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AWO YORUBA

THE LANGUAGE OF IF GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN IF DIVINATION

Introduction
In order to understand the oral tradition of Ifa it is necessary to have some grasp of the language of Ifa. The rituals, invocations,

incantations and recitations of traditional Yoruba religion are not expressed through conversational Yoruba. The language of Ifa is

liturgical Yoruba (ofo ase), a language used among diviners to express transcendant ideas. Many of the words used in Ifa have a tonal

resonance used to access the power of Spirit. Physics teaches the idea that all power in the universe is part of a sign wave which is the full spectrum of light. color and pitch. Every segment of the sign wave manifests as both The tonal quality of words used in liturgical Yoruba

places the diviner in harmonic resonance with the tonal essence of a wide range of Spiritual Forces (Orisa). The remarkable quality of

liturgical Yoruba is that the words used for invocation also carry meaning that reveals the inner essense of the Spiritual Force itself. For example, the word Obatala is used to describe the Force in Nature science calls white light. Ifa teaches that everything in the

universe has some form of consciousness (ori). Saying the word Obatala places human consciousness in alighnment with the consciousness of white light. It does while telling us something about the quality of white light. The word Obatala is an eliysian of the phrase; O (Spirit) ba (power of expansion or male energy ie; Baba) ota (stone) ala (light). The word

Obatala in the context of Odu Ifa (Yoruba Scripture) means; the Spirit of the expansive quality of light that comes from the eternal stone of Creation (center point of the universe). Olatunde Sproye in his book Yoruba without Tears states there are one hundred and twenty-six combinations of vowels and consonants used as the basis for the Yoruba Language.

ba be be bi bo bo bu da de de di do do du fa fe fe fi fo fo fu ga ge ge gi go go gu gba gbe gbe gbi gbo gbo gbu ha he he hi ho ho hu ja je je ji jo jo ju ka ke ke ki ko ko ku la le le li lo lo lu ma me me mi mo mo mo mu na ne ne ni no no nu pa pe pe pi po po pu ra re re ri ro ro ru sa se se si so so su ta te te ti to to tu wa we we wi wo wo wu ya ye ye yi yo yo yu

All Yoruba words are a combination of these fundamental sounds. One of the rules of Yourba language construction is that portions of a word can be doubled for a change in emphasis, for example; ba (expansive power) baba (father) babagba or baba baba (grandfather). Doubling a word refers to its source or parent, for example Dada (Spirit of Vegitation) would be the parent of da (create). Repeating the word da (create) suggests recreation or the power of vegitation to continiously go throw the process of birth, growth, death and rebirth.

If we double each of the one hundred and twenty-six combinations used as the basis for Yoruba language we get two hundred and fifty-two fundamental linguistic buiding blocks. Ifa scripture is based on two

hundred and fifty six fundamental principles. The first four principles represent the cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth. These four principles support the rest of Creation. The rest of Creation comes into being

through the manifestation of two hundred and fifty two Forces in Nature. This suggests to me the foundation of Yoruba language has been linked to Odu Ifa from its inception. The first Yoruba English dictionaries were prepared by Christian missionaries who had no understanding or desire to learn the spiritual mysteries preserved in the Yoruba language. When Ifa and Orisa spread through the Diaspora it was influenced by non African religions concepts. I believe the best way to uncover the fundamental principles of Ifa as it was originally invisioned is through a study of the liturgical language. When I wrote the book Iwa-pele I looked up the word Ifayabale in the Yoruba English dictionary in an effort to better understand a metaphysical concept. The dictionary defined Ifayabale as the I believe the word To me the word

ascenscion of our Lord and Master Jesus Christ. predates Christianity and this definition is in error.

Ifayabale is an eliysian of Ifa (wisdom) iya (mother) baba (father) ile (earth), meaning; the wisdom of the fathers and mothers found on earth.

This glossary is a preliminary attempt to understand Ifa theology through an understanding of Yoruba language. The words were taken from Odu Ifa as it is recited in Ile Ife and most of the vocabulary reflects the dialect of that particular region. I am sure many of my definitions will change as my understanding of Ifa and Yoruba language grows. This should not be considered a definitive study. Hopefully it will serve as a point of departure for theological linquistic analysis. Bit by bit we eat the head of the rat.

Ase o Awo Falokun Fatunmbi

A
a Him, her, we and it, depending on context. a Used as a prefix to a verb in the formation of nouns. b Half. fin Palace, home of a king (Oba). j Whirlwind, the Spirit of the Whirlwind, depending on context. j Care, treatment. k Ax. l Boundary, border. r Illness, fatigue. rn Middle, center. as Female Spirit, female Force in Nature. s Door carved from the Iroko tree. yn - awo - in - igb Praise name for the Spirit of Destiny (rnml), meaning: "Ayan Tree is the Mystery of the Inner Sanctum of the Sacred Grove." y Life. ab A portion, a piece of something larger, farm hut depending on context. ab Mat. The mat is used to create sacred space in If and rs ritual and divination. ba Ladder. The ladder is sacred to the Spirit of the Divine Messenger (s)

abd Eternal, something that comes directly from the Source of Creation (Olrn). abf Fate in all of its manifestations, both creative and destructive. abmi An unusual occurrence, something that is perceived as strange, frequently associated with intervention from the Spirit Realm. abm Feelings of regret, being sorry about past actions. A - b - m - - tn - b - se Praise name for the Spirit of Destiny (rnml), meaning: "To Have Full Knowledge of You is to be Successful." Abanigbele The Spirit of Fire, this is a reference to the animating consciousness that exists inside a burning flame. Abnigbro Advisor, one who gives advice, a wise elder. abanij Detractor. bse Cooperation. Abata Mud. Mud is sacred to the female aspect of the Spirit of White Cloth (Oduduwa/Yemo). Abaya Queen Mother. abe Small knife, also used to refer to a razor. ab Bottom, behind a reference to the human buttux. When If scripture is refering to reproductive organs it is usually expressed as either the male or female bottom. abbe Fan, used to cool mediums in ritual, sacred to the Spirit of the River (sun). Abl Candle. abr Needle. Abes Chief messenger of a religious society or extended family. btl Bribe. abi I or you.

b Or. abigba Four chains with nuts attached, used in some regions of Nigeria to perform divination. Each chain has four nuts representing one leg of the marks used to represent the verses (Od) of If scripture. When the abigba is thrown two complete verses (Od) of If scripture are marked. Abkehin The youngest child in a family. bku A child who dies at a young age and reincarnates through the same mother. The word refers to the spiritual cause behind a sequence of deaths among children in the same family. When this occurs, If can perform rituals that will induce the spirit of the child to remain on Earth to become an adult. abilko Wife or widow. abo Female. abo Arrival, return. bo Expression used to greet someone who has returned to the place of their departure. Abgn Those who worship the ant hill, the ant hill represents the Spirit of hard work and cooperation. Abgn Those who worship the Spirit of Iron (gn). abkul One who works with the spirit of ancestors (Egn) to invoke transformation. Abomal Those who worship the ancestors and the deified ancestors (Egngn). Abpa Member of a society that gives reverence to the memory of the ancestors through the use of mediums. Abrs Those who worship Forces in Nature (rs). aboyn Woman who is pregnant. abor The elevation of consciousness through the use of invocation and spiritual cleansing. It is the process of placing the physical self and the higher self in perfect alignment.

bor, boy, bosise Traditional If greeting, meaning: " I lift your burden from Earth and raise it to the Realm of the Immortals." abuk Person with a deformity in their spine, protected by the Spirit of the King of White Cloth (Obtl). Abuku Disgrace bule Village or house on the farm. ablko Farm village. abra One who takes an oath during an initiation, the person who makes a pledge. br Younger relative, junior relative. bus A blessing given by an elder. d A large knife with a hook on the end used in farming, sacred to the Spirit of Iron (gn) and the Spirit of the Farm (rs Oko). adaba Dove, sacred to the Spirit of the King of White Cloth (Obtl). The dove is the If symbol for peace and tranquility. d - fdk Silver cutlass, sacred to the Spirit of the King of White Cloth (Obtl). Adhunse A herbal doctor, one who works with the Spirit of herbs and medicine (snyin). d - irn Iron cutlass, sacred to the Spirit of Iron (gn), Admu - rs A play performed in honor of the Spirit of the Forces in Nature (rs), centers around the idea of not laughing at, or making fun of those who have some form of disability. dn Bat. The bat is used in medicine for protection. adnri One who has shaved their head for religious reasons, usually in preparation for initiation. Some diviners keep their head shaved as a way of being in close alignment with the influence of the Forces of Nature (rs).

ad Crown worn by Yorb Kings (Oba). The crown symbolizes the spiritual transformation that occurs when the Kings (Oba) are installed in office. The crown is also the seat of protection that is given by the Spirit of the Mothers (ymi). adbo One who prepares sacred food for a feast by slaughtering animals according to the rules of religious sanction. dhn Agreement. admu An offering of food to the Spirits, also refers to a calabash with a lid depending on context. Adsek Son of the Spirit of Destiny (rnml), meaning: "Crown is Worthy." adibo Diviner. ade Chicken, or fowl. admu A form of masquerade in memory of the ancestors (Egn). adire Dyed cloth. adireiranna The fowl used as an offering at a traditional If funeral. Adgunsl The chief warrior priest among those who worship the Spirit of Iron (gn). Traditionally this is the person responsible for the protection of a given town or village. dgb District, section of a village. A dp We thank you. dr Prayer that generally follows an invocation to the Spirits. This type of prayer is a spontaneous appeal to the Spirits. af Bridge. afiya The ability to make use of intuition. afr Bridge. afra - oyin Honeycomb (Bridge of Honey). The honeycomb is sacred to the Spirit of the River (Osun).

afri Barber, the person who shaves the head of an initiate during religious rites of passage. The word is also used to refer to the person who has had their head shaved. afr Thing that disappears, a Spirit that vanishes. Afefe A messenger of the Spirit of the Wind (Oya), the gale wind. Afefe - jeje The whirlwind, the sacred power of the Spirit of the Wind (Oya) in its most intense manifestation. afe - imojo The tail of a large rat that is used by Yorb Kings as a symbol of their power of the word. afmju The early morning, one of the times considered sacred for picking herbs. Aferef e Praise name for the Spirit of the Wind (Oya), the gentle aspect of the wind, the breeze, meaning: "The Good Wind." Afrif lglg Praise name for the Spirit of the Wind (Oya) , meaning: "Mysterious Wind." fsn Engaged to be married, committed to a relationship. afi Unless. afi - bi Unless. fn Albino, protected by the Spirit of the King of White Cloth (Obtl). fojb Personal experience, personal truth. afj Blind person, protected by the Spirit of the King of White Cloth (Obtl). fom Infectious disease, that which is brought by the Spirit of Infectious Disease (Babaluaiy). Afon Breadfruit (Treculia africana ), sacred to If. fonfoj Valley. aforj Forgiveness, also refers to a type of prayer used in If for asking Spirit to forgive the need to make a blood offering.

fse Magical incantations. Afurkrsayo Reference to the left half of the horizontal line that forms the equal arm cross of a If diviner's tray, meaning: "The one who has the diviner's tapper and is happy." aga Chair, low stool., in If ritual the younger initiates will sit on a mat while the elders sit on low stools. agada Toy sword usually made from wood. galams Rebel, the word suggests that the rebellion is guided by wisdom and divine inspiration. gn Barren woman. agaro Shovel. The shovel is sacred to the Spirit of the Farm (Ors Oko). Agayu The Spirit of the Fire at the Center of the Earth, in some versions of If sacred history, Agayu is the Father of the Spirit of Lightning (Sng). gba Manhood, someone who is recognized as a male adult in the community. This status usually comes as the result of completion of a rite of passage. gb Elder person of either gender, a stem used as a rope depending on context. agbd Priestly robes. gbdo Corn, sacred to the Divine Messenger (s). gbaiy The entire world. gbk Misfortune, disaster, meaning: "without elders." gbla Yard near a house, usually inclosed by a wall or a fence. gblgb Elder, very old person. gbl Head of the household. gbl The entire village.

Agbami The mist that arises from the ocean, an aspect of the Spirit of the Ocean (Olkun). agbra Force, power, strength depending on context. agbas Sacred stone, the Spirit of a sacred stone. Agbra Elder, person in authority, the word is also used to express power, spiritual strength and authority, used in reference to someone who speaks with authority, depending on context. gbgb Surrounding district, outer portion of a village. agbgb Hen. agbledi One of the wrestling moves used in the marital art that is sacred to the Spirit of Iron (gn). gbere Intercourse, sexual interaction. agbr Charm used by those who practice the martial art of the Spirit of Iron (gn), used to insure that the person remains standing during a martial arts contest. gb Short sword sacred to the Spirit of Iron (gn), farmer depending on context. agbje Pumpkin, sacred to the Spirit of the River (Osun). agbe Woodcock, cockatoo. agbgilre Woodcarver, a profession that is generally sacred to the Spirit of Lightning (Sng). gbgb Elemental spirit of the Forest that is know for causing trouble. agbo Medicine, poultice. gb Ram, sacred to the Spirit of Lightning (Sng). agbo A circle of dancers at a religious ceremony. agb at Long life, a common greeting among If initiates.

agbol House, collection of houses forming a compound that is generally used by a single extended family. agbn Basket weaved from rafia. gbon Coconut, sacred to the Spirit of the King of White Cloth (Obtl). agbon Chin. agbn Wasp. Agbnire A praise name for the Spirit of Destiny (rnml), meaning: "Hunter of Good Fortune." Agbnrgn A praise name for the Spirit of Destiny (rnml), meaning: "Hunter of the Medicine of Good Fortune. gbnrn Chin. agre Stilt dancer who dances as part of the ceremonies that honor the Spirit of the Ancestors (Egn). ag Small drum that is sacred to the Spirit of the Farm (rs Oko). agemo Chameleon. Agemo Spirit of the Forest worshipped in the Ijebu region of Nigeria. Agesinyowa One of the council of sixteen diviners (Babalwo) who perform divination of the King (ni) of Il If. aginiso Word for snail used by devotees of the Spirit of the River (Osun) who have a taboo against using the word igbin. agiyan The ant hill, sacred to the Spirit of Destiny (rnml) as a symbol of hard work and cooperation. ag Sacred cloth used by dancers who are mediums for the Spirit of the Ancestors (Egn). g Expression for asking permission to enter a house. agogo Bell used as musical instrument to praise the Forces of Nature (rs).

agogo - eiye The beak of a bird, sacred to the Spirit of the Mothers (ymi). Agongo ogo Praise name for the Divine Messenger (s), meaning: "He Who Carries a Club." guala The planet Venus, sacred to the Spirit of the River (Osun). It is also known as the companion of the Moon or the dog of the Moon. The Spirit of Venus. Agunmola The planet Venus, sacred to the Spirit of the River (Osun). It is also known as the companion of the Moon or the dog of the Moon. The Spirit of Venus. Agnmu Medicine that is prepared by pounding it into a powder with a mortar and pestle. gtn Sheep. ahere Farm hut. ahun Miser. aibi One who has no children, a form of bad fortune in If divination. aifoya Being without fear, courage. aigbo - iy Tranquility, being at peace in the world, the sign of one who has developed inner certainty. ike Ax, the double headed ax is sacred to the the Spirit of Lightning (Sng). aik Immortality, one who has become a deified ancestor, meaning: "never die." ilbku Spotless, being without blame, a reference to the good character of the Spirit of the King of White Cloth (Obtl). iliy Coward. ilso Barren, without children, one of the forms of bad fortune in If divination. aile Evening.

ailbi One who has not experienced misfortune, an indication of someone who is of good character. ails A person of very good character, someone who is above suspicion. ailw Poverty, one of the forms of bad fortune in If divination. ailr The inability to invoke or manifest any form of abundance, one of the forms of bad fortune in If divination. sn Illness. t Personal element of a ritual that takes into account the circumstances of the individual who is turning towards religious ceremony as a vehicle of personal transformation. aiyapa One who travels on a straight path towards spiritual growth. aiy The surface of the Earth, in If scripture it is the place where the Realm of the Ancestors (Egn) meets the realm of humans. aiyraiy Forever, since the beginning of time, immortal. aj Dog, black dogs are sacred to the Spirit of Iron (gn). j Ceiling. aja A wild vine that is sacred to the Spirit of Birds (ymi). ajabo A protection charm sacred to the Spirit of Iron (gn). ajagun Devotee of the Spirit of Iron (gn) who functions as a soldier. ajagun - obinrin Female devotee of the Spirit of Iron (gn) who functions as a soldier. ajako Jackal. janak Elephant, sacred to the Spirit of the King of White Cloth (Obtl). jliy The Winds of the Earth, an aspect of the Spirit of the Wind (Oya).

jlrun The Winds of the Realm of the Ancestors, an aspect of the Spirit of the Wind (Oya). A - j - m - jbi Praise name for the Spirit of the Mothers (ymi), meaning: "She Who Is Never Guilty." jl - mpin One of the Spirits who shapes the head and forms the consciousness of each new born child. Aja - Osun The planet Venus, sacred to the Spirit of the River (Osun), also known as the companion of the Moon or the dog of the Moon, the Spirit of Venus. Ajapa Tortoise, one of the animal totems or guides of the Spirit of the Divine Messenger (s), the tortoise is the Divine Messenger for the Spirit of Lightning (Sng). j The Spirit of a Bird used by women (ymi) to invoke powers used for abundance and justice. This same power is used to consecrate the crown of the Yorb Kings. Also used as a reference to money or abundance. ajeji Forgiveness. jj Strange. Aje - ju - Oogn Praise name for the Spirit of Destiny (rnml), meaning: "Stronger than Medicine." Aje Saluga Elemental Spirit of Abundance, sacred to the Spirit of the Mothers (ymi). ajidwe Medicine used to restore vigor. Ajgmw The sun, the Spirit of the Sun. Ajiki Praise name for the Source of Creation (Olrun), meaning: "The One Who is Praised First." It also may be used as a reference to the personal Spirit of any given individual. In reference to the Spirit of the Divine Messenger (s) it is used to indicate that the Divine Messenger (s) is addressed first in most ritual. Ajiletepowo A reference to the center point of the diviner's tray (pn If) and a reference to the centering principle as an aspect of If spiritual discipline, meaning: "An early riser who sits down and prospers."

jnde The Spirit of a deceased ancestor (Egn) who speaks at their own funeral through a medium (Egngn). js Charms used for protection. jo Meeting, gathering of a group of people. j Journey, used in reference to the spiritual journey of self discovery that occurs throughout life. ajobi Ancestors of a woman, matralineal ancestors (Aylal Egn). Ajogn Destructive Spirits that bring death, disease and poverty. These Spirits are generally associated with the Spirit of the Divine Messenger (s) and are considered an aspect of the balancing dynamic that occurs in Nature. ajoj Dancing for the Spirits (Ors). j l'ay Journey through the world, the entire spectrum of a person's personal experience. ajomisanra The eternal dew, a symbolic reference to the fountain of life or the spiritual source of physical rejuvenation. Aj ori The Spirit of the daughter of the Spirit of Lightning (Sng), meaning: "Bird of the Inner Spirit." jo sep Cooperation. ajoyin - ibon The firing of muskets, traditionally muskets are fired while making offerings to the Spirit of Iron (gn). ajugu dunirn A pile of iron in or near a shrine used as an altar for the Spirit of Iron (gn). akb Ladder. The ladder is sacred to the Spirit of the Divine Messenger (s). kala Vulture, sacred to the Spirit of the River (Osun). kar Bread cakes cooked in palm oil, sacred to the Spirit of the Ancestors (Egn). ktnp Hunter's tool, sacred to the Spirit of Iron (gn).

k Ax, sacred to the Spirit of the Farm (Ors Oko), the double headed ax is sacred to the Spirit of Lightning (Sng).8888 kbj Over indulgent behavior, one of the sources of bad fortune in If divination. A - k - b - l Praise name for the Spirit of the King of White Cloth (Obtl), meaning, "Radiant White." akere Frog. akese Cotton. Cotton is sacred to the Spirit of the King of White Cloth (Obtl). aki Bravery, also the word for refering to the martial art practiced by the devotees of the Spirit of Iron (gn). akika Pangolin plant (Uromanis Longicanda Briss ).

Akiko Cock, male chicken. Male chickens are sacred to the Spirit of most Warriors (Ibora). akin Hero, heroic person and heroic action. ako Sheath of a knife. The sheath of a knife is used as an offering to the Spirit of Destiny (rnml). The word also means male. kb First born. Akd One of the Prophet rnml's first two students, term also used to identify a senior priest in a society of diviners. akja Fulfillment, the purpose of following one's destiny. kk Season of the year. kk - rn Dry season. kk - ojo Rainy season. kk - ott Cold season. kk - oy Windy season. akokoro Toothache.

akk ti obinrin Female puberty rite, meaning: "season of becoming a woman." akk ti okunrin Male puberty rite, meaning: "season of becoming a man." A - k - m - - tn Praise name for the Spirit of Destiny (rnml ), meaning: "Not to Have Full Knowledge of You is to Fail." akni Teacher. akoni Brave warrior, a strong person who may be remembered as a deified ancestor, the word is also used to suggest that something is true. The word is used to describe the Spirit of the Warriors (Ibora). ako - ojo Five day week that is used as the basis for the If calender of ritual events. akun Religious bead. aknlbo Kneeling to worship. knlyn Destiny as choice, or the act of free will. knlgb Destiny which is altered by free will. akunnu Fruitful, productive. al Owner. l Light in the Spiritual sense of that which brings illumination or enlightenment, also a reference to the Spirit of Light, also refers to white cloth in both literal and symbolic terms. The symbol of white cloth is a reference to moral purity. l White cloth, dream, effective dreamer, one who has visions while sleeping. In If scripture white cloth is a symbolic reference to dreams and mystic vision. Aln Spirit that helps shape consciousness prior to birth, meaning: "The Merciful One." alfia A greeting that means peace, good fortune and abundance. Alfin The traditional title for the King of Oyo, chief Priest of the Council of elders (Ogboni).

alye Someone who is living, a person of the Earth, as opposed to spirit or ancestor. albalse Forever. Albalese Praise name for the Spirit of the King of White Cloth (Obtl), meaning: "He Who Predicts the Future." Alabaltn The Spirit of the One who implements with the right, a reference to the right side of the horizontal line on the diviner's tray (pn If). Alde Prince, a male descendant of one of the original families that founded the Yorb federation. Alfri One who knows the secret to the charm that makes one invisible. This medicine is commonly used to make a person invisible to their enemies in the sense that they will not be bothered rather than physically invisible. Some forms of this medicine can create telaportation. alafogn Owner of medicine, reference to a herbal doctor. Algba Elder, also the title for the chief priest of the Society of Ancestor Reverence in Il If. Algemo Member of men's society in Ijebu region that honors the Spirit of the Chameleon. algb Medicine pot. alaifoiya One who is fearless, a person of courage. algbn Foolish, one who is ignorant of the Light. als Physical death. alaiyeluw Greetings said to an Oba. Alajki Praise name for the Divine Messenger (s), meaning: "One who is addressed first." This is a reference to the fact that The Divine Messenger is usually addressed first during ritual. lkala Nightmare. The realm of nightmares is controlled by the Spirit of Nightmares (Sigidi).

alakete Calabash of light, one of the Primal Sources of Creation. alkor Useless person, lazy person. alla One who is an effective dreamer, a person who has visions in their sleep. Alamorere Praise name for the Spirit of the King of White Cloth (Obtl), meaning: "Owner of the best clay." alangba Lizard. Alpni Chief Priest of the Ancestor Society in Oyo. alrbar Multi colored. alrinrin Fine, fancy. alaromo One who wishes another harm or bad fortune, a person who makes use of hexes. alse Person of power. Alasels The Spirit of the One who implements with the left, a reference to the left side of the horizontal line on the divining tray (pn If), usually refers to that which is hidden or unrevealed. Alsotele Prophet, one who is able to see into the future. lwo Word used to identify an If initiate who is still in training as a diviner. alya Husband. ly Explanation. le Leprosy. al Evening. lej Visitor. alsjde A person who is skilled at terminating possession by unwelcome or destructive spirits, an exorcists.

lo - rntn Sacred history. lk Second hand. alubarika Property. Aldndn run Guardian of personal destiny in the Realm of the Ancestors, the Source of personal destiny. alukerese Creeping plant (Ipomoea involucrata ). alunipa Executioner, a member of the society of elders (Ogboni). Amiygn Praise name for the Spirit of Destiny (rnml), meaning: "The Guardian of Medicine on Earth." mn Opportunity. amo Lizard. Amodi Sickness. Amodd Praise name for the Spirit of Destiny (rnml), meaning: "One Who cuts through sickness." mk The Spirit of the Sun, and the Sun itself. amokisitekun Panther. Aml If Owdy Praise name for the Spirit of Destiny (rnml), meaning: "The Savior of If from the early days." amomotn Imperfect knowledge, the human finite perception of the infinite. Amnisgn - mp Praise name for the Divine Messenger (s), meaning: "The medicine pouch that guides us to the Immortals." amotl The ability to see into the future, clairvoyance. amu Jar or pot. amulu Combination. Aml Od The verses of If scripture that follow the first sixteen verses (Olu Od).

amure Sash worn by men around the waist as a symbol of balance between male and female Forces in Nature (rs). Amsan One of the children of the Spirit of the wind, the person who holds a switch and walks in front of Egngn during ancestral ceremonies, acts as a guardian for the medium. amye Wise elder, one who is able to give good council and advice. n Yesterday. na In - law. anam Sweet potato. nn Doubt. anife One who has no mate, being without love or affection, one of the forms of bad fortune in If divination. anp One who has abundance in all things, one who has fulfilled their destiny. ap Arm, side or direction depending on context. apko Bamboo. pr Joke. apr - in Conscience. apari Bald head. pr - in Inner Spirit. apta Rock, the rock is sacred to most Forces in Nature (rs). p Prayer. Apetebi The Spirit of the wife of the Spirit of Destiny (rnml) an initiated position within If that is held by those women who are married to If initiates. peere Perfection or completion, the goal of spiritual growth and development.

apeja Fisherman. apiwo Cure for negative medicine, or for the removal of a hex. p Bag often refers to bag used to carry medicine and tools associated with ritual work, also refers to charms carried by worshippers of the Spirit of Iron (gn). ap Quiver, sacred to the Spirit of the Tracker (ss). po'gn Medicine pouch. po onsgn Medicine pouch. pt Box. ara Body, self, people, depending on context. ara - ile Friends and relatives, members of the extended family. ar Thunder, sacred to the Spirit of Lightning (Sng) and the Spirit of the Wind (Oya). rb A senior If priest who is initiated into Mysteries that are associated with protection from the Spirit of Infectious Disease (Babaluaiy). arbnrin Sister. araiye People of the Earth. arknrin Brother. rn If drum. rwa North, also refers to the Spirits of the North. ariye The people of the world. ar Play, the performance of a scared story. arewa Beauty. arigogo Hook.

rw North, also refers to Spirits of the North. ariwo Hook, noise depending on context. ariwowo Hook. aro Sadness. ar Indigo dye used to color cloth. aro Plant used in If for protection from death (Crossopoteryx Febrifuga), disabled person sacred to the Spirit of the King of White Cloth (Obtl). arn Worm. Ar oni Spirit of the forest, elemental spirit with the body of a human and the head of a dog. Aronimoja Elemental spirit of the forest. arn ro Hernia. arso Material used to wrap around the body as a dress, frequently used when dancing for the Forces in Nature. arugbo Old person. Arku Spirit who transforms and elevates the spirit of the ancestors. rn Illness or disease. arn ara Illness of the body. arn eegun Illness of the bones. arn j Illness of the blood. asn Afternoon. saro Meditation. ss Hexing. asje Food prepared as medicine. s Custom, tradition.

asaj Group leader. se Spiritual Power, that which brings dynamic force into Being in the Universe, the word is also used at the end of prayers meaning: "May it be so." The phrase is intended to be an invocation rather than a request. s Menstruation. sed One of the Prophet rnml first two students, term also used to identify a senior priest with a communal society of If elders. shind The expected reincarnation of a revered elder. asej Excess. aseni Unknown enemy. sik Time. Asin - mo - l'gb - ynj Praise name for the Spirit of Infectious Disease (Babaluaiy), meaning: "The Mystery of Power that Comes from Eating the Yam." asri Mystery, secret depending on context. sse Mistake. asiwr Person suffering from mental illness. Asgn One who worships the Spirit of Iron (gn). aso Cloth, clothing frequently used in reference to clothing that has religious significance. aso - boj Viel used to cover the face of mediums in possession with the Spirit of Forces in Nature (Ors). aso pupa Red cloth, taboo for traditional If /rs burial rituals. A - sr - day Praise name for the Spirit of Destiny (rnml), meaning: "One Who Makes Things Prosper." sotl Prophecy, one who predicts the future based on an assessment of current circumstances.

asoy Explaining the inner essence or true meaning of a thing or an event, the purpose of If divination is to discover the true meaning of circumstances. ata Pepper. tak Opposition. Ata - mts Praise name for the Spirit of the Tracker (ss), meaning: "The sharp shooter." atana Crossroads, home of the Divine Messenger (s). ataparako Thumb. atprnynk Halting, with caution. atare Hot peppers used in food and medicine, in If it is eaten to prepare the mouth for certain types of prayers. tr Top of the head, also refers to the power center at the top of the head. tt Real, honest, genuine depending on context. te Mat, the mat is used to establish sacred space for ritual and divination. at To spread. athnk Premature death. te - k Rafia mat used for sacred space during divination. t - k - en Reference to all of Creation, meaning: " the mat that can't be rolled up." atlwo Palm of the hand. At rs Circular tray or mat used in cowrie shell divination. terdr Ancestor who suffered in slavery. tw Palm of the open hand, also used to mean avert.

ati And, with, to depending on context. tij Some time ago, in the past. titn Refuse heap, sacred to the power of transformation that is related to some aspects of the Divine Messenger (s). Ato Female priestess in ancestral reverence societies (Egngn). t Seamen. Atokn Leader of a society for ancestor reverence. Atnlrgn Praise name for the Spirit of Iron (gn), meaning: "Hefty Hunter." atori Stick (Glyphaea laterifiora ) that is sacred to the Spirit of the Ancestors (Egn), ats Gonorrhoea. tnbi Born again, the If word used for physical reincarnation. tnw Rebirth of character, the If word used for reincarnation of the soul. wlwl Praise name for the Spirit of Iron (gn), meaning: "Rugged and Rough Spirit." awo Mystery, diviner. aw Guinea hen. wo Dish, plate. awo'de The Mystery of Hunting. awomi Invoking Spirits through the use of water. aw Color. awo Skin, hide. won Them, they, group. Awoni The society of If priests who divine for the King (ni) of Il If.

wny rs Praise name for the Spirit of Iron (gn), meaning: "The enraged Spirit." wj Top of the head, refers to the power center at the crown of the skull. awuje Butter beans (Phaseolus lunatus ) wjo Meeting, gathering. awun Miser. awure Unassuming. aya Wife. Ayaba The wife of the queen. yn Tree sacred to the Spirit of Lightning (Sng). ayani explanation. ynm Destiny, the If belief that each person comes to the world having an agreement with Creation regarding the fate that is to be experienced during a given life time. ynm - pn Destiny, the If belief that each person comes to the World having an agreement with Creation regarding the fate which is to be experienced during a given life time. Aynrbt - awo - l - oj Praise name for the Divine Messenger (s), aye Room. ay World. Aylal The collective Spirit of Ancestral Mothers. ayebo Hen. ayo Joy.

ba To join, should depending on context. b To meet, to find, against. Sometimes used as a shorten version of b which means should. b To see. Bb Something that is great. Bl Chief of a village, usually of lesser status than an Oba which is an initiated position that is granted directly by the ni of Il If. Bb Guinea corn. Baba Father, used to describe any male adult old enough to have children. In Yorb culture it is impolite to call someone who is older by their proper name, instead they are called by their title or called by the word that indicates their relative age within the extended family. Babalwo Father of the Secrets, male initiate into the Mysteries of If. The term Babalwo is generally reserved for the elder If initiates in a given community, especially those who are adept at If divination. Babagba Older man, usually a grandfather. Babal'rs Father of the Forces in Nature (rs), male initiate into the Mysteries of Nature (Awo rs). Babaluiy Spirit of the Surface of the Earth, this is the Spirit associated with those infectious diseases that are carried by the wind across the surface of the earth during dry and hot times of the year. Babansnk Chief priest responsible for leading a funeral. Babanl Grandfather, meaning father of the light or wisdom. Babatnde Name given to a child who carries the ancestral spirit of their father, meaning:"Father Returns." bdmajm To make a sacred oath or agreement with another person or group of people.

bde To hunt in a group. bfohn To talk with someone. bj To fight. bj To spoil, to eat with someone, to associate with someone, or to talk with someone depending on context bala Spotted. blag To come to maturity, to be identified as an adult. bal To touch the ground in front of an elder as a sign of respect. Balgun The chief of the society of warriors. bambi Guide me, or give birth, may refer to spiritual re-birth. Bmbi Praise name for the Spirit of Lightning (Sng), meaning: "Spiritually reborn." bmbm Full. banj To be sad. Ba-ohun-mimo-je To make profane use of sacred objects. Bara A Praise name for the Divine Messenger (s), a reference to the Divine Messenger's strength. barapetu Great, a person of distinction. bt Drum sacred to Spirit of Lightning (Sng) and to the ancestors (Egngun). bta Foot. bt Shoe. bawo ni? How are you? byi Thus, like this. b To beg for something, to supplicate Spirit.

b To cut, to cut off. bebe An important accomplishment. bb To implore. bb-oj Eyebrow, eyelid, area around the eye. b So, like. bk It is not so, no. bni It is so, yes. beleje Slender. Bmb Drum used in Hausa religious ceremonies. be - ni This is. bere To ask. Br A term of dignity and respect used in reference to elder woman. bere To bend down. brs To begin. b Placed at the end of a sentence to indicate that a question is doubtful. bikita Show. bn To be angry, to be mad. biribiri Very dark. bisha - bisha The movements of a dancer. b To cover. bo To enter. b To arrive. b To escape. boro Narrow

brknn Gentleman, well behaved person. by - by Perhaps, maybe. bu Dip. b To cut. bur Bad, negative, destructive. burk Place of extreme confusion, describes a condition of consciousness in which there is little hope for spiritual transformation, also means very bad, very negative, very destructive.