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Edexcel GCE Psychology Unit 1: Cognitive and Social Psychology dsfdsfsdfdddddf

What to know before starting Ethics Tips for answering questions How this guide works Cognitive psychology layout: Definitions Methodology: Lab studies Field Studies Natural Studies 2 Theories of Memory: Multi-Store Model of Memory (Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968) Levels of Processing Theory (Craik and Lockhart 1972) 2 Theories of Forgetting: Cue Dependant Theory of Forgetting (Tulving 1975) Repression (Freud 1894) 2 Studies in Detail: Godden and Baddeley (1975) Craik and Lockhart (1975) Key Issue: Unreliability of Eye Witness Testimony. Prescribed Practical: Replication of Craik and Tulving.

What to Know Before Even Starting
Demand characteristics: This is where people change their behaviour to what they think someone wants to see. For example, if a 40 year old male, in a white lab coat who looks to be a figure of authority asks you to shock someone who you can't see then you're likely to do it because that's what you think the man wants to see. In other circumstances you would probably act differently. Independent Variable (IV): This is what you change during an experiment. For example, if you're measuring aspirin's effect on blood pressure (I'll use this example a lot) then the thing you would change is the dosage of aspirin. Dependant Variable (DV): This is what you measure during an experiment. Using the aspirin example again, you would measure the change in blood pressure. Extraneous Variable (EV): These are variables which could affect the IV and therefore should be controlled. For example, in the aspirin example, if some ps have a high salt diet (which raises blood pressure) then this would affect the IV and therefore the results would not be valid. Validity: This refers to whether you're measuring what you want to measure. This may take a while to make sense but; if you give someone aspirin, all other EVs are controlled and you see that aspirin lowers blood pressure then you would say these results are valid be you're measuring that aspirin lowers blood pressure. However, if you don't control the salt in a ps' diet then your results are invalid because you don't know whether aspirin lowers blood pressure or not. Participant (ps): This is someone who is used in an experiment. Ps can be obtained in one of four ways: Volunteer (self selecting) sample: Where the ps volunteer to partake in an experiment Stratified sample: Where you get people from all section of society Random sample: Where everyone in the population has an equal chance of being selected for the Opportunity sample: Where you use the people available at the time. Reliability: Whether, when you repeat something you get the same results. If you do the aspirin experiment say on January 1st 2013 and then February 1st 2013, March 1st 2013 ... to December 1st 2013 and you get the same results each time then you can say the results are reliable. Gaining multiple results and a mean is a more reliable measurement and gaining multiple results also allows you to identify anomalous data. Repeated measures design: This is where each participant does each condition in an experiment. For example, if you want to see what is quicker for inputting text, a mobile or a keyboard, in a repeated measures experiment, participants would type in a sentence on both the mobile and the keyboard Independent measures design: This is where each ps does one condition in an experiment. Using the inputting text example, half the ps would use a keyboard only and half would use the mobile only. Matched pairs design: This is where a ps is matched to someone on age, gender, intelligence etc (and therefore monozygotic (identical) twins are ideal) and one in the pair does one condition and the other does the opposite condition. So, one person would type in using the keyboard and the other the mobile. All studies follow the same steps: Aim, procedure, results and conclusion in that order, every time. Learn it. Ethical guidelines. The British Psychological Society (BPS) have implemented guidelines which all studies should follow. The breach of any of these guidelines makes that study unethical. However, some studies were done before the guidelines were in place. Operationalise: This is where you make something measurable in an experiment. For example, Craik and Tulving made semantic, phonetic and structural processing measurable (operationalised it) by asking a follow up question which got ps to process the words in one of three ways. When talking about studies (mainly) and (to some extent) evaluation points, say how the IV was operationalised: Not only does it make you look like a better candidate, but it can also net you extra marks. experiment.

Informed Consent The researchers should get permission from ps that they want to partake in the study before the study starts in either verbal or written form. .co. this may cause demand characteristics. Right to Withdraw Ps should be told that they are allowed to withdraw from the study at anytime and are allowed to remove their results from being used.) If ps are deceived then they must be properly debriefed afterwards. Debrief After the study has been completed the ps should be told the true aim of the study and have as many questions about the study that they want to know answered.Ethics Each study has to abide by several BPS guidelines in order to be ethical. The debrief ensures ps leave in the same state in which they started the experiment in. In some cases these guidelines can be broken if the results gained outweigh the disadvantages.bep@hotmail. The guidelines include: Revision Guide by WGH (wez. If children or those with disabilities are used then their parents / carers need to give informed consent for them. typically minor deceit. unless the study wouldn't work without deception (for example. or any aspect.uk) Deception Ps should not be deceived to the true aim. of the study.

'Give one strength of the levels of processing theory or memory (2)' Craik and Tulving found one type of processing resulted in more words being recalled than the other 2 types. do not half explain points (as in the 1 marker above) as losing all these 1 marks adds up and will severely inhibit your grade. Multiple choice questions will generally test methodology and design knowledge as well as definitions.Tips for Answering Questions This will come in handy for all your A levels. For example. If you're running out of time to revise then focus on parts which comes up multiple times. Most of them are simple and straightforward and easy marks. It has to be worth 2 marks and you can only write one. which means you're wasting marks. This question along is worth 20% of the marks and therefore could be the difference between an A and a D. This would be worth 2 marks. or anyone else. Most importantly have good exam technique. This would net you 0 marks. take an educated guess. Eliminate the answers is cannot be first and then. Look how many marks the question is worth . This works the opposite was round. If you have a question for 2 marks to give one strength then choose a good one. results . Using the example above. This would get you 1 mark.Remember you're under time constraints so for a 2 mark question do not write a whole page .You're wasting time. in Godden and Baddeley it doesn't matter that the ps brought their own scuba diving gear.1 mark. They shouldn't take you more than 10 minutes. Fully explain points. It is a combination of all of the above and learning what the exam board want off you. Writing 1. Craik and Tulving (1975) found that 65%.5 sides for description and 0. procedure. too: For the 12 mark questions. it's irrelevant and you will not gain any marks for it.1 mark and conclusion . Evaluation is as important as description. If you're asked to describe a study for 6 marks then do not do.7 marks. but it can be elaborated upon more. Think about what you're writing. . results and conclusion or perhaps 3 marks for aim and procedure and 3 for results and conclusions. if you're still unsure. For example. so make sure it's a good one and you can clearly see it's worth 2 marks. Craik and Tulving's experiment comes up multiple times. aim. It supports level of processing. Do not talk about anything unnecessary. but is more tailored for Edexcel psychology. This answer tells you nothing mark worthy. don't give yourself 5 minutes to answer this behemoth question. aim . There is nothing I. Good exam technique and content knowledge have a symbiotic relationship if you're going for a good grade and the best way to improve yours is to continually answer past exam questions. Those type of question will not be marked as 6 marks for everything available. Craik and Tulving found that more semantically processed words were recalled than phonetic or structurally processed ones. however some are there to catch you out. They need to be equal. but don't rush them. phonetically and structurally processed words were recalled respectively showing that semantic processing yields the best recall. it is something which comes with time. Instead you would say that 18 ps took part in a field experiment using a repeated measures design as this is relevant information that will get you a mark. 36% and 17% of semantically. More likely they'll be marked as 2 marks for each. can tell you in order for you to get good exam technique.5 sides for evaluation is not good enough. Read the multiple choice questions carefully. It clearly demonstrates that you know what you're talking about by describing specifics of the study. whereas Loftus and Palmer only once.1 mark. There are clearly some parts of the unit that are more important than others. For example. Here you'll have 6 descriptive (AO1) and 6 evaluation (A02) marks as well as how well the answer is written being assessed. procedure .

(Memory cannot necessarily store information as you take it in. Forgetting: The inability to retrieve stored information Information Processing: A model used to understand the flow of information of information through the cognitive system. Some parts (such as the definitions) cannot be condensed down further and therefore will only have one section for this part. if you read a sentence your memory cannot store it as a smell (according to multi store model of memory). like a computer. I have tried not to use these generic evaluation points as evaluation points as best I can. The in depth explanation will come first. Text written in this colour indicates elaboration.How This Guide Works This guide will have two parts to each section. So it is important that you learn the strengths and weaknesses of each type of methodology. where you can make sure you apply these to the study you're using them on. the results lack experimental validity.they will not be condensed down because you have to know them in detail. For example. However. . (This may be the computer analogy which say. processes it and then outputs the consequence of that processing. to output.) Memory: A cognitive function used to retain information and recall it when needed Retrieval: the process of recalling a stored memory Storage: Keeping information for later retrieval. one will explain the section in depth and the second will act as a 'revision guide' (under the title of 'Notes') covering the main parts for each topic. Generic Evaluation Points There are generic evaluation points which you can apply to a lot of studies and it involves criticising the methodology used. A lab experiment was used and this is an artificial environment and therefore the results lack ecological validity. this includes the studies in detail . The task ps were set to do was artificial and people would never be asked to do this type of task in the real world therefore. it must first be converted to another 'form' e. Those going for higher grades should try to use these evaluation points in addition to the other evaluation points. This can be used for field and natural experiments. For example. memory takes in the information (input). a generic evaluation point for a lab study would be that the environment was well controlled and a standardised procedure and instructions were used and therefore the experiment can be exactly replicable to test the results for reliability. to processing. what that sentence means. from input. which explains the aforementioned point in more detail. Cognitive Definitions: Encoding: The process of placing an experience into a form that can be used and stored by the memory system.g. Extraneous variables were controlled and a standardised procedure and instructions were used and therefore the results are valid as you are only measuring the IV's effect on the DV. extraneous variables were not controlled and therefore the experiment cannot be exactly replicable to test the results for reliability. Conversely.

For example. Laboratory Experiment A laboratory (or lab) experiment (method) is possibly the most common type of experiment and there are reasons why. We call this lacking ecological validity. For example. for example. However. This then allows you to see the effect of aspirin on blood pressure.Lacks both ecological and experimental validity due to the artificial nature of the environment and task. For example. lab experiments do have limitations: They use artificial environments and this means that the behaviour from participants is also likely to be artificial. They often use standardised instructions / procedure. which is the experimenter present influences the responses (or actions) of a ps. learn a list of words and then get them to recall them is an unreal task and we call this lacking experimental validity. they are highly likely to know they're part of an experiment and therefore are likely to display demand characteristics. This means that the instructions every ps get are the same and a standardised procedure means that every ps does the exact same 'thing' (procedure) in the experiment.Ps likely to show demand characteristics . Notes A lab experiment is an experiment where an IV is carefully manipulated to see its effect on the DV. There may also be experimenter effects.Cognitive Methodology: Experiments In cognitive psychology methodology used is experiments of which there are 3 types in total: Lab. Also. This is a disadvantage as it is important to measure real behaviour during an experiment otherwise the results may not necessarily apply to the real world. if you're looking into whether aspirin lowers blood pressure you would have. field and natural. lab environment in which all extraneous variables are controlled. old woman would perhaps result in more honest responses. using the aspirin example. Each have similarities and differences and some are more common than others. . A lab experiment occurs in a carefully controlled. Another good thing about lab experiments is that they use a standardised procedure and standardised instructions. Lab experiments also get ps to perform unreal tasks which would never be done in the real world. because ps will have likely had to volunteer. whereas having a small. making them less reliable. if. getting someone to smoke marijuana. 20 ps and give each a dose of aspirin greater than the previous one and then measure their blood pressure. some ps have a high salt diet (something that increases blood pressure) but other ps didn't then this would lower the validity of the results. having a big male present may result less provocative responses. A lab experiment is desirable as it allows you to see cause and effect (a causal relationship) between two IVs and eliminates any extraneous variables which could affect the validity of the results. For example. + Allows you to determine a cause and effect relationship because all other extraneous variables have been controlled . In each approach you will learn about a different type of methodology.the results are valid + Standardised procedure / instructions are used and because all other extraneous variables are controlled the experiment is exactly replicable to test the results for reliability. . It is important that extraneous variables are controlled as these are variables which could affect the results. You then carefully manipulate the IV and measure its effect on the DV. as will be covered later.

Due to a lack of control over extraneous variables it is almost impossible the replicate the experiment exactly to test the results for reliability. There may also be experimenter effects. . . + High ecological validity.Field Experiment A field experiment (method) also a relatively common type of experiment used and like a lab experiment. The main one being that because the experiment is taking place in a natural environment that all extraneous variables cannot be controlled. + If ps unaware they're in an experiment then unlikely to be demand characteristics . but this occurs in a natural environment. There are many advantages to using a field experiment. The main one is ecological validity: Because the experiment is taking place in a natural environment the results have ecological validity and often. field experiments do have limitations. . However. involves carefully manipulating an IV to see its effect on the DV. This means that you cannot (necessarily) determine a cause and effect relationship between the IV and its effect on the DV.Difficult to replicate exactly and test the results for reliability. Notes An experiment where an IV is carefully manipulated to see its effect on the DV in a natural environments. the task given to ps is a more 'real' task that is likely to occur in everyday life.high validity. If ps are unaware that they are part of an experiment then this infringes on BPS (ethical) guidelines.Cannot determine cause and effect relationship due to lack of control over extraneous variables. Participants may not necessarily know that they are part of an experiment and this means that they will not (unless they know they're part of an experiment) display demand characteristics which could lower the validity of the results.

Natural Experiment A natural (or quasi) experiment (method) is an experiment where the IV is naturally occurring in a natural environment. however. mainly being that the IV occurs naturally in a natural environment and therefore there is high ecological and experimental validity. because the situation is natural the experimenter does not need to gain permission to study the effects of the naturally introduced IV and because ps do not know they're being observed they won't display demand characteristics. Notes An experiment where the IV changes naturally in a natural environment.Impossible to replicate. Also. + Ecological and experimental validity. TV was introduced naturally and therefore the anti / pro social that occurred because of it was natural. Helena's school and Charleston was looking to see whether the introduction of TV cause there to be more anti social behaviour or pro social behaviour. This also means that there are no experimenter effects. . However. There are great advantages to this type of experiment. Using the above example. this type of experiment is rare. there are also disadvantages: The main one being that it is pretty much impossible to replicate exactly: For example. one TV has naturally been introduced to an area it is unlikely that TV will ever be naturally introduced to that area again. .No control over extraneous variables. Also. For example. Charleston is a natural experiment which saw the introduction of television to St. lowering the validity of the results. . there is a lack of control over extraneous variables to some extent. + No demand characteristics.

meaning that his STM was also functional.g. if it is worth paying attention to then we are attentive to it and it is transferred to STM. the words in the middle of the list were the worst recalled as they didn't have time to be rehearsed and therefore transferred into LTM (asymplote) therefore showing different memory stores. MSM is contradicted by another theory of forgetting. which states that memory is a consequence of processing and the deeper you process information.it decays out of memory. However. capacity. the deeper you process information the more durable memory is formed. Information here is encoded acoustically (by how it sounds).Model of Memory: Multi-Store Model of Memory The multi store model of memory (from now on abbreviated to MSM) is probably the easiest thing you can be asked a large question on. If the information is not worth paying attention to. However. For each store you have to talk about. However.g. it is stored as a smell. first out (FIFO) principal and is there is more than 7+-2 piece of information stored here then the first information into memory is the first to be 'pushed out' of memory . The later words in the list were also well recalled because they remained in STM (recency effect). In order to transfer the information from STM to LTM it must be rehearsed.2 (as supported by Sperling's 1960 study) and it is stored in the form it enters SM i. levels of processing. The information is stored long enough for us to decide whether it's worth paying attention to or not. SM holds information for between 1/4 . . NOT 5-9. LTM has an unlimited capacity and can hold information forever (as shown by Batrick etal). He could also hold a conversation.e. Physiological scans also show then when someone is accessing information in their LTM a different part of their brain is active to when they're accessing information that is stored in STM showing that physiologically there are different memory stored. the short term memory (STM) and the long term memory (LTM). Proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968 the MSM is a structural model of memory comprising on 3 stores: The sensory memory / register (SM). Clive Wearing whose hippocampus was destroyed was left with an inability to create new memories. memories created prior to the incident were still retrievable from LTM e. STM holds information in memory for between 18 -30 seconds (as shown by Peterson and Peterson) and there can be 7+-9 (It must be written as 7+-9. encoding (how it's stored) and length of storage.) Evaluation: Supported by anterograde amnesia patients e. Information here is stored semantically (by its meaning. If the information isn't rehearsed for in the 18-30 seconds then it decays from STM. The STM works on a first in. then it decays ad is no longer stored in SM. episodic or procedural memory. how to play piano. if it's a smell. Glazner and Cunitz 1966 found that when ps freely recalled a list of words that the first words in the list were best recalled because they had enough time to be rehearsed and therefore be transferred into LTM (primacy effect). Weaknesses: The MSM is a too simplistic model of memory and says that information stored in memory is only stored semantically and therefore doesn't account for other types of memory for example.) items of information held here at any one time (as shown by Miller's magic number).

. In STM information's stored for 18-30 seconds acoustically and 7+-2 items can be stored here. If it is. . It says information is stored only semantically and doesn't account for episodic or procedural memories. whose hippocampus was destroyed couldn't create new memories. Information's stored semantically. but could remember things previously stored in LTM and hold a conversation showing different memory stores.long enough to decide whether it's worth paying attention to.MSM is too simplistic. . short term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM). Information needs to be rehearsed in order to be transferred to LTM.Notes A structural model of memory with 3 separate stores.2 seconds . the information's transferred to STM.Contradicted by levels of processing which says memory is a consequence of processing and the deeper processing occurs the more durable memory is formed. SM encodes information in the way it enters memory for 1/4 . + Clive Wearing. +Glazner and Cunitz found that when ps freely recalled words at the beginning and end of the list were recalled well as they were in both LTM and STM respectively. Infinite amount of data can be stored in LTM for unlimited duration. + Physiological scans show different parts of the brain active when information in LTM is accessed to when information in STM is accessed. showing different memory stores. sensory memory (SM).

e. Semantic processing is the deepest form of processing and involves considering the meaning of the information and results in the most durable memory. .Model of Memory: Levels of Processing Proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972) levels of processing (lop) states that memory is a consequence of processing and the deeper we process information the more durable memory is formed. Phonetic processing is less shallow than structural processing and involves considering what the information sounds like and results in a moderately durable memory.Morris found more phonetically processed words were recalled then semantically processed ones. Weaknesses: Morris etal 1977 found that there was the highest recall of phonetically processed words which goes against lop which states semantic processing should yield the best recall because information is processed semantically. Elaborative rehearsal . phonetically and structurally words were freely recalled showing that semantic processing results in the best recall. . Structural processing is the shallowest form of processing and involved considering what the information looks like and this produces the least durable memory. the more durable memory is formed. 36% and 17% of semantically. . Craik and Lockhart failed to clearly define what was meant by 'deep' processing: It could refer to time spent processing. Maintenance rehearsal stored information for short periods of time. Phonetic processing: Less shallow than structural. + Helps students revise by telling them to do so semantically . Craik and Lockhart said that lop explains why information can be stored for a long time without rehearsal. Lop explains why information can be stored without rehearsal. There are three types of processing. Structural processing: Shallowest processing. There are 2 types of rehearsal: Maintenance rehearsal . This model can help students make good revision notes: It tells them to revise semantically i. Evaluation: Strengths: Craik and Tulving (1975) found that 65%. both are ways of semantically processing the information. involved considering what information sounds like. involves considering meaning of information.Where information is deeply processed (semantically) and therefore it is retained for a longer period.Craik and Lockhart failed to accurately define what 'deep' processing was. or emotion associated with the information. involves considering what information looks like. by creating their own resources or answering questions. + Craik and Tulving found more semantically processed words were recalled out of the 3 types.Where information is shallowly processed (structural or phonetic) and therefore it is only retained for a short period. elaborative rehearsal for long periods.MSM says information is stored in LTM by rehearsal. Semantic processing: Deepest form of processing. Notes The deeper you process information. Contradicted by multi store model which is a structural model of memory and says how information is stored in LTM via rehearsal.

Notes Repression is a defence mechanism which pushes traumatic memories into the unconscious to protect us from the trauma associated with that memory. This is explained by flashbulb memories which says people have a 'photographic' memory for traumatic events e.Hadley and McKay (2007) found more negative words were recalled than positive ones. He also said that these repressed memories can manifest themselves in later life through behaviour or attitudes. After a one week break ps asked to recall events and could only recall positive and neutral ones. It is unethical to traumatise ps simply for research purposes as it breaks the BPS guideline which says that ps must leave in the same state that they enter. repression states that we forget information if it is traumatic because it is pushed (repressed) into our unconscious (part of Freud's model of the mind) as a defence mechanism in order to protect ourselves from the negative emotions associated with that memory. They found that ps recalled more positive events than negative ones. Walker etal 1997 got ps to keep a diary of everything they did for 3 weeks and then after a 1 week break they got ps to recall the events of the 3 weeks. which says that some people can remember traumatic events. people can recall vast detail about what they were doing on September 11th. if someone has a car crash then they're unlikely to remember the even as it is traumatic and therefore will have been repressed into the unconscious. Weaknesses: Hadley and McKay 2007 found that ps freely recalled more words with negative connotations than words with positive or neutral ones. .More positive and neutral words were recalled than negative ones. + Walker 1997 gave ps a diary to record events over 3 weeks. lead to poorer recall.Unethical to traumatise people for the sake of research. thus contradicting repression which says words with negative connotation should yield the lowest recall.g. then when you're older you may be aggressive towards males such as your Dad.photographic memories about traumatic events. + Levinger and Clark . Repression occurs as a result of a poor relationship with parents and repressed memories can manifest them self in later life through behaviour or attitudes. because any negative events that occurred were repressed. .Theory of Forgetting: Repression Put forward by Freud (who you'll do a whole approach on in unit 2) in 1894. rape) as those negative words were traumatic to the ps and therefore were repressed and as such. Freud suggested that repression occurs as a poor relationship with parents during childhood. Repression is contradicted by Flashbulb Memories proposed by Yuille. if your Dad is abusive towards your Mum.g. . For example. + Explains why rape victims cannot remember the event.Someone people have flashbulb memories . Evaluation .Strengths: Supported by Levinger and Clark 1961 who found that ps freely recalled more words with positive or neutral connotations that words with negative connotation (e. For example. Repression has application to real life and explains why rape victims (an extremely traumatic event) cannot recall details about the event. .

if you're in the bathroom and know you want something from the kitchen.Baddeley said for cue dependant forgetting to occur the contexts must be vastly different. Make sure you then elaborate upon this with an example. put them in the same state in order to aid recall and research shows that the cognitive interview yields 35% more information than other methods. Cues may be necessary to access information that's available but irretrievable. This refers to the physiological or psychological state that you're in during encoding and retrieval e. when you enter the kitchen you cannot remember what it was you initially wanted because different cues are present during encoding and recall. Cues are additional pieces of information that help 'guide' us to the information that we're looking for. For example. if you're told some information when you're depressed then you may be unable to recall this information when you're happy as there are different cues at recall than were available during encoding. . Notes If different cues are present at encoding than were present at recall then forgetting occurs. Cues are additional pieces of information that act like a contents page.g. Evaluation -Strengths: Supported by Godden and Baddeley who found 50% more words were recalled when encoding and retrieval environments were the same. You can use two pieces of supporting evidence for CDTF as one supported context cues and the other state cues. a bathroom. Can be used in the cognitive interview where the police take a witness to the environment they were in during encoding [the event] and. Another theory of forgetting is repression which states that forgetting occurs due to traumatic information being pushed into the unconscious as a defence mechanism to protect us from the trauma associated with that memory. The second type if a state cue. 2 types of cue. Also supported by Eich etal who found ps who smoked marijuana during encoding and recall recalled more words than ps who smoked marijuana during encoding or recall showing how state can affect recall. + Godden and Baddeley (1975) found 50% more words recalled when encoding and recall contexts the same. +Eich etal found more words recalled when ps smoked marijuana during encoding and recall .) Cues may be necessary to access information that's retrievable but inaccessible. to some extent. context which refers to the environment during encoding and retrieval and state which refers to the physical or psychological state you're in during encoding and retrieval.Repression is another theory of forgetting which says information is pushed into the unconscious as a defence mechanism. For example. the first is a context cue which refers to the environment you're in during encoding or retrievable e. stressed. . There are 2 types of cue.g. (Like the contents page of a book. Weaknesses: Baddeley said that in order for cue dependant forgetting to occur that the contexts must be vastly different. For example.Theory of Forgetting: Cue Dependant Theory of Forgetting Proposed by Tulving in 1975 the cue dependant theory of forgetting (CDTF) says that is the same cues are not present during encoding as are present during recall then forgetting will occur. encoding in an ice rink and recalling on a sun bed.

Ps learning or recalling the words on land did so in full diving gear without the diving helmet. Ps who encoded and recalled the words in the same context had the 3 minute interval to rehearse the words whereas those changing environments would have had lots of interference and therefore the validity of the results is lowered. Conclusion: A natural.6 Condition 4: 8. equipment failure etc. Weaknesses: As a field study was used all extraneous variables (marine animals. Participants learning or recalling the words underwater were 15ft underwater and were wearing full diving gear. there was a 3 minute interval before the ps recalled the words. open-water environment was used and therefore the results have high ecological validity.4 You must learn these numerical results. If the ps changed environments e.Strengths: A realistic. The words were presented in 3 word blocks with 4 second intervals between blocks. The ps had to learn a list of 38 unrelated 2-3 syllable words in one of four environment and over the course of four days each participant did all four conditions.g. . Condition 1: Learning and recalling the words on land Condition 2: Learning and recalling the words underwater Condition 3: Learning the words on land and recalling them underwater Condition 4: Learning the words under water and recalling them on land. Evaluation . Application to real life: The police use the cognitive interview where the take the eye witness back to the scene of the crime so that there are the same context cues present during recall as were present during encoding in order to aid recall.Study in Detail: Godden and Baddeley (1975) Aim .) were not controlled which means that it is almost impossible to replicate the results exactly and text the results for reliability. The results are not generalisable to the general population as the sample used were 18 university students who were members of its diving club in Scotland and this sample is not representative of the general population. Studies show that the cognitive interview yields 35% more information than other methods.4 Condition 3: 8. Results: 50% more words were recalled when encoding and recall environments were the same. encoded underwater but recalled on land then in that 3 minutes they changed environment.To see whether an open-water environment could act as a natural context cue to aid recall. The study took part off the coast of Scotland. Procedure: 18 ps (5 female. The mean number of words recalled in each condition: Condition 1: 13.5 Condition 2: 11. 13 male) who were members of a Scottish university took part in a field experiment using a repeated measures design. The results are supported by Abernathy 1940 who found that children who learned and recalled words in the same environment recalled more words than children who encoded words in one environment and recalled them in another. When the 38 words had all been read out. open-water environment does act as a natural context cue to aid recall.

Strengths: The recognition task was unexpected and therefore the ps did not artificially process the words (e. This means the results are valid.g. 'Does the word fit in this sentence?' After all 60 words been shown to each participant (20 of each processing type) there was an unexpected memory test where ps had to identify the previously used 60 words from a list of 180 (60 original + 120 new ones). . There are problems with accurately defining what 'deep' processing is: It could refer to the time spent processing (and Craik and Tulving found that the deeper words were processed. Ps were shown 60 words individually. by rehearsal) therefore the words were only recalled due to the follow up question getting them to process the word in one of the three ways. Deeper processing resulted in a higher recall than shallow processing. the time was spent processing). but it's worth knowing all of them Conclusion: Semantic processing involves considering the meaning of the word (deep processing) and therefore a more durable memory is formed than shallowly processing words..both of which are ways to semantically process information which therefore leads to better recall. by a tachistoscope and then were given a follow up yes or no question regarding the previous word. which got them to process the word in one of three ways: Ensure for each processing type you give an example of the question. Application to real life: The results tell students how to revise effectively ..g. It could be that deeper processing leads to better recall. 36% and 17% of semantically.g. There may seem to be a lot of conclusion points for Craik and Tulving. ' Was the word in upper case?' Phonetic processing was operationalised by the question regarding what the word sounded like e.by creating their own resources and answering exam questions . phonetically or semantically processing words affects the number of words recalled.the idea that semantic processing leads to the best recall. therefore supporting levels of processing.Study in Detail: Craik and Tulving (1975) Aim: To test the levels of processing framework by seeing whether. Elaborative rehearsal is better than maintenance rehearsal at improving memory recall. 'Did the word rhyme with.g. Procedure: 24 ps took part in a lab experiment with a repeated measures design. structurally. or something else altogether. Structural processing was operationalised by the question regarding the structure of the word e. Evaluation .?' Semantic processing was operationalised by the question regarding what the word's meaning e. Results: 65%. The results are not generalisable to the general population because only 24 ps were used and generalisability is difficult due to things such as individual differences. phonetically and structurally processed words were recalled respectively. the emotion attached to the word. This study supports the levels of processing framework . Weaknesses: Morris etal 1977 found that phonetically processed words yielded the best recalled which lowers the reliability of Craik and Tulving's results as they found that semantically processed words yielded the best recall.

) Explaining the issue involves using evidence. 'crashed'. by using past experiences and expectations to fill in the blanks of what we don't understand. 'collided'. Some evidence suggests that jurors are more likely to believe EWT than DNA evidence. showing how a question is worded can affect the response. Weakness: However. Explaining the Key Issue: Bartlett . For example.frames of reference . from things they didn't understand to things they did.?' and then either. Evaluation . Ps recalled less details about the man when he was holding a gun compared to when he was holding nothing. There is a difference between the two. 'How fast were the cars going when they. . Loftus and Palmer 1974 Loftus and Palmer showed ps a video of a car crash and then got ps to answer a questionnaire where all the questions were the same apart from one which asked.which help us understand what we don't about the world. Bear in mind that there will still be half marks for description and half marks for evaluating. The schemata help us to understand what we don't understand about the world. so choose evidence which you can describe and evaluate in depth.Pickel 1998 Showed ps a video of an incident at a barbers and in one video the man was holding a gun and in another video holding nothing. concept etc you use. Beth Rutherford who falsely claimed her Dad sexually abused her. make sure you link it back to the key issue.. Bartlett's story didn't make sense. They found that when crashed was used the average speed estimated was 41 mph. 'hit' or 'contacted'. For example. When asked who was holding the knife they said the black man. Loftus and Ketchum (1991) estimate that 45% of wrongful convictions are due to eye witness testimony (EWT). compared to 32mph when contacted was used. Strengths: Clifford and Scott 1978 found ps who watched a violent film recalled 40 less pieces of information compared to ps who watched a non-violent film. 'bumped'. instead we have schemata . The point you're making is worthless otherwise. a canoe became a boat because the ps understood what a boat was better than they did a canoe.. Describing the key issue is simply saying what your key issue is (and if you haven't anywhere else. When explaining your key issue every theory. Description of the Key Issue: An eye witness is someone who gives their account of an event / crime to the authorities in some capacity.showed ps a picture of a white man holding a knife to a black man. theories. Bartlett found that ps changed details of the story. This is because for this time period. For example.Key Issue: The Unreliability of Eye Witness Testimony You may be asked to either describe or explain your key issue.Reconstructive Memory Bartlett said that memory is not like a tape recorder. that is who they expected to be holding the knife. 'and they were dead' so it is no wonder that ps couldn't accurately recall details of the story. Weapon Focus . say what your key issue it the examiner doesn't know. Bartlett used 1932 War of the Ghosts study to back up his theory.Strengths: Allport and Postman 1947 . concepts and ideas to say why your key issue occurs. He read ps an American-Indian story and then ps were asked to recall it.

ps said the black man. However. performance increases with stress up to a peak after which performance decreases. to some extent. Research shows that the cognitive interview yield 35% more information than other methods.e. it is no good reeling off the evidence without applying it to the question so what follows is how you would answer a question asking you to explain your key issue. were in the same state) than ps who smoked it during encoding or recall. Eich etal 1975 who found more words were recalled when ps smoked marijuana during encoding and recall (i. for example and is highly likely to be stressed. However. rape) were traumatic and therefore repressed. This is supported by: Godden and Baddeley 1975 who found that 50% more words were recalled when encoding and recall environments were the same. However. the EW will be in a bank. if an EW sees that a criminal has a Malaysian text tattoo then the EW may say that the tattoo was Chinese text as China a more well known Asian country than Malaysia and her schemata 'tell her' than the text is Chinese. Cue Dependant Theory of Forgetting and Repression See above sections.Yerkes-Dodson (Arousal) Curve 1908 (Sometimes called inverted U) For any task of moderate complexity. . the reliability of the above study's results is lowered by Hadley and McKay 2007 who found that more negative words were recalled than positive or neutral ones and thus contradicting repression which says that negative words should yield the worst recall. during recall. when the EW is asked of details on the crime they cannot recall them because they have been repressed to protect the EW from the trauma associated with the memory.g. How Does the Evidence Link to the Question? As has been previously said. to aid recall.' so it's no wonder that ps didn't accurately recall details of the story. However. For example. This is supported by Allport and Postman 1947 who found when ps were shown a picture of a white man holding a knife to a black man and ps were asked who was holding the knife. Eye witness testimony (EWT) may be unreliable as the EW may have repressed some of the information. put them in the same state they were in during the crime. the police do use the cognitive interview to aid recall where they take the ps back to the scene of the crime and. the EW is likely to be much calmer and giving her account in a police station and therefore there are different context and state cues present during recall that were present during encoding and therefore forgetting is likely to occur. Strengths: Also supported by Clifford and Scott as described above.g. During the crime. we have schemata which help us understand what we don't about the world. Bartlett said that memory isn't like a tape recorder. 'and they were dead. A EW may also not be able to recall detail about the event because of a difference in cues. Witnessing a crime can be a traumatic event and therefore. This is supported by Levinger and Clark who found that ps recalled more positive and neutral words than negative words because the negative words (e. supporting evidence for Bartlett's reconstructive memory theory comes from his War of the Ghosts study which is flawed because the story didn't make sense e.

The null hypothesis simply says that there will be no difference and any difference is due to chance. most of which will probably be psychology students and as such. For your study you will need to have an hypothesis.g. 'Does the word fit in this sentence?' You have to make design decisions like what type of experiment you'll use and what design you'll use (repeated measures. . I will go on to explain what you need for this section and say what type of question you may be asked. Any difference is due to chance.?' Semantic processing was operationalised by the question regarding what the word's meaning e. A one tailed hypothesis is one that states that there will be a difference and in what direction that difference occurs. Here. they are likely to know the aim of your experiment and so are likely to show demand characteristics. two tailed (non-directional). 'Did the word rhyme with.. Make sure you put any difference is due to chance on the end. The exam board do not know what practical you have done and this has its advantages such as not having to remember specific results from your experiment. you just operationalise is. independent groups.g. For any examples. you are saying that there will be more semantically processed words recalled than other processing types and hence you are giving the hypothesis a direction. Then you have a null hypothesis which is always the same. You need to clearly and accurately define your IV and DV. For example: There will be more semantically processed words recalled than phonetically or structurally processed words. You need to know the advantages and disadvantages of each method type as this is the type of thing they're likely to ask you about. why you did something one way etc. Make sure that you describe in detail how the IV is operationalised. It's unlikely that you will be asked to describe the procedure of your prescribed practical.g. the exam board are looking for design decision e.g. ' Was the word in upper case?' Phonetic processing was operationalised by the question regarding what the word sounded like e.Prescribed Practical: Replication of Craik and Tulving's 1975 Study For the prescribed practical you have to carry out your own practical using the methodology in the unit. Make sure that the IV is operationalised otherwise your experiment is pointless and very flawed. For most people they will have used an opportunity sample simply because of convenience. matched pairs) and for which state why you chose that an advantage and disadvantage. There will be a difference in the number of semantically processed words recalled compared to the number of phonetically and structurally words recalled. This can be either one tailed (directional). There will be no difference in the number of semantically processed words recalled compared to the number of phonetically or structurally processed words. or null. which will be important later. Next you have the sampling method you used. I will use the prescribed practical I did (replication of Craik and Tulving 1975). but doesn't state in what direction they change. A two tailed hypothesis states that there will be a difference between 2 (or more) things. The procedure of your experiment is not what's important either. You are likely to be asked why you chose that method.. For example: Structural processing was operationalised by the question regarding the structure of the word e.

g. My results were as followed: Semantic Phonetic Structural Mean number of words recalled Median Mode Range 4 3 4 3 2 2 2 3 1 1 1 2 . median and mode) and range). Here. You obviously don't have to do the practical as the exam board don't know. you carry out your practical. as has previously been described. there was an unexpected memory test.5 seconds and then gave them a follow up.the measures of central tendency (mean. which got them to process the word semantically. fatigue) because different ps are used in each condition Weakness: Individual differences may affect the results because ps variables are not controlled. Results Then.Repeated measures: Strength: There are no uncontrollable ps variables and therefore individual differences are less likely to affect the results Weakness: Suffers from order effects e. We then flashed up a total of 18 words (6 of each processing type) for 0.g. Matched Pairs: Strength: Ps variables are reduced as ps are matched with someone similar and therefore individual differences are less likely to affect the results. in a darkened room and read them standardised instructions. after you have described your procedure you have to show your results . but doing it will help you identify flaws with your experiment. fatigue as the same ps are in both groups and therefore the results' validity is questionable. a list of 40 words (18 original + 22 new) were shown to ps and they had to identify as many words as they could that were used in the experiment. After all 18 words had been flashed up. The procedure of my experiment is as follows: We got 24 ps to sit separately in silence. phonetically or structurally. yes or no question. Procedure Then. after you have planned it. Weakness: A high amount of ps are needed and it can be very difficult to match ps which therefore is expensive and time consuming Independent Groups Strength: The results have no order effects (e.

Disadvantages: Morris etal 1977 found that there were more phonetically processed words recalled. The sample used were psychology students and therefore would likely know the aim of the experiment and therefore display demand characteristics. The memory test was unexpected and therefore the words could have only been processed by the follow up question and not through other means (e.the sample used) and therefore the results have ecological validity. for example.Evaluation After the description of your practical. Strengths: Supported by Craik and Tulving's 1975 experiment. you have to evaluate it. the aforementioned demand characteristics. who found that 65. phonetically and structurally processed words were recalled respectively. contradicting our results. . The results are only generalisable to 16 and 17 year old psychology students who attend school in England. lowering their validity. improving the reliability of our results as we found the same pattern in processing type and words recalled. The experiment took place in a lab setting and all extraneous variables such as length of time a word was displayed for were controlled. therefore the results have experimental validity. But. Learning a list of words in a school is a realistic task for that type of environment. 36 and 17% of semantically. rehearsal).g. the experiment was in a natural environment (for students . You could talk about problems you encountered and how this lowered the results' validity.