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. 16, No. 24 (Jun. 13, 1981), pp. 1053-1055 Published by: Economic and Political Weekly Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4369935 . Accessed: 21/04/2013 12:18
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No one should argue. besides such Nepali Tibetans were expclled in South Asia. In factors economic by caused particular Migration occurs throughout the India alone.000 the actual history of Nepalese migraincreasingly find hill terracing more Nepalese . and as such must be viewed on political upheavals) or individuals By the mid-20th century one in (such as through marriage links). It is true. terns of political and economic power. particularly its hill areas. Katbmandu.. by 1970. is at stake is that as economic pres. Nepalese poverty and are seeking a means of trade concessions after 1856.factories. every 10 Nepalese had emigrated. As already stated Nepalmakes more sense to centralised patThe other important factor was ese have long served in foreign armies. more properly. The reciprocity which the peoples find the slash and burn agricul. So valued are Nepalese as soldiers that the Sultan of Srikant Dutt Brumei pays over ? 1 million a year for the upkeep of Gurkha brigades in Migrants. ecological crisis working class whose presence is an acnomic expansion. and the ezo. rant who in general is a hill peasant the total Nepalese living outside Nepal A contentious argument has often been cultivator. Nepal's population doubled in spite of Therefore before one accepts or exploited areas) become ever more continuous emigration.000 of whom remained in It may seem obvious. briefly: majority of these emigrants have was or is available for settlement in increasing fragmentation of landhold. Migration. hill terracing and a role they maintain to the present where it occurred through official a commensurate growing population day. China.British alctively recruited Nepalese into care of its demobbed soldiers who had ing area for penetration and such pene. according to Beginning in the mid-l9th century the dictates of world capitalist develop.vated land. but the fact that outsiders are driven of Tibetan stock.particular set of economic motivations.his country. refugees (driven by the 1960s. The Nepalese are one such avariciously exploiting the defenceless Malaysia. hill central region of Nepal contains 60 period. however. Adminis. with at least 3-4 million Nepal. . Singapore. notably in the British The Nepalese in Northeast and Indian forces. and the 1956 revised Indo-Nenal Agreeeoutsiders.nt colonies which could serve feelings to defend 'quanit' peoples can permanent settlements * D C Upadhyaya and Jose U Abueva Nepalese do little to stem the process.Nepalese travelled throuighout India took the form of ex-servicemen's retrative measures inspired by paternal and abroad which in turn led to some settleme. free interchange and flow of the periphery have on a world scale agriculturists than other hill peoples gradually become subject to penetration and readily fit in to hill environments both countries' nationals as well as their right to own property in either and exploitation by a wider economic elsewhere in South Asia.one in every 20 --. "Population and Developcan only slow it down at best.adopts the 'silent invasion' rhetoric of acute. further land to cultivate and chronic were until recently sparsely populated deficits in food production in the hill Friendship Treaty of 19.) alone.in fact abroad. and Maurigroup of outsiders. Most migration has taken place throughout continued survival.* While status of the region must be reaffirmed. a legacy of Nepal's and to simply dismiss them as foreign.41.were tion and settlement in South Asia.Add to this the fact that already living in North India. 1.56. are always spurred on by a service that some Nepalese. rising population without Under the terms of the Indo-Nepal northeast.India permanently each year.. for eco. The economic clisis forcing might reach almost 2.0. and settlement in the past.cepted part of the landscape. year. frontier lands on migrants are relatively more skilled hil ment.ing. desirable.the imperial armies in ewhose service given years of loyal service. 21 Apr 2013 12:18:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . there were 1.000 Gurkhas served the British. This service in foreign armies continues to the present day. Between 1911 and 1971 overseas Indians resident in sures from more developed areas (i e. rising populations and areas of Nepal has grown ever more the northeast cne must technological levels in hill areas will acute. These pahari partite DeNhi agreement of 1951. is a world scale. The had existed de facto from the British with relativiely sparse populations. or 'foreigners' as indigenous people of the northeast (the tius. over 2.55 million in Nepal. In the First World War (editors). despite through intense cultivation and defor.00 a does. arguments to the contrary. sponsorship.10.settled in North India. namely nomic exploitation. Further. in the late 19th century. i million..Nepalese from the central hill areas without i-estrictions. policemen and domestics. 1975. What but only a (luarter of Nepal's culti. It was through such army THE problem of outsiders or immigrants has been one of the prime tlers. The annual when examining the case of Nepalese advancement while a new environment rate of migration in 1961 was 82. Migration and Development This content downloaded from 202. This often tration is in fact inevitable. 20. began to ments currently under way in the It is not so much the prospect of setttle outside South Asia. not just in the northeast that of merchants. comprising a the region or. in Fiji. northeast. These agreements ment.per cent of that country's population agreements formulated indeed conture best sujited to their needs. the Triand land was 'open' to settlement by areas of central Nepal. particularly peasant set.50. only made official a situation which that at a given level of technology and many of them permanently.30 on Sun. that from the mid-19th century the It was British policy to try and take A frontier by its nature is a tempt. the raised concerning just how much land Nepali migration has been.to migrate through their own dire victory over Tibet aind exaction of ers would be incorrect.5 world for a number of reasons ancl its in which the migrants' local enmironmillion Nepalese. prospect of land is a strong motive) were a different category. that the estation. beginning issues raised by a number of move. being mostly but they are only technically foreign. Most This brings the discussion to an from the political-strategic point of of these found jobs as watchmen in important facet of Nepalese inigration view as well as from the view of eco.10. unhindered and system . out of a population economic hope of little ment offers several features must be borne in mind of 11. Even in 1900.580 of them outside India. country is allowed. have been continuously emigrating.in other words.tinues today. migration in northeast India. the peripheral areas are (drawn logical and economic crisis in the hill some of the chauvinistic movements in understand into the process. but the frontier This is the caEe of the Nepali mig. indebtedness. (The Nepalese living in Tibet some of the movements style them. ment in Nepal".
Indian to the more these states closely . Again this labour migration 20th century 60 per cent of the popu. while demographic change of a Nepalese population of 25 per was complete by 1947. For security reasons.10.000 in 1971. from about 25. While engaged in security duties. In other regions of northeast the attitude of the Indian government seems to have been more ambivalent.the powerful Dorji family. lightly inthe British were pursuing a deliberate habited. their breach in the case of Nepalese is significant. animist and Christian. However. India has wished to ambzival- This content downloaded from 202. the people so involved.25. While the key role which Nepalese personnel have played in India's armed forces has been highlighted. with economic causes outlined earlier.860 to 36. viously under cultivation. In Meghalaya too. and in manent settlement. 21 Apr 2013 12:18:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The Border Roads Organisasettlement in Darjeeling following the tion found Nepalese labour most suitBritish lease-annexation of the area in ed and t*his process iniected further numbers of Nepalese into the hill rethe 1840s. they mere'y clear the land. was their economic condition which In both Sikkim and Bhutan certain allowed their use in imperial schemes. Following 'Indian' oriented. to this policy allowed ambivalently This was done with a view to binding a formulated India others in continue.Bhutan. period was thus tied to notions of Active British encouragement to accelerating demographic change to Nepalese settlement in the northeast enhance colonial security.rights to Nepalese immigrants in lar role. with ties in other directions. In Mizora-n due to insurgency their number has remained stable at between 2. ex-servicemen in northeast India was fact that in Sikkim it was the Nepalactively encouraged by the British. encouraged to settle were cul. In Manipur. The development efforts launched in the betan influence. on later Khas and forest grazing land not preTibetan-Buddhist. as hardy hill cultivators. a role some sinister expansionist design. It can often be several years before the authorities take any notice. So successful was this policy in gions of northeast india as well as Sikkim and Phutan that by the mid. often Nepalese who settled. On independence. was a major architect gan to be built which required large of this policy. particularly those from East. with ment. specifically to contain the various insuirgent movements in the northeast. jungle areas. to reward ex-soldiers ing sizeable propulations who are more and to play a strategic role. then. even Sikkim in the present day. The political implications of post1947 Nepalese settlement in India have been scarcely expiored. India inIt was in Sikkim and Bhutan that in the northeast a pattern of herited the British. India chose to cent (2. An interesti-ig element in status by playing an intimate part in this process was the fact that the Nepalese settlement in southern Bhuwere and are nominally tan. until their advent. often with the connivance of local vested interests. encouraged Nepalese In some areas India regions.000. the region.000 in 1971. perceiving the relatively settlement which had been Nepalese of tiers the southern land in empty a of imperial security policy in part these two states.Nepalese settled in Bhutan and Sikkim 'ern Nepal. While the whereas the areas in which they were British did not al!ow other outsiders to be. as roads and projects bein in the late Gangtok Political Agent 19th century.41. In Nagaland the figure was 14). Unwittingly or knowingly. Not just as road labour. intimately involved in Nepali settlecould constitute an ideal group. large numbers of Nepalese serving in the Iiidian army and paramilitary have been present in the northeast from 1950. as ese who introdued hill terracing. One reason that India has not acceded to the demand is that it has nlOt wished to legitimise the presence of almost two million Nepalese residing in Ind3ia. having more direct links to which gained financially by granting the cultural heartland of South Asia. local aristocrats gained lucrative inIf it had not been Napalese. In Bhutan more than this.that of favouring the new po!icy empire and keeping out what they saw as threatening Chinese and Ti. the Nepalese continue to play a vital security role for the Indian government in the regien. The demands whlich the Gurkha Lqague and others in North Bengal have made for the official recognition of Nepalese language lhas important if tantalising implications. lands for Nepali settlement.indigenous populations. A disguised number of Nepalese began settling in Arunachal Pradesh as it gradually began to be opened up.became the precursor of some perlation in Sikkim was Nepaiese. from 1951 to 1976 the number of Nepalese rose from 2. but even as peasant settlers. namely malarial. It was also played by local feudal elites.000) the actual figure is play a political balancing game becloser to 40 per cent (4. The in the case of Manipur immediately settlement of Nepalese in the colonial following the First World War.00. Claude White. although the roots of quantities of labour. tween the court the Lepcha-Bhutia Through a deiiberate policy.604. India virtually have become abandoned the Nepalese cause.-00 in 1961. the Nepalese do not usually pass formally through checkpoints or apply for meaningless scraps of paper. were not actin7 out of just encouraged by the Pritish. their role in the wider political system has baen barely understood. In Assam there were 2.30 on Sun. In Sikkim the Kazis of The British recognised early that Khangsarpa were from the 1870s the Nepalese. thickly. This in turn may have played a part in f urther Nepalese settlement.going a lever against the Bhutanese the monarchy.to settle in Manipur they exempted turally and religiously different. Emphasising their Nepalese settlement of role as pioneer agriculturists is the such policy. they began to settle in hill areas in that state in the 1960s.15.000 to at least 10. the number of Nepa!ese rose from 6. coupled minority and the Nepalese majority. previously cally change the composition of the of low rank in the feudal aristocracy. was hot always confined to ex-soldiers At the same time it is important to but also included many other Nepalese bear in mind that the areas in which peasants. Nepalese settlement was not the Nepalese. This has translated itself into which to penetrate and form strategic patterns of political mobilisation in buffers in the northeast and.a dual purpose. foreBhutan and Sikkim transformed in 100 years into contain. Nepalese have natura'ly looked to protect their kin settled in the region and this has fuelled anti-Nepalese feeling as occurred in Mizoram and Meghalaya in 1967 and now occurs in Maniipur. the Kiratis.000 in 1961 to 85. In Manipur it was the royal court Nepalese Hindu. actaally demographi. were other new this policy can be traced to Nepalese factors. Rather. local populations in some northeast enhanced its political and economic hill areas.000). while were. frontier the late 19th from settlement century. significantly. Bhutan while the official figures speak In Sikkim.000 and 4. forested and often plan. after 1955. Even as India has continued inherited administrative norms such as the Inner Line and other restrictions. In Bhutan. others comes by giving tenancy and land would have stepped in to play a simi.213 Nepalese in 1971.
or play into the hands of a 'Greater Nepal'. the Reagan administra. India would bolst2r the legitimacy of the kingdom of Nepal. 116 major straits. the kingdom of Nepal would be destabiliseci and Nepalese brouhlit further into the Indian system.ently keep the Napalese beneath the surface of India's political and economic life.sortia. a leading American to pioneer maritime and mining potentially greater TNC rewards can lawyer and a professor at Harvard) technology tc exploit these nodules. only to a peripheral extent. they will persist in pursuirng millenial dreams of a glorious past. THE PROTAGOmSTS The protagonists of immediate passage consist largely of third world countries aiid specific interests within the state and corporate world. Acocean bed are strewn with potato.ybdenum. and analyse the rantees the right of a nation to exploit authors 3dvanced a central thesis con. the chances are we will go ahead and sign the treaty withouit the US". Our current concern in under the world's oceans.in corporate mining: processing. This would not have been revenues. The crux of this argument is special representative for the Law of manganese copper. Cognisance of this raw materials El and articulately on behalf of the free Darodo galvanised two separate forces. their push for immediate passage derives from their desire for the slightly larger share of the seabed pie that the treaty accords them. As long as thevpeoples of the northeast do not analyse the economic realities of their own position and the economic realities of any frontier region. these interests can within a two-hundred mile limit as would set up an international autho. the third possible had not the representatives of the United States fought tenaciously world. with a means to voice their grievances. Nepalese settlement in the northeast has not been part of an insidious scheme but is the outcome of the development process itself. and tions. the LAW OF THE SEA Changing Scenarios Frederick Clairmonte John Cavanagh In the developed countries some of the major protagonists are to be found among the mnilitary. be expected. and both sides. whose interests are often dovetailed to those of Big Capital. oceanographers have sovereignty over the seabed served lian bureaucracy who have stressed the instead to legitimise and buttress corknown that significant segments of the importance of immediate passage.cording to Elliott Richardson. towns are being founded or expanded and the area is being more fully exploited. and major review. By recognising and legitimising the Nepalese presence in India. As a spokesman of Royal Dutch Shell (which is a partner of the Ocean Minerals Consortium) puts it: "[The treaty] is pro- This content downloaded from 202. which would obtain from the treaty guaranteed access to the world's rity to govern the mining of seabed gories: those directly concerned with nodules. the United Nations 'final' session. on. as the treaty was convergent and divergent interests corporation members of the seabed conabout to enter what was billed as its which stem from the Reagan ad. the present ministration shift.In the case of third world spokesmen.period of hard bargaining before the cabinet member in several administracorporate ed five separate corporate consortia treaty is finalised will be longer. One set of outsiders wil! merely be replaced by others if those who are indigenous to the area do not seek to develop their own resources through their own efforts.30 on Sun. What the intervening world community as a whole. where roads are being built. in this case the navy. this article is to examine briefly the tagonists are to be found among the oil In February 1981.enterprise system" is an indicator that launched niegotiations for setting up a tion dropped the bomnbshellthat no the American ruling class can certainly comprehensive treaty which would treaty could be considered prior to a accommodate themselves to the treaty."3 The seventies. A third element of the treaty"s progovern all activities over. A few days prior to the labels the treaty as defending "the free Simultaneously.be grouped into three major cate. a considerable number of passage of time suggests is that the very fact thaat such a public figure (a giant transnational corporations form.41. of Rather. to enhance so-called 'thir-d world' and those seeking its eNimination. political stability for seabed mining tion represents neither a loss for the mo-.2 This statement is part of the bargaining rhetoric since a treaty minus United States is basically impotent. ten times larger would pass and that the ul timate conflicting ideologies and interests than OPEC's combined 1980 export beneficiaries would be Big Capital. our arguments have withstood the enterprise system and its benefits for the national.' The conwas seventies. The fear has been that by recognising the Nepa!ese presence. "the draft convenhlowever. At the inception of the test of time. treaty which is ostensibly blueprinted those in quest of the treaty's revision. mat.porate power whose goals stand in sized nodules that contain large blatant confrontation to such sovere. The Singapore spokesman of the Group ci 77 wvent so far as to assert that "if the US does not respond positively between now and the proposed next session. It was not.well as free passage of the world's oil through the ocean's straits. cobalt. We argued that the very the immediate passage of the treaty. it embodies extent the most lucrative profit centres nodules extract their and collect the and. Carter's quantities of important minerals: ignty. and that the treaty provides international the Sea conference. By the mid. the market value of these minerals scaled clusion we drew was that the treaty and protracted battles between of three trillon dollars.ary. A contrary view might however suggest somewhat different implications. inasmuch as the treaty also guafimal and decisive session.gainers and losers of the shift.10. . States nor a victory for the jeopardising to any significant United uintil the 1960s that technology to -withourt Group 77. By following such a course India would be returning to British imperial policy: but such a prospect is remote at present. nickkel.balanced compromises that emerged from tough it that the estimated ketcig and distribution. 21 Apr 2013 12:18:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . acceptable minerals was created. specifically navies and oil corporations. Despite major changes since Februone corpor-ate and the other inter. in which the Nepalese as a poor and mobile hill frontier community play a part in areas. For offshore natural gas and oil resources cerning the section of the treaty that analytical purposes. I believe. There are also certain important decision-makers in the civiSINCE 1873.
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