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37

Interference of Light Waves


CHAPTER OUTLINE
37.1 37.2 37.3 Conditions for Interference Youngs Double-Slit Experiment Intensity Distribution of the Double-Slit Interference Pattern Phasor Addition of Waves Change of Phase Due to Reflection Interference in Thin Films The Michelson Interferometer

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
Q37.1 (a) Two waves interfere constructively if their path difference is zero, or an integral multiple of the wavelength, according to = m , with m = 0 , 1, 2 , 3 , . Two waves interfere destructively if their path difference is a half wavelength, or an odd multiple of 1 , described by = m + , with m = 0 , 1, 2 , 3 , . 2 2

37.4 37.5 37.6 37.7

(b)

FG H

IJ K

Q37.2

The light from the flashlights consists of many different wavelengths (thats why its white) with random time differences between the light waves. There is no coherence between the two sources. The light from the two flashlights does not maintain a constant phase relationship over time. These three equivalent statements mean no possibility of an interference pattern.

Q37.3

Underwater, the wavelength of the light would decrease, water =

air . Since the positions of light n water and dark bands are proportional to , (according to Equations 37.2 and 37.3), the underwater fringe separations will decrease.
Every color produces its own pattern, with a spacing between the maxima that is characteristic of the wavelength. With several colors, the patterns are superimposed and it can be difficult to pick out a single maximum. Using monochromatic light can eliminate this problem. The threads that are woven together to make the cloth have small meshes between them. These bits of space act as pinholes through which the light diffracts. Since the cloth is a grid of such pinholes, an interference pattern is formed, as when you look through a diffraction grating.

Q37.4

Q37.5

Q37.6

If the oil film is brightest where it is thinnest, then n air < n oil < n water . With this condition, light reflecting from both the top and the bottom surface of the oil film will undergo phase reversal. Then these two beams will be in phase with each other where the film is very thin. This is the condition for constructive interference as the thickness of the oil film decreases toward zero.

381

382 Q37.7

Interference of Light Waves

As water evaporates from the soap bubble, the thickness of the bubble wall approaches zero. Since light reflecting from the front of the water surface is phase-shifted 180 and light reflecting from the back of the soap film is phase-shifted 0, the reflected light meets the conditions for a minimum. Thus the soap film appears black, as in the illustration accompanying textbook Example 37.5, Interference in a Wedge-Shaped Film. If the film is more than a few wavelengths thick, the interference fringes are so close together that you cannot resolve them. If R is large, light reflecting from the lower surface of the lens can interfere with light reflecting from the upper surface of the flat. The latter undergoes phase reversal on reflection while the former does not. Where there is negligible distance between the surfaces, at the center of the pattern you will see a dark spot because of the destructive interference associated with the 180 phase shift. Colored rings surround the dark spot. If the lens is a perfect sphere the rings are perfect circles. Distorted rings reveal bumps or hollows on the fine scale of the wavelength of visible light. A camera lens will have more than one element, to correct (at least) for chromatic aberration. It will have several surfaces, each of which would reflect some fraction of the incident light. To maximize light throughput the surfaces need antireflective coatings. The coating thickness is chosen to produce destructive interference for reflected light of some wavelength. To do Youngs double-slit interference experiment with light from an ordinary source, you must first pass the light through a prism or diffraction grating to disperse different colors into different directions. With a single narrow slit you select a single color and make that light diffract to cover both of the slits for the interference experiment. Thus you may have trouble lining things up and you will generally have low light power reaching the screen. The laser light is already monochromatic and coherent across the width of the beam. Suppose the coating is intermediate in index of refraction between vacuum and the glass. When the coating is very thin, light reflected from its top and bottom surfaces will interfere constructively, so you see the surface white and brighter. As the thickness reaches one quarter of the wavelength of violet light in the coating, destructive interference for violet will make the surface look red or perhaps orange. Next to interfere destructively are blue, green, yellow, orange, and red, making the surface look red, purple, and then blue. As the coating gets still thicker, we can get constructive interference for violet and then for other colors in spectral order. Still thicker coating will give constructive and destructive interference for several visible wavelengths, so the reflected light will start to look white again.

Q37.8 Q37.9

Q37.10

Q37.11

Q37.12

Q37.13

. The 2 ray that reflects through the film undergoes phase reversal both at the bottom and at the top surface. Then this ray should also travel an extra distance of . Since this ray passes through two extra 2 thicknesses of film, the thickness should be . This is different from the condition for destructive 4 interference of light reflected from the film, but it is the same as the condition for constructive interference of reflected light. The energy of the extra reflected light is energy diverted from light otherwise transmitted.
destructive interference of the two transmitted beams is that the waves be out of phase by

Assume the film is higher in refractive index than the medium on both sides of it. The condition for

Chapter 37

383

Q37.14

The metal body of the airplane is reflecting radio waves broadcast by the television station. The reflected wave that your antenna receives has traveled an extra distance compared to the stronger signal that came straight from the transmitter tower. You receive it with a short time delay. On the television screen you see a faint image offset to the side.

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
Section 37.1 Section 37.2 Conditions for Interference Youngs Double-Slit Experiment
9 5.00 L 632.8 10 = m = 1.58 cm 4 d 2.00 10

P37.1

y bright =

ja f

P37.2

y bright =

L m d =

For m = 1 , P37.3

3.40 10 3 m 5.00 10 4 m yd = = 515 nm 3.30 m L

je

Note, with the conditions given, the small angle approximation does not work well. That is, sin , tan , and are significantly different. We treat the interference as a Fraunhofer pattern. (a) At the m = 2 maximum, tan = 400 m = 0.400 1 000 m
300 m

400 m 1 000 m

= 21.8
so (b)

300 m sin 21.8 d sin = = 55.7 m . 2 m

FIG. P37.3

The next minimum encountered is the m = 2 minimum; and at that point, which becomes or and so d sin = m + d sin = sin = 5 2

FG H

1 2

IJ K

5 5 55.7 m = = 0.464 2 d 2 300 m

FG H

IJ K

= 27.7
y = 1 000 m tan 27.7 = 524 m .

Therefore, the car must travel an additional 124 m . If we considered Fresnel interference, we would more precisely find 1 550 2 + 1 000 2 250 2 + 1 000 2 = 55.2 m and (b) 123 m. (a) = 2

FH

IK

384 P37.4

Interference of Light Waves

=
(a) (b) (c)

v 354 m s = = 0.177 m f 2 000 s 1

a0.300 mf sin = 1a0.177 mf so d sin 36.2 = 1b0.030 0 mg d sin = m e1.00 10 mj sin 36.2 = a1f
d sin = m so
6

and and so

= 36.2
d = 5.08 cm

= 590 nm

f=

3.00 10 8 m s 5.90 10 7 m

= 508 THz

P37.5

In the equation The first minimum is described by and the tenth by m = 9 : Also, but for small , Thus, d= 9.5 5 890 10 10 m 2.00 m 7.26 10
3

d sin = m +

FG H

1 . 2

IJ K

y L d

m=0
sin = tan =

1 9+ . 2 d
y L

FG H

IJ K

Source

sin tan . d= 9.5 9.5 L = sin y m = 1.54 mm . FIG. P37.5

ja

f = 1.54 10

P37.6

340 m s = 0.170 m 2 000 Hz d sin = m : gives gives gives gives

Maxima are at

m=0 m=1 m=2 m=3


Minima are at

= 0
sin = sin =

0.170 m = d 0.350 m
2 = 0.971 d

= 29.1 = 76.3
No solution.

d sin = m + gives gives gives

FG H

1 : 2 sin = sin =

IJ K

sin = 1. 46

m=0 m=1 m=2

2d

= 0.243

= 14.1 = 46.8
No solution.

3 = 0.729 2d

sin = 1.21

So we have maxima at 0 , 29.1 , and 76.3 ; minima at 14.1 and 46.8 .

Chapter 37

385

P37.7

(a)

For the bright fringe, y bright = y= m L where m = 1 d


9

y L = 1.20 m
3

e546.1 10

m 1.20 m
3

ja

0. 250 10

f = 2.62 10 FG H

m = 2.62 mm . Source d = 0.250 m

(b)

For the dark bands, y dark = y 2 y1

IJ K L LF 1 I F 1 I O L = 1 + J G0 + JP = a1f G M 2K H 2KQ d d NH e546.1 10 mja1.20 mf =


9

L 1 ; m = 0 , 1, 2 , 3 , m+ 2 d

bright bright bright dark dark dark

0.250 10 3 m

y = 2.62 mm .

y1 y2 FIG. P37.7

P37.8

Taking m = 0 and y = 0.200 mm in Equation 37.6 gives L 2dy = 2 0.400 10 3 m 0.200 10 3 m 442 10
9

je

L 36.2 cm

j = 0.362 m

Bright 0.2 mm 0.2 mm L Dark Bright Dark Bright

Geometric optics incorrectly predicts bright regions opposite the slits and darkness in between. But, as this example shows, interference can produce just the opposite. P37.9 Location of A = central maximum, Location of B = first minimum. So, Thus, P37.10 At 30.0 , y = y min y max = d=

FIG. P37.7

L 2 20.0 m

FG IJ H K a3.00 mfa150 mf = =
40.0 m

1 1 L L 0+ 0= = 20.0 m . 2 2 d d 11.3 m .

d sin = m
4

e3.20 10

m sin 30.0 = m 500 10 9 m

so

m = 320

There are 320 maxima to the right, 320 to the left, and one for m = 0 straight ahead. There are 641 maxima .

386 *P37.11

Interference of Light Waves

Observe that the pilot must not only home in on the airport, but must be headed in the right direction when she arrives at the end of the runway. (a) (b)

8 c 3 10 m s = = 10.0 m f 30 10 6 s 1

The first side maximum is at an angle given by d sin = 1 .

af

= 14.5 a40 mf sin = 10 m y = L tan = b 2 000 mg tan 14.5 = 516 m


(c)

tan =

y L

The signal of 10-m wavelength in parts (a) and (b) would show maxima at 0, 14.5, 30.0, 48.6, and 90. A signal of wavelength 11.23-m would show maxima at 0, 16.3, 34.2, and 57.3. The only value in common is 0. If 1 and 2 were related by a ratio of small integers n (a just musical consonance!) in 1 = 1 , then the equations d sin = n 2 1 and d sin = n1 2 2 n2 would both be satisfied for the same nonzero angle. The pilot could come flying in with that inappropriate bearing, and run off the runway immediately after touchdown. d y = m L y= m L d

*P37.12

In d sin = m

9 dy m dL 1 633 10 m = = 3 m s = 6.33 mm s dt d dt 0.3 10 3 m

e e

P37.13

d sin =

FG y IJ H LK
1.20 10 je
4

(a)

5.00 10 7 m 2

m sin 0.500 = 13.2 rad 10 m I jFGH 5.001.20 m J K=


3

j a

(b)

e5.00 10

e1.20 10 mj
2d sin

6.28 rad

(c)

If = 0.333 rad =

= sin 1

F I = sin GH 2 d JK FG IJ = sin H 4d K

LM e5.00 10 mja0.333 radf OP MN 2 e1.20 10 mj PQ


7 4 7

= 1.27 10 2 deg . 4

(d)

If d sin =

= sin 1

LM 5 10 m OP MN 4e1.20 10 mj PQ
4

= 5.97 10 2 deg .

Chapter 37

387

P37.14

The path difference between rays 1 and 2 is:

= d sin 1 d sin 2 .

For constructive interference, this path difference must be equal to an integral number of wavelengths: d sin 1 d sin 2 = m , or d sin 1 sin 2 = m . P37.15 (a) The path difference = d sin and when L >> y

1.80 10 2 m 1.50 10 4 m yd = = 1.93 10 6 m = 1.93 m . 1.40 m L

je

(b) (c)

1.93 10 6 m = = 3.00 , or = 3.00 6.43 10 7 m


Point P will be a maximum since the path difference is an integer multiple of the wavelength.

Section 37.3 P37.16 (a)

Intensity Distribution of the Double-Slit Interference Pattern I I max = cos 2

FG IJ H 2K
fa

(Equation 37.11)

Therefore,

= 2 cos 1

I I max

= 2 cos 1 0.640 = 1.29 rad .

(b)

486 nm 1.29 rad = = 99.8 nm 2 2

P37.17

I av = I max cos 2 For small , and

FG d sin IJ H K
sin = y L I av = 0.750 I max y= y=

L cos 1 d

e6.00 10 ja1.20 mf cos e 2.50 10 mj


7 3

I av I max

0.750 I max = 48.0 m I max

P37.18

I = I max cos 2 I I max


2

FG yd IJ H L K L e6.00 10 mje1.80 10 mj OP = cos M MN e656.3 10 mja0.800 mf PQ =


3 4 9

0.968

388 P37.19

Interference of Light Waves

(a)

From Equation 37.8,

2 d

sin =

2 d

y y2 + D2

3 3 2 yd 2 0.850 10 m 2.50 10 m = = 7.95 rad D 600 10 9 m 2.80 m

je ja

(b)

I I max I I max

cos 2 d sin cos


2

= cos 2

cos m b d g sin F 7.95 rad IJ = 0.453 = cos G H 2 K 2


max 2 2

cos 2 2

b g

P37.20

(a)

The resultant amplitude is Er = E0 sin t + E0 sin t + + E0 t + 2 ,

g b
2

where

b g E = E bsin t ge1 + cos + 2 cos 1j + E bcos t gbsin + 2 sin cos g E = E b1 + 2 cos gbsin t cos + cos t sin g = E b1 + 2 cos g sinb t + g F 1I Then the intensity is I E = E b1 + 2 cos g G J H 2K
Er = E0 sin t + sin t cos + cos t sin + sin t cos 2 + cos t sin 2
r r 0 0 0 0 2 r 2 0 2

d sin .

where the time average of

sin 2 t + is

1 . 2

2 From one slit alone we would get intensity I max E0

I = I max (b)

LM1 + 2 cosFG 2 d sin IJ OP H KQ N

FG 1 IJ so H 2K

Look at the N = 3 graph in Figure 37.14. Minimum intensity is zero, attained where 1 cos = . One relative maximum occurs at cos = 1.00 , where I = I max . 2 The larger local maximum happens where cos = +1.00 , giving I = 9.00 I 0 . The ratio of intensities at primary versus secondary maxima is 9.00 .

Chapter 37

389

Section 37.4 P37.21 (a)

Phasor Addition of Waves We can use sin A + sin B = 2 sin to be E1 + E2

FG A + B IJ cosFG A B IJ to find the sum of the two sine functions H 2 2K H 2 2K

E1 + E2 = 24.0 kN C sin 15 x 4.5t + 35.0 cos 35.0

f b g a = b19.7 kN C g sina15 x 4.5t + 35.0f

Thus, the total wave has amplitude 19.7 kN C and has a constant phase difference of

35.0 from the first wave.


(b) In units of kN/C, the resultant phasor is E R = E 1 + E 2 = 12.0 i + 12.0 cos 70.0 i + 12.0 sin 70.0 j = 16.1 i + 11.3 j ER =
2 2 1

kx - t
ER E2

e j e .3 I a16.1f + a11.3f at tan FGH 11 J= 16.1 K

19.7 kN C at 35.0

E1

70.0
x

FIG. P37.21(b) (c) E R = 12.0 cos 70.0 i + 12.0 sin 70.0 j +15.5 cos 80.0 i 15.5 sin 80.0 j +17.0 cos 160 i + 17.0 sin 160 j E R = 9.18 i + 1.83 j = 9.36 kN C at 169 The wave function of the total wave is EP = 9.36 kN C sin 15 x 4.5t + 169 .
ER E3 y E1 E2 x

kx - t

g a

FIG. P37.21(c)

P37.22

(a)

E R = E0 i + i cos 20.0+ j sin 20.0 + i cos 40.0+ j sin 40.0

j e

y ER E2 E1

E R = E0 2.71i + 0.985 j = 2.88E0 at 20.0 = 2.88E0 at 0.349 rad

E3 x

EP = 2.88E0 sin t + 0.349

g j e j

FIG. P37.22(a) (b) E R = E0 i + i cos 60.0+ j sin 60.0 + i cos 120+ j sin 120 E R = E0 1.00 i + 1.73 j = 2.00E0 at 60.0 = 2.00E0 at EP = 2.00E0 sin t +

y ER

E3 E2 E1 x

rad 3

FG H

IJ K

FIG. P37.22(b) continued on next page

390

Interference of Light Waves

(c)

E R = E0 i + i cos 120+ j sin 120 + i cos 240+ j sin 240 E R = E0 0 i + 0 j = 0 EP = 0

j e

y E3 E2 E1 x

FIG. P37.22(c) (d) E R = E0 i + i cos

LM FG N H

3 3 + i cos 3 + j sin 3 + j sin 2 2

IJ e K

jOPQ

y E3 E2 E1 x

3 rad E R = E0 0 i 1.00 j = E0 at 270 = E0 at 2 3 EP = E0 sin t + 2

FG H

IJ K

FIG. P37.22(d)
y ER 8.00

P37.23

E R = 6.00 i + 8.00 j =

a6.00f + a8.00f
2

at tan 1

FG 8.00 IJ H 6.00 K

E R = 10.0 at 53.1 = 10.0 at 0.927 rad EP = 10.0 sin 100 t + 0.927

6.00

2
x

FIG. P37.23 P37.24 If E1 = E01 sin t and E2 = E02 sin t + , then by phasor addition, the amplitude of E is E0 =

y E0

bE

01

+ E02 cos

g + bE
2

02

sin

2 2 + 2E01 E02 cos + E02 E01

E 02

E sin and the phase angle is found from sin = 02 . E0 P37.25 E R = 12.0 i + 18.0 cos 60.0 i + 18.0 sin 60.0 j E R = 21.0 i + 15.6 j = 26.2 at 36.6 ER = 26.2 sin t + 36.6

E 01

FIG. P37.24
y ER 18.0

12.0

60.0
x

FIG. P37.25 P37.26 Constructive interference occurs where m = 0 , 1, 2 , 3 , , for

FG 2 x 2 ft + IJ FG 2 x H 6K H bx x g + 1 1 = m
1 1 2

2 ft +

= 2 m 8

IJ K

2 x 1 x 2

x1 x 2

12

16

g + FG IJ = 2 m H 6 8K F 1I = Gm J m = 0 , 1, 2 , 3 , H 48 K

Chapter 37

391

P37.27

See the figure to the right:

/2 /2 t
FIG. P37.27

. 2

/2

P37.28

2 2 2 ER = E1 + E2 2E1 E2 cos

where

= 180 .
E1

ER

Since

I E2
I R = I 1 + I 2 + 2 I 1 I 2 cos .

E2 = /4

FIG. P37.28 P37.29 360 where N defines the N number of coherent sources. Then, Take = ER =
y The N = 6 case

m =1

E0 sinb t + m g = 0 .
60.0

360 N

360 6

= 60. 0

In essence, the set of N electric field components complete a full circle and return to zero.

FIG. P37.29

Section 37.5 Section 37.6 P37.30

Change of Phase Due to Reflection Interference in Thin Films

Light reflecting from the first surface suffers phase reversal. Light reflecting from the second surface does not, but passes twice through the thickness t of the film. So, for constructive interference, we require

n + 2t = n 2
where Then

n =
2t =

is the wavelength in the material. n n = 2 2n

= 4nt = 4 1.33 115 nm = 612 nm .

a fa

392 P37.31

Interference of Light Waves

(a)

The light reflected from the top of the oil film undergoes phase reversal. Since 1.45 > 1.33 , the light reflected from the bottom undergoes no reversal. For constructive interference of reflected light, we then have 2nt = m + or

FG H

1 2

IJ K

m =

2 1.45 280 nm 2nt . = m+ 1 2 m+ 1 2

b g

a fa

b g

FIG. P37.31

Substituting for m gives:

m=0 , m=1, m=2,

0 = 1 620 nm (infrared) 1 = 541 nm (green) 2 = 325 nm (ultraviolet).

Both infrared and ultraviolet light are invisible to the human eye, so the dominant color in reflected light is green . (b) The dominant wavelengths in the transmitted light are those that produce destructive interference in the reflected light. The condition for destructive interference upon reflection is 2nt = m or 2nt 812 nm = . m m

m =

Substituting for m gives:

m=1, m=2, m=3 ,

1 = 812 nm (near infrared) 2 = 406 nm (violet) 3 = 271 nm (ultraviolet).

Of these, the only wavelength visible to the human eye (and hence the dominate wavelength observed in the transmitted light) is 406 nm. Thus, the dominant color in the transmitted light is violet . P37.32 Since 1 < 1.25 < 1.33 , light reflected both from the top and from the bottom surface of the oil suffers phase reversal. For constructive interference we require and for destructive interference, Then Therefore, 2t = 2t = m cons n m + 1 2 des n

b g f

cons 1 640 nm =1+ = = 1.25 and m = 2 . 2m 512 nm dest


t= 2 640 nm = 512 nm . 2 1.25

a f

Chapter 37

393

P37.33

Treating the anti-reflectance coating like a camera-lens coating, 2t = m + Let m = 0 : t=

FG H

1 . 2 n

IJ K

4n

3.00 cm = 0.500 cm . 4 1.50

a f

This anti-reflectance coating could be easily countered by changing the wavelength of the radarto 1.50 cmnow creating maximum reflection! P37.34 2nt = m + Minimum P37.35

FG H

1 2

IJ K

so

FG 1 IJ H 2 K 2n F 1 I a500 nmf = t=G J H 2 K 2a1.30f


t= m+

96.2 nm .

Since the light undergoes a 180 phase change at each surface of the film, the condition for 2nt . The film thickness is constructive interference is 2nt = m , or = m t = 1.00 10 5 cm = 1.00 10 7 m = 100 nm . Therefore, the wavelengths intensified in the reflected light are

2 1.38 100 nm 276 nm where m = 1, 2 , 3 , = m m

a fa

or 1 = 276 nm , 2 = 138 nm , . . . . All reflection maxima are in the ultraviolet and beyond.

No visible wavelengths are intensified.


P37.36 (a) For maximum transmission, we want destructive interference in the light reflected from the front and back surfaces of the film. If the surrounding glass has refractive index greater than 1.378, light reflected from the front surface suffers no phase reversal and light reflected from the back does undergo phase reversal. This effect by itself would produce destructive interference, so we want the distance down and back to be one whole wavelength in the film: 2t = t=

. n

2n

656.3 nm = 238 nm 2 1.378

(b) (c)

The filter will expand. As t increases in 2nt = , so does increase . Destructive interference for reflected light happens also for in 2nt = 2 , or

= 1.378 238 nm = 328 nm

anear ultravioletf .

P37.37

If the path length difference = , the transmitted light will be bright. Since = 2d = , d min =

580 nm = = 290 nm . 2 2

394 P37.38

Interference of Light Waves

The condition for bright fringes is 2t +

=m 2n n

m = 1, 2 , 3 , .

From the sketch, observe that t = R 1 cos R 1 1 +

f FGH

2 R r = 2 2 R

I JK

FG IJ H K

r2 . 2R r 1 = m . R 2 n
2

The condition for a bright fringe becomes Thus, for fixed m and , Therefore, n liquid r f2 = n air ri2 and P37.39 For destructive interference in the air, 2 t = m .

FG H

IJ K

FIG. P37.38

nr 2 = constant .
n liquid = 1.00 .50 cmf a f aa1 1.31 cmf
2 2

= 1.31 .

For 30 dark fringes, including the one where the plates meet, t= 29 600 nm = 8.70 10 6 m . 2 t 8.70 m = = 4.35 m . 2 2

Therefore, the radius of the wire is r=

FIG. P37.39 P37.40 For total darkness, we want destructive interference for reflected light for both 400 nm and 600 nm. With phase reversal at just one reflecting surface, the condition for destructive interference is 2n air t = m

m = 0 , 1, 2 , .

The least common multiple of these two wavelengths is 1 200 nm, so we get no reflected light at 2 1.00 t = 3 400 nm = 2 600 nm = 1 200 nm , so t = 600 nm at this second dark fringe.

a f a

f a

By similar triangles, or the distance from the contact point is

600 nm 0.050 0 mm = , x 10.0 cm x = 600 10 9 m

0.100 m I J= jFGH 5.00 10 m K


5

1.20 mm .

Chapter 37

395

Section 37.7 P37.41

The Michelson Interferometer

When the mirror on one arm is displaced by , the path difference changes by 2 . A shift resulting in the reversal between dark and bright fringes requires a path length change of one-half m , where in this case, m = 250 . wavelength. Therefore, 2 = 2 =m 250 6.328 10 7 m = = 39.6 m 4 4

a fe e

P37.42

Distance = 2 3.82 10 4 m = 1 700 The light is blue .

= 4.49 10 7 m = 449 nm

P37.43

Counting light going both directions, the number of wavelengths originally in the cylinder is 2L 2L 2nL = m1 = . It changes to m 2 = as the cylinder is filled with gas. If N is the number of bright n 2L fringes passing, N = m 2 m1 = n 1 , or the index of refraction of the gas is

a f

n = 1+

N 2L

Additional Problems *P37.44 (a) (b) Where fringes of the two colors coincide we have d sin = m = m , requiring

m . = m

= 430 nm , = 510 nm
m 430 nm 43 = = , which cannot be reduced any further. Then m = 51, m = 43 . m 510 nm 51

m
ym P37.45

F m IJ = sin LM a51fe430 10 mj OP = 61.3 = sin G HdK MN 0.025 10 m PQ = L tan = a1.5 mf tan 61.3 = 2.74 m
9 1 1 3 m

The wavelength is =

c 3.00 10 8 m s = = 5.00 m. f 60.0 10 6 s 1

Along the line AB the two traveling waves going in opposite directions add to give a standing wave. The two transmitters are exactly 2.00 wavelengths apart and the signal from B, when it arrives at A, will always be in phase with transmitter B. Since B is 180 out of phase with A, the two signals always interfere destructively at the position of A. The first antinode (point of constructive interference) is located at distance

5.00 m = = 1.25 m from the node at A. 4 4

396 *P37.46

Interference of Light Waves

Along the line of length d joining the source, two identical waves moving in opposite directions add to give a standing wave. An d antinode is halfway between the sources. If > , there is space for 2 2 d two more antinodes for a total of three. If > , there will be at least 2 d five antinodes, and so on. To repeat, if > 0 , the number of antinodes d > 1, the number of antinodes is 3 or more. If > 2 , the number of antinodes is 5 or more. In general, is 1 or more. If d

4
FIG. P37.46

The number of antinodes is 1 plus 2 times the greatest integer less than or equal to If

d .

d d < , there will be no nodes. If > , there will be space for at least two nodes, as shown in the 2 4 2 4 d 3 d 5 picture. If > , there will be at least four nodes. If > six or more nodes will fit in, and so on. 2 4 2 4 To repeat, if 2d < the number of nodes is 0. If 2d > the number of nodes is 2 or more. If 2d > 3 d 1 + > 1, the number of nodes is 4 or more. If 2d > 5 the number of nodes is 6 or more. Again, if 2 d 1 d 1 the number of nodes is at least 2. If + > 2 , the number of nodes is at least 4. If + > 3 , the 2 2 number of nodes is at least 6. In general,

FG H

IJ K

FG H

FG H

IJ K

IJ K

the number of nodes is 2 times the greatest nonzero integer less than

FG d + 1 IJ . H 2K

Next, we enumerate the zones of constructive interference. They are described by d sin = m , m = 0 , 1, 2 , with counted as positive both left and right of the maximum at = 0 in the center. d The number of side maxima on each side is the greatest integer satisfying sin 1, d1 m , m . So the total number of bright fringes is one plus 2 times the greatest integer less than or equal to It is equal to the number of antinodes on the line joining the sources. d .

The interference minima are to the left and right at angles described by d sin = m + m = 0 , 1, 2 , . With sin < 1, d1 > m max +

1 d 1 d 1 , m max < or m max + 1 < + . Let n = 1, 2 , 3 , . 2 2 2 d 1 Then the number of side minima is the greatest integer n less than + . Counting both left and 2 d 1 right, the number of dark fringes is two times the greatest positive integer less than + . It is 2 equal to the number of nodes in the standing wave between the sources.

FG H

IJ K

FG H

1 , 2

IJ K

FG H

IJ K

Chapter 37

397

P37.47

My middle finger has width d = 2 cm . (a) Two adjacent directions of constructive interference for 600-nm light are described by d sin = m

0 = 0

e2 10

m sin 1 = 1 6 10 7 m

Thus, and (b) Choose

1 = 2 10 3 degree
1 0 ~ 10 3 degree . 1 = 20

e2 10

m sin 20 = 1

af

= 7 mm
Millimeter waves are microwaves . f= P37.48 c : f= 3 10 8 m s 7 10 3 m ~ 10 11 Hz

If the center point on the screen is to be a dark spot rather than bright, passage through the plastic must delay the light by one-half wavelength. Calling the thickness of the plastic t. t

P37.49

t nt 1 = = 2 n

or

t=

2 n 1

a f

where n is the index of refraction for the plastic.

No phase shift upon reflection from the upper surface (glass to air) of the film, but there will be a shift of

due to the reflection at the lower surface of the film (air to metal). The total phase 2 difference in the two reflected beams is
then

= 2nt +

. 2 = m . 2 1 =m 2 2 2 4

For constructive interference, = m or 2 1.00 t +

a f FG H

Thus, the film thickness for the m th order bright fringe is tm = m

IJ K

FG IJ H K

and the thickness for the m 1 bright fringe is: t m 1 = m 1

IJ . fFGH 2K 4
. 2

Therefore, the change in thickness required to go from one bright fringe to the next is t = t m t m 1 = continued on next page

398

Interference of Light Waves

To go through 200 bright fringes, the change in thickness of the air film must be: 200

FG IJ = 100 . H 2K

Thus, the increase in the length of the rod is L = 100 = 100 5.00 10 7 m = 5.00 10 5 m . From we have: P37.50 L = Lit

L 5.00 10 5 m = = 20.0 10 6 C 1 . Li T 0.100 m 25.0 C

fa

Since 1 < 1.25 < 1.34 , light reflected from top and bottom surfaces of the oil undergoes phase reversal. The path difference is then 2t, which must be equal to m n = m n

for maximum reflection, with m = 1 for the given first-order condition and n = 1.25 . So t= m 1 500 nm = = 200 nm . 2n 2 1.25

a f
m

The volume we assume to be constant: A= 1.00 m3 200 10

1.00 m3 = 200 nm A

= 5.00 10 6 m 2 = 5.00 km 2 .

P37.51

One radio wave reaches the receiver R directly from the distant source at an angle above the horizontal. The other wave undergoes phase reversal as it reflects from the water at P. Constructive interference first occurs for a path difference of d=

(1)

It is equally far from P to R as from P to R , the mirror image of the telescope. The angles in the figure are equal because they each form part of a right triangle with a shared angle at R . So the path difference is The wavelength is Substituting for d and in Equation (1), Solving for the angle , sin = FIG. P37.51

d = 2 20.0 m sin = 40.0 m sin .

8 c 3.00 10 m s = = 5.00 m . f 60.0 10 6 Hz

m . a40.0 mf sin = 5.00 2

5.00 m and = 3.58 . 80.0 m

Chapter 37

399

P37.52

-phase shift at the mirror. The 2 second slit is the mirror image of the source, 1.00 cm below the mirror plane. Modifying Equation 37.5,
double slit experiment if we remember the light undergoes a y dark
7 mL 1 5.00 10 m 100 m = = = 2.50 mm . d 2.00 10 2 m

For destructive interference, the path length must differ by m . We may treat this problem as a

ja

P37.53

a15.0 kmf + h = 30.175 km a15.0 kmf + h = 227.63


2 2 2 2

h = 1.62 km P37.54 For dark fringes, 2nt = m 84 500 nm . 2

FIG. P37.53

and at the edge of the wedge, t = When submerged in water, m= so 2 1.33 42 500 nm 500 nm

2nt = m

a fa fa

f
FIG. P37.54 I I max I I max

m + 1 = 113 dark fringes .

P37.55

From Equation 37.13, Let 2 equal the wavelength for which Then

= cos 2 I2

F yd I . GH L JK
= 0.640 .

I max
1

2 = yd I1 = 1 cos 1 L I max

yd L
cos

bI

I max

12

But

FG H

IJ K

12

= 600 nm cos 1 0.900 = 271 nm .

Substituting this value into the expression for 2 ,

2 =

271 nm cos
1

e0.640 j
12

= 421 nm .

Note that in this problem, cos 1

FG I IJ HI K
max

12

must be expressed in radians.

400 P37.56

Interference of Light Waves

2 where the factor n accounts for the shorter wavelength in the film. For constructive interference, we require 2 an b = m . 2 2 an b = 0 . The minimum thickness will be given by 2 nt = 2 an b = 2 2t tan 21.2 sin 30.0 2 cos 21. 2 590 nm 2 1.38 t = 115 nm = 2 tan 21.2 sin 30.0 t = 2.57t cos 21.2 2
2 an b

At entrance, 1.00 sin 30.0 = 1.38 sin 2 2 = 21.2 Call t the unknown thickness. Then t t cos 21.2 = a= a cos 21.2 c tan 21.2 = c = t tan 21.2 t b sin 1 = b = 2t tan 21.2 sin 30.0 2c The net shift for the second ray, including the phase reversal on reflection of the first, is

FIG. P37.56

FG H

IJ K

P37.57

2 where a and b are as shown in the ray diagram, n is the index of is due to phase reversal at the top refraction, and the term 2 surface. For constructive interference, = m where m has integer values. This condition becomes 1 2na b = m + (1) 2 t From the figures geometry, a = cos 2 t sin 2 c = a sin 2 = cos 2 2t sin 2 b = 2 c sin 1 = sin 1 cos 2 Also, from Snells law, sin 1 = n sin 2 .
The shift between the two reflected waves is = 2na b

FG H

IJ K

FIG. P37.57

Thus,

b=

2nt sin 2 2 . cos 2


2

With these results, the condition for constructive interference given in Equation (1) becomes: 2n

or

FG t IJ 2nt sin = 2nt e1 sin j = FG m + 1 IJ H 2K H cos K cos cos F 1I 2nt cos = G m + J . H 2K


2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Chapter 37

401

P37.58

(a)

Minimum: Maximum: for 1 > 2 , so Then

2nt = m 2 2nt = m +

FG m + 1 IJ < m H 2K
m = m 1 .

FG H

1 1 2

IJ K

for m = 0 , 1, 2 , for m = 0 , 1, 2 ,

2nt = m 2 = m

FG H

1 1 2

IJ K

2m 2 = 2m 1 1 so m=

1 2 1 2

(b)

m=

500 = 1.92 2 (wavelengths measured to 5 nm ) 2 500 370

Minimum:

Maximum:

a f a f 1I F 2nt = G m 1 + J = 1.5 H 2K 2a1.40ft = 1.5a500 nmf


2 1.40 t = 2 370 nm

2nt = m 2

t = 264 nm

t = 268 nm

Film thickness = 266 nm . P37.59 From the sketch, observe that x = h2 +


d x

FG d IJ H 2K

4h 2 + d 2 . 2

Including the phase reversal due to reflection from the ground, the total shift between the two waves is = 2 x d

. 2

d/ 2

FIG. P37.59 (a) For constructive interference, the total shift must be an integral number of wavelengths, or = m where m = 0 , 1, 2 , 3 , . Thus, 2x d = m +

FG H

1 2

IJ K

or

4x 2d . 2m + 1

For the longest wavelength, m = 0 , giving = 4x 2d = 2 4h 2 + d 2 2d .

(b)

For destructive interference, Thus,

= m

1 where m = 0 , 1, 2 , 3 , . 2 2x d = . or 2 x d = m m 4h 2 + d 2 d .

FG H

IJ K

For the longest wavelength, m = 1 giving = 2 x d =

402 P37.60

Interference of Light Waves

Bright fringes occur when and dark fringes occur when The thickness of the film at x is Therefore, x bright =

FG IJ H K FI 2t = G J m . H nK F hI t = G Jx . HK
2t =

1 m+ n 2

1 m+ 2 hn 2

FG H

IJ K

and x dark =

m . 2 hn

FIG. P37.60
L Thin film y' d

P37.61

Call t the thickness of the film. The central maximum corresponds to zero phase difference. Thus, the added distance r traveled by the light from the lower slit must introduce a phase difference equal to that introduced by the plastic film. The phase difference is

= 2

FG t IJ an 1f . H K
a a

Zero order m=0

Screen

The corresponding difference in path length r is

F I F t I F I r = G J = 2 G J an 1fG J = tan 1f . H 2 K H K H 2 K
a a

FIG. P37.61

Note that the wavelength of the light does not appear in this equation. In the figure, the two rays from the slits are essentially parallel. Thus the angle may be expressed as Eliminating r by substitution, P37.62 tan = r y = . d L

t n 1 L y t n 1 = gives y = . L d d

a f

a f

The shift between the waves reflecting from the top and bottom surfaces of the film at the point where the film has thickness t is

, with the factor of being due to a phase reversal 2 2 at one of the surfaces. = 2tn film +
For the dark rings (destructive interference), the total shift should 1 be = m + with m = 0 , 1, 2 , 3 , . This requires that 2 m t= . 2n film

FG H

IJ K

nfilm r

FIG. P37.62

To find t in terms of r and R, Since t is much smaller than R,

R2 = r 2 + R t

a f

so and

r 2 = 2 Rt + t 2 .
r 2 2 Rt = 2 R

t 2 << 2 Rt
m R . n film

FG m IJ . H 2n K
film

Thus, where m is an integer,

Chapter 37

403

P37.63

(a)

Constructive interference in the reflected light requires 2t = m + has m = 0 and the 55th has m = 54 , so at the edge of the lens t= 54.5 650 10 9 m 2

FG H

1 . The first bright ring 2

IJ K

j = 17.7 m .

Now from the geometry in Figure 37.18, the distance from the center of curvature down to the flat side of the lens is R 2 r 2 = R t or R 2 r 2 = R 2 2 Rt + t 2 5.00 10 2 m + 1.77 10 5 m r 2 + t2 = R= 2t 2 1.77 10 5 m

j e
2

= 70.6 m

(b) *P37.64

1 1 1 1 1 so f = 136 m = 0.520 = n1 70.6 m f R2 R 2

a fFGH

IJ K

FG H

IJ K

Light reflecting from the upper interface of the air layer suffers no phase change, while light reflecting from the lower interface is reversed 180. Then there is indeed a dark fringe at the outer circumference of the lens, and a dark fringe wherever the air thickness t satisfies 2t = m , m = 0 , 1 , 2 , . (a) At the central dark spot m = 50 and 50 = 25 589 10 9 m = 1.47 10 5 m . t0 = 2

t0

R=8m

(b)

In the right triangle,

FIG. P37.64

a8 mf
(c)

= r 2 + 8 m 1.47 10 5 m

last term is negligible. r =

j = r + a8 mf 2a8 mfe1.47 10 2a8 mfe1.47 10 mj = 1.53 10 m


2 2 2 5 2

m + 2 10 10 m 2 . The

1 1 1 1 1 = n 1 = 1.50 1 8.00 m f R1 R 2 f = 16.0 m

a fFGH

IJ a K

fFGH

IJ K

404 P37.65

Interference of Light Waves

For bright rings the gap t between surfaces is given by 1 2t = m + . The first bright ring has m = 0 and the hundredth 2 has m = 99.

FG H

IJ K

So, t =

1 99.5 500 10 9 m = 24.9 m . 2

a fe

Call rb the ring radius. From the geometry of the figure at the right, t = r r 2 rb2 R R 2 rb2

FH

IK

Since rb << r , we can expand in series: t = r r 1

P37.66

I R + RF 1 1 I = 1 1 JK GH 2 R JK 2 r 2 R L 2t OP = LM 2e24.9 10 mj OP = 1.73 cm r =M N 1 r 1 R Q MN 1 4.00 m 1 12.0 m PQ 7 4 O L E = E + E + E = Mcos + 3.00 cos + 6.00 cos P i 2 3 Q N 6 4 7 L O + Msin + 3.00 sin + 6.00 sin P j 3 Q 2 N 6
1 2r rb2 2 rb2 2 rb2 rb2
12 6 12 b R 1 2 3

F GH

FIG. P37.65

E1 E2

ER E3

E R = 2.13 i 7.70 j ER =

a2.13f + a7.70f
2

at tan 1

FG 7.70 IJ = 7.99 at 4.44 rad H 2.13 K


. 2nt = m + nt =

Thus, EP = 7.99 sin t + 4.44 rad P37.67 (a)

FIG. P37.66

Bright bands are observed when Hence, the first bright band ( m = 0 ) corresponds to Since we have x 1 t1 = x2 t2 x 2 = x1
2 1 2

FG H

1 . 2

IJ K

. 4

FG t IJ = x FG IJ = a3.00 cmfFG 680 nmIJ = H 420 nm K Ht K H K


1 1

4.86 cm .

(b)

t1 = t2 =

1 420 nm = = 78.9 nm 4n 4 1.33

a f

2 680 nm = = 128 nm 4n 4 1.33

a f

(c)

tan =

t1 78.9 nm = = 2.63 10 6 rad x 1 3.00 cm

Chapter 37

405

*P37.68

Depth = one-quarter of the wavelength in plastic. t=

P37.69

a f F 1I 2 h sin = G m + J H 2K F y I 1 2 hG J = H 2L K 2

780 nm = = 130 nm 4n 4 1.50


bright so 2.00 m 606 10 9 m L = = 0.505 mm h= 2 y 2 1. 2 10 3 m

fe

*P37.70

Represent the light radiated from each slit to point P as a phasor. The two have equal amplitudes E. Since intensity is proportional to amplitude squared, they 3E 2 add to amplitude 3 E . Then cos = , = 30 . Next, the obtuse angle E between the two phasors is 180 30 30 = 120 , and = 180 120 = 60 . The phase difference between the two phasors is caused by the path difference 60 , = = . Then = SS 2 SS 1 according to = 360 360 6

3E

FIG. P37.70

6 2 L 2 + L2 + d 2 = L2 + 6 36
L2 + d 2 L = The last term is negligible d= P37.71

FG 2L IJ H6K

12

2 1. 2 m 620 10 9 m = 0.498 mm . 6

Superposing the two vectors, ER = E1 + E 2 ER = E 1 + E 2 = ER =

FG E H

E0 cos 3

IJ + FG E sin IJ K H3 K
2 0

2 = E0 +

E2 E2 2 2 E0 cos + 0 cos 2 + 0 sin 2 3 9 9

10 2 2 2 E0 + E0 cos 9 3 10 2 I max + I max cos . 9 3

Since intensity is proportional to the square of the amplitude, I=

Using the trigonometric identity cos = 2 cos 2 I= or

10 2 4 4 I max + I max 2 cos 2 1 = I max + I max cos 2 , 9 3 2 9 3 2 4 I max 1 + 3 cos 2 9 2

FG H

IJ K

1 , this becomes 2

I=

FG H

IJ K

406

Interference of Light Waves

ANSWERS TO EVEN PROBLEMS


P37.2 P37.4 P37.6 P37.8 P37.10 P37.12 P37.14 P37.16 P37.18 P37.20 P37.22 515 nm (a) 36.2 ; (b) 5.08 cm ; (c) 508 THz P37.40 P37.42 P37.44 P37.46 1.20 mm 449 nm; blue (a) see the solution; (b) 2.74 m number of antinodes = number of constructive interference zones = 1 plus 2 times the greatest positive d integer number of nodes = number of destructive interference zones = 2 times the greatest d 1 positive integer < + 2

maxima at 0 , 29.1 , 76.3 ; minima at 14.1 and 46.8


36.2 cm 641 6.33 mm s see the solution (a) 1.29 rad; (b) 99.8 nm 0.968 (a) see the solution; (b) 9.00 (a) 2.88E0 at 0.349 rad ; (b) 2.00E0 at (d) E0 at 3 rad 2

FG H

IJ K

P37.48 P37.50 P37.52 P37.54 P37.56

2 n 1

a f

5.00 km 2 2.50 mm 113 115 nm (a) see the solution; (b) 266 nm see the solution see the solution (a) 14.7 m ; (b) 1.53 cm; (c) 16.0 m 7.99 sin t + 4.44 rad 130 nm 0.498 mm

rad ; (c) 0; 3

P37.24 P37.26

see the solution 1 where 48 m = 0 , 1, 2 , 3 , x1 x 2 = m see the solution 612 nm 512 nm 96.2 nm (a) 238 nm; (b) increase ; (c) 328 nm 1.31

FG H

IJ K

P37.58 P37.60 P37.62 P37.64 P37.66 P37.68 P37.70

P37.28 P37.30 P37.32 P37.34 P37.36 P37.38