Advances In Management i

I Vol. 5 (6) June (2012)

Case Study:

Assessing Work-Life Balance: From Emotional Intelligence and Role Efficacy of Career Women
Jyotbi Sree V.* and Jyotbi P.
School of Management Studies, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli (A.P.), INDIA *srjyothi@yahoo.com

Abstract
Work-life balance is the term used to describe p'ractices in achieving a balance between the demands of employees ' family (life) and work lives. The demands and pressures of work make difficult to stretch time for balancing work-life activities. Women taking up worklife balance challenge have an impact on women's advancement. Organization also may create work place culture and climates that reflect concern for employees' lives outside of work. It is important for organizations to periodically review current work processes and practices to determine which ones lead to work inefficiencies and employee stress. In this background the present study was undertaken to determine the Indian Career Women work-life balance. The present study focuses on the relationship between role efficacy and emotional intelligence as related to work- life balance of Career women. Sample consists of 63 career women working in Andhra Pradesh, India. The results show that there is a significant impact of factors affecting Role efficacy on Emotional Intelligence. Key words: Work Life Balance, Career Women, Emotional Intelligence, Role Efficacy, Organizational initiatives.

One in three women in that bracket has left work for some period to spend time caring for family members who are not children. And lurking behind all this is the pervasiveness of a highly traditional division of labor on the home front. In a 2001 survey conducted by the Center for work-life policy, fully 40 percent of highly qualified women with spouses felt that their husbands create more work around the house than they perform. Alongside these "pull" factors are a series of "push" factors-that is, features of the job or workplace that make women head for the door. Seventeen percent of women say they took an off-ramp, at least in part, because their jobs were not satisfying ot meaningful. Overall, under stimulation and lack of opportunity seem to be larger problems than overwork. Only 6 percent of women stopped working because the work itself was too demanding. In business sector, the survey results suggest that push factors are particularly powerful-indeed, in these sectors, unlike, say, in medicine or teaching, they outweigh pull factors. Of course, in the hurlyburly world of everyday life, most women are dealing with a combination of push and pull factors-and one often serves to intensify the other. When women feel hemmed in by rigid policies or a glass ceiling, for example, they are much more likely to respond to the pull of family.

Work-Life Balance
Work-life balance is the term used to describe those practices at workplace that acknowledge and aim to support the needs of employees in achieving a balance between the demands of their family (life) and work lives. The work Foundation, earlier known as the Industrial Society, believes that 'Work-life balance is about people having a measure of control over when, where and how they work. It is achieved when an individual's right to a fulfilled life inside and outside paid work is accepted and respected as the norm, to the mutual benefit of the individual, business and society'. The concept of work-family (life) balance has emerged from the acknowledgement that an individual's work-life and personal/family life may exert confiicting demands on each other. Confiict is a normal part of life and is a natural result of the conflicting demands arising from multiple roles such as that of a mother, daughter, daughter-inlaw, wife, friend and employee. In order to manage the negative spillover of conflict, it is important to balance the demands fi-om both the domains. Work-life balance is about adjusting work patterns to achieve overall fulfillment. A good work-life balance enables the business to thrive and at the (35)

Introduction
Most professional women step off the career fast track at some point with children to raise, elderly parents to care for and other pulls on their time, these women are confronted with one off-ramp after another. When they feel pushed at the same time by long hours and unsatisfying work, the decision to leave becomes even easier. Many women take an off-ramp at some point on their career highway. Sylvia and Carolyn^' state that nearly four in ten highly qualified women (37 percent) report that they have left work voluntarily at some point in their careers. Among women who have children, that statistic rises to 43 percent. Factors other than having children that pull women away from their jobs include the demands of caring for elderly parents or other family members (reported by 24 percent) and personal health issues (9 percent). Not surprisingly, the pull of elder care responsibilities is particularly strong for women in the 41 to 55 age group-often called the "sandwich" generation, positioned as it is between growing children and aging parents.

Advances In Management i
satne time enables the employees to easily comhine work with other aspirations and responsibilities. Work-life balance should not be understood as suggesting an equal balance or scheduling equal number of hours for each one's work and personal activities. A positive work-life balance involves achievement and enjoyment. A good working definition of work-life balance may be meaningful daily achievement and enjoyment in each of the four quadrants of life-work, family, friends and self. The best work-life balance varies for an individual over time at different stages of career and age; different factors become important for an individual.

1 VoL 5 (6) June (2012) beyond the stipulated number of days, depending on need. Employee may find that taking more leave resulted in lower increments or fewer subsequent promotions. Some organizations offer formal programmes to women employees that permit them to work reduced hours or extend leave because of child care demands. However these women employees are likely to still lose out on promotions due to the long hour's culture that undervalues employees who use work-life programmes to make more time for their families. Some times period of unpaid leave will not count towards his/her service tentire resulting in adverse effect on chances for promotions. In the contemporary environment, woman workforce has been challenged with work - life conflict, turnover intentions, stress, absenteeism and organizational commitment. In this endeavor, women experience pressures in a number of contexts: cultural, domestic, work and professionnal. Despite women professionals having the requisite qualification and experience, they are continually undermined, tensed between personal role and work role.

Work-life issues
In most organizations, employees rarely feel comfortable discussing their personal priorities. They worry that admitting a passion for singing with the local opera company, for instance, will be seen as a lack of passion for work. Such fear is not misguided. Most managers believe-or at least hope-that work is at the top of an employee's list of life priorities. Work life issues or concerns refer to those aspects of an employee's work or family life that may have an influence on one another. Initial interest in work-life issues was the result of two developments that occurred during the 1970s. These developments included an increase in number of women entering the workforce and the growth of dual-career families where both the spouses were working. This trend resulted in organization being urged to acknowledge employees' family and other personal commitments. Work life issues/concerns encompass all non-work related demands and hence are not restricted to only family demands. Equations both at the workplace and at home have changed in the net worked era. While in the machine age, work and life were seen as two independent domains, in the networked age there is a complete overlap between the two domains. These shifts are summarized in the table A. Women face conflicts between work and family demands as well as demands from family have increased over the years. This has made it difficult for organizations to ignore the significance of employees' non-work demands on their performance, commitment and job satisfaction.

Organizational focys on Work-Life Balance Issues
Organizations mainly revolved around job characteristics, job enrichment and social information processing. Today organizations need to be more flexible so that they are equipped with the members of organization their work force and enjoy their commitment. Therefore organizations are required to adopt a strategy to improve the employees' quality of work life and personal life. Even Quality of Work Life has concerns about: employee commitment and skills during a period. Organizations and rapid technologies change recognizing the achievement of missions and goals require high performing employees to address work issues, balancing personal and professional life. The concern for quality of work life and personal life takes more with overall climate of work - life domains. Analysis of QWL described it as: A concern about the impact of work on people as well as on organizational effectiveness and the idea of participation in problems solving and decision making at work place and home place. According to Agarwala^*, research evidence indicates that when employees have such a participatory, problem-solving approach to work-life, they are more committed to their work place (organization) and home and attaining balancing between both the work and the life. The quality of work/life that an organization provides is often determining factor in many individuals' choices of employer. Human resources policies designed to help employees balance their work and family lives can also affect turnover, performance, absenteeism, organizational commitment and employee willingness to go the extra mile on behalf of their employers.

Work-life balance consequences
It is not enough for organizations to implement family-friendly practices such as flextime and extended parental leave, to reduce employees' work-life conflicts. It is more important to have a supportive culture that encourages employee utilization of work-life benefits. The extent to which individual managers are sensitive to and accommodating of employees' family needs, is the managers' responsibility to ensure that employees complete their leave entitlements of optional holidays for the years. A firm may extend the benefit of opting for leave

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Advances In Management Work-Family Conflict
The demands and pressures of work and family may give rise to work-family conflict in an individual. An employee may be faced with work-family conflict, when he/she has to attend the parent-teacher meeting in the child's school or when he/she has a doctor's appointment for an ageing parent. The demands and pressures of work make it difficult for the employee to stretch time for such activities.

i Vol. 5 (6) June (2012) allow employees to simultaneously fulfill work and family responsibilities. Organization must create work place culture and climates that reflect concern for employees' lives outside of work. It is also important for organizations to periodically review current work processes and practices to determine which ones lead to work inefficiencies and employees stress. Employers are still struggling to understand how to best implement work-life balance programmes and policies to really make them work well so as to meet their dual agenda of employee well-being and benefits for the company. Moreover, there will always be employees who are willing to put their career before their family and personal needs-this set of employees are likely to be most promote able, since they will be willing to do whatever the company needs without letting family demands come in the way. What really keeps employees here is the sense among them that they are all seen as people first, not just employees. Financial implications for other factors are typically not included in benefits calculations. These include financial improvements associated with reduced recruiting, training and related replacement costs, since employees who are satisfied with their work/life situation are less likely to turn over.

Types of work-family conflict
Three major types of work/family conflicts have been identified in work family literature. Time-based conflicts: These arise when time spent on role performance in one domain precludes time spent in the other domain because of depletion of energy or stress. Strain-hased conflicts: These arise when strain in one role affects an employee's performance in another role. This type of conflict does not connote conflicting demands. Rather, it occurs when the demands from one domain cause tension, anxiety, fatigue, or dissatisfaction for the employee thereby reducing his/her personal resources of energy and physical or mental capacity. When employee is tending to a terminally sick spouse or parent, the mental and physical strain resulting from the experience may hamper the employee's performance at work. Behavior-based conflicts: These occur when there is incompatibility between the behavior patters that are desirable in the two domains and employee is unable to adjust behavior when moving from one domain to another. Behavior-based conflict too, need not involve conflicting demands. It occurs when a behavior developed in one domain interferes with the role performance in another domain. Conflict between work and family (life) is viewed in terms of the interference of the demands from family role on the performance of an individual's work role. Most firms developed HR practices that would provide the employee with time off for fulfilling family demands. Work demands are also equally likely to interfere with an individual's capacity to fulfill family (life) demands.

Women in different cadres
There are changes in large part due to a significant cultural shift in parental perspective that is, an increased acceptance of giving education to girls that allows for the possibility of women working outside the home, contributing economically to the family and even pursuing a career. With more Indian women in the workforce, a number of rates of female workers in rural areas are 31 percent and 11.6 percent in urban areas. Employment numbers for women, further detailed in women workers in the 21*' century-Unemployment and Underemployment, indicate that of India's 397 million workers, 123.9 million are women: 106 million women are in the rural areas and 18 million in the urban areas. However, only 7 percent of India's labor force is in the organized sector (including workers on regular salaries in registered companies), with the remaining workers (93 percent) in the unorganized or informal sectors. As a brief comparison, in the United States in 2008, of the 121 million women ages 16 years and older, 72 million (59.5 percent) were labor force participants. Women comprised 46.5 percent of the total U.S labor force (68 million women were employed in the United Stats-75 percent of employed women worked in full-time jobs and 25 percent worked on a part-time basis). Women are projected to account for 49 percent of the increase in total labor force between 2006 and 2010. In 2008, the largest percentage of employed

Work-Life Balance: Management Challenge
The primary purpose of organizations is business, there may be a fundamental conflict between the efficiency and productivity oriented values of an organization on one hand and the work-life needs of employees, on the other. Since organizations have to jointly manage this competing value, employees may often receive mixed-messages related to work-life balance. In order to create a family-friendly workplace, an organization must design and implement benefits, practices and policies to help employees balance their work and non-work lives by providing provisions for flexible work schedules, dependent care supports etc. that

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Advances In Management
women (39 percent) worked in management, professional and related occupations and women accounted for 51 percent of all workers in the high-paying management, professional and related occupation. Globally, the number of women senior managers in large corporations is low. The march 2009 report, women CEOs of the fortune 1000, published by Catalyst (the U.S firm working to expand opportunities for women and business), identifies the women CEOs of the forttme 500 companies, 15 CEOs are women, including Indian, Indra K. Nooyi, PepsiCo, Inc. The statistics at the CEO level of these large companies clearly show that there is much progress to be made for women world wide at this level of management. Women India has held important roles in politics, social organizations and administration. There is a need for educated women to reach very high level in the government and the number of women in the corporate sector is gradually growing. In this back ground the present study focuses on the relationship between Role Efficacy and Emotional Intelligence as related to work-life balance: Role Eflïcacy: The performance of a person working in an organization depends on his ones' own potential effectiveness, technical competence, managerial experience, etc. as well as on the design of the role that performs in an organization. The integration of a person and a role comes about when the latter is able to fulfill the needs of the individual and when the individual in turn is able to contribute to the evolution of the role. The effectiveness of a person's role in an organization will depend upon his own potential effectiveness, the potential effectiveness of the role and the organization climate. This potential effectiveness can be termed efficacy. Personal efficacy is the potential effectiveness of a person in personal and interpersonal situations. Role efficacy is the potential effectiveness of an individual occupying a particular role in an organization. Role efficacy can be seen as the psychological factor underlying role effectiveness. Emotional intelligence (EI): It describes the ability, capacity, skill or, in the case of the trait EI model, a selfperceived grand ability to identify, assess, manage and control the emotions of one's self, of others and of groups. Different models have been proposed for the definition of EI and disagreement exists as to how the term should be used. Despite these disagreements, which are often highly technical, the ability EI and trait EI models (but not the mixed models) enjoy support in the literature and have successful applications in different domains. It is believed that employees' emotions matter because they drive one's performance. Emotions at work place, generally, fall into the category of positive (good) and negative (bad) emotions. Positive emotions are those feelings of an individual that are

I Vol. 5 (6) June (2012) favorable to the attainment of organizational goals while negative emotions are those that are perceived to be destructive for the organization. Emotions influence the task on which an employee is working, the efforts he/she puts and how he influences other employees around him. In other words, what employees feel and how they express their emotions affects their performance. More companies are realizing that encouraging emotional intelligence skills is a vital component of their management philosophy. Organization does not compete with products alone: how well it uses its people is more important for its survival.

Literature Review
The demands and presstu-es of work and family may give rise to work-life balance issues to an individual. Freedman and Greenhaus'"* reveal that women in workforce have increased considerably, however women face a lot of issues and challenges. They are still seen as the primary caretakers of the home and family, even if they work just as much as men. Work role is often seen as secondary to family roles. Not just men but women also hold themselves and other women to the homemaker standard. Women spend more time on housework, child care and family responsibilities. Women used to spend almost 24 percent of their time on housework in 1966 to 30 percent of housework in 2005. However women miss more work for child care. 20 percent of women take care of both children and elders. Greenhaus and Beutell'^ defined work-family conflict as 'a form of inter-role conflict in which the role pressures from the two domains, that is, work and family, are mutually non-compatible so that meeting demands in one domain makes it difficult to meet demands in the other'. That is, participation in the work role is made more difficult by virtue of participation in the family and vice versa. The major concern in this most widely used definition of work-family conflict is that role conflicts cause due to problems of role participation and emotional intelligence. Hence, difference in values, social relationships and requirements between work and family do not constitute conflict per se. Waite and Gallagher^^ documented the tensions within and between dual career couples brought about by the transformation of marriage and family life. At the personal level, marriage and family functioning have become fundamentally personal choices and responsibilities, making the maintenance of both more vulnerable. At the cultural level, while traditional values such as gender role ideologies are constantly being challenged, balance related to the importance of work life and personal life still persists to role efficacy and emotional intelligence. Landsman'^ disclosed the employer provided resources can help women a great deal in balancing work-life

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Advances In Management
balance issues. It employers provide facilities like onsite child care or referral, it would help in decreasing absenteeism and turnover from work. It would further help in increasing women employee's willingness to work overtime, from work and take-home dinner, family-friendly benefits packages and exercise equipments can help in removing the stress of working women in a big way. Thus to conclude one can say that flexible work time, job sharing, telecommuting, personal leave, childcare facilities completely rely on degree of women efficacy and her emotional intelligence. Bandura^ defines self-efficacy as an individual's belief in her ability to produce designated levels of performance. Self-efficacy is also a measure of an employee's confidence in her abilities to marshal personal resources and deploy an appropriate response strategy to address job situations. According to the theoretical model of Bar-On"' ^, emotional intelligence is defined as a sum of emotional and social competences that determine the modalities with which a person relates to both hirn/herself and to others in order to cope with environmental pressure and requests. Emotional intelligence is thus, in this model, an important factor in determining success in life and more generically, influences the well-being of individuals. Emotional intelligence develops over time, changes in the course of life and can be increased by means of training programs. Chan" study analyzed the relationship between emotional intelligence and career women role-efficacy by using a scale specific to demonstrate their role-efficacy. It is anticipated that this study would be able to demonstrate whether or not differences in emotional intelligence exist in relation to the experience and/or age of women and the typology of the organization and more generally, to evaluate the relationship between emotional intelligence and career women' role-efficacy. It was expected that, also with regard to the most targeted construct of women manager roleefficacy, the impact of several dimensions of emotional intelligence would emerge. Studying this relationship in India can, furthermore, draw attention to the existence of these links in a different cultural context. The term emotional intelligence, rendered popular by Goleman", was first used by Mayer and Salovey'' to describe the capacity individuals have for monitoring their feelings and those of others, discriminating between various types of emotions and using this information to channel thoughts and actions. They extended the definition to include the capacity for perceiving emotions, comparing emotions and feelings, understanding information caused by emotion and being able to handle such emotions. A 2005 study of senior women in public and private sector firms, titled women in management in the new economic environment: the case of India, found that women

I Vol. 5 (6) June (2012) look for work from economic necessity and for personal goals. Women in lower to middle socioeconomic status seek income opportunities and those in the upper middle class pursue a career for professional ambitions. Women with higher education have more interest in independence, are career-oriented and interested in quickly moving up the organizational ladder. At the time of this study, 40 percent of female students attended management institutes in India. The key challenge for career women is managing both their traditional roles as housewives and their career. Women experience great pressure to work hard to prove them in the workplace. To assess emotional intelligence in women manager^", it is necessary to sustain them by means of informative activities and guidance that entail the use of emotional intelligence in relation to empathy and other sociointerpersonal areas'". Career women frequently express a concern of being inadequately prepared to lead such interventions and feel challenge to take on such a role'. This means that the items are specifically attributed to career women role-efficacy and enable study of a vast range of skills that manager consider important in order to perform well, without, however, being too specific and thus rendering it impossible to compare career women that belong to different contexts, level or degree of performance.

Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated: • • There is a significant relationship between role efficacy and emotional intelligence. Career women are high on Emotional Intelligence and Role Efficacy aspects.

Methodology
Data sources: The study is empirical in nature and relied on survey method. It is based on both primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data were collected with the help of structured questionnaires. Secondary data were collected from books, journals and websites with HR managers' interviews.

Tools used for the Data Collection
Data were collected by administering the following tools: • • • Demographic profile data sheet Emotional Intelligence Scale Role Efficacy Scale

Sample chosen for the study
The sample consists of 63 career women. The samples were selected from Government organizations and private companies in the service sector in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. A convenient sampling method was adopted in

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Advances In Management
choosing sample.

1 Vol. 5 (6) June (2012) Seventeen emotional intelligence variables and role efficacy have above average scores. It means career women working have an above average ability to manage their own emotions of with whom they interact. It is assumed that an above average amotmt of emotional intelligence possessed by them would help them to function effectively in their respective roles in the organization/s. This assumption of the investigators has empirical grounding, as other researchers''^' working in the area of emotional intelligence and the related domain of knowledge have maintained similar assumptions. The above average level of emotional intelligence possessed by social work professionals is assumed to help them in the management of felt emotions that they experience in interactions with others around. Then this can in turn increase their affective commitment to the organization by generating enthusiasm for their work. This assumption of the study finds support in the work of Caner and Salovey^. Mean values reveals the results obtained for the potential role effectiveness of career women. While looking at the results obtained, it can be said that the overall role effectiveness of career women in the study is above average. . Such a relatively high level of the role effectiveness of career women can be assumed to be a function of their perceiving their roles to provide them with opportunities for professional development and fiading themselves well integrated with the roles assigned. Therefore, it is assumed that these career women would tend to interact freely with the people and the environment and feel satisfied with life.

Results and Discussion
The present research highlights the work life balance issues. Table 1 shows demographic profile of women whose age ranged from 23 to 60 years and had an average age of 40 (s.d. - 7.28). Career women represent various levels of management. The majority of the career women were assistant officers (ASO/AAO, Jr. Executive) middle management (63.4%). Other categories were: Gazetted / Sr. Executives-upper middle (34.9%), top management (vice presents, deputy secretary and so on) (1.6%). Their education qualification ranged from graduation (71%) to post graduate (28.6%). Their work experience ranged from 1-35 years, of them maximum 25.3% of women had 15-20 years experience. 97% women were married and more than 50 percent have children under the age of 18. Family. status of women is Nuclear family (82.5 %) and Joint family (17.5 %). Women while traveling to work place felt inconvenient due to lack of bus frequency (3.2%) and heavy traffic (25.4%). Table 2 shows that there is a significant (F=.OO5) relationship between work experience and emotional intelligence of career women. This assumption of the study finds support in the work Chan' ' which states that there is no overall significance on demographic profile on emotional intelligence. The result in table 3 shows the mean values of the emotional intelligence and the potential for effectiveness in the organizational roles and functions of career women.

Table A Different Pbases of Work-Life Balances issues Tbe macbine age Work and family were two independent domains Tbe industrial age Work started spilling into family time and was often carried home Tbe networked age Workdays span 24 hours with brief time intervals for non-work activities

Work-life issues Home issues

Traditional roles with men Dual career couples with both men Dual career couples with both men and working and women working and women working but women women working as well as attending to care of household chores still tending the household chores home issues none Availability of help like baby Hands-free executives support firms that sitters, crèches, old-age homes and provide services as diverse as managing maids the laundry and the kind's homework.

Support

Source: Business Today' Table 4 shows the impact of role efficacy on emotional intelligence of career women. These values measure the strength and direction of the linear relationship between the two variables. (CE), Purposefulness (PUR), Self-reliance (SR), Identifying Emotions (ID), Support Building(SB), Empathy (EMP), Logical Analysis (LA), Initiative(INT), Ability to Cope (AC), Anger Management(AM), Happiness Orientation (HO), Confidence (CON), Assertiveness (ASS), Decisiveness (DEC), Civic Sum / Accountability (CS/ACC), adaptability (ADA) and Patience (PAT). Participants respond by indicating their agreement to each of the 43 statements using five point scale ranging fi-om 1 (strongly disagree) to 5(strongly agree). The EIS has demonstrated high internal consistence with that for self-

Emotional Intelligence Scale
Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS) used was developed by Matrix Life Syjjem Pvt. Ltd. converted into a five point scale. It has 43 items grouped into seventeen emotional intelligence and they are: Capability to Express

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Advances In Management
ratings, the alpha coefficients (Cronbach's Alpha; N=43) is .950.

I Vol. 5 (6) June (2012) extent influences the work - life balance those women employees are trying to achieve. Therefore, it is necessary for any organization to implement a number of measures like flexitimings, recreational facility, crèches in work place and good team building initiatives so that they build reputation as employers of choice. Table 1 Demographic profile of sample N=63

Role Efficacy Scale (RES)
The Role Efficacy Scale (RES) used was developed by Pareek^^. It is a structured instrument consisting of twenty traits of statements, divided into ten dimensions. The ten dimensions of the RES are: Centrality (Cen), Self-role Integration (Sri), Pro-activity(Pro), Creativity(Cre), Inter-role Linkage (Irl), Helping Relationships (Hrel), Super-ordination (Sup), Influence (Infu),Personal Growth (Pg), Confrontation (Conf). Role Efficacy Score (RES) has three alternatives which are preweighted. Each dimension of role efficacy and the scoring pattern followed is -i-2, +1 or -1. Out of seventeen variables of Emotional Intelligence and ten variables of Role Efficacy it may be observed (table 4) that emotional intelligence jointly predicts (23.5%) significant to the role effectiveness of the career women in their organizational lives. That is variables related to Ability to cope (F=0.340), Anger management (F=0.25), Happiness orientation (F=0.27) and Confidence (F=0.279) are significant between .01 level to .05 level. Apart from these variables, we may also observe that (13%) variables such as self reliance, identifying emotions, support building and so on also show the significance on the role efficacy variables. As researched by Bandura'', people with high confidence in their capabilities handle work-life related factors effectively and approach difficult task as challenges to be mastered rather than as threats to be avoided. The relationships between role efficacy and emotional intelligence variables predict that an increase in the amount of emotional intelligence of the career women will cause corresponding increment in their potential role effectiveness. In other words, as the career women become efficient in managing their own emotions and those of others with whom they interact in their organizational lives, they engage more often in giving and receiving help from others whenever the need arises and the like. The analysis reveals that the career women are high in role effectiveness and emotional intelligence. It is asserted that role efficacy has an impact on emotional intelligence. The present study is statistically significant on four components of the Role Efficacy with Emotional Intelligence of Career women. Thus, hypothesis one as stated in the present study is supported.

^^^HGharacteristicS^^li Itrequencyj Ipercenti
Age 23-30 31-37 38-45 46-63 54-60 Graduates Post graduates Designation V.P, D.S, Gazetted/ Sr. Executive ASO/AAO/Junior Executive 1-5 5-10 Work hours 7 9 10 Marital status married unmarried Type of family Nuclear family Joint family Children status Under 18 years Above 18 years Difficult to get bus Long distance traffic No difficult 31 30 2 1 16 44 50.8 49.2 3.2 1.6 25.4 69.8 61 11 82.5 17.5 61 2 96.8 3.2 57 5 1 90.5 7.9 1.6 5 10 30 13 5 45 18 1 22 40 54 9 7.9 15.9 47.9 20.6 7.9 71.4 28.6 1.6 34.9 63.5 85.7 14.3

Educational qualifícation

Annual income in lakhs

Implications
The research study has highlighted factors affecting role efficacy and emotional intelligence. The implications would benefit organization for better understanding about nuances emerging from work-life. The quality of work life provided by an organization to a large

Inconvenience in transport

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Table 2 Demographic effect on Emotional Intelligence Impact of work experience on Emotional Intelligence ANOVA
t . ; . , " • • ' • ' - . . . •

^Sum of Squares 235.630 2154.688 2390.317 12320.375 28713.276 41033.651

Df 7 55 62 7 55 62

^

Mean Square 33.6661 39.176 1760.054 522.060

. •- F , . .. ; Sig.

Between Groups Role efficacy Total Within Groups Total Between Groups Emotional Intellignece Within Groups Total Table 3 Mean and standard deviations of Emotional Intelligence and Role Efficacy of Career women (N = 63)

.859

.544

3.371

.005

References
1. Bachman W., "Nice guys finish first: A SYMLOG analysis of Us Naval Commands", "The SYMLOG practitioner: Application of small group research". New York, Praeget (1988) 2. Bandura A., "Self-efficacy: Towards a Unifying Theory of Behavior Change", Psychological Review, 84, 191-215 (1997) 3. Bandura A., "Self-efficacy" In Ramachandran V.S., ed.. Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, NY, Academic Press (1998) 4. Bar-On R., "The Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EQ)" Technical Manual, Toronto, Canada, Multi-Health Systems (1997) 5. Bar-On R., "Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Quotient Inventory" (2000) 6. Budhwar P.S., Saini, D.S. and Bhatnagar J., "Women in management in the new economic environment:" The Case of India, Asia, Pacific Business Review, 11 (2), June, 179-193 (2005) 7. Business Today 2001m "The Work-Life Balance", (first BTHewitt Associates study on the best employers in India), 9* Business Today Anniversary Issue, 21 January, 101-8 (2001) 8. Caner J.D. and Salovey P., "What is emotional intelligence?" In Salovey P. and Sluyter D. J., eds., "Emotional development and emotional intelligence". Educational implications. New York, Basic Books (1997) 9. Chan D. W., 'Teachers as clinicians:" Inadequacies in teacher education. Education Journal, 20, 37-42 (1992) 10. Chan D. W. and Hui E. K. P., "Stress, support and psychological symptoms among guidance and non-guidance secondary school teachers in Hong Kong School", Psychology Intemational, 19, 169-178 (1998) 11. Chan D. W., "Perceived emotional intelligence and selfefficacy among Chinese secondary school teachers in Hong Kong", Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1781 (2004) 12. Singh Dalip, "Emotional Intelligence at Work, Second addition". Sage Publication, New Delhi (2001) 13. Felice N. Schwartz, "Management Women and the New Facts of Life: Harvard Business Review on Women Business", Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data (2005)

Descriptive Statistics
Capability to express Purposeful Self reliance Identifying emotions Support building Empathy Logical analysis Initiative Ability to cope Anger management Happiness orientation Confidence Assertiveness Decisive Civic sum/accountability Adaptability Patience Emotional intelligence Centrality Integration Pro-activity Creativity Inter-role linkage Helping relationship Super ordination Influence GrowthConfrontation Role efficacy

Mean
14.49 4.22 18.78 28.33 7.63 12.17 16.32 3.68 11.4 3.25 12.08 16.06 3.76 4.54 4.38 3.43 3.16 167.7 2.1 3.16 2.02 2.7 2.97 3.3 1.63 2.05 2.33 3.53 25.73

Std. Deviation 2.552 0.812 2.997 4.385 1.649 2.311 3.073 0.93 2.083 0.967 2.611 2.758 0.911 6.153 0.923 1.174 1.322 25.732 0.995 1.334 1.039 1.444 1.47 1.352 1.579 1.25 1.107 0.97 6.274

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Table 4 Correlation coefficients of Role Efficacy with Emotional Intelligence for Career women (N= 63)

M
Capability to express í^irposeful Self reliance Identifying emotions Support building Empathy Logical analysis Initiative Ability to cope Anger management Happiness orientation Confidence Assertiveness Decisiveness Civic sum/accountability Adaptability Patience Emotional intelligence . 0.178 -0.027 0.007 0.004 0.041 0.027 -0.089 0.168 0.125 0.171 0.115 -0.028 0.002 -0.145 0.144 0.074 0.062 -0.16 -O -0.08 -0.12 -0.09 -0.08 -0.18 -0.02 0.24 -0.04 0.06 -0.08 "-0.12 -0.19 0.07 -0.01 -0.12

ta
0.24 0.05 0.15 0.18 0.21 0.2 .256(*) 0.22 0.22 .261(*) 0.21 0.07 0.16 0.06 0.13 0.03 .252(*) 0.16 0.06 0.19 0.21 0.04 -0.1 0.08 0.1 .260(*) 0.11 0.12 0.14 .251(*) 0.01 0.09 .353(**) 0.19 0.18 0.01 -0.24 -.264(*) -0.09 -0.13 -0.15 -0.16 -0.24 0.03 -0.2 -0.13 0.04 -0.06 -0.01 -0.08 0.01 0.01 0.064 -0.08 0.12 0.105 -0.12 .267(*) 0.046 -0.1 0.077 0.113 0.089 0.008 -0.01 0.05 -0 0.08 0.117 0.095 0.04 -0.1 0.07 0.16 .274(*) 0.2 .293(*) 0.24 0.04 -0.07 0.2 0.09 0.17 -0.05 0.1 0.13 -0.02 0.18 0.07 0.13 .326(**) 0.209 .393(**) .443(**) 0.217 .443(**) .253(*) 0.122 -0.04 .296(*) .273(*) .359(**) 0.125 0.24 0.217 -0.05
.402(N**)

0.108 0.11 0.235 0.228 0.095 0.11 0.174 0.032

0.15 .408(**) 0.09 0.02 -0 0.07 0.09 0.15 0.11 0.2 0.13 0.09 0.01 0.16 0.18 0.14

-0.127 -.260(*) .0.08

0.12 .333(**) 0.18 0.25 .280(*) 0.11 0.14 0.17 -0.12 -0.1

.453(**) .340(**) . .251(*) .271(*) .279(*) 0.135 0.021 0.038 0.226 0.029 .: 0.236

0.11
0.1 -0.02 0.1 0.04 -.257(*) 0.09

••Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). 14. Friedman S.D. and Greenhaus J.H., "Work and Family: Allies or Enemies?" New York, Oxford University Press (2000) 15. Goleman D., "Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ", New York, Bantam Books (1995) 16. Greenhaus J.H. et al, "Sources of Conflict between Work and Family Roles", Academy of Management Review, 1Ó, 76-88 (1985) 17. Landsman P., "Juggling work and family. Business Insurance", New York, Oxford University Press (1994) 18. "Lobel S.A. et al, "Human Resource Strategies to support Diversity in Work and Personal Lifestules: Beyond the 'Family Eriendly'Organisation", Cambridge, MA, Blackwell, 221-224 (1996) 19. Mayer J.D. et al, "What is emotional intelligence? (1997) 20. Obiakor E. E., "Developing emotional intelligence in learners with behavioral problems: Refocusing special education". Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders, 26 (4), 321-330 (2001) 21. Rosenthal, The PONS Test measuring sensitivity to nonverbal cues," In McReynolds P.I. ed.. Advances in psychological assessment, San Francisco, C. Jossey - Bass (1977) 22. Singh Sanjay Kumar, "Social .work professionals' emotional Intelligence, Locus of control and role efficacy: An exploratory Study," Jourhal of Human Resources Management, 4 (2), 39 (2006) 23. Satyavathi and Venkatesh, "Quality of work life (QWL), WIM, Journal of Managernent," 1 (2), ISSN: 0975-5063 (2010) 24. Stewart D. et al, "Work and Life: The End of the Zero-Sum Game, Harvard Business Review on Women Business," Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data (2005) 25. Sylvia Ann Hewleu and Carolyn Buck Luce, "Off-Ramps and On-Ramps: Keeping Talented Women on the Road to Success, Harvard Business- Review on Women Business," Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data (2005) 26. Agarwala Tanuja, "Strategic Human Resource Management," Oxford University Press, India (2009) , .' ' 27. Pareek Udai, "Training. Instruments For Human Resource Development", Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi (1997) 28. Waite L. and Gallagher M., 'The case for marriage: why married people are happier, healthier and better off financially". New York, Double day (2000) ' . ^ —.. -~ (Received 23"* Februaiy 2012, accepted 20* May 2012) (43)

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