You are on page 1of 12

Table of Contents

Title PAGE Historical overview computer......................................................... 2
1.1. 1.2. 1.3. Early calculating Devices ................................................................................. 2 Middle Age Computer ...................................................................................... 2 Modern Age Computers.................................................................................... 2 1.3.1. First Generation .......................................................................................... 2 1.3.2. Second Generation ...................................................................................... 3 1.3.3. Third Generation......................................................................................... 3 1.3.4. Fourth Generation ....................................................................................... 3 Data vs. Information ......................................................................................... 4 Digital Computers............................................................................................. 5 Analog computers ............................................................................................. 6 Microcomputers ................................................................................................ 6 Minicomputers .................................................................................................. 7 Mainframe Computers ...................................................................................... 7 Super Computers............................................................................................... 7

What is Information Technology? .................................................. 3
1.4. 1.5. 1.6. 1.7. 1.8. 1.9. 1.10.

Types of Computers........................................................................ 5 Range of Computers ....................................................................... 6

Anatomy of computer system ......................................................... 8
1.11. Computer Hardware.......................................................................................... 8 1.11.1. Motherboard................................................................................................ 8 1.11.2. Input Devices .............................................................................................. 8 1.11.3. Central Processing Unit (CPU)................................................................... 9 1.11.4. Output Devices............................................................................................ 9

Computer Software......................................................................... 9
1.12. System Software ............................................................................................. 10 1.12.1. Operating Systems .................................................................................... 10 1.12.2. Applications Software............................................................................... 10

Languages Software...................................................................... 11 Computer Network ....................................................................... 11
1.13. 1.14. 1.15. Components of a Network Component........................................................... 11 Local Area Network (LAN)............................................................................ 12 Wide Area Network (WAN)........................................................................... 12

Types of Network ......................................................................... 12

Introduction computer 1. Historical overview computer
1.1. Early calculating Devices
Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, using one-to-one correspondence with our fingers. The earliest counting device was probably a form of tally stick. Later record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included clay shapes, which represented counts of items, probably livestock or grains, sealed in containers. The abacus was used for arithmetic tasks. The Roman abacus was used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC. Since then, many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented. In a medieval counting house, a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, and markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid to calculating sums of money (this is the origin of "Exchequer" as a term for a nation's treasury).

As early as 1725 Basile Bouchon used a perforated paper loop in a loom to establish the pattern to be reproduced on cloth, and in 1726 his co-worker Jean-Baptiste Falcon improved on his design by using perforated paper cards attached to one another for efficiency in adapting and changing the program

1.2. Middle Age Computer
Before World War II, mechanical and electrical analog computers were considered the "state of the art", and many thought they were the future of computing. Analog computers take advantage of the strong similarities between the mathematics of small-scale properties the position and motion of wheels or the voltage and current of electronic components and the mathematics of other physical phenomena, e.g. ballistic trajectories, inertia, resonance, energy transfer, momentum, etc. They model physical phenomena with electrical voltages and currents as the analog quantities.

1.3. Modern Age Computers
1.3.1. First Generation First generation of computer was incorporated during the second world war by Germany to build a war plane while also in England was used to crack

German secret codes and the mode of operation was the use of valves of about 1500 to 1800. 1.3.2. Second Generation Second generation was made, and there was just a little change to the first generation and its mode of operation was the transistor instead of valves, these computers were used for calculation of great figures as well as scientific applications. 1.3.3. Third Generation

Third generation computer was designed to suite a small piece of space and its mode of operation was based on silicon and its used large silicon integrated circuit. 1.3.4. Fourth Generation

Forth generation computers was also designed to suite a small piece of space and its mode of operation was based on silicon of very large silicon integrated circuit ( VLSI) and ultra large silicon integrated circuit.(ULSI) Fifth Generation Fifth generation of computer is the development of softwares to enhance computer works and its robotic applications.

1.3.5.

1.4. What is Information Technology?
The phrase Information Technology (IT) refers to the creation, gathering, processing, storage, and delivery of information and the processes and devices that make all this possible, think of these processes and devices as tools that make your life and career better or more efficient.

The tasks that are handled using information technology continue to increase almost on a daily basis. For example, a few years ago, cinematography and photography didn’t use computers at any point in cameras, processing labs, and the editing room. No matter what field of study you major in, or where you are employed, you’ll be sure to find information technology at work. Information technology can do at least three things: Information technology can process raw data into useful information. Information technology can recycle processed information and use it as data in another processing step. Information technology can package information in a new form so it’s easier to understand, more attractive, or more useful.

1.4.1. Data vs. Information
Data is the raw material to be processed by a computer. Such material can be letters, numbers, or facts like grades in a class, baseball batting averages, or light and dark areas in a photograph. Processed data becomes information, data that is organized, meaningful, and useful. In school, for instance, an instructor could enter various student grades (data), which can be processed to produce final grades and perhaps a class average (information). Data that is perhaps uninteresting on its own may become very interesting once it is converted to information. The raw facts (data) about your finances, such as a paycheck or a donation to charity or a medical bill may not be captivating individually, but together, these and other acts can be processed to produce the refund or amount you owe on your income tax return (information).

Raw data such as numbers, sounds, video, or photographs

Processing

Information such as a letter, chart, check, or multimedia presentation

Some information becomes data for the next step.

1.5. Types of Computers
Basically there are two types of computers based on the type of data they process. o o Digital Computers Analog Computers

Digital refers to the processes in computers that manipulate binary numbers (0s or 1s), which represent switches that are turned on or off by electrical current. Analog refers to numerical values that have a continuous range. Both 0 and 1 are analog numbers, but so is 1.5 or a number like p (approximately 3.14). As an example, consider a desk lamp. If it has a simple on/off switch, then it is digital, because the lamp either produces light at a given moment or it does not. If a dimmer replaces the on/off switch, then the lamp is analog, because the amount of light can vary continuously from on to off and all intensities in between.

1.5.1. Digital Computers
The digital computer is essentially a counting device in which data is represented by discrete numerical quantities. To process data, it uses the standard arithmetic operations. Digital computers are much more widely used today, and all standard business and scientific computers are digital ones. Most modern computers, however, are digital machines whose components have a finite number of states—for example, the 0 or 1, or on or off of bits. These bits can be combined to denote information such as numbers, letters, graphics, and program instructions.

1.5.2. Analog computers
The analog computer measures continuous type of data and uses a physical quantity, such as electrical current, to represent and proves the data. Analog computers are usually built for specific purposes. Examples include slide rule, thermometer and hydrodynamics. Analog computer systems were the first type to be produced. A popular analog computer used in the 20th century was the slide rule. To perform calculations with a slide rule, the user slides a narrow, gauged wooden strip inside a ruler like holder. Because the sliding is continuous and there is no mechanism to stop at one exact value, the slide rule is analog. New interest has been shown recently in analog computers, particularly in areas such as neural networks that respond to continuous electrical signals.

1.6. Range of Computers
Computers exist in a wide range of sizes and power. The smallest are embedded within the circuitry of appliances, such as televisions and wrist watches. These computers are typically preprogrammed for a specific task, such as tuning to a particular television frequency or keeping accurate time. Programmable computers vary enormously in their computational power, speed, memory, and physical size. The smallest of these computers can be held in one hand and are called personal digital assistants (PDAs). They are used as notepads, scheduling systems, and address books; if equipped with a cellular phone, they can connect to worldwide computer networks to exchange information regardless of location. The size and complexity needed in a computer system depend on the functions required of the computer. Computer systems are classified based on their CPU sizes, number of online terminals, maximum disk storage capacity, and all other available I/O devices into the following categories: 1. Microcomputers 2. Mini computers 3. Mainframes 4. Super computers

1.6.1. Microcomputers
A microcomputer (or personal computer) is the smallest general-purpose computer whose CPU is contained on a single integrated circuit chip. Micros are generally equipped with a keyboard, display, floppy and hard disk drives.

Laptop computers and PCs are typically used in businesses and at home to communicate on computer networks, for word processing, to track finances, and to play games. They have large amounts of internal memory to store hundreds of programs and documents. They are equipped with a keyboard; a mouse, trackball, or other pointing device; and a video display monitor or liquid crystal display (LCD) to display information. Laptop computers usually have similar hardware and software as Personal Computers, but they are more compact and have flat, lightweight LCDs instead of video display monitors.

1.6.2. Minicomputers
Minicomputer, a mid-level computer built to perform complex computations while dealing efficiently with a high level of input and output from users connected via terminals. Minicomputers also frequently connect to other minicomputers on a network and distribute processing among all the attached machines. Minicomputers are used heavily in transaction-processing applications and as interfaces between mainframe computer systems and wide area networks. Minicomputers are referred to as task-oriented computers. They were designed to provide selected user services rather than the full range of activities normally associated with general purpose computers. Minicomputers can support a wide range of online processing activities. Minis can support magnetic disks and tape, high-speed printers and a variety of terminal devices. These are similar to personal computers but have greater memory and more extensive mathematical abilities, and they are connected to other personal computers to exchange data. They are typically found in scientific, industrial, and business environments that require high levels of computational abilities.

1.6.3. Mainframe Computers
Mainframe computers have more memory, speed, and capabilities than minicomputers and are usually shared by multiple users through a series of interconnected computers. They control businesses and industrial facilities and are used for scientific research. Mainframe Computer, a high-level computer designed for the most intensive computational tasks. Mainframe computers are often shared by multiple users connected to the computer via terminals. The most powerful mainframes, called supercomputers, perform highly complex and time-consuming computations and are used heavily in both pure and applied research by scientists, large businesses, and the military.

1.6.4. Super Computers
The most powerful mainframe computers, called supercomputers, process complex and time-consuming calculations, such as those used to create weather predictions. Super computers are the largest, most expensive real-time computer systems which support national defense or fast multinational corporations.

They are complex systems and use high speed telecommunication facilities, such as satellites. They are used by the largest businesses, scientific institutions, and the military. Some supercomputers have many sets of CPUs. These computers break a task into small pieces, and each CPU processes a portion of the task to increase overall speed and efficiency. Such computers are called parallel processors.

2. Anatomy of computer system
A system is a group of integrated parts that have the common purpose of achieving some objective(s). Since a computer is a group of integrated parts that have the common purpose of performing the operations called for in the program being executed, it is a system. A typical computer system consists of a central processing unit (CPU), input devices, storage devices, and output devices. The CPU consists of an arithmetic/logic unit, registers, control section, and internal bus. The arithmetic/logic unit carries out arithmetical and logical operations. The registers store data and keep track of operations. The control unit regulates and controls various operations. The internal bus connects the units of the CPU with each other and with external components of the system. A computer system has a number of components that are classified as: o o Computer hardware Computer software.

2.1. Computer Hardware
Computer hardware is made up of the physical equipment used to make up your computer system, including the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and related microchips and micro-circuitry, keyboards, monitors, case and drives (floppy, hard, CD, DVD, optical, tape, etc...).

2.1.1. Motherboard
Motherboard is the main circuit board in a computer. The most important computer chips and other electronic components that give function to a computer are located on the motherboard. The motherboard is a printed circuit board that connects the various elements on it through the use of traces, or electrical pathways. The motherboard is indispensable to the computer and provides the main computing capability.

2.1.2. Input Devices
Input is the data that you put into the computer system for processing. Information and programs are entered into the computer through Input devices such as the keyboard,

disks, or through other computers via network connections or modems connected to the Internet. The input device also retrieves information from the disks. You can input data to a computer in many other interesting ways, including writing, speaking, pointing, or even by just looking at the data. The input hardware allows you to enter data into the computer. The primary devices used are the keyboard and mouse. Other examples of input devices are mouse, scanner, plotter, joysticks …

2.1.3. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The main function of the CPU is to perform arithmetic and logical operations on data taken from memory or on information entered through some device, such as a keyboard, scanner, or joystick. The CPU is controlled by a list of software instructions, called a computer program. Software instructions entering the CPU originate in some form of memory storage device such as a hard disk, floppy disk, CD-ROM, or magnetic tape. These instructions then pass into the computer’s main random access memory (RAM), where each instruction is given a unique address, or memory location. The CPU can access specific pieces of data in RAM by specifying the address of the data that it wants.

2.1.4. Output Devices
Output, the result produced by the central processing unit, is a computer's whole reason for being. Output is usable information; that is, raw input data that has been processed by the computer into information. The most common forms of output are words, numbers, and graphics. Word output, for example, may be the letters and memos prepared by office people using word processing software. Other workers may be more interested in numbers, such as those found in formulas, schedules, and budgets. In many cases numbers can be understood more easily when output in the form of charts and graphics.

The most common output devices are computer screens and printers. Screens can vary in their forms of display, producing text, numbers, symbols, art, photographs, and even video-in full color. Printers produce printed reports as instructed by a computer program, often in full color. Output devices such as a monitor or printer make information you input available for you to view or use.

2.2. Computer Software
Software is actually a computer program. To be more specific, a program is a set of step-by-step instructions that directs the computer to do the tasks you want it to do and to produce the results you want. A computer programmer is a person who writes programs. Most of us do not write programs, we use programs written by someone else. This means we are users - people who purchase and use computer software. Computer

programs allow users to complete tasks. A program can also be referred to as an application and the two words are used interchangeably. Computer productivity is determined by programs, which are step-by-step instructions, telling the computer how to process data. Software can be divided into two groups, system and application. A program is a sequence of related instructions, performed one step at a time by the CPU to accomplish some task. Programs determine how computers respond to input, what will be displayed and output

2.2.1. System Software
The operation of your computer is controlled by system software. As you boot the computer, the system software is stored in the computer's memory which instructs the computer to load, store, and execute an application. Examples of system software are Windows 2000 and Windows 2002 which use a graphical user interface (GUI) that provides visual clues (icons) to help the user. DOS, another disk operating system, is text based and not user friendly.

2.2.2. Operating Systems
The operating system controls the input and output or directs the flow of information to and from the CPU. Much of this is done automatically by the system but it is possible to modify and control your system if you need to.

2.2.2.1. Single tasking operating system
It is a type of operating system that used to perform single task at a time. Eg.Ms-dos

2.2.2.2. Multi tasking operating System
It is type of operating system that used to perform more that one task at a time. Eg. Ms-windows

2.2.3. Applications Software
Professional programmers write a variety of application software to satisfy needs of the public who wants to perform specific tasks on their computers. The basic types of application software are word processing, database, spreadsheet, desktop publishing, and communication. Applications programs are programs used for all purposes other than performing operating system chores or writing other programs includes word processors, spreadsheets, statistics packages and graphics programs, airline reservation systems, payroll systems etc.

2.2.4. Languages Software
Programming languages provide various ways of specifying programs for computers to run. Unlike natural languages, programming languages are designed to permit no ambiguity and to be concise. They are purely written languages and are often difficult to read aloud. They are generally either translated into machine language by a compiler or an assembler before being run, or translated directly at run time by an interpreter. Sometimes programs are executed by a hybrid method of the two techniques. There are thousands of different programming languages—some intended to be general purpose, others useful only for highly specialized applications.

3. Computer Network
A Network refers to techniques, physical connections, and computer programs used to link two or more computers. Network users are able to share files, printers, and other resources; send electronic messages; and run programs on other computers.

3.1. Components of a Network Component
A network has three layers of components: Application software Network software Network hardware. Application software consists of computer programs that interface with network users and permit the sharing of information, such as files, graphics, and video, and resources, such as printers and disks. One type of application software is called client-server. Client computers send requests for information or requests to use resources to other computers, called servers that control data and applications. Another type of application software is called peer-to-peer. In a peer-to-peer network, computers send messages and requests directly to one another without a server intermediary. Network software consists of computer programs that establish protocols, or rules, for computers to talk to one another. These protocols are carried out by sending and receiving formatted instructions of data called packets. Protocols make logical connections between network applications, direct the movement of packets through the physical network, and minimize the possibility of collisions between packets sent at the same time. Network hardware is made up of the physical components that connect computers. Two important components are the transmission media that carry the computer's signals, typically on wires or fiber-optic cables, and the network adapter, which accesses the

physical media that link computers, receives packets from network software, and transmits instructions and requests to other computers. Transmitted information is in the form of binary digits, or bits (1s and 0s), which the computer's electronic circuitry can process.

3.2. 3.3.

Types of Network Local Area Network (LAN)

A network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or building. Current LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology. For example, a library may have a wired or wireless LAN for users to interconnect local devices (e.g., printers and servers) and to connect to the internet. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to WANs (wide area networks), include their higher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines. Current Ethernet or other IEEE 802.3 LAN technologies operate at speeds up to 10 Gbit/s. This is the data transfer rate. IEEE has projects investigating the standardization of 100 Gbit/s, and possibly 40 Gbit.

3.4.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area (i.e. one city to another and one country to another country) and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies.