You are on page 1of 2

Art History Notes The Origins of Sculpture Leading names of the leading sculptors in the Ninetenth century were:

Bertel Thorvaldsen, Francois Rude, Pierre-Jean David d'Angers, Antoine-Louis Barye, Jean Baptiste Carpeaux, Jules Dalou, Alexandre Flaguiere and Constantin Meunier. Sculpture did not grow as efficiently as painting and did not achieve the wold reputations that painting and the leading painters did at the time. The Seventh Cantury was the last great age of sculpture before the 20th century [Baroque Sculptor Gianlorenzo Bernini] United States-[Augustus Saint-Gaudens] 20th century was the time when sculpture stopped being a secondary figure and emerged. The decline of sculpture was due to lack of Patronage and restrictive traditions After the 18th century, the center for sculpture in Western Europe shifted from Italy to Paris, due to technological innovations, and new sources of patronage French Romantic Period-[Capreaux, Barye] Geographical shift caused the movement from the traditional marble carving to wax and plaster. Wax and Plaster-more intimate relationship with sculpture-then could be cast in bronze. Human Figure- basic subject for sculpture. Allows for explorations of the elements of space, mass, volume, line, texture, light and movement. Studies evolucionaron from a static pose to a more dymamic shift of the masses [classical, Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque vs. Hellenistic, late Gothic and Baroque] The surge of sculpture in the turn of the century was due to painters that practiced sculpture [Gauguin, Degas, Renoir, Bonnard--Picasso, Matisse, Amadeo, Modigliani, Andre Derain, Umberto Boccioni] HONORE DAUMER (1810-79) Pioneer painter sculptor. Caricatural busts. Satirical sculptures anticipates the late works of Auguste Rodin-expressive power and directness of the deeply modeled surfaces. EDGAR DEGAS (1834-1917) Primarily concerned with the traditional formal problems in sculpture [space and movement] Wax sculptures posthumously cast in bronze. Most have the quality of sketches. Foreshadowed developments in the 20th century sculpture. PAUL GAUGUIN (1848-1903) worked and experimented with a large range of materials. Oviri- made significant impact on Picasso. AUGUSTE RODIN (1840-1917) Recharted the course of sculpture. Led to a Reinassance of sculpture. Revolution began by rejecting the sentimental idealism of the academians. Reexamination of Reinassance sculptors [Donatello and Michellangelo] Realistic and naruralistic approach to sculpture [The Age of Bronze] Concerned with the expression of a tragic theme [The Gates of Hell] worked with bronze as well as marble. Initiation movement away from the human figure. EDWARD STEICHEN (1879-1973) CAMILLE CLAUDEL (1864-1943) ARISTIDE MAILLOL (1861-1944) represent oposition to Rodin approach to sculpture. Werked in a more traditional mode. worked with massive female nudes. ANTOINE BOURDELLE (1861-1929) Sought to revitalize the classical tradition. MEDARDO ROSSO (1858-1928) worked with dissolving the figure until it was barely recognizable.