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Submitted By: Rohit. C. Nair Student id- 51231896
We know that resistances R4. Find the equivalent resistance of the circuit.R3)/ (Rs + R3) Rp = 0. Let their equivalent parallel resistance be Rp Ω. Compute the voltage drop across each resistor. Compute the current flowing through the circuit.Question 1: Consider the circuit given below. R5 and R6 are in series connection to each other so let their equivalent series resistance be Rs Ω. R1=R2 =R3 =R4 =R5 =R6 =1KΩ 2.75 KΩ . Solution: Data Given: 1. ii. iii. If R1=R2 =R3 =R4 =R5 =R6 =1KΩ: i. From formula for computing equivalent series resistance we know that: Rs = R4 + R5 + R6 = (1 + 1 + 1) KΩ = 3KΩ Therefore Rs= 3 KΩ Now Rs and R3 are in parallel connection to one another. From formula for computing equivalent resistance for parallel circuits we know that: 1/Rp = 1/Rs + 1/R3 Rp = (Rs. Voltage across the circuit (V) = 100 Volts Let the equivalent resistance of the whole circuit be Req Ω.
Rp and R2 are in series connection to each other. R2. R3. 0.03636 Ampere.03636 A Voltage drop VR1 = I c ∗ R1 = 0.03636 ∗ 103 = 36. VR2. Current flowing across resistors R1 and R2 is the same i.75+ 1) = 2. Ic = 0. R5 and R6 be Ib Amperes. Ia = VR3/ R3 = 27. Req = R1 + Rp + R2 = (1+ 0. From Kirchhoff’s voltage law we know that the sum of all voltages in a circuit is zero.36 Volts Voltage drop VR2 = I c ∗ R2 = 0. VR5 and VR6 respectively. R5 and R6 be VR1.e. Let the current flowing across resistor R3 be Ia and across the series resistors R4.03636 ∗ 103 = 36. R4.02728 A .03636 Ampere Now to compute the voltage drop across each resistor: Let the voltage drop across resistors R1. Hence we can calculate the equivalent resistance of the circuit. VR3. Therefore the voltage drop across R3 is: VR3 = VRMS – (VR1 + VR2) = 100 – (36.28 Volts The current Ic splits in two parts when it enters the parallel network.36 + 36.36) = 27.Now the circuit can be interpreted as resistance R1. Now from Ohm’s Law: Voltage (V) = Ic x Req Therefore Ic = V/ Req = 100/(2750) = 0.75KΩ Req = 2.36 Volts Since R3 and RS are in parallel connection the voltage drop across them is the same. VR4.28/1000 = 0.75 KΩ Now to compute the current flowing across the circuit: Let the current flowing through the circuit be Ic Ampere.
02728 = 0.00908 A Voltage drop VR4 = I b ∗ R4 = 0. R5 and R6 is the same and also the magnitudes of the resistors are same.08 V . Therefore VR4 = VR5 = VR6 = 9.I a = 0.Ib = I c .08 V Since value of current flowing through resistors R 4. the voltage drop across each of them will also be the same.00908 ∗ 1000 = 9.03636 – 0.
628 Ω . Power factor SOLUTION: Data given: VRMS = 24 volts (V) Frequency of circuit (f) = 50 Hz Resistor R1 = 10 KΩ Resistor R2 = 10 KΩ Inductance (L) = 2 mH Capacitance (C) = 40 µF Angular frequency (ω) = 2πf = 2∗22/7∗50 = 314. The circuit parameters are as follows: • R1=R2=10KΩ • L=2mH • C=40μF Compute: i.159∗ 2∗ 10-3 = 0.159 rad/s Inductive reactance XL = ωL = 314. Current flowing through the circuit ii.Question 2: Consider the circuit given below.
78. Impedance Z = = = 5000.623) = 0.159∗40∗10-6) = 79.0048 Ampere IMAX = ∗ IRMS = 0.628 – 79.623 Ω IRMS = (VRMS / Z) = (24/ 5000.00678 Ampere Power Factor = (Req/ Z) = (5000/5000.99987 .577 Ω Let the equivalent resistance of the circuit be Req Ω Since R1 and R2 are in parallel: (1/Req) = (1/ R1) + (1/ R2) Req = (R1 ∗ R2)/(R1 + R2) = (103 ∗103)/(2∗103) = 5 KΩ Let the total reactance of the circuit be X Ω X = XL .Capacitive reactance XC = 1/(ωC) = 1/(314.XC = 0.949 Ω The negative value of reactance indicates that the reactance is capacitive.577 = .623) = 0.
s. Also in an AC circuit there are inductive and capacitive elements that have the capacity to store charge temporarily. of an electrical transmission system. Based on these definitions. comment on the concept of Power Factor giving typical design criteria for p. Active (Real) power and Reactive (Imaginary) power. Give units for each and also mention the formulae associated. current and φ . I –is the r. It is the energy that is used to do work.f. Real power can be represented mathematically as: Apparent Power (S) = V I Where V is the voltage across the load. Reactive power can be represented mathematically as: Reactive Power (Q) = V I sin φ Unit of apparent power is volt amperes (VA). In an AC circuit. the real power or active power can be defined as the rate of energy conversion or energy dissipation taken as an average over one or more complete cycle.Question 3: Using the Power Triangle. The ratio between the real power and the apparent power is known as the power factor. is known as reactive power or also known as imaginary power. elaborate on the concepts of Apparent (Complex) power. reactive power and apparent power in form of a triangle is known as power triangle.m. Real power can be represented mathematically as:(Warnes 1994) Real Power (P) = V I cos φ Unit of reactive power is reactive volt amperes (VAR). Solution: The vector representation of the real power. Unit of real power is Watts. The product of the root mean square voltage and the rated current is known as apparent power (S). which returns to the source during each cycle. This energy. .the phase difference between the voltage across the load and the load current. This causes the energy to flow in and out from the reactive elements.
Power factor = An electrical power transmission system is designed in such a way that the power factor of the system is close to unity so that all the current is utilized in doing useful work. 2008) . For achieving unity power factor. If it is not close to unity then there is the presence of reactive power. Hiley et al. which increases the current needed in the transmission line without producing any useful work. which eventually increases the losses in wires. power factor correction techniques like putting capacitors or synchronous motors in parallel to the load are implemented.(Hughes.
8∗ 10-3 = 2. single-phase 50 Hz AC line at a 0.85.1 A Drop along the line is drop across RL + j XL : IL ∗ ZL = (5 – j 3.7 ∗ 11 = 29.16 rad/s Inductive reactance XL = ωL = 314. VR∗IR∗cosφ = 10KW ∴ IR = 10000/(2000∗0.8 mH. the actual or total IR = 5.7 Ω and Inductance/Km = 0.85) = 5.8 ∗ 10-3 ∗11 = 8.85 – j 0. Sending end voltage Solution: Data Given: Length = 11 Km Voltage at load VR = 2 KV Frequency f = 50 Hz Power factor (cosφ) = 0. compute: i.8 mH Angular frequency (ω) = 2πf = 2 ∗ π ∗ 50 = 314.764 Ω We know that.1)∗(29. If the cable can be modelled as a simple series connection of its equivalent resistance and inductance.764) = 157. Transmission line efficiency considering only Joule loss (Resistive heating) iii.882 (0.Question 4: An 11 Km cable is used to supply a load of 10 KW at 2 KV. lagging.882 A As this is at a power factor of 0.7 + j 2.85 lagging Let load current be IR Amperes.06 – j 78.7 Ω Inductance (L) = (Inductance/Km) ∗ Length = 0.526) IR = 5 – j 3.16∗ 8. Full load current ii.85 p.f.25 . The cable has Resistance/Km = 2. Resistance R = (Resistance/ Km) ∗ Length = 2.
06 – j 78.25 = 2158.9068 or 90.06 – j 78.68% .07 Transmission line efficiency = = = 0.Sending end voltage ( Vs ) = VR + (IL ZL) = 2000 + 157.25 = 2157.47 ∠-2.
Other details of the umbilical and the field are as follows: 1. If found insufficient.3 • CF = 1. Assume that insertion of the CF reinforcement rods does not change the weight of the umbilical.125% in operation phase. two load cases for an umbilical are shown representing the installation phase (Case 1) and the operation phase (Case 2). The strain in electrical cables (and in umbilical) should not exceed • 0.Question 5: In the diagram below. Umbilical: • Outer diameter = 170 mm • Submerged weight = 180 N/m • Dry weight = 120 N/m • Dry height = 23 m 4. Material properties: • Young’s modulus: Esteel = 200 GPa • Young’s modulus: ECF_Rod = 160 GPa Determine if the tension capacity of the umbilical is sufficient for the installation and the operation phases. 2.2% in installation phase and • 0. calculate the number of 10 mm diameter CF reinforcement rods required to increase the tension capacity to be adequate in both cases. Submerged weight of the termination unit: 850 Kg 5. Field Data: • Water depth at location = 1900 m • DAF = 1. . 6 super duplex cables: • Wall thickness = 2 mm • Inner diameter = 26 mm 3.15 6.
002 = (459.Solution: Installation Phase: Let estimated tension on the umbilical be T1 Newton (N) T1 = (d∗ws + h∗w + WT) ∗ DAF where.23∗ 103 N Tension capacity (Tcap) is less than tension T1 on the umbilical.3 = 459.929∗ 10-6 = 211114.514∗ 106 N Increase in stiffness required = (E∗A)min – (E∗A) = 229.002∗211114.4 ∗ 106 N .08 ∗ 103 ) / 0.028 ∗ 103 N To Calculate Umbilical Stiffness for 6 super duplex cables: Umbilical Stiffness = 6∗ Esteel∗A Where.114 ∗ 106 = 18. Esteel = young’s modulus of steel = 200 GPa A = Area of the steel tube = (π/4)∗ (outer diameter2 – inner diameter2) =(π/4)∗ (302 – 262)∗ 10-6 m2 A = 175. T1 = (1900∗180 + 23∗120 + 850*9.2% of Umbilical Stiffness = 0.81)∗ 1.929∗10-6 m2 Therefore. hence 10mm diameter carbon fibre reinforcement rods will be required to increase its tension capacity.002 = 229.8 ∗ 103 N Allowed umbilical Stiffness during installation (Tcap) = 0. Umbilical stiffness (E∗A) = 6∗ 200∗ 109 ∗ 175.8∗ 103 = 422. Minimum Required umbilical stiffness: (E∗A)min = T1/ 0. d = water depth ws= submerged weight of umbilical in water h = height of umbilical above sea level w = weight of umbilical WT = submerged weight of termination unit in Newton DAF= dynamic application factor Therefore.514 ∗ 106 – 211.
15 ∗ 1.3 = 515.566 ∗ 106 N = (18.125% of Umbilical Stiffness = 0.8∗ 103 = 263.895∗ 103 N Tension capacity (Tcap) is less than tension T2 on the umbilical.8∗ 103 N Allowed umbilical Stiffness during installation (Tcap) = 0.00125 = (515.416 ∗ 103 N The umbilical stiffness will be the same as that calculated for the installation phase Umbilical stiffness (E∗A) = 6∗ 200∗ 109 ∗ 175.00125∗211114. hence 10mm diameter carbon fibre reinforcement rods will be required to increase its tension capacity. T2 = (1900∗180 + 23∗120)∗ 1. Minimum Required umbilical stiffness: (E∗A)min = T1/ 0.00125 = 412.4 ∗ 106) / (12.332 ∗ 106 N Minimum number of Carbon fibre rods required = (Increase in stiffness required/ (E∗A)CF_Rod) .566 ∗ 106) = 1. Operational Phase: Let estimated tension on the umbilical be T2 Newton (N) T2 = (d∗ws + h∗w)∗ CF ∗ DAF where.416 ∗ 103 ) / 0. d = water depth ws= submerged weight of umbilical in water h = height of umbilical above sea level w = weight of umbilical CF= catenary factor DAF= dynamic application factor Therefore.Stiffness provided by one reinforced carbon fibre rod (E∗A)CF_Rod (E∗A)CF_Rod = ECF_Rod ∗ ACF_Rod = 160∗ 109 ∗ (π/4) ∗ 102 ∗ 10-6 N = 12.464 ≈ 2 Hence 2 Carbon Fibre reinforced rods are required to increase the tension capacity as per requirement during installation phase.929∗ 10-6 = 211114.
Hence the number of 10 mm diameter CF reinforcement rods required to increase the tension capacity to be adequate in both phases is 17.218∗ 106 N Stiffness provided by one reinforced carbon fibre rod (E∗A)CF_Rod = 12.218∗ 106) / (12.566 ∗ 106) = 16. Minimum number of Carbon fibre rods required = (Increase in stiffness required/ (E∗A)CF_Rod) .566 ∗ 106 N = (201.0128 ≈ 17 Hence 17 Carbon Fibre reinforced rods are required to increase the tension capacity as per requirement during operation phase.Increase in stiffness required = (E∗A)min – (E∗A) = 412.332 ∗ 106 – 211.114 ∗ 106 = 201.
Reff = where. SKIN EFFECT INTRODUCTION: In alternating current transmission system. The factors influencing skin effect in a conductor are: • • • Conductor size Frequency of current transmitted Relative resistance of the conductor material When the conductor size and the AC current frequency increase. Use appropriate figures. When an AC current flows through a conductor. This phenomenon is known as skin effect. One of the ways o tackle the problem with skin effect is by stranding the conductor. Reff Ploss I = Effective resistance in Ω = Power loss in conductor in watts = Current in amperes The effective resistance increases with skin effect. This changing magnetic field produces an electromotive force that opposes the change in the current intensity of the conductor. (Gönen 1988)The magnetic field produced is directly proportional to the intensity of current flowing through the conductor and hence when the current intensity in a conductor changes. Skin depth is defined as . tables. With increase in frequency of AC current. an alternating magnetic field is produced around the conductor. The current density is higher at the outer surface of the conductor and decreases towards the center of the conductor. which results in greater current density at the surface of the conductor and reducing density as we go towards the center of the conductor. by using an alternating current flowing through it. formulae and references where necessary. there is an increase in the nonuniformity of the current flowing through the conductor. This non-uniform distribution of current within a conductor is due to the phenomenon called Skin Effect. The magnetic flux linkage of the current is not constant throughout the conductor. Effective resistance of a conductor is a function of power loss and the current in the conductor. The conductors are typically wires. Skin effect decreases with decrease in materials relative resistance. PRINCIPLE: Electrical conductors are used to transmit electrical energy and signals.Question 6: Write a well-researched note on the Skin Effect. there is a corresponding increase in skin effect occurring in the conductor. the magnetic field associated with also changes. thus reducing the conductor size. An important terminology associated with skin effect is skin depth. The flux linkages are relatively more at the center of the conductor as compared to the conductor surface. from one point to another. Thus the reactance to current flow is greater at the inner surface because the inductance of an element is directly proportional to the flux linkages per ampere. the current distribution throughout the cross section of the conductor is not uniform.
It is as follows: J = JS∗ where. δ= where. decreases and there is a corresponding increase in current density at the surface of the cable.(All About Circuits ) FORMULAES ASSOCIATED WITH SKIN EFFECT:(Wikipedia ) AC Current density = J Ampere AC current density at the surface= JS Ampere Frequency of AC current = f Hertz There is an exponential decrease in the value of current density from its value at the surface depending on the depth d from the surface. The above figure depicts the skin effect in a conductor for different current frequencies. in this case co-axial. δ = skin depth in meter d = depth from the surface of the conductor Also. the current density at the center of the cable.the depth from the surface of the cable where the current density falls to of its value at the surface of the conductor. From the it can be observed that as the frequency of the current increases. ρ = resistivity of the conductor ω = angular frequency = 2πf µ = absolute magnetic permeability .
Thus the individual wire does not incur skin effect loss.From the above formula it is clear that skin depth varies as the inverse square root of conductivity. One way of mitigation is by using litz wire. The above diagram is a pictorial representation of the litz wire comprising of many individually . The dimension of the thin wire strands is such that they have diameter less than skin depth. It comprises of thin wire strands that are individual insulated and woven together. The above graph plots the change in skin depth to frequency of the AC current for different materials. which means that for materials with higher conductivity. PREVENTING SKIN EFFECT: There are various ways to prevent skin effect from reducing the transmission efficiency of the AC current. the skin depth will be reduced. It is evident from the graph that skin effect is a function of frequency and as the frequency increases the skin depth decreases.
.insulated thin wire strands.
. J. BROWN. L. Hughes electrical and electronic technology.com/vol_2/chpt_11/1.wikipedia. GONEN. Harlow... Available: http://en. WARNES. WIKIPEDIA. E. K.org/wiki/Skin_effect. .A. Wiley.A. Available: http://www. and SMITH. . 1994. HUGHES..allaboutcircuits. Basingstoke: Macmillan. England: Pearson/Prentice Hall. 2008. HILEY.M.REFERENCES: ALL ABOUT CIRCUITS. 10th edn. . New York: J.html.. I. ̈ T. Electronic and electrical engineering: principles and practice. 1988. Electric power transmission system engineering: analysis and design.
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