1. a. Needless repetition of the same sense in different words; redundancy. b. An instance of such repetition. 2. Logic An empty or vacuous statement composed of simpler statements in a fashion that makes it logically true whether the simpler statements are factually true or false; for example, the statement Either it will rain tomorrow or it will not rain tomorrow.


1. The explanation of phenomena by the purpose they serve rather than by postulated causes. 2. The doctrine of design and purpose in the material world.


1. The use or study of images or symbols in visual arts. 2. The visual images, symbols, or modes of representation collectively associated with a person, cult, or movement.

: the study or a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge especially with reference to its limits and validity

: of or relating to knowledge or knowing


or argument that juxtaposes opposed or contradictory ideas and usually seeks to resolve their conflict b : an intellectual exchange of ideas 6 : the dialectical tension or opposition between two interacting forces or elements . and synthesis in accordance with the laws of dialectical materialism (2) : the investigation of this process (3) : the theoretical application of this process especially in the social sciences 5 usually plural but singular or plural in construction a : any systematic reasoning. specifically : the Socratic techniques of exposing false beliefs and eliciting truth b : the Platonic investigation of the eternal ideas 3 : the logic of fallacy 4 a : the Hegelian process of change in which a concept or its realization passes over into and is preserved and fulfilled by its opposite.1 : a branch of metaphysics concerned with the nature and relations of being 2 : a particular theory about the nature of being or the kinds of things that have existence DIALECTIC 1 : logic 1a(1) 2 a : discussion and reasoning by dialogue as a method of intellectual investigation. antithesis. also : the critical investigation of this process b (1) usually plural but singular or plural in construction : development through the stages of thesis. exposition.

discovery.TELEOLOGICAL : exhibiting or relating to design or purpose especially in nature SOPHISTRY 1 : subtly deceptive reasoning or argumentation HEURISTIC : involving or serving as an aid to learning. also : of or relating to exploratory problem-solving techniques that utilize self-educating techniques (as the evaluation of feedback) to improve performance <a heuristic computer program> REIFY . or problemsolving by experimental and especially trial-and-error methods <heuristic techniques> <a heuristic assumption>.