activity to market determine the supply of creativity. Nonaka. procedural and intellectual knowledge). In business. he emphasized the role that tacit knowledge has to play in the creative process. supportive teams. collaboration.

and employing about 6 million people. especially internal motivation Encouraging confidence and a willingness to take risks Focusing on mastery and self-competition Promoting supportable beliefs about creativity Providing opportunities for choice and discovery Developing self-management (metacognitive skills) Teaching techniques and strategies for facilitating creative performance Providing balance Some see the conventional system of schooling as "stifling" of creativity and attempt (particularly in the pre-school/kindergarten and early school years) to provide a creativityfriendly. The creative industries in Europe . [edit]Fostering creativity Main article: Creativity techniques Daniel Pink. The role of the non-state actors within the governance regarding Medias will not be neglected anymore due to a holistic approach .including the audiovisual sector . creativity also helps students . imagination-fostering environment for young children. repeating arguments posed throughout the 20th century. the sector plays a crucial role in fostering innovation. the newly proposed 'Creative Europe' programme will help preserve cultural heritage while increasing the circulation of creative works inside and outside the EU. The Commission will then propose a financial instrument run by the European Investment Bank to provide debt and equity finance for cultural and creative industries. in his 2005 book A Whole New Mind. argues that we are entering a new age where creativity is becoming increasingly important. In addition. we will need to foster and encourage right-directed thinking (representing creativity and emotion) over left-directed thinking (representing logical. analytical thought). rich.make a significant contribution to the EU economy.[139] The programme will play a consequential role in stimulating cross border cooperation.[141][142][143] Researchers have seen this as important because technology is advancing our society at an unprecedented rate and creative problem solving will be needed to cope with these challenges as they arise. in particular for devices and networks. promoting peer learning and making these sectors more professional.corresponding to an annual market value of €500 billion . In this conceptual age. These include approaches that have been developed by both academia and industry: Establishing purpose and intention Building basic skills Encouraging acquisitions of domain-specific knowledge Stimulating and rewarding curiosity and exploration Building motivation.[140] Nickerson[141] provides a summary of the various creativity techniques that have been proposed. creating about 3% of EU GDP . In that respect. producing more films than any other region in the world. this simplification of 'right' versus 'left' brain thinking is not supported by the research data. However.[143] In addition to helping with problem solving.[138] The EU records the second highest TV viewing figures globally.concentrations of creative professionals and tend to have a higher level of economic development.

anonymous interactions at times and many other factors affecting the teams members. such as Osborn-Parnes Creative Problem Solving Process. such as TRIZ (the Theory of Inventive Problem-Solving) and its variant Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving (developed by the Russian scientist Genrich Altshuller). cognitive and conative profiles. .identify problems where others have failed to do so. Science-based creative thinking. Students are more creative when they see a task as intrinsically motivating. societal and economic implications of such groupware and collaborative tools to the Internet. Purdue Creative Thinking Program. These tools have made more obvious the existence of a more connective. Some European FP7 scientific programs like Paradiso are answering a need for advanced experimentally driven research including largescale experimentation test-beds to discover the technical. Such ideas range from the psychological-cognitive. This is accomplished by allowing students to explore problems and redefine them. Promoting intrinsic motivation and problem solving are two areas where educators can foster creativity in students. to the highly structured. depending on the early or later stages of the cooperative creative process. and Edward de Bono's lateral thinking. and Computer-Aided Morphological analysis. They are also showing how NGO's cross-cultural virtual team's innovation in Africa would also benefit from the pooling of best global practices online. Creativity Research on Global Virtual Teams is showing that the creative process is affected by the national identities. [edit]Understanding and enhancing the creative process with new technologies A simple but accurate review on this new Human-Computer Interactions (HCI) angle for promoting creativity has been written by Todd Lubart. Groupware and other Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) platforms are now the stage of Network Creativity on the web or on other private networks. possibly drawing on knowledge that at first may seem unrelated to the problem in order to solve it. Empirical Modelling seems to be a good choice for Humanities Computing. The creative processes being highly fuzzy. cooperative and collective nature of creativity rather than the prevailing individual one. It might be a good tool to provide an interdisciplinary definition and a rather unified theory of creativity.[141][147] Teaching students to solve problems that do not have well defined answers is another way to foster their creativity. Providing students with a choice of activities to complete allows them to become more intrinsically motivated and therefore creative in completing the tasks. the programming of cooperative tools for creativity and innovation should be adaptive and flexible.[141][142][144] See the Waldorf School as an example of an education program that promotes creative thought.[142][143][145][146] To promote creative thinking educators need to identify what motivates their students and structure teaching around it. Pierre Levy. an invitation full of creative ideas to develop further this new field. valued for its own sake. Synectics. Such tools enhancing cooperative creativity may have a great impact on society and as such should be tested while they are built following the Motto: "Build the Camera while shooting the film". On the other hand.[141][142][143][145] Several different researchers have proposed methods of increasing the creativity of an individual. creativity research may one day be pooled with a computable metalanguage like IEML from the University of Ottawa Collective Intelligence Chair.

The Creativity and Cognition conference series. the Web of Things might shed some light on such a universal creative phenomenon which should not be restricted to humans. A report by the Business Council of Australia. The connection between concepts like creation. Ken Robinson argues that the current education system is "educating people out of their creativity". North American more pragmatic creativity and Chinese culture stressing more creativity as a holistic process of continuity rather than radical change and originality. [151][152] Nevertheless. Metis Reflexive Global Virtual Team has worked for the last few years on the development of a Trace Composer at the intersection of personal experience and social knowledge. The wealth of literature regarding the development of creativity[149] and the profusion of creativity techniques indicate wide acceptance. a dark side to creativity. After the web of documents. sponsored by the ACM and running since 1993. however. Expectation of conformity runs contrary to the spirit of creativity. next taking place in 2011. the above-mentioned paradox may well imply that firms pay lip service to thinking outside the box while maintaining traditional. Joas elaborates some implications of his model for theories of social movements and social change. In order to trace and enhance cooperative and collective creativity. employers are increasingly valuing creative skills. has been an important venue for publishing research on the intersection between technology and creativity. The conference now runs biennially. for example. . There is.[153] The ability to "think outside the box" is highly sought after. innovation. in that it represents a "quest for a radical autonomy apart from the constraints of social responsibility". However. one that emphasizes the creative character of human action. that creativity is desirable.If all the activity of the universe could be traced with appropriate captors. production and expression is facilitated by the creativity of action as a metaphore but also as a scientific concept.[148] social attitudes about this topic remain divided. hierarchical organization structures in which individual creativity is condemned.[150] In other words. at least among academics.[dated info] [edit]Social attitudes to creativity Although the benefits of creativity to society as a whole have been noted. This paradigm is mostly based on the work of the German philosopher Hans Joas. has called for a higher level of creativity in graduates. Metis Reflexive Team has also identified a paradigm for the study of creativity to bridge European theory of "useless" and non-instrumentalized creativity. by encouraging creativity we are encouraging a departure from society's existing norms and values. This model allows also for a more comprehensive theory of action. it is likely that one could see the creative nature of the universe to which humans are active contributors.

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