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Magnetism Electromagnetism Electrostatics Magnetostatics Ampère's circuital law Magnetic field Magnetization Magnetic flux Biot–Savart law Gauss's law for magnetism Classical electromagnetism Lorentz force Electromagnetic induction Lenz's law Displacement current Maxwell's equations Electromagnetic field Electromagnetic radiation Eddy current 1 12 19 26 28 34 55 58 62 66 69 72 84 97 99 106 126 132 148
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Magnetic leads here. For other uses of magnetic, see Magnetic (disambiguation)
A magnetic quadrupole
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that includes forces exerted by magnets on other magnets. It has its origin in electric currents and the fundamental magnetic moments of elementary particles. These give rise to a magnetic field that acts on other currents and moments. All materials are influenced to some extent by a magnetic field. The strongest effect is on permanent magnets, which have persistent magnetic moments caused by ferromagnetism. Most materials do not have permanent moments. Some are attracted to a magnetic field (paramagnetism); others are repulsed by a magnetic field (diamagnetism); others have a much more complex relationship with an applied magnetic field (spin glass behavior and antiferromagnetism). Substances that are negligibly affected by magnetic fields are known as non-magnetic substances. They include copper, aluminium, gases, and plastic. Pure oxygen exhibits magnetic properties when cooled to a liquid state. The magnetic state (or phase) of a material depends on temperature (and other variables such as pressure and the applied magnetic field) so that a material may exhibit more than one form of magnetism depending on its temperature, etc.
Aristotle attributed the first of what could be called a scientific discussion on magnetism to Thales of Miletus, who lived from about 625 BC to about 545 BC. Around the same time, in ancient India, the Indian surgeon, Sushruta, was the first to make use of the magnet for surgical purposes. In ancient China, the earliest literary reference to magnetism lies in a 4th century BC book named after its author, The Master of Demon Valley (鬼 谷 子): "The lodestone makes iron come or it attracts it." The earliest mention of the attraction of a needle appears in a work composed between AD 20 and 100 (Louen-heng): "A lodestone attracts a needle." The ancient Chinese scientist Shen Kuo (1031–1095) was the first person to write of the magnetic needle compass and that it improved the accuracy of navigation by employing the astronomical concept of true north (Dream Pool Essays, AD 1088), and by the 12th century the Chinese were known to use the lodestone compass for navigation. They sculpted a directional spoon from lodestone in such a way that the handle of the spoon always pointed south. Alexander Neckham, by 1187, was the first in Europe to describe the compass and its use for navigation. In 1269, Peter Peregrinus de Maricourt wrote the Epistola de magnete, the first extant treatise describing the properties of magnets. In 1282, the properties of magnets and the dry compass were discussed by Al-Ashraf, a Yemeni physicist, astronomer, and geographer. In 1600, William Gilbert published his De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure (On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, and on the Great Magnet the Earth). In this work he describes many of his experiments with his model earth called the terrella. From his experiments, he concluded that the Earth was itself magnetic and that this was the reason compasses pointed north (previously, some believed that it was the pole star (Polaris) or a large magnetic island on the north pole that attracted the compass). An understanding of the relationship between electricity and magnetism began in 1819 with work by Hans Christian Oersted, a professor at the University of Copenhagen, who discovered more or less by accident that an electric current could influence a compass needle. This landmark experiment is known as Michael Faraday, 1842 Oersted's Experiment. Several other experiments followed, with André-Marie Ampère, who in 1820 discovered that the magnetic field circulating in a closed-path was related to the current flowing through the perimeter of the path; Carl Friedrich Gauss; Jean-Baptiste Biot and Félix Savart, both of which in 1820 came up with the Biot-Savart Law giving an equation for the magnetic field from a current-carrying wire; Michael Faraday, who in 1831 found that a time-varying magnetic flux through a loop of wire induced a voltage, and others finding further links between magnetism and electricity. James Clerk Maxwell synthesized and expanded these insights into Maxwell's equations, unifying electricity, magnetism, and optics into the field of electromagnetism. In 1905, Einstein used these laws in motivating his theory of special relativity, requiring that the laws held true in all inertial reference frames. Electromagnetism has continued to develop into the 21st century, being incorporated into the more fundamental theories of gauge theory, quantum electrodynamics, electroweak theory, and finally the standard model.
Sources of magnetism
Magnetism, at its root, arises from two sources: 1. Electric currents or more generally, moving electric charges create magnetic fields (see Maxwell's Equations). 2. Many particles have nonzero "intrinsic" (or "spin") magnetic moments. Just as each particle, by its nature, has a certain mass and charge, each has a certain magnetic moment, possibly zero. It was found hundreds of years ago that certain materials have a tendency to orient in a particular direction. For example ancient people knew that "lodestones," when suspended from a string and allowed to freely rotate, come to rest horizontally in the North-South direction. Ancient Mariners used lodestones for navigational purposes. In magnetic materials, sources of magnetization are the electrons' orbital angular motion around the nucleus, and the electrons' intrinsic magnetic moment (see electron magnetic dipole moment). The other sources of magnetism are the nuclear magnetic moments of the nuclei in the material which are typically thousands of times smaller than the electrons' magnetic moments, so they are negligible in the context of the magnetization of materials. Nuclear magnetic moments are important in other contexts, particularly in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ordinarily, the enormous number of electrons in a material are arranged such that their magnetic moments (both orbital and intrinsic) cancel out. This is due, to some extent, to electrons combining into pairs with opposite intrinsic magnetic moments as a result of the Pauli exclusion principle (see electron configuration), or combining into filled subshells with zero net orbital motion. In both cases, the electron arrangement is so as to exactly cancel the magnetic moments from each electron. Moreover, even when the electron configuration is such that there are unpaired electrons and/or non-filled subshells, it is often the case that the various electrons in the solid will contribute magnetic moments that point in different, random directions, so that the material will not be magnetic. However, sometimes — either spontaneously, or owing to an applied external magnetic field — each of the electron magnetic moments will be, on average, lined up. Then the material can produce a net total magnetic field, which can potentially be quite strong. The magnetic behavior of a material depends on its structure, particularly its electron configuration, for the reasons mentioned above, and also on the temperature. At high temperatures, random thermal motion makes it more difficult for the electrons to maintain alignment.
Hierarchy of types of magnetism.
Diamagnetism appears in all materials, and is the tendency of a material to oppose an applied magnetic field, and therefore, to be repelled by a magnetic field. However, in a material with paramagnetic properties (that is, with a tendency to enhance an external magnetic field), the paramagnetic behavior dominates. Thus, despite its universal occurrence, diamagnetic behavior is observed only in a purely diamagnetic material. In a diamagnetic material, there are no unpaired electrons, so the intrinsic electron magnetic moments cannot produce any bulk effect. In these cases, the magnetization arises from the electrons' orbital motions, which can be understood classically as follows: When a material is put in a magnetic field, the electrons circling the nucleus will experience, in addition to their Coulomb attraction to the nucleus, a Lorentz force from the magnetic field. Depending on which direction the electron is orbiting, this force may increase the centripetal force on the electrons, pulling them in towards the nucleus, or it may decrease the force, pulling them away from the nucleus. This effect systematically increases the orbital magnetic moments that were aligned opposite the field, and decreases the ones aligned parallel to the field (in accordance with Lenz's law). This results in a small bulk magnetic moment, with an opposite direction to the applied field. Note that this description is meant only as an heuristic; a proper understanding requires a quantum-mechanical description. Note that all materials undergo this orbital response. However, in paramagnetic and ferromagnetic substances, the diamagnetic effect is overwhelmed by the much stronger effects caused by the unpaired electrons.
In a paramagnetic material there are unpaired electrons, i.e. atomic or molecular orbitals with exactly one electron in them. While paired electrons are required by the Pauli exclusion principle to have their intrinsic ('spin') magnetic moments pointing in opposite directions, causing their magnetic fields to cancel out, an unpaired electron is free to align its magnetic moment in any direction. When an external magnetic field is applied, these magnetic moments will tend to align themselves in the same direction as the applied field, thus reinforcing it.
A ferromagnet, like a paramagnetic substance, has unpaired electrons. However, in addition to the electrons' intrinsic magnetic moment's tendency to be parallel to an applied field, there is also in these materials a tendency for these magnetic moments to orient parallel to each other to maintain a lowered-energy state. Thus, even when the applied field is removed, the electrons in the material maintain a parallel orientation. Every ferromagnetic substance has its own individual temperature, called the Curie temperature, or Curie point, above which it loses its ferromagnetic properties. This is because the thermal tendency to disorder overwhelms the energy-lowering due to ferromagnetic order.
A permanent magnet holding up several coins
Some well-known ferromagnetic materials that exhibit easily detectable magnetic properties (to form magnets) are nickel, iron, cobalt, gadolinium and their alloys. Magnetic domains The magnetic moment of atoms in a ferromagnetic material cause them to behave something like tiny permanent magnets. They stick together and align themselves into small regions of more or less uniform alignment called magnetic domains or Weiss domains. Magnetic domains can be observed with a magnetic force microscope to reveal magnetic domain boundaries that resemble white lines in the sketch. There are many scientific experiments that can physically show magnetic fields.
Magnetic domains in ferromagnetic material.
6 When a domain contains too many molecules, it becomes unstable and divides into two domains aligned in opposite directions so that they stick together more stably as shown at the right. When exposed to a magnetic field, the domain boundaries move so that the domains aligned with the magnetic field grow and dominate the structure as shown at the left. When the magnetizing field is removed, the domains may not return to an unmagnetized state. This results in the ferromagnetic material's being magnetized, forming a permanent magnet.
When magnetized strongly enough that the prevailing domain overruns all others to result in only one single domain, the material is magnetically saturated. When a magnetized ferromagnetic material is Effect of a magnet on the domains. heated to the Curie point temperature, the molecules are agitated to the point that the magnetic domains lose the organization and the magnetic properties they cause cease. When the material is cooled, this domain alignment structure spontaneously returns, in a manner roughly analogous to how a liquid can freeze into a crystalline solid.
In an antiferromagnet, unlike a ferromagnet, there is a tendency for the intrinsic magnetic moments of neighboring valence electrons to point in opposite directions. When all atoms are arranged in a substance so that each neighbor is 'anti-aligned', the substance is antiferromagnetic. Antiferromagnets have a zero net magnetic moment, meaning no field is produced by them. Antiferromagnets are less common compared to the other types of behaviors, and are mostly observed at low temperatures. In varying temperatures, antiferromagnets can be seen to exhibit diamagnetic and ferrimagnetic properties.
In some materials, neighboring electrons want to point in opposite directions, but there is no geometrical arrangement in which each pair of neighbors is anti-aligned. This is called a spin glass, and is an example of geometrical frustration.
Like ferromagnetism, ferrimagnets retain their magnetization in the absence of a field. However, like antiferromagnets, neighboring pairs of electron spins like to point in opposite directions. These two properties are not contradictory, because in the optimal geometrical arrangement, there is more magnetic moment from the sublattice of electrons that point in one direction, than from the sublattice that points in the opposite direction.
Most ferrites are ferrimagnetic. The first discovered magnetic substance, magnetite, is a ferrite and was originally believed to be a ferromagnet; Louis Néel disproved this, however, after discovering ferrimagnetism.
When a ferromagnet or ferrimagnet is sufficiently small, it acts like a single magnetic spin that is subject to Brownian motion. Its response to a magnetic field is qualitatively similar to the response of a paramagnet, but much larger.
An electromagnet is a type of magnet whose magnetism is produced by the flow of electric current. The magnetic field disappears when the current ceases.
Other types of magnetism
• • • • Molecular magnet Metamagnetism Molecule-based magnet Spin glass
Magnetism, electricity, and special relativity
As a consequence of Einstein's theory of special relativity, electricity and magnetism are fundamentally interlinked. Both magnetism lacking electricity, and electricity without magnetism, are inconsistent with special relativity, due to such effects as length contraction, time dilation, and the fact that the magnetic force is velocity-dependent. However, when both electricity and magnetism are taken into account, the resulting theory (electromagnetism) is fully consistent with special relativity. In particular, a phenomenon that appears purely electric to one observer may be purely magnetic to another, or more generally the relative contributions of electricity and magnetism are dependent on the frame of reference. Thus, special relativity "mixes" electricity and magnetism into a single, inseparable phenomenon called electromagnetism, analogous to how relativity "mixes" space and time into spacetime.
Electromagnets attracts paper clips when current is applied creating a magnetic field. The electromagnet loses them when current and magnetic field are removed.
Magnetic fields in a material
In a vacuum,
where μ0 is the vacuum permeability. In a material,
The quantity μ0M is called magnetic polarization. If the field H is small, the response of the magnetization M in a diamagnet or paramagnet is approximately linear:
the constant of proportionality being called the magnetic susceptibility. If so,
In a hard magnet such as a ferromagnet, M is not proportional to the field and is generally nonzero even when H is zero (see Remanence).
Force due to magnetic field - The magnetic force
The phenomenon of magnetism is "mediated" by the magnetic field. An electric current or magnetic dipole creates a magnetic field, and that field, in turn, imparts magnetic forces on other particles that are in the fields. Maxwell's equations, which simplify to the Biot-Savart law in the case of steady currents, describe the origin and behavior of the fields that govern these forces. Therefore magnetism is seen whenever electrically charged particles are in motion---for example, from movement of electrons in an electric current, or in certain cases from the orbital motion of electrons around an atom's nucleus. They also arise from "intrinsic" magnetic dipoles arising from quantum-mechanical spin.
Magnetic lines of force of a bar magnet shown by iron filings on paper
The same situations that create magnetic fields — charge moving in a current or in an atom, and intrinsic magnetic dipoles — are also the situations in which a magnetic field has an effect, creating a force. Following is the formula for moving charge; for the forces on an intrinsic dipole, see magnetic dipole. When a charged particle moves through a magnetic field B, it feels a Lorentz force F given by the cross product:
where is the electric charge of the particle, and v is the velocity vector of the particle Because this is a cross product, the force is perpendicular to both the motion of the particle and the magnetic field. It follows that the magnetic force does no work on the particle; it may change the direction of the particle's movement, but it cannot cause it to speed up or slow down. The magnitude of the force is
is the angle between v and B.
One tool for determining the direction of the velocity vector of a moving charge, the magnetic field, and the force exerted is labeling the index finger "V", the middle finger "B", and the thumb "F" with your right hand. When making a gun-like configuration, with the middle finger crossing under the index finger, the fingers represent the velocity vector, magnetic field vector, and force vector, respectively. See also right hand rule.
A very common source of magnetic field shown in nature is a dipole, with a "South pole" and a "North pole", terms dating back to the use of magnets as compasses, interacting with the Earth's magnetic field to indicate North and South on the globe. Since opposite ends of magnets are attracted, the north pole of a magnet is attracted to the south pole of another magnet. The Earth's North Magnetic Pole (currently in the Arctic Ocean, north of Canada) is physically a south pole, as it attracts the north pole of a compass. A magnetic field contains energy, and physical systems move toward configurations with lower energy. When diamagnetic material is placed in a magnetic field, a magnetic dipole tends to align itself in opposed polarity to that field, thereby lowering the net field strength. When ferromagnetic material is placed within a magnetic field, the magnetic dipoles align to the applied field, thus expanding the domain walls of the magnetic domains.
Since a bar magnet gets its ferromagnetism from electrons distributed evenly throughout the bar, when a bar magnet is cut in half, each of the resulting pieces is a smaller bar magnet. Even though a magnet is said to have a north pole and a south pole, these two poles cannot be separated from each other. A monopole — if such a thing exists — would be a new and fundamentally different kind of magnetic object. It would act as an isolated north pole, not attached to a south pole, or vice versa. Monopoles would carry "magnetic charge" analogous to electric charge. Despite systematic searches since 1931, as of 2010, they have never been observed, and could very well not exist. Nevertheless, some theoretical physics models predict the existence of these magnetic monopoles. Paul Dirac observed in 1931 that, because electricity and magnetism show a certain symmetry, just as quantum theory predicts that individual positive or negative electric charges can be observed without the opposing charge, isolated South or North magnetic poles should be observable. Using quantum theory Dirac showed that if magnetic monopoles exist, then one could explain the quantization of electric charge---that is, why the observed elementary particles carry charges that are multiples of the charge of the electron. Certain grand unified theories predict the existence of monopoles which, unlike elementary particles, are solitons (localized energy packets). The initial results of using these models to estimate the number of monopoles created in the big bang contradicted cosmological observations — the monopoles would have been so plentiful and massive that they would have long since halted the expansion of the universe. However, the idea of inflation (for which this problem served as a partial motivation) was successful in solving this problem, creating models in which monopoles existed but were rare enough to be consistent with current observations.
Quantum-mechanical origin of magnetism
In principle all kinds of magnetism originate (similar to Superconductivity) from specific quantum-mechanical phenomena (e.g. Mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics, in particular the chapters on spin and on the Pauli principle). A successful model was developed already in 1927, by Walter Heitler and Fritz London, who derived quantum-mechanically, how hydrogen molecules are formed from hydrogen atoms, i.e. from the atomic hydrogen orbitals and centered at the nuclei A and B, see below. That this leads to magnetism, is not at all obvious, but will be explained in the following. According the Heitler-London theory, so-called two-body molecular orbital is: -orbitals are formed, namely the resulting
Here the last product means that a first electron, r1, is in an atomic hydrogen-orbital centered at the second nucleus, whereas the second electron runs around the first nucleus. This "exchange" phenomenon is an expression for the quantum-mechanical property that particles with identical properties cannot be distinguished. It is specific not only for the formation of chemical bonds, but as we will see, also for magnetism, i.e. in this connection the term exchange interaction arises, a term which is essential for the origin of magnetism, and which is stronger, roughly by factors 100 and even by 1000, than the energies arising from the electrodynamic dipole-dipole interaction. As for the spin function , which is responsible for the magnetism, we have the already mentioned Pauli's
principle, namely that a symmetric orbital (i.e. with the + sign as above) must be multiplied with an antisymmetric spin function (i.e. with a - sign), and vice versa. Thus: , I.e., not only and must be substituted by α and β, respectively (the first entity means "spin up", the second one "spin down"), but also the sign + by the − sign, and finally ri by the discrete values si (= ±½); thereby we have
. The "singlet state", i.e. the - sign, means: the spins ar
antiferromagnetism, and for two-atomic molecules one has diamagnetism. The tendency to form a (homoeopolar) chemical bond (this means: the formation of a symmetric molecular orbital, i.e. with the + sign) results through the Pauli principle automatically in an antisymmetric spin state (i.e. with the - sign). In contrast, the Coulomb repulsion of the electrons, i.e. the tendency that they try to avoid each other by this repulsion, would lead to an antisymmetric orbital function (i.e. with the - sign) of these two particles, and complementary to a symmetric spin function (i.e. with the + sign, one of the so-called "triplet functions"). Thus, now the spins would be parallel (ferromagnetism in a solid, paramagnetism in two-atomic gases). The last-mentioned tendency dominates in the metals iron, cobalt and nickel, and in some rare earths, which are ferromagnetic. Most of the other metals, where the first-mentioned tendency dominates, are nonmagnetic (e.g. sodium, aluminium, and magnesium) or antiferromagnetic (e.g. manganese). Diatomic gases are also almost exclusively diamagnetic, and not paramagnetic. However, the oxygen molecule, because of the involvement of π-orbitals, is an exception important for the life-sciences. The Heitler-London considerations can be generalized to the Heisenberg model of magnetism (Heisenberg 1928). The explanation of the phenomena is thus essentially based on all subtleties of quantum mechanics, whereas the electrodynamics covers mainly the phenomenology.
Units of electromagnetism
SI units related to magnetism
SI electromagnetism units Symbol I q  Name of Quantity Electric current Electric charge Potential difference; Electromotive force Derived Units ampere (SI base unit) coulomb volt Conversion of International to SI base units
Electric resistance; Impedance; Reactance ohm Resistivity Electric power Capacitance Electric field strength Electric displacement field Permittivity Electric susceptibility Conductance; Admittance; Susceptance Conductivity ohm metre watt farad volt per metre Coulomb per square metre farad per metre Dimensionless siemens siemens per metre
Magnetic flux density, Magnetic induction tesla Magnetic flux Magnetic field strength Inductance Permeability Magnetic susceptibility weber ampere per metre henry henry per metre Dimensionless
• • • • gauss — The gauss is the centimeter-gram-second (CGS) unit of magnetic field (denoted B). oersted — The oersted is the CGS unit of magnetizing field (denoted H). maxwell — The maxwell is the CGS unit for magnetic flux. gamma — is a unit of magnetic flux density that was commonly used before the tesla came into use (1.0 gamma = 1.0 nanotesla) • μ0 — common symbol for the permeability of free space (4π×10−7 newton/(ampere-turn)2).
Some organisms can detect magnetic fields, a phenomenon known as magnetoception. Magnetobiology studies magnetic fields as a medical treatment; fields naturally produced by an organism are known as biomagnetism.
    Li Shu-hua, “Origine de la Boussole 11. Aimant et Boussole,” Isis, Vol. 45, No. 2. (Jul., 1954), p.175 Li Shu-hua, “Origine de la Boussole 11. Aimant et Boussole,” Isis, Vol. 45, No. 2. (Jul., 1954), p.176 A. Einstein: "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" (http:/ / www. fourmilab. ch/ etexts/ einstein/ specrel/ www/ ), June 30, 1905. http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ w/ index. php?title=Magnetism& action=edit
 Milton mentions some inconclusive events (p.60) and still concludes that "no evidence at all of magnetic monopoles has survived" (p.3). .  .
• Furlani, Edward P. (2001). Permanent Magnet and Electromechanical Devices: Materials, Analysis and Applications. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-269951-3. OCLC 162129430 (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/ 162129430). • Griffiths, David J. (1998). Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-805326-X. OCLC 40251748 (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/40251748). • Kronmüller, Helmut. (2007). Handbook of Magnetism and Advanced Magnetic Materials, 5 Volume Set. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-02217-7. OCLC 124165851 (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/124165851). • Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Electricity, Magnetism, Light, and Elementary Modern Physics (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0810-8. OCLC 51095685 (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/ 51095685). • David K. Cheng (1992). Field and Wave Electromagnetics. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 0-201-12819-5.
• Magnetism (http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003k9dd) on In Our Time at the BBC. ( listen now (http:// www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/console/p003k9dd/In_Our_Time_Magnetism)) • The Exploratorium Science Snacks – Snacks about Magnetism (http://www.exploratorium.edu/snacks/ iconmagnetism.html) • Electromagnetism (http://www.lightandmatter.com/html_books/0sn/ch11/ch11.html) - a chapter from an online textbook • Video: The physicist Richard Feynman answers the question, Why do bar magnets attract or repel each other? (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wMFPe-DwULM) • On the Magnet, 1600 (http://www.antiquebooks.net/readpage.html#gilbert) First scientific book on magnetism by the father of electrical engineering. Full English text, full text search.
The word Electromagnetism is a compound form of two Greek terms, ἢλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber", and μαγνήτης, magnētēs, "magnet". The science of electromagnetic phenomena is defined in terms of the electromagnetic force, sometimes called the Lorentz force, which includes both electricity and magnetism as elements of one phenomenon. The electromagnetic force is one of the four fundamental interactions in nature, the other three being the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and gravitation. This force is described by electromagnetic fields, and has innumerable physical instances including the interaction of electrically charged particles and the interaction of uncharged magnetic force fields with electrical conductors. The electromagnetic force is the interaction responsible for almost all the phenomena encountered in daily life, with the exception of gravity. Ordinary matter takes its form as a result of intermolecular forces between individual molecules in matter. Electrons are bound by electromagnetic wave mechanics into orbitals around atomic nuclei to form atoms, which are the building blocks of molecules. This governs the processes involved in chemistry, which arise from interactions between the electrons of neighboring atoms, which are in turn determined by the interaction between electromagnetic force and the momentum of the electrons. There are numerous mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field. In classical electrodynamics, electric fields are described as electric potential and electric current in Ohm's law, magnetic fields are associated with electromagnetic induction and magnetism, and Maxwell's equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated and altered by each other and by charges and currents. The theoretical implications of electromagnetism, in particular the establishment of the speed of light based on properties of the "medium" of propagation (permeability and permittivity), led to the development of special relativity by Albert Einstein in 1905.
History of the theory
Originally electricity and magnetism were thought of as two separate forces. This view changed, however, with the publication of James Clerk Maxwell's 1873 Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism in which the interactions of positive and negative charges were shown to be regulated by one force. There are four main effects resulting from these interactions, all of which have been clearly demonstrated by experiments: 1. Electric charges attract or repel one another with a force inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: unlike charges attract, like ones repel. 2. Magnetic poles (or states of polarization at individual points) attract or repel one another in a similar way and always come in pairs: every north pole is Hans Christian Ørsted yoked to a south pole. 3. An electric current in a wire creates a circular magnetic field around the wire, its direction (clockwise or counter-clockwise) depending on that of the current. 4. A current is induced in a loop of wire when it is moved towards or away from a magnetic field, or a magnet is moved towards or away from it, the direction of current depending on that of the movement. While preparing for an evening lecture on 21 April 1820, Hans Christian Ørsted made a surprising observation. As he was setting up his materials, he noticed a compass needle deflected from magnetic north when the electric current from the battery he was using was switched on and off. This deflection convinced him that magnetic fields radiate from all sides of a wire carrying an electric current, just as light and heat do, and that it confirmed a direct relationship between electricity and magnetism.
At the time of discovery, Ørsted did not suggest any satisfactory explanation of the phenomenon, nor did he try to represent the phenomenon in a mathematical framework. However, three months later he began more intensive investigations. Soon thereafter he published his findings, proving that an electric current produces a magnetic field as it flows through a wire. The CGS unit of magnetic induction (oersted) is named in honor of his contributions to the field of electromagnetism.
His findings resulted in intensive research throughout the scientific community in electrodynamics. They influenced French physicist André-Marie Ampère's developments of a single mathematical form to represent the magnetic forces between current-carrying conductors. Ørsted's discovery also represented a major step toward a unified concept of energy. This unification, which was observed by Michael Faraday, extended by James Clerk Maxwell, and partially reformulated by Oliver Heaviside and Heinrich Hertz, is one of the key accomplishments of 19th century mathematical physics. It had far-reaching consequences, one of which was the understanding of the nature of light. Unlike what was proposed in Electromagnetism, light and other electromagnetic waves are at the present seen as taking the form of quantized, self-propagating oscillatory electromagnetic field disturbances which have been James Clerk Maxwell called photons. Different frequencies of oscillation give rise to the different forms of electromagnetic radiation, from radio waves at the lowest frequencies, to visible light at intermediate frequencies, to gamma rays at the highest frequencies. Ørsted was not the only person to examine the relation between electricity and magnetism. In 1802 Gian Domenico Romagnosi, an Italian legal scholar, deflected a magnetic needle by electrostatic charges. Actually, no galvanic current existed in the setup and hence no electromagnetism was present. An account of the discovery was published in 1802 in an Italian newspaper, but it was largely overlooked by the contemporary scientific community.
The electromagnetic force is one of the four known fundamental forces. The other fundamental forces are: • the weak nuclear force, which binds to all known particles in the Standard Model, and causes certain forms of radioactive decay. (In particle physics though, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction); • the strong nuclear force, which binds quarks to form nucleons, and binds nucleons to form nuclei and the • gravitational force. All other forces (e.g., friction) are ultimately derived from these fundamental forces and momentum carried by the movement of particles.
Electromagnetism The electromagnetic force is the one responsible for practically all the phenomena one encounters in daily life above the nuclear scale, with the exception of gravity. Roughly speaking, all the forces involved in interactions between atoms can be explained by the electromagnetic force acting on the electrically charged atomic nuclei and electrons inside and around the atoms, together with how these particles carry momentum by their movement. This includes the forces we experience in "pushing" or "pulling" ordinary material objects, which come from the intermolecular forces between the individual molecules in our bodies and those in the objects. It also includes all forms of chemical phenomena. A necessary part of understanding the intra-atomic to intermolecular forces is the effective force generated by the momentum of the electrons' movement, and that electrons move between interacting atoms, carrying momentum with them. As a collection of electrons becomes more confined, their minimum momentum necessarily increases due to the Pauli exclusion principle. The behaviour of matter at the molecular scale including its density is determined by the balance between the electromagnetic force and the force generated by the exchange of momentum carried by the electrons themselves.
The scientist William Gilbert proposed, in his De Magnete (1600), that electricity and magnetism, while both capable of causing attraction and repulsion of objects, were distinct effects. Mariners had noticed that lightning strikes had the ability to disturb a compass needle, but the link between lightning and electricity was not confirmed until Benjamin Franklin's proposed experiments in 1752. One of the first to discover and publish a link between man-made electric current and magnetism was Romagnosi, who in 1802 noticed that connecting a wire across a voltaic pile deflected a nearby compass needle. However, the effect did not become widely known until 1820, when Ørsted performed a similar experiment. Ørsted's work influenced Ampère to produce a theory of electromagnetism that set the subject on a mathematical foundation. A theory of electromagnetism, known as classical electromagnetism, was developed by various physicists over the course of the 19th century, culminating in the work of James Clerk Maxwell, who unified the preceding developments into a single theory and discovered the electromagnetic nature of light. In classical electromagnetism, the electromagnetic field obeys a set of equations known as Maxwell's equations, and the electromagnetic force is given by the Lorentz force law. One of the peculiarities of classical electromagnetism is that it is difficult to reconcile with classical mechanics, but it is compatible with special relativity. According to Maxwell's equations, the speed of light in a vacuum is a universal constant, dependent only on the electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability of free space. This violates Galilean invariance, a long-standing cornerstone of classical mechanics. One way to reconcile the two theories is to assume the existence of a luminiferous aether through which the light propagates. However, subsequent experimental efforts failed to detect the presence of the aether. After important contributions of Hendrik Lorentz and Henri Poincaré, in 1905, Albert Einstein solved the problem with the introduction of special relativity, which replaces classical kinematics with a new theory of kinematics that is compatible with classical electromagnetism. (For more information, see History of special relativity.) In addition, relativity theory shows that in moving frames of reference a magnetic field transforms to a field with a nonzero electric component and vice versa; thus firmly showing that they are two sides of the same coin, and thus the term "electromagnetism". (For more information, see Classical electromagnetism and special relativity and Covariant formulation of classical electromagnetism.
In another paper published in that same year, Albert Einstein undermined the very foundations of classical electromagnetism. In his theory of the photoelectric effect (for which he won the Nobel prize for physics) and inspired by the idea of Max Planck's "quanta", he posited that also light could exist in discrete particle-like quantities, which later came to be known as photons. Einstein's theory of the photoelectric effect extended the insights that appeared in the solution of the ultraviolet catastrophe presented by Max Planck in 1900. In his work, Planck showed that hot objects emit electromagnetic radiation in discrete packets ("quanta"), which leads to a finite total energy emitted as black body radiation. Both of these results were in direct contradiction with the classical view of light as a continuous wave. Planck's and Einstein's theories were progenitors of quantum mechanics, which, when formulated in 1925, necessitated the invention of a quantum theory of electromagnetism. This theory, completed in the 1940s-1950s, is known as quantum electrodynamics (or "QED"), and, in situations where perturbation theory is applicable, is one of the most accurate theories known to physics.
Quantities and units
Electromagnetic units are part of a system of electrical units based primarily upon the magnetic properties of electric currents, the fundamental SI unit being the ampere. The units are: • • • • • • • • • ampere (electric current) coulomb (electric charge) farad (capacitance) henry (inductance) ohm (resistance) tesla (magnetic flux density) volt (electric potential) watt (power) weber (magnetic flux)
In the electromagnetic cgs system, electric current is a fundamental quantity defined via Ampère's law and takes the permeability as a dimensionless quantity (relative permeability) whose value in a vacuum is unity. As a consequence, the square of the speed of light appears explicitly in some of the equations interrelating quantities in this system.
SI electromagnetism units  Symbol I Q Name of Quantity electric current electric charge Derived Units ampere (SI base unit) coulomb volt ohm ohm metre watt farad volt per metre Unit A C V Ω Ω⋅m W F V/m Base Units A (= W/V = C/s) A⋅s kg⋅m2⋅s−3⋅A−1 (= J/C) kg⋅m2⋅s−3⋅A−2 (= V/A) kg⋅m3⋅s−3⋅A−2 kg⋅m2⋅s−3 (= V⋅A) kg−1⋅m−2⋅s4⋅A2 (= C/V) kg⋅m⋅s−3⋅A−1 (= N/C)
U, ΔV, Δφ; E potential difference; electromotive force R; Z; X ρ P C E D electric resistance; impedance; reactance resistivity electric power capacitance electric field strength electric displacement field
coulomb per square metre C/m2 A⋅s⋅m−2
permittivity electric susceptibility conductance; admittance; susceptance conductivity farad per metre (dimensionless) siemens siemens per metre F/m – S S/m T Wb A/m H H/m –
ε χe G; Y; B κ, γ, σ B Φ H L, M μ χ
kg−1⋅m−3⋅s4⋅A2 – kg−1⋅m−2⋅s3⋅A2 (= Ω−1) kg−1⋅m−3⋅s3⋅A2 kg⋅s−2⋅A−1 (= Wb/m2 = N⋅A−1⋅m−1) kg⋅m2⋅s−2⋅A−1 (= V⋅s) A⋅m−1 kg⋅m2⋅s−2⋅A−2 (= Wb/A = V⋅s/A) kg⋅m⋅s−2⋅A−2 –
magnetic flux density, magnetic induction tesla magnetic flux magnetic field strength inductance permeability magnetic susceptibility weber ampere per metre henry henry per metre (dimensionless)
Formulas for physical laws of electromagnetism (such as Maxwell's equations) need to be adjusted depending on what system of units one uses. This is because there is no one-to-one correspondence between electromagnetic units in SI and those in CGS, as is the case for mechanical units. Furthermore, within CGS, there are several plausible choices of electromagnetic units, leading to different unit "sub-systems", including Gaussian, "ESU", "EMU", and Heaviside–Lorentz. Among these choices, Gaussian units are the most common today, and in fact the phrase "CGS units" is often used to refer specifically to CGS-Gaussian units.
With the exception of gravitation, electromagnetic phenomena as described by quantum electrodynamics (which includes classical electrodynamics as a limiting case) account for almost all physical phenomena observable to the unaided human senses, including light and other electromagnetic radiation, all of chemistry, most of mechanics (excepting gravitation), and, of course, magnetism and electricity. Magnetic monopoles (and "Gilbert" dipoles) are not strictly electromagnetic phenomena, since in standard electromagnetism, magnetic fields are generated not by true "magnetic charge" but by currents. There are, however, condensed matter analogs of magnetic monopoles in exotic materials (spin ice) created in the laboratory.
Web • Nave, R. "Magnetic Field Strength H" (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/magfield.html). Retrieved 2007-06-04 • Keitch, Paul. "Magnetic Field Strength and Magnetic Flux Density" . Archived (http://web.archive.org/ 20071107072959/http://web.archive.org/web/20071107072959/http://www.electric-fields.bris.ac.uk/ MagneticFieldStrength.htm) November 7, 2007 at the Wayback Machine. • Oppelt, Arnulf (2006-11-02). "magnetic field strength" (http://searchsmb.techtarget.com/sDefinition/ 0,290660,sid44_gci763586,00.html). Retrieved 2007-06-04 • "magnetic field strength converter" (http://www.unitconversion.org/unit_converter/magnetic-field-strength. html). Retrieved 2007-06-04 Books
Electromagnetism • Durney, Carl H. and Johnson, Curtis C. (1969). Introduction to modern electromagnetics. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-018388-0. • Rao, Nannapaneni N. (1994). Elements of engineering electromagnetics (4th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-948746-8. • Tipler, Paul (1998). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Vol. 2: Light, Electricity and Magnetism (4th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 1-57259-492-6. • Griffiths, David J. (1998). Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-805326-X. • Jackson, John D. (1998). Classical Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0-471-30932-X. • Rothwell, Edward J.; Cloud, Michael J. (2001). Electromagnetics. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-1397-X. • Wangsness, Roald K.; Cloud, Michael J. (1986). Electromagnetic Fields (2nd Edition). Wiley. ISBN 0-471-81186-6. • Dibner, Bern (1961). Oersted and the discovery of electromagnetism. Blaisdell Publishing Company. ISSN 99-0317066-1 (http://www.worldcat.org/issn/99-0317066-1). ; 18. • G.A.G. Bennet (1974). Electricity and Modern Physics (2nd ed.). Edward Arnold (UK). ISBN 0-7131-2459-8. • I.S. Grant, W.R. Phillips, Manchester Physics (2008). Electromagnetism (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-92712-9. • P.M. Whelan, M.J. Hodgeson (1978). Essential Principles of Physics (2nd ed.). John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-3382-1. • R.G. Lerner, G.L. Trigg (2005). Encyclopaedia of Physics (2nd ed.). VHC Publishers, Hans Warlimont, Springer. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-0-07-025734-4. • C.B. Parker (1994). McGraw Hill Encyclopaedia of Physics (2nd ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-051400-3. • P.A. Tipler, G. Mosca (2008). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: With Modern Physics (6th ed.). W.H. Freeman and Co. ISBN 9-781429-202657. • H.J. Pain (1983). The Physics of Vibrations and Waves (3rd ed.). John Wiley & Sons,. ISBN 0-471-90182-2.
• R. Penrose (2007). The Road to Reality. Vintage books. ISBN 0-679-77631-1. • Purcell, Edward M. (1985). Electricity and Magnetism Berkeley Physics Course Volume 2 (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-004908-4. • Moliton, André (2006-12). "Basic electromagnetism and materials" (http://books.google.com/ ?id=2kPAIlxjDJwC&printsec=copyright&q=fundamental). 430 pages (New York City: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC). ISBN 978-0-387-30284-3. • L.H. Greenberg (1978). Physics with Modern Applications. Holt-Saunders International W.B. Saunders and Co. ISBN 0-7216-4247-0. • J.B. Marion, W.F. Hornyak (1984). Principles of Physics. Holt-Saunders International Saunders College. ISBN 4-8337-0195-2. • A. Beiser (1987). Concepts of Modern Physics (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill (International). ISBN 0-07-100144-1. • Fleisch, Daniel (2008). A Student's Guide to Maxwell's Equations (http://www.cambridge.org/gb/knowledge/ isbn/item1164303/A Student's Guide to Maxwell's Equations/?site_locale=en_GB). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-70147-1.
• Electromagnetic Force (http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/ElectromagneticForce.html) - from Eric Weisstein's World of Physics • Ties That Bind Atoms Weaker Than Thought (http://web.archive.org/web/20081203132321/http://www. livescience.com/othernews/060815_constant_weak.html) - LiveScience.com • Physics 221B notes – quantization (http://bohr.physics.berkeley.edu/classes/221/0708/notes/hamclassemf. pdf) • Physics 221B notes – interaction (http://bohr.physics.berkeley.edu/classes/221/0708/notes/radnmatt.pdf) • Quarked Electromagnetic force (http://www.quarked.org/askmarks/answer5a.html) - A good introduction for kids • MIT OpenCourseWare 8.02: Electricity & Magnetism (http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/ 8-02sc-physics-ii-electricity-and-magnetism-fall-2010/) Free, independent study course with video lectures, homework help videos, assignments, course notes and more. • The Deflection of a Magnetic Compass Needle by a Current in a Wire (video) (http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=HcPDc23ZLEs&feature=plcp)
Electrostatics is the branch of physics that deals with the phenomena and properties of stationary or slow-moving (without acceleration) electric charges. Since classical antiquity, it has been known that some materials such as amber attract lightweight particles after rubbing. The Greek word for amber, ήλεκτρον electron, was the source of the word 'electricity'. Electrostatic phenomena arise from the forces that electric charges exert on each other. Such forces are described by Coulomb's law. Even Paper shavings attracted by a charged CD though electrostatically induced forces seem to be rather weak, the electrostatic force between e.g. an electron and a proton, that together make up a hydrogen atom, is about 40 orders of magnitude stronger than the gravitational force acting between them. Electrostatic phenomena include many examples, some as simple as the attraction of the plastic wrap to your hand after you remove it from a package, to the apparently spontaneous explosion of grain silos, to damage of electronic components during manufacturing, to the operation of photocopiers. Electrostatics involves the buildup of charge on the surface of objects due to contact with other surfaces. Although charge exchange happens whenever any two surfaces contact and separate, the effects of charge exchange are usually only noticed when at least one of the
Electrostatics surfaces has a high resistance to electrical flow. This is because the charges that transfer to or from the highly resistive surface are more or less trapped there for a long enough time for their effects to be observed. These charges then remain on the object until they either bleed off to ground or are quickly neutralized by a discharge: e.g., the familiar phenomenon of a static 'shock' is caused by the neutralization of charge built up in the body from contact with nonconductive surfaces.
The fundamental equation of electrostatics is Coulomb's law, which describes the force between two point charges. The magnitude of the electrostatic force between two point electric charges and is directly proportional to the product of the magnitudes of each charge and inversely proportional to the surface area of a sphere whose radius is equal to the distance between the charges:
where ε0 is a constant called the vacuum permittivity or permittivity of free space, a defined value: in A2s4 kg-1m−3 or C2N−1m−2 or F m−1.
The electric field (in units of volts per meter) at a point is defined as the force (in newtons) per unit charge (in coulombs) on a charge at that point:
Or we can say a charged object in an electric field feels a force F=qE From this definition and Coulomb's law, it follows that the magnitude of the electric field E created by a test charge Q is:
The electric field produced by a distribution of charges given by the volume charge density triple integral of a vector function:
is obtained by a
The value of the electric field depicts the force on a charged particle if it entered the electric field. Electric field lines gives the direction of force on a positive charge in the electric field.
Gauss' law states that "the total electric flux through any closed hypothetical surface of any shape drawn in an electric field is proportional to the total electric charge enclosed within the surface". Mathematically, Gauss's law takes the form of an integral equation:
Alternatively, in differential form, the equation becomes
is the divergence operator.
The definition of electrostatic potential, combined with the differential form of Gauss's law (above), provides a relationship between the potential Φ and the charge density ρ:
This relationship is a form of Poisson's equation.
In the absence of unpaired electric charge, the equation becomes
which is Laplace's equation.
The validity of the electrostatic approximation rests on the assumption that the electric field is irrotational: (This is also known as "Cam's Law") From Faraday's law, this assumption implies the absence or near-absence of time-varying magnetic fields:
In other words, electrostatics does not require the absence of magnetic fields or electric currents. Rather, if magnetic fields or electric currents do exist, they must not change with time, or in the worst-case, they must change with time only very slowly. In some problems, both electrostatics and magnetostatics may be required for accurate predictions, but the coupling between the two can still be ignored.
Because the electric field is irrotational, it is possible to express the electric field as the gradient of a scalar function, called the electrostatic potential (also known as the voltage). An electric field, , points from regions of high potential, Φ, to regions of low potential, expressed mathematically as
The electrostatic potential at a point can be defined as the amount of work per unit charge required to move a charge from infinity to the given point.
Energy due to a charge distribution is obtained by a triple integral: in which V represents the volume of charge distribution.
The electrostatic field (lines with arrows) of a nearby positive charge (+) causes the mobile charges in conductive objects to separate due to electrostatic induction. Negative charges (blue) are attracted and move to the surface of the object facing the external charge. Positive charges (red) are repelled and move to the surface facing away. These induced surface charges are exactly the right size and shape so their opposing electric field cancels the electric field of the external charge throughout the interior of the metal. Therefore the electrostatic field everywhere inside a conductive object is zero, and the electrostatic potential is constant.
The triboelectric effect is a type of contact electrification in which certain materials become electrically charged when they are brought into contact with a different material and then separated. One of the materials acquires a positive charge, and the other acquires an equal negative charge. The polarity and strength of the charges produced differ according to the materials, surface roughness, temperature, strain, and other properties. Amber, for example, can acquire an electric charge by friction with a material like wool. This property, first recorded by Thales of Miletus, was the first electrical phenomenon investigated by man. Other examples of materials that can acquire a significant charge when rubbed together include glass rubbed with silk, and hard rubber rubbed with fur.
The presence of surface charge imbalance means that the objects will exhibit attractive or repulsive forces. This surface charge imbalance, which yields static electricity, can be generated by touching two differing surfaces together and then separating them due to the phenomena of contact electrification and the triboelectric effect. Rubbing two nonconductive objects generates a great amount of static electricity. This is not just the result of friction; two nonconductive surfaces can become charged by just being placed one on top of the other. Since most surfaces have a rough texture, it takes longer to achieve charging through contact than through rubbing. Rubbing objects together increases amount of adhesive contact between the two surfaces. Usually insulators, e.g., substances that do not conduct electricity, are good at both generating, and holding, a surface charge. Some examples of these substances are rubber, plastic, glass, and pith. Conductive objects only rarely generate charge imbalance except, for example, when a metal surface is impacted by solid or liquid nonconductors. The charge that is transferred during
Electrostatics contact electrification is stored on the surface of each object. Static electric generators, devices which produce very high voltage at very low current and used for classroom physics demonstrations, rely on this effect. Note that the presence of electric current does not detract from the electrostatic forces nor from the sparking, from the corona discharge, or other phenomena. Both phenomena can exist simultaneously in the same system. See also: Friction machines, Wimshurst machines, and Van de Graaf generators.
Natural electrostatic phenomena are most familiar as an occasional annoyance in seasons of low humidity, but can be destructive and harmful in some situations (e.g. electronics manufacturing). When working in direct contact with integrated circuit electronics (especially delicate MOSFETs), or in the presence of flammable gas, care must be taken to avoid accumulating and suddenly discharging a static charge (see electrostatic discharge).
Charge induction occurs when a negatively charged object repels electrons from the surface of a second object. This creates a region in the second object that is more positively charged. An attractive force is then exerted between the objects. For example, when a balloon is rubbed, the balloon will stick to the wall as an attractive force is exerted by two oppositely charged surfaces (the surface of the wall gains an electric charge due to charge induction, as the free electrons at the surface of the wall are repelled by the negative balloon, creating a positive wall surface, which is subsequently attracted to the surface of the balloon). You can explore the effect with a simulation of the balloon and static electricity. 
Before the year 1832, when Michael Faraday published the results of his experiment on the identity of electricities, physicists thought "static electricity" was somehow different from other electrical charges. Michael Faraday proved that the electricity induced from the magnet, voltaic electricity produced by a battery, and static electricity are all the same. Static electricity is usually caused when certain materials are rubbed against each other, like wool on plastic or the soles of shoes on carpet. The process causes electrons to be pulled from the surface of one material and relocated on the surface of the other material. A static shock occurs when the surface of the second material, negatively charged with electrons, touches a positively-charged conductor, or vice-versa. Static electricity is commonly used in xerography, air filters, and some automotive paints. Static electricity is a build up of electric charges on two objects that have become separated from each other. Small electrical components can easily be damaged by static electricity. Component manufacturers use a number of antistatic devices to avoid this.
Lightning over Oradea in Romania
Static electricity and chemical industry
Electrostatics When different materials are brought together and then separated, an accumulation of electric charge can occur which leaves one material positively charged while the other becomes negatively charged. The mild shock that you receive when touching a grounded object after walking on carpet is an example of excess electrical charge accumulating in your body from frictional charging between your shoes and the carpet. The resulting charge build-up upon your body can generate a strong electrical discharge. Although experimenting with static electricity may be fun, similar sparks create severe hazards in those industries dealing with flammable substances, where a small electrical spark may ignite explosive mixtures with devastating consequences. A similar charging mechanism can occur within low conductivity fluids flowing through pipelines—a process called flow electrification. Fluids which have low electrical conductivity (below 50 picosiemens per meter, where picosiemens per meter is a measure of electrical conductivity), are called accumulators. Fluids having conductivities above 50 pS/m are called non-accumulators. In non-accumulators, charges recombine as fast as they are separated and hence electrostatic charge generation is not significant. In the petrochemical industry, 50 pS/m is the recommended minimum value of electrical conductivity for adequate removal of charge from a fluid. An important concept for insulating fluids is the static relaxation time. This is similar to the time constant (tau) within an RC circuit. For insulating materials, it is the ratio of the static dielectric constant divided by the electrical conductivity of the material. For hydrocarbon fluids, this is sometimes approximated by dividing the number 18 by the electrical conductivity of the fluid. Thus a fluid that has an electrical conductivity of 1 pS/cm (100 pS/m) will have an estimated relaxation time of about 18 seconds. The excess charge within a fluid will be almost completely dissipated after 4 to 5 times the relaxation time, or 90 seconds for the fluid in the above example. Charge generation increases at higher fluid velocities and larger pipe diameters, becoming quite significant in pipes 8 inches (200 mm) or larger. Static charge generation in these systems is best controlled by limiting fluid velocity. The British standard BS PD CLC/TR 50404:2003 (formerly BS-5958-Part 2) Code of Practice for Control of Undesirable Static Electricity prescribes velocity limits. Because of its large impact on dielectric constant, the recommended velocity for hydrocarbon fluids containing water should be limited to 1 m/s. Bonding and earthing are the usual ways by which charge buildup can be prevented. For fluids with electrical conductivity below 10 pS/m, bonding and earthing are not adequate for charge dissipation, and anti-static additives may be required. Applicable standards 1.BS PD CLC/TR 50404:2003 Code of Practice for Control of Undesirable Static Electricity 2.NFPA 77 (2007) Recommended Practice on Static Electricity 3.API RP 2003 (1998) Protection Against Ignitions Arising Out of Static, Lightning, and Stray Currents
Electrostatic induction in commercial applications
The principle of electrostatic induction has been harnessed to beneficial effect in industry for many years, beginning with the introduction of electrostatic industrial painting systems for the economical and even application of enamel and polyurethane paints to consumer goods, including automobiles, bicycles, and other products.
• Faraday, Michael (1839). Experimental Researches in Electricity. London: Royal Inst. • e-book at Project Gutenberg • Halliday, David; Robert Resnick; Kenneth S. Krane (1992). Physics. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-80457-6. • Griffiths, David J. (1999). Introduction to Electrodynamics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-805326-X. • Hermann A. Haus and James R. Melcher (1989). Electromagnetic Fields and Energy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-249020-X.
 http:/ / phet. colorado. edu/ new/ simulations/ sims. php?sim=Balloons_and_Static_Electricity
Essays • William J. Beaty, " Humans and sparks; The Cause, Stopping the Pain, and 'Electric People (http://amasci.com/ emotor/zapped.html)". 1997. Books • William Cecil Dampier, "The theory of experimental electricity". Cambridge [Eng.] University press, 1905 (Cambridge physical series). xi, 334 p. illus., diagrs. 23 cm. LCCN 05040419 //r33 • William Thomson Kelvin, Reprint of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism By William Thomson Kelvin (http:/ /books.google.com/books?id=Y_QEAAAAYAAJ), Macmillan 1872 • Alexander MacAulay Utility of Quaternions in Physics. Electrostatics—General Problem (http://books.google. com/books?id=EAI5AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA55). Macmillan 1893 • Alexander Russell, A Treatise on the Theory of Alternating Currents. Electrostatics (http://books.google.com/ books?id=fJQ3AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA2). University Press 1904
• " Man's static jacket sparks alert (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4252692.stm)". BBC News, 16 September 2005. • Static Electricity and Plastics (http://www.zeusinc.com/pdf/Zeus_Static.pdf)Wikipedia:Link rot • " Can shocks from static electricity damage your health? (http://wolfsonelectrostatics.com/news/news-item12. asp)". Wolfson Electrostatics News pages. • Invisible wall of static: (http://amasci.com/weird/unusual/e-wall.html) • The inverse cube law (http://blazelabs.com/inversecubelaw.pdf) The inverse cube law for dipoles (PDF file) by Eng. Xavier Borg • Downloadable electrostatic BEM modules in MATLAB for simple capacitance problems (http://www. nevaelectromagnetics.com/ElectrostaticsModeling.html)
Magnetostatics is the study of magnetic fields in systems where the currents are steady (not changing with time). It is the magnetic analogue of electrostatics, where the charges are stationary. The magnetization need not be static; the equations of magnetostatics can be used to predict fast magnetic switching events that occur on time scales of nanoseconds or less. Magnetostatics is even a good approximation when the currents are not static — as long as the currents do not alternate rapidly. Magnetostatics is widely used in applications of micromagnetics such as models of magnetic recording devices.
Magnetostatics as a special case of Maxwell's equations
Starting from Maxwell's equations and assuming that charges are either fixed or move as a steady current , the
equations separate into two equations for the electric field (see electrostatics) and two for the magnetic field. The fields are independent of time and each other. The magnetostatic equations, in both differential and integral forms, are shown in the table below.
Name Gauss's law for magnetism: Partial differential form Integral form
The first integral is over a surface closed loop with line element
with oriented surface element
. The second is a line integral around a .
. The current going through the loop is
The quality of this approximation may be guessed by comparing the above equations with the full version of Maxwell's equations and considering the importance of the terms that have been removed. Of particular significance is the comparison of the term against the term. If the term is substantially larger, then the smaller term may be ignored without significant loss of accuracy.
Re-introducing Faraday's law
A common technique is to solve a series of magnetostatic problems at incremental time steps and then use these solutions to approximate the term . Plugging this result into Faraday's Law finds a value for (which had previously been ignored). This method is not a true solution of Maxwell's equations but can provide a good approximation for slowly changing fields.
Solving for the magnetic field
If all currents in a system are known (i.e., if a complete description of determined from the currents by the Biot-Savart equation: is available) then the magnetic field can be
This technique works well for problems where the medium is a vacuum or air or some similar material with a relative permeability of 1. This includes Air core inductors and Air core transformers. One advantage of this technique is that a complex coil geometry can be integrated in sections, or for a very difficult geometry numerical integration may be used. Since this equation is primarily used to solve linear problems, the complete answer will be a sum of the integral of each component section. For problems where the dominant magnetic material is a highly permeable magnetic core with relatively small air gaps, a magnetic circuit approach is useful. When the air gaps are large in comparison to the magnetic circuit length, fringing becomes significant and usually requires a finite element calculation. The finite element calculation uses a modified form of the magnetostatic equations above in order to calculate magnetic potential. The value of can be found from the magnetic potential. The magnetic field can be derived from the vector potential. Since the divergence of the magnetic flux density is always zero,
and the relation of the vector potential to current is:
is the current density.
Strongly magnetic materials (i.e., Ferromagnetic, Ferrimagnetic or Paramagnetic) have a magnetization that is primarily due to electron spins. In such materials the magnetization must be explicitly included using the relation
Except in metals, electric currents can be ignored. Then Ampère's law is simply
This has the general solution
is a scalar potential. Substituting this in Gauss's law gives has a role analogous to the electric charge in electrostatics  and is .
Thus, the divergence of the magnetization, often referred to as an effective charge density
Magnetostatics The vector potential method can also be employed with an effective current density
• Aharoni, Amikam (1996). Introduction to the Theory of Ferromagnetism (http://www.oup.com/us/catalog/ general/subject/Physics/ElectricityMagnetism/?view=usa&ci=9780198508090). Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-851791-2. • Feynman, Richard P.; Leighton, Robert B.; Sands, Matthew (2006). The Feynman Lectures on Physics 2. ISBN 0-8053-9045-6. • Hiebert, W; Ballentine, G; Freeman, M (2002). "Comparison of experimental and numerical micromagnetic dynamics in coherent precessional switching and modal oscillations". Physical Review B 65 (14). p. 140404. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.65.140404 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.65.140404).
Ampère's circuital law
In classical electromagnetism, Ampère's circuital law, discovered by André-Marie Ampère in 1826, relates the integrated magnetic field around a closed loop to the electric current passing through the loop. James Clerk Maxwell derived it again using hydrodynamics in his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force and it is now one of the Maxwell equations, which form the basis of classical electromagnetism.
Ampère's circuital law
Ampère's original circuital law
It relates magnetic fields to electric currents that produce them. Using Ampere's law, one can determine the magnetic field associated with a given current or current associated with a given magnetic field, providing there is no time changing electric field present. In its historically original form, Ampère's circuital law relates the magnetic field to its electric current source. The law can be written in two forms, the "integral form" and the "differential form". The forms are equivalent, and related by the Kelvin–Stokes theorem. It can also be written in terms of either the B or H magnetic fields. Again, the two forms are equivalent (see the "proof" section below). Ampère's circuital law is now known to be a correct law of physics in a magnetostatic situation: The system is static except possibly for continuous steady currents within closed loops. In all other cases the law is incorrect unless Maxwell's correction is included (see below).
An electric current produces a magnetic field.
In SI units (cgs units are later), the "integral form" of the original Ampère's circuital law is a line integral of the magnetic field around some closed curve C (arbitrary but must be closed). The curve C in turn bounds both a surface S which the electric current passes through (again arbitrary but not closed—since no three-dimensional volume is enclosed by S), and encloses the current. The mathematical statement of the law is a relation between the total amount of magnetic field around some path (line integral) due to the current which passes through that enclosed path (surface integral). It can be written in a number of forms. In terms of total current, which includes both free and bound current, the line integral of the magnetic B-field (in tesla, T) around closed curve C is proportional to the total current Ienc passing through a surface S (enclosed by C):
where J is the total current density (in ampere per square metre, Am−2). Alternatively in terms of free current, the line integral of the magnetic H-field (in ampere per metre, Am−1) around closed curve C equals the free current If, enc through a surface S:
where Jf is the free current density only. Furthermore • is the closed line integral around the closed curve C, • denotes a 2d surface integral over S enclosed by C • • is the vector dot product, • dℓ is an infinitesimal element (a differential) of the curve C (i.e. a vector with magnitude equal to the length of the infinitesimal line element, and direction given by the tangent to the curve C) • dS is the vector area of an infinitesimal element of surface S (that is, a vector with magnitude equal to the area of the infinitesimal surface element, and direction normal to surface S. The direction of the normal must correspond with the orientation of C by the right hand rule), see below for further explanation of the curve C and surface S. The B and H fields are related by the constitutive equation
where μ0 is the magnetic constant.
Ampère's circuital law There are a number of ambiguities in the above definitions that require clarification and a choice of convention. 1. First, three of these terms are associated with sign ambiguities: the line integral could go around the loop in
either direction (clockwise or counterclockwise); the vector area dS could point in either of the two directions normal to the surface; and Ienc is the net current passing through the surface S, meaning the current passing through in one direction, minus the current in the other direction—but either direction could be chosen as positive. These ambiguities are resolved by the right-hand rule: With the palm of the right-hand toward the area of integration, and the index-finger pointing along the direction of line-integration, the outstretched thumb points in the direction that must be chosen for the vector area dS. Also the current passing in the same direction as dS must be counted as positive. The right hand grip rule can also be used to determine the signs. 2. Second, there are infinitely many possible surfaces S that have the curve C as their border. (Imagine a soap film on a wire loop, which can be deformed by moving the wire). Which of those surfaces is to be chosen? If the loop does not lie in a single plane, for example, there is no one obvious choice. The answer is that it does not matter; it can be proven that any surface with boundary C can be chosen.
By the Kelvin–Stokes theorem, this equation can also be written in a "differential form". Again, this equation only applies in the case where the electric field is constant in time, meaning the currents are steady (time-independent, else the magnetic field would change with time); see below for the more general form. In SI units, the equation states for total current:
and for free current
where ∇× is the curl operator.
Note on free current versus bound current
The electric current that arises in the simplest textbook situations would be classified as "free current"—for example, the current that passes through a wire or battery. In contrast, "bound current" arises in the context of bulk materials that can be magnetized and/or polarized. (All materials can to some extent.) When a material is magnetized (for example, by placing it in an external magnetic field), the electrons remain bound to their respective atoms, but behave as if they were orbiting the nucleus in a particular direction, creating a microscopic current. When the currents from all these atoms are put together, they create the same effect as a macroscopic current, circulating perpetually around the magnetized object. This magnetization current JM is one contribution to "bound current". The other source of bound current is bound charge. When an electric field is applied, the positive and negative bound charges can separate over atomic distances in polarizable materials, and when the bound charges move, the polarization changes, creating another contribution to the "bound current", the polarization current JP. The total current density J due to free and bound charges is then:
with Jf the "free" or "conduction" current density. All current is fundamentally the same, microscopically. Nevertheless, there are often practical reasons for wanting to treat bound current differently from free current. For example, the bound current usually originates over atomic dimensions, and one may wish to take advantage of a simpler theory intended for larger dimensions. The result is that the more microscopic Ampère's law, expressed in terms of B and the microscopic current (which includes free, magnetization and polarization currents), is sometimes put into the equivalent form below in terms of H and the free
Ampère's circuital law current only. For a detailed definition of free current and bound current, and the proof that the two formulations are equivalent, see the "proof" section below.
Shortcomings of the original formulation of Ampère's circuital law
There are two important issues regarding Ampère's law that require closer scrutiny. First, there is an issue regarding the continuity equation for electrical charge. There is a theorem in vector calculus that states the divergence of a curl must always be zero. Hence
and so the original Ampère's law implies that
But in general
which is non-zero for a time-varying charge density. An example occurs in a capacitor circuit where time-varying charge densities exist on the plates. Second, there is an issue regarding the propagation of electromagnetic waves. For example, in free space, where
Ampère's law implies that
To treat these situations, the contribution of displacement current must be added to the current term in Ampère's law. James Clerk Maxwell conceived of displacement current as a polarization current in the dielectric vortex sea, which he used to model the magnetic field hydrodynamically and mechanically. He added this displacement current to Ampère's circuital law at equation (112) in his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force .
In free space, the displacement current is related to the time rate of change of electric field. In a dielectric the above contribution to displacement current is present too, but a major contribution to the displacement current is related to the polarization of the individual molecules of the dielectric material. Even though charges cannot flow freely in a dielectric, the charges in molecules can move a little under the influence of an electric field. The positive and negative charges in molecules separate under the applied field, causing an increase in the state of polarization, expressed as the polarization density P. A changing state of polarization is equivalent to a current. Both contributions to the displacement current are combined by defining the displacement current as:
where the electric displacement field is defined as:
where ε0 is the electric constant, εr the relative static permittivity, and P is the polarization density. Substituting this form for D in the expression for displacement current, it has two components:
Ampère's circuital law
The first term on the right hand side is present everywhere, even in a vacuum. It doesn't involve any actual movement of charge, but it nevertheless has an associated magnetic field, as if it were an actual current. Some authors apply the name displacement current to only this contribution. The second term on the right hand side is the displacement current as originally conceived by Maxwell, associated with the polarization of the individual molecules of the dielectric material. Maxwell's original explanation for displacement current focused upon the situation that occurs in dielectric media. In the modern post-aether era, the concept has been extended to apply to situations with no material media present, for example, to the vacuum between the plates of a charging vacuum capacitor. The displacement current is justified today because it serves several requirements of an electromagnetic theory: correct prediction of magnetic fields in regions where no free current flows; prediction of wave propagation of electromagnetic fields; and conservation of electric charge in cases where charge density is time-varying. For greater discussion see Displacement current.
Extending the original law: the Maxwell–Ampère equation
Next Ampère's equation is extended by including the polarization current, thereby remedying the limited applicability of the original Ampère's circuital law. Treating free charges separately from bound charges, Ampère's equation including Maxwell's correction in terms of the H-field is (the H-field is used because it includes the magnetization currents, so JM does not appear explicitly, see H-field and also Note):
(integral form), where H is the magnetic H field (also called "auxiliary magnetic field", "magnetic field intensity", or just "magnetic field"), D is the electric displacement field, and Jf is the enclosed conduction current or free current density. In differential form,
On the other hand, treating all charges on the same footing (disregarding whether they are bound or free charges), the generalized Ampère's equation, also called the Maxwell–Ampère equation, is in integral form (see the "proof" section below):
In differential form,
In both forms J includes magnetization current density as well as conduction and polarization current densities. That is, the current density on the right side of the Ampère–Maxwell equation is:
where current density JD is the displacement current, and J is the current density contribution actually due to movement of charges, both free and bound. Because ∇ · D = ρ, the charge continuity issue with Ampère's original formulation is no longer a problem. Because of the term in ε0∂E / ∂t, wave propagation in free space now is possible.
Ampère's circuital law With the addition of the displacement current, Maxwell was able to hypothesize (correctly) that light was a form of electromagnetic wave. See electromagnetic wave equation for a discussion of this important discovery.
Proof of equivalence
Proof that the formulations of Ampère's law in terms of free current are equivalent to the formulations involving total current. In this proof, we will show that the equation
is equivalent to the equation
Note that we're only dealing with the differential forms, not the integral forms, but that is sufficient since the differential and integral forms are equivalent in each case, by the Kelvin–Stokes theorem. We introduce the polarization density P, which has the following relation to E and D:
Next, we introduce the magnetization density M, which has the following relation to B and H:
and the following relation to the bound current:
is called the magnetization current density, and
is the polarization current density. Taking the equation for B:
Consequently, referring to the definition of the bound current:
as was to be shown.
Ampère's law in cgs units
In cgs units, the integral form of the equation, including Maxwell's correction, reads
where c is the speed of light. The differential form of the equation (again, including Maxwell's correction) is
Ampère's circuital law
 For example, see and  The magnetization current can be expressed as the curl of the magnetization, so its divergence is zero and it does not contribute to the continuity equation. See magnetization current.
• Griffiths, David J. (1998). Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-805326-X. • Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Electricity, Magnetism, Light, and Elementary Modern Physics (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0810-8.
• Simple Nature by Benjamin Crowell (http://www.lightandmatter.com/html_books/0sn/ch11/ch11. html#Section11.3) Ampere's law from an online textbook • MISN-0-138 Ampere's Law (http://18.104.22.168/home/modules/pdf_modules/m138.pdf) (PDF file) by Kirby Morgan for Project PHYSNET (http://www.physnet.org). • The Ampere–Maxwell Equation; Displacement Current (http://22.214.171.124/home/modules/ pdf_modules/m145.pdf) (PDF file) by J.S. Kovacs for Project PHYSNET. • The Ampère's Law Song (http://www.haverford.edu/physics-astro/songs/ampere.PDF) (PDF file) by Walter Fox Smith; Main page (http://www.haverford.edu/physics-astro/songs/), with recordings of the song. • A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/ A_Dynamical_Theory_of_the_Electromagnetic_Field.pdf) Maxwell's paper of 1864
Magnetic field of an ideal cylindrical magnet with its axis of symmetry inside the image plane.
A magnetic field is a mathematical description of the magnetic influence of electric currents and magnetic materials. The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength); as such it is a vector field. The magnetic field is most commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges. Magnetic field can refer to two separate but closely related fields which are denoted by the symbols B and H. Magnetic fields are produced by moving electric charges and the intrinsic magnetic moments of elementary particles associated with a fundamental quantum property, their spin. In special relativity, electric and magnetic fields are two interrelated aspects of a single object, called the electromagnetic tensor; the split of this tensor into electric and magnetic fields depends on the relative velocity of the observer and charge. In quantum physics, the electromagnetic field is quantized and electromagnetic interactions result from the exchange of photons. Magnetic fields have had many uses in ancient and modern society. The Earth produces its own magnetic field, which is important in navigation. Rotating magnetic fields are utilized in both electric motors and generators. Magnetic forces give information about the charge carriers in a material through the Hall effect. The interaction of magnetic fields in electric devices such as transformers is studied in the discipline of magnetic circuits.
Although magnets and magnetism were known much earlier, the study of magnetic fields began in 1269 when French scholar Petrus Peregrinus de Maricourt mapped out the magnetic field on the surface of a spherical magnet using iron needles. Noting that the resulting field lines crossed at two points he named those points 'poles' in analogy to Earth's poles. Almost three centuries later, William Gilbert of Colchester replicated Petrus Peregrinus' work and was the first to state explicitly that Earth is a magnet. Published in 1600, Gilbert's work, De Magnete, helped to establish magnetism as a science. In 1750, John Michell stated that magnetic One of the first drawings of a magnetic field, by René Descartes, 1644. It illustrated his theory that magnetism was caused by the circulation of tiny helical poles attract and repel in accordance with an particles, "threaded parts", through threaded pores in magnets. inverse square law. Charles-Augustin de Coulomb experimentally verified this in 1785 and stated explicitly that the North and South poles cannot be separated. Building on this force between poles, Siméon-Denis Poisson (1781–1840) created the first successful model of the magnetic field, which he presented in 1824. In this model, a magnetic H-field is produced by 'magnetic poles' and magnetism is due to small pairs of north/south magnetic poles. Three discoveries challenged this foundation of magnetism, though. First, in 1819, Hans Christian Oersted discovered that an electric current generates a magnetic field encircling it. Then in 1820, André-Marie Ampère showed that parallel wires having currents in the same direction attract one another. Finally, Jean-Baptiste Biot and Félix Savart discovered the Biot–Savart law in 1820, which correctly predicts the magnetic field around any current-carrying wire. Extending these experiments, Ampère published his own successful model of magnetism in 1825. In it, he showed the equivalence of electrical currents to magnets and proposed that magnetism is due to perpetually flowing loops of current instead of the dipoles of magnetic charge in Poisson's model. This has the additional benefit of explaining why magnetic charge can not be isolated. Further, Ampère derived both Ampère's force law describing the force between two currents and Ampère's law which, like the Biot–Savart law, correctly described the magnetic field generated by a steady current. Also in this work, Ampère introduced the term electrodynamics to describe the relationship between electricity and magnetism. In 1831, Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction when he found that a changing magnetic field generates an encircling electric field. He described this phenomenon in what is known as Faraday's law of induction. Later, Franz Ernst Neumann proved that, for a moving conductor in a magnetic field, induction is a consequence of Ampère's force law . In the process he introduced the magnetic vector potential, which was later shown to be equivalent to the underlying mechanism proposed by Faraday. In 1850, Lord Kelvin, then known as William Thomson, distinguished between two magnetic fields now denoted H and B. The former applied to Poisson's model and the latter to Ampère's model and induction. Further, he derived how H and B relate to each other.
Magnetic field Between 1861 and 1865, James Clerk Maxwell developed and published Maxwell's equations, which explained and united all of classical electricity and magnetism. The first set of these equations was published in a paper entitled On Physical Lines of Force in 1861. These equations were valid although incomplete. He completed Maxwell's set of equations in his later 1865 paper A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field and demonstrated the fact that light is an electromagnetic wave. Heinrich Hertz experimentally confirmed this fact in 1887. Although implicit in Ampère's force law the force due to a magnetic field on a moving electric charge was not correctly and explicitly stated until 1892 by Hendrik Lorentz who theoretically derived it from Maxwell's equations. With this last piece of the puzzle, the classical theory of electrodynamics was essentially complete. The twentieth century extended electrodynamics to include relativity and quantum mechanics. Albert Einstein, in his paper of 1905 that established relativity, showed that both the electric and magnetic fields are part of the same phenomena viewed from different reference frames. (See moving magnet and conductor problem for details about the thought experiment that eventually helped Albert Einstein to develop special relativity.) Finally, the emergent field of quantum mechanics was merged with electrodynamics to form quantum electrodynamics (QED).
Definitions, units, and measurement
Alternative names for B • • • Magnetic flux density Magnetic induction Magnetic field  
Alternative names for H • • • •
Magnetic field intensity Magnetic field strength Magnetic field Magnetizing field
The magnetic field can be defined in several equivalent ways based on the effects it has on its environment. Often the magnetic field is defined by the force it exerts on a moving charged particle. It is known from experiments in electrostatics that a particle of charge q in an electric field E experiences a force F = qE. However, in other situations, such as when a charged particle moves in the vicinity of a current-carrying wire, the force also depends on the velocity of that particle. Fortunately, the velocity dependent portion can be separated out such that the force on the particle satisfies the Lorentz force law,
Here v is the particle's velocity and × denotes the cross product. The vector B is termed the magnetic field, and it is defined as the vector field necessary to make the Lorentz force law correctly describe the motion of a charged particle. This definition allows the determination of B in the following way [T]he command, "Measure the direction and magnitude of the vector B at such and such a place," calls for the following operations: Take a particle of known charge q. Measure the force on q at rest, to determine E. Then measure the force on the particle when its velocity is v; repeat with v in some other direction. Now find a B that makes [the Lorentz force law] fit all these results—that is the magnetic field at the place in question. Alternatively, the magnetic field can be defined in terms of the torque it produces on a magnetic dipole (see magnetic torque on permanent magnets below). There are two magnetic fields, H and B. In a vacuum they are indistinguishable, differing only by a multiplicative constant that depends on the physical units. Inside a material they are different (see H and B inside and outside of
Magnetic field magnetic materials). The term magnetic field is historically reserved for H while using other terms for B. Informally, though, and formally for some recent textbooks mostly in physics, the term 'magnetic field' is used to describe B as well as or in place of H. There are many alternative names for both (see sidebar).
In SI units, B is measured in teslas (symbol: T) and correspondingly ΦB (magnetic flux) is measured in webers (symbol: Wb) so that a flux density of 1 Wb/m2 is 1 tesla. The SI unit of tesla is equivalent to (newton·second)/(coulomb·metre). In Gaussian-cgs units, B is measured in gauss (symbol: G). (The conversion is 1 T = 10,000 G.) The H-field is measured in ampere per metre (A/m) in SI units, and in oersteds (Oe) in cgs units.
The smallest precision level for a magnetic field measurement is on the order of attoteslas (10−18 teslas); the largest magnetic field produced in a laboratory is 2.8 kT (VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia, 1998). The magnetic field of some astronomical objects such as magnetars are much higher; magnetars range from 0.1 to 100 GT (108 to 1011 T). See orders of magnitude (magnetic field). Devices used to measure the local magnetic field are called magnetometers. Important classes of magnetometers include using a rotating coil, Hall effect magnetometers, NMR magnetometers, SQUID magnetometers, and fluxgate magnetometers. The magnetic fields of distant astronomical objects are measured through their effects on local charged particles. For instance, electrons spiraling around a field line produce synchrotron radiation that is detectable in radio waves.
Magnetic field lines
Mapping the magnetic field of an object is simple in principle. First, measure the strength and direction of the magnetic field at a large number of locations (or at every point in space). Then, mark each location with an arrow (called a vector) pointing in the direction of the local magnetic field with its magnitude proportional to the strength of the magnetic field. An alternative method to map the magnetic field is to 'connect' the arrows to form magnetic field lines. The direction of the magnetic field at any point is parallel to the direction of nearby field lines, and the local density of field lines can be made proportional to its strength. Magnetic field lines are like the contour lines (constant altitude) on a topographic map in that they represent something continuous, and a different mapping scale would show more or fewer lines. An advantage of using magnetic field lines as a representation is that many laws of magnetism (and electromagnetism) can be stated completely and concisely using simple concepts such as the 'number' of field lines through a surface. These concepts can be quickly 'translated' to their mathematical form. For example, the number of field lines through a given surface is the surface integral of the magnetic field.
Compasses reveal the direction of the local magnetic field. As seen here, the magnetic field points towards a magnet's south pole and away from its north pole.
Various phenomena have the effect of "displaying" magnetic field lines as though the field lines are physical phenomena. For example, iron filings placed in a magnetic field line up to form lines that correspond to 'field lines'. Magnetic fields' "lines" are also visually displayed in polar auroras, in which plasma particle dipole interactions create visible streaks of light that line up with the local direction of Earth's magnetic field. Field lines can be used as a qualitative tool to visualize magnetic The direction of magnetic field lines represented forces. In ferromagnetic substances like iron and in plasmas, magnetic by the alignment of iron filings sprinkled on forces can be understood by imagining that the field lines exert a paper placed above a bar magnet. tension, (like a rubber band) along their length, and a pressure perpendicular to their length on neighboring field lines. 'Unlike' poles of magnets attract because they are linked by many field lines; 'like' poles repel because their field lines do not meet, but run parallel, pushing on each other. The rigorous form of this concept is the electromagnetic stress–energy tensor.
Magnetic field and permanent magnets
Permanent magnets are objects that produce their own persistent magnetic fields. They are made of ferromagnetic materials, such as iron and nickel, that have been magnetized, and they have both a north and a south pole.
Magnetic field of permanent magnets
The magnetic field of permanent magnets can be quite complicated, especially near the magnet. The magnetic field of a small straight magnet is proportional to the magnet's strength (called its magnetic dipole moment m). The equations are non-trivial and also depend on the distance from the magnet and the orientation of the magnet. For simple magnets, m points in the direction of a line drawn from the south to the north pole of the magnet. Flipping a bar magnet is equivalent to rotating its m by 180 degrees. The magnetic field of larger magnets can be obtained by modelling them as a collection of a large number of small magnets called dipoles each having their own m. The magnetic field produced by the magnet then is the net magnetic field of these dipoles. And, any net force on the magnet is a result of adding up the forces on the individual dipoles. There are two competing models for the nature of these dipoles. These two models produce two different magnetic fields, H and B. Outside a material, though, the two are identical (to a multiplicative constant) so that in many cases the distinction can be ignored. This is particularly true for magnetic fields, such as those due to electric currents, that are not generated by magnetic materials.
Magnetic pole model and the H-field
It is sometimes useful to model the force and torques between two magnets as due to magnetic poles repelling or attracting each other in the same manner as the Coulomb force between electric charges. In this model, a magnetic H-field is produced by magnetic charges that are 'smeared' around each pole. The H-field, therefore, is analogous to the electric field E, which starts at a positive electric charge and ends at a negative electric charge. Near the north pole, therefore, all H-field lines point away from the north pole (whether inside the magnet or out) while near the south pole (whether inside the magnet or out) all H-field lines point toward the south pole. A north pole, then, feels a force in the direction of the H-field while the force on the south pole is opposite to the H-field. In the magnetic pole model, the elementary magnetic dipole m is formed by two opposite magnetic poles of pole strength qm separated by a very small distance vector d, such that m = qm d.
The magnetic pole model: two opposing poles, North (+) and South (−), separated by a distance d produce an H-field (lines).
Magnetic poles cannot exist apart from each other; all magnets have north/south pairs that cannot be separated without creating two magnets each having a north/south pair. The magnetic pole model does not account for magnetism that is produced by electric currents, nor the force that a magnetic field applies to moving electric charges.
Amperian loop model and the B-field
After Oersted discovered that electric currents produce a magnetic field and Ampere discovered that electric currents attracted and repelled each other similar to magnets, it was natural to hypothesize that all magnetic fields are due to electric current loops. In this model developed by Ampere, the elementary magnetic dipole that makes up all magnets is a sufficiently small Amperian loop of current I. The dipole moment of this loop is m = IA where A is the area of the loop. These magnetic dipoles produce a magnetic B-field. One important property of the B-field produced this way is that magnetic B-field lines neither start nor end (mathematically, B is a solenoidal vector field); a field line either extends to infinity or wraps around to form a closed curve. To date no exception to The Amperian loop model: A current loop (ring) that goes into the page at the x and comes out at the dot this rule has been found. (See magnetic monopole below.) produces a B-field (lines). The north pole is to the right Magnetic field lines exit a magnet near its north pole and enter and the south to the left. near its south pole, but inside the magnet B-field lines continue through the magnet from the south pole back to the north. If a B-field line enters a magnet somewhere it has to leave somewhere else; it is not allowed to have an end point. Magnetic poles, therefore, always come in N and S pairs. More formally, since all the magnetic field lines that enter any given region must also leave that region, subtracting the 'number' of field lines that enter the region from the number that exit gives identically zero. Mathematically this is equivalent to:
Magnetic field where the integral is a surface integral over the closed surface S (a closed surface is one that completely surrounds a region with no holes to let any field lines escape). Since dA points outward, the dot product in the integral is positive for B-field pointing out and negative for B-field pointing in. There is also a corresponding differential form of this equation covered in Maxwell's equations below.
Force between magnets
The force between two small magnets is quite complicated and depends on the strength and orientation of both magnets and the distance and direction of the magnets relative to each other. The force is particularly sensitive to rotations of the magnets due to magnetic torque. The force on each magnet depends on its magnetic moment and the magnetic field of the other. To understand the force between magnets, it is useful to examine the magnetic pole model given above. In this model, the H-field of one magnet pushes and pulls on both poles of a second magnet. If this H-field is the same at both poles of the second magnet then there is no net force on that magnet since the force is opposite for opposite poles. If, however, the magnetic field of the first magnet is nonuniform (such as the H near one of its poles), each pole of the second magnet sees a different field and is subject to a different force. This difference in the two forces moves the magnet in the direction of increasing magnetic field and may also cause a net torque. This is a specific example of a general rule that magnets are attracted (or repulsed depending on the orientation of the magnet) into regions of higher magnetic field. Any non-uniform magnetic field, whether caused by permanent magnets or electric currents, exerts a force on a small magnet in this way. The details of the Amperian loop model are different and more complicated but yield the same result: that magnetic dipoles are attracted/repelled into regions of higher magnetic field. Mathematically, the force on a small magnet having a magnetic moment m due to a magnetic field B is:
where the gradient ∇ is the change of the quantity m · B per unit distance and the direction is that of maximum increase of m · B. To understand this equation, note that the dot product m · B = mBcos(θ), where m and B represent the magnitude of the m and B vectors and θ is the angle between them. If m is in the same direction as B then the dot product is positive and the gradient points 'uphill' pulling the magnet into regions of higher B-field (more strictly larger m · B). This equation is strictly only valid for magnets of zero size, but is often a good approximation for not too large magnets. The magnetic force on larger magnets is determined by dividing them into smaller regions having their own m then summing up the forces on each of these regions.
Magnetic torque on permanent magnets
If two like poles of two separate magnets are brought near each other, and one of the magnets is allowed to turn, it promptly rotates to align itself with the first. In this example, the magnetic field of the stationary magnet creates a magnetic torque on the magnet that is free to rotate. This magnetic torque τ tends to align a magnet's poles with the magnetic field lines. A compass, therefore, turns to align itself with Earth's magnetic field. Magnetic torque is used to drive electric motors. In one simple motor design, a magnet is fixed to a freely rotating shaft and subjected to a magnetic field from an array of electromagnets. By continuously switching the electric current through each of the electromagnets, thereby flipping the polarity of their magnetic fields, like poles are kept next to the rotor; the resultant torque is transferred to the shaft. See Rotating magnetic fields below.
42 As is the case for the force between magnets, the magnetic pole model leads more readily to the correct equation. Here, two equal and opposite magnetic charges experiencing the same H also experience equal and opposite forces. Since these equal and opposite forces are in different locations, this produces a torque proportional to the distance (perpendicular to the force) between them. With the definition of m as the pole strength times the distance between the poles, this leads to τ = μ0mHsinθ, where μ0 is a constant called the vacuum permeability, measuring 4π×10−7 V·s/(A·m and θ is the angle between H and m.
torque on a dipole: An H field (to right) causes equal but opposite forces on a N pole (+q) and a S pole (−q) creating a torque.
The Amperian loop model also predicts the same magnetic torque. Here, it is the B field interacting with the Amperian current loop through a Lorentz force described below. Again, the results are the same although the models are completely different. Mathematically, the torque τ on a small magnet is proportional both to the applied magnetic field and to the magnetic moment m of the magnet:
where × represents the vector cross product. Note that this equation includes all of the qualitative information included above. There is no torque on a magnet if m is in the same direction as the magnetic field. (The cross product is zero for two vectors that are in the same direction.) Further, all other orientations feel a torque that twists them toward the direction of magnetic field.
Cross product: |a × b| = a b sinθ.
Magnetic field and electric currents
Currents of electric charges both generate a magnetic field and feel a force due to magnetic B-fields.
Magnetic field due to moving charges and electric currents
All moving charged particles produce magnetic fields. Moving point charges, such as electrons, produce complicated but well known magnetic fields that depend on the charge, velocity, and acceleration of the particles. Magnetic field lines form in concentric circles around a cylindrical current-carrying conductor, such as a length of wire. The direction of such a magnetic field can be determined by using the "right hand grip rule" (see figure at right). The strength of the magnetic field decreases with distance from the wire. (For an infinite length wire the strength decreases inversely proportional to the distance.)
Right hand grip rule: a current flowing in the direction of the white arrow produces a magnetic field shown by the red arrows.
43 Bending a current-carrying wire into a loop concentrates the magnetic field inside the loop while weakening it outside. Bending a wire into multiple closely spaced loops to form a coil or "solenoid" enhances this effect. A device so formed around an iron core may act as an electromagnet, generating a strong, well-controlled magnetic field. An infinitely long cylindrical electromagnet has a uniform magnetic field inside, and no magnetic field outside. A finite length electromagnet produces a magnetic field that looks similar to that produced by a uniform permanent magnet, with its strength and polarity determined by the current flowing through the coil. The magnetic field generated by a steady current I (a constant flow of electric charges, in which charge neither accumulates nor is depleted at any point) is described by the Biot–Savart law:
where the integral sums over the wire length where vector dℓ is the vector line element with direction in the same sense as the current I, μ0 is the magnetic constant, r is the distance between the location of dℓ and the location at which the magnetic field is being calculated, and r̂ is a unit vector in the direction of r. A slightly more general way of relating the current to the B-field is through Ampère's law:
where the line integral is over any arbitrary loop and
is the current enclosed by that loop. Ampère's law is
always valid for steady currents and can be used to calculate the B-field for certain highly symmetric situations such as an infinite wire or an infinite solenoid. In a modified form that accounts for time varying electric fields, Ampère's law is one of four Maxwell's equations that describe electricity and magnetism.
Force on moving charges and current
Force on a charged particle A charged particle moving in a B-field experiences a sideways force that is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field, the component of the velocity that is perpendicular to the magnetic field and the charge of the particle. This force is known as the Lorentz force, and is given by
where F is the force, q is the electric charge of the particle, v is the instantaneous velocity of the particle, and B is the magnetic field (in teslas). The Lorentz force is always perpendicular to both the velocity of the particle and the magnetic field that created it. When a charged particle moves in a static magnetic field, it traces a helical path in which the helix axis is parallel to the magnetic field, and in which the speed of the particle remains constant. Because the magnetic force is always perpendicular to the motion, the magnetic field can do no work on an isolated charge. It can only do work indirectly, via the electric field generated by a changing magnetic field. It is often claimed that the magnetic force can do work to a non-elementary magnetic dipole, or to charged particles whose motion is constrained by other forces, but this is incorrect because the work in those cases is performed by the electric forces of the charges deflected by the magnetic field. Force on current-carrying wire The force on a current carrying wire is similar to that of a moving charge as expected since a charge carrying wire is a collection of moving charges. A current-carrying wire feels a force in the presence of a magnetic field. The Lorentz force on a macroscopic current is often referred to as the Laplace force. Consider a conductor of length ℓ, cross section A, and charge q due to electric current i. If this conductor is placed in a magnetic field of magnitude B that makes an angle θ with the velocity of charges in the conductor, the force exerted on a single charge q is
Charged particle drifts in a magnetic field with (A) no net force, (B) an electric field, E, (C) a charge independent force, F (e.g. gravity), and (D) an inhomogeneous magnetic field, grad H.
so, for N charges where , the force exerted on the conductor is , where i = nqvA.
Direction of force The direction of force on a charge or a current can be determined by a mnemonic known as the right-hand rule (see the figure). Using the right hand and pointing the thumb in the direction of the moving positive charge or positive current and the fingers in the direction of the magnetic field the resulting force on the charge points outwards from the palm. The force on a negatively charged particle is in the opposite direction. The right-hand rule: Pointing the thumb of the right hand in the If both the speed and the charge are reversed then the direction of the conventional current and the fingers in the direction direction of the force remains the same. For that reason of B the force on the current points out of the palm. The force is reversed for a negative charge. a magnetic field measurement (by itself) cannot distinguish whether there is a positive charge moving to the right or a negative charge moving to the left. (Both of these cases produce the same current.) On the other hand, a magnetic field combined with an electric field can distinguish between these, see Hall effect below. An alternative mnemonic to the right hand rule Flemings's left hand rule.
Relation between H and B
The formulas derived for the magnetic field above are correct when dealing with the entire current. A magnetic material placed inside a magnetic field, though, generates its own bound current, which can be a challenge to calculate. (This bound current is due to the sum of atomic sized current loops and the spin of the subatomic particles such as electrons that make up the material.) The H-field as defined above helps factor out this bound current; but to see how, it helps to introduce the concept of magnetization first.
The magnetization vector field M represents how strongly a region of material is magnetized. It is defined as the net magnetic dipole moment per unit volume of that region. The magnetization of a uniform magnet, therefore, is a constant in the material equal to its magnetic moment, m, divided by its volume. Since the SI unit of magnetic moment is ampere meter2, the SI unit of magnetization M is ampere per meter, identical to that of the H-field. The magnetization M field of a region points in the direction of the average magnetic dipole moment in that region. Magnetization field lines, therefore, begin near the magnetic south pole and ends near the magnetic north pole. (Magnetization does not exist outside of the magnet.) In the Amperian loop model, the magnetization is due to combining many tiny Amperian loops to form a resultant current called bound current. This bound current, then, is the source of the magnetic B field due to the magnet. (See Magnetic dipoles below and magnetic poles vs. atomic currents for more information.) Given the definition of the magnetic dipole, the magnetization field follows a similar law to that of Ampere's law:
where the integral is a line integral over any closed loop and Ib is the 'bound current' enclosed by that closed loop. In the magnetic pole model, magnetization begins at and ends at magnetic poles. If a given region, therefore, has a net positive 'magnetic pole strength' (corresponding to a north pole) then it has more magnetization field lines entering it than leaving it. Mathematically this is equivalent to: ,
Magnetic field where the integral is a closed surface integral over the closed surface S and qM is the 'magnetic charge' (in units of magnetic flux) enclosed by S. (A closed surface completely surrounds a region with no holes to let any field lines escape.) The negative sign occurs because the magnetization field moves from south to north.
H-field and magnetic materials
The H-field is defined as: (definition of H in SI units) With this definition, Ampere's law becomes:
where If represents the 'free current' enclosed by the loop so that the line integral of H does not depend at all on the bound currents. For the differential equivalent of this equation see Maxwell's equations. Ampere's law leads to the boundary condition
where Kf is the surface free current density and the unit normal 1.
points in the direction from medium 2 to medium
Similarly, a surface integral of H over any closed surface is independent of the free currents and picks out the 'magnetic charges' within that closed surface:
which does not depend on the free currents. The H-field, therefore, can be separated into two independent parts:
where H0 is the applied magnetic field due only to the free currents and Hd is the demagnetizing field due only to the bound currents. The magnetic H-field, therefore, re-factors the bound current in terms of 'magnetic charges'. The H field lines loop only around 'free current' and, unlike the magnetic B field, begins and ends near magnetic poles as well.
Most materials respond to an applied B-field by producing their own magnetization M and therefore their own B-field. Typically, the response is very weak and exists only when the magnetic field is applied. The term magnetism describes how materials respond on the microscopic level to an applied magnetic field and is used to categorize the magnetic phase of a material. Materials are divided into groups based upon their magnetic behavior: • Diamagnetic materials produce a magnetization that opposes the magnetic field. • Paramagnetic materials produce a magnetization in the same direction as the applied magnetic field. • Ferromagnetic materials and the closely related ferrimagnetic materials and antiferromagnetic materials can have a magnetization independent of an applied B-field with a complex relationship between the two fields. • Superconductors (and ferromagnetic superconductors) are materials that are characterized by perfect conductivity below a critical temperature and magnetic field. They also are highly magnetic and can be perfect diamagnets below a lower critical magnetic field. Superconductors often have a broad range of temperatures and magnetic fields (the so named mixed state) under which they exhibit a complex hysteretic dependence of M on B. In the case of paramagnetism and diamagnetism, the magnetization M is often proportional to the applied magnetic field such that:
where μ is a material dependent parameter called the permeability. In some cases the permeability may be a second rank tensor so that H may not point in the same direction as B. These relations between B and H are examples of constitutive equations. However, superconductors and ferromagnets have a more complex B to H relation; see magnetic hysteresis.
Energy stored in magnetic fields
Energy is needed to generate a magnetic field both to work against the electric field that a changing magnetic field creates and to change the magnetization of any material within the magnetic field. For non-dispersive materials this same energy is released when the magnetic field is destroyed so that this energy can be modeled as being stored in the magnetic field. For linear, non-dispersive, materials (such that B = μH where μ is frequency-independent), the energy density is:
If there are no magnetic materials around then μ can be replaced by μ0. The above equation cannot be used for nonlinear materials, though; a more general expression given below must be used. In general, the incremental amount of work per unit volume δW needed to cause a small change of magnetic field δB is:
Once the relationship between H and B is known this equation is used to determine the work needed to reach a given magnetic state. For hysteretic materials such as ferromagnets and superconductors, the work needed also depends on how the magnetic field is created. For linear non-dispersive materials, though, the general equation leads directly to the simpler energy density equation given above.
Electromagnetism: the relationship between magnetic and electric fields
Faraday's Law: Electric force due to a changing B-field
A changing magnetic field, such as a magnet moving through a conducting coil, generates an electric field (and therefore tends to drive a current in the coil). This is known as Faraday's law and forms the basis of many electrical generators and electric motors. Mathematically, Faraday's law is:
where is the electromotive force (or EMF, the voltage generated around a closed loop) and Φm is the magnetic flux—the product of the area times the magnetic field normal to that area. (This definition of magnetic flux is why B is often referred to as magnetic flux density.) The negative sign is necessary and represents the fact that any current generated by a changing magnetic field in a coil produces a magnetic field that opposes the change in the magnetic field that induced it. This phenomenon is known as Lenz's Law. This integral formulation of Faraday's law can be converted into a differential form, which applies under slightly different conditions. This form is covered as one of Maxwell's equations below.
Maxwell's correction to Ampère's Law: The magnetic field due to a changing electric field
Similar to the way that a changing magnetic field generates an electric field, a changing electric field generates a magnetic field. This fact is known as Maxwell's correction to Ampère's law. Maxwell's correction to Ampère's Law bootstrap together with Faraday's law of induction to form electromagnetic waves, such as light. Thus, a changing electric field generates a changing magnetic field, which generates a changing electric field again. Maxwell's correction to Ampère law is applied as an additive term to Ampere's law given above. This additive term is proportional to the time rate of change of the electric flux and is similar to Faraday's law above but with a different and positive constant out front. (The electric flux through an area is proportional to the area times the perpendicular part of the electric field.) This full Ampère law including the correction term is known as the Maxwell–Ampère equation. It is not commonly given in integral form because the effect is so small that it can typically be ignored in most cases where the integral form is used. The Maxwell term is critically important in the creation and propagation of electromagnetic waves. These, though, are usually described using the differential form of this equation given below.
Like all vector fields, a magnetic field has two important mathematical properties that relates it to its sources. (For B the sources are currents and changing electric fields.) These two properties, along with the two corresponding properties of the electric field, make up Maxwell's Equations. Maxwell's Equations together with the Lorentz force law form a complete description of classical electrodynamics including both electricity and magnetism. The first property is the divergence of a vector field A, ∇ · A, which represents how A 'flows' outward from a given point. As discussed above, a B-field line never starts or ends at a point but instead forms a complete loop. This is mathematically equivalent to saying that the divergence of B is zero. (Such vector fields are called solenoidal vector fields.) This property is called Gauss's law for magnetism and is equivalent to the statement that there are no isolated magnetic poles or magnetic monopoles. The electric field on the other hand begins and ends at electric charges so that its divergence is non-zero and proportional to the charge density (See Gauss's law). The second mathematical property is called the curl, such that ∇ × A represents how A curls or 'circulates' around a given point. The result of the curl is called a 'circulation source'. The equations for the curl of B and of E are called the Ampère–Maxwell equation and Faraday's law respectively. They represent the differential forms of the integral equations given above. The complete set of Maxwell's equations then are:
where J = complete microscopic current density and ρ is the charge density.
Technically, B is a pseudovector (also called an axial vector) due to being defined by a vector cross product. (See diagram.) As discussed above, materials respond to an applied electric E field and an applied magnetic B field by producing their own internal 'bound' charge and current distributions that contribute to E and B but are difficult to calculate. To circumvent this problem, H and D fields are used to re-factor Maxwell's equations in terms of the free current density Jf and free charge density ρf:
Magnetic field, like all pseudovectors, changes sign when reflected in a mirror: When a current carrying loop (black) is reflected in a mirror (dotted line), its magnetic field (blue) is reflected and reversed.
These equations are not any more general than the original equations (if the 'bound' charges and currents in the material are known). They also need to be supplemented by the relationship between B and H as well as that between E and D. On the other hand, for simple relationships between these quantities this form of Maxwell's equations can circumvent the need to calculate the bound charges and currents.
Electric and magnetic fields: different aspects of the same phenomenon
According to the special theory of relativity, the partition of the electromagnetic force into separate electric and magnetic components is not fundamental, but varies with the observational frame of reference: An electric force perceived by one observer may be perceived by another (in a different frame of reference) as a magnetic force, or a mixture of electric and magnetic forces. Formally, special relativity combines the electric and magnetic fields into a rank-2 tensor, called the electromagnetic tensor. Changing reference frames mixes these components. This is analogous to the way that special relativity mixes space and time into spacetime, and mass, momentum and energy into four-momentum.
Magnetic vector potential
In advanced topics such as quantum mechanics and relativity it is often easier to work with a potential formulation of electrodynamics rather than in terms of the electric and magnetic fields. In this representation, the vector potential A, and the scalar potential φ, are defined such that:
The vector potential A may be interpreted as a generalized potential momentum per unit charge just as φ is interpreted as a generalized potential energy per unit charge. Maxwell's equations when expressed in terms of the potentials can be cast into a form that agrees with special relativity with little effort. In relativity A together with φ forms the four-potential, analogous to the four-momentum that combines the momentum and energy of a particle. Using the four potential instead of the electromagnetic tensor has the advantage of being much simpler—and it can be easily modified to work with quantum mechanics.
In modern physics, the electromagnetic field is understood to be not a classical field, but rather a quantum field; it is represented not as a vector of three numbers at each point, but as a vector of three quantum operators at each point. The most accurate modern description of the electromagnetic interaction (and much else) is quantum electrodynamics (QED), which is incorporated into a more complete theory known as the Standard Model of particle physics. In QED, the magnitude of the electromagnetic interactions between charged particles (and their antiparticles) is computed using perturbation theory; these rather complex formulas have a remarkable pictorial representation as Feynman diagrams in which virtual photons are exchanged. Predictions of QED agree with experiments to an extremely high degree of accuracy: currently about 10−12 (and limited by experimental errors); for details see precision tests of QED. This makes QED one of the most accurate physical theories constructed thus far. All equations in this article are in the classical approximation, which is less accurate than the quantum description mentioned here. However, under most everyday circumstances, the difference between the two theories is negligible.
Important uses and examples of magnetic field
Earth's magnetic field
The Earth's magnetic field is thought to be produced by convection currents in the outer liquid of Earth's core. The Dynamo theory proposes that these movements produce electric currents that, in turn, produce the magnetic field. The presence of this field causes a compass, placed anywhere within it, to rotate so that the "north pole" of the magnet in the compass points roughly north, toward Earth's north magnetic pole. This is the traditional definition of the "north pole" of a magnet, although other equivalent definitions are also possible. One confusion that arises from this definition is that, if Earth itself is considered as a magnet, the south pole of that magnet would be the one nearer the north magnetic pole, and vice-versa. The north magnetic pole is so-named not because of the polarity of the field there but because of its geographical location. The north and south poles of a permanent magnet are so-called because they are "north-seeking" and "south-seeking", respectively.
A sketch of Earth's magnetic field representing the source of the field as a magnet. The geographic north pole of Earth is near the top of the diagram, the south pole near the bottom. The south pole of that magnet is deep in Earth's interior below Earth's North Magnetic Pole.
The figure is a sketch of Earth's magnetic field represented by field lines. For most locations, the magnetic field has a significant up/down component in addition to the North/South component. (There is also an East/West component; Earth's magnetic poles do not coincide exactly with Earth's geological pole.) The magnetic field can be visualised as a bar magnet buried deep in Earth's interior. Earth's magnetic field is not constant—the strength of the field and the location of its poles vary. Moreover, the poles periodically reverse their orientation in a process called geomagnetic reversal. The most recent reversal occurred
Magnetic field 780,000 years ago.
Rotating magnetic fields
The rotating magnetic field is a key principle in the operation of alternating-current motors. A permanent magnet in such a field rotates so as to maintain its alignment with the external field. This effect was conceptualized by Nikola Tesla, and later utilized in his, and others', early AC (alternating-current) electric motors. A rotating magnetic field can be constructed using two orthogonal coils with 90 degrees phase difference in their AC currents. However, in practice such a system would be supplied through a three-wire arrangement with unequal currents. This inequality would cause serious problems in standardization of the conductor size and so, to overcome it, three-phase systems are used where the three currents are equal in magnitude and have 120 degrees phase difference. Three similar coils having mutual geometrical angles of 120 degrees create the rotating magnetic field in this case. The ability of the three-phase system to create a rotating field, utilized in electric motors, is one of the main reasons why three-phase systems dominate the world's electrical power supply systems. Because magnets degrade with time, synchronous motors use DC voltage fed rotor windings, which allows the excitation of the machine to be controlled and induction motors use short-circuited rotors (instead of a magnet) following the rotating magnetic field of a multicoiled stator. The short-circuited turns of the rotor develop eddy currents in the rotating field of the stator, and these currents in turn move the rotor by the Lorentz force. In 1882, Nikola Tesla identified the concept of the rotating magnetic field. In 1885, Galileo Ferraris independently researched the concept. In 1888, Tesla gained U.S. Patent 381,968  for his work. Also in 1888, Ferraris published his research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin.
The charge carriers of a current carrying conductor placed in a transverse magnetic field experience a sideways Lorentz force; this results in a charge separation in a direction perpendicular to the current and to the magnetic field. The resultant voltage in that direction is proportional to the applied magnetic field. This is known as the Hall effect. The Hall effect is often used to measure the magnitude of a magnetic field. It is used as well to find the sign of the dominant charge carriers in materials such as semiconductors (negative electrons or positive holes).
An important use of H is in magnetic circuits where B = μH inside a linear material. Here, μ is the magnetic permeability of the material. This result is similar in form to Ohm's law , where J is the current density, σ is the conductance and E is the electric field. Extending this analogy, the counterpart to the macroscopic Ohm's law (I = V⁄R) is:
is the magnetic flux in the circuit,
is the magnetomotive force applied to
the circuit, and Rm is the reluctance of the circuit. Here the reluctance Rm is a quantity similar in nature to resistance for the flux. Using this analogy it is straightforward to calculate the magnetic flux of complicated magnetic field geometries, by using all the available techniques of circuit theory.
Magnetic field shape descriptions
• An azimuthal magnetic field is one that runs east-west. • A meridional magnetic field is one that runs north-south. In the solar dynamo model of the Sun, differential rotation of the solar plasma causes the meridional magnetic field to stretch into an azimuthal magnetic field, a process called the omega-effect. The reverse process is called the alpha-effect. • A dipole magnetic field is one seen around a bar magnet or around a charged elementary particle with nonzero spin. • A quadrupole magnetic field is one seen, for example, between the poles of four bar magnets. The field strength grows linearly with the radial distance from its longitudinal axis. • A solenoidal magnetic field is similar to a dipole magnetic field, except that a solid bar magnet is replaced by a hollow electromagnetic coil magnet.
Schematic quadrupole magnet ("four-pole") magnetic field. There are four steel pole tips, two opposing magnetic north poles and two opposing magnetic south poles.
• A toroidal magnetic field occurs in a doughnut-shaped coil, the electric current spiraling around the tube-like surface, and is found, for example, in a tokamak. • A poloidal magnetic field is generated by a current flowing in a ring, and is found, for example, in a tokamak. • A radial magnetic field is one in which the field lines are directed from the center outwards, similar to the spokes in a bicycle wheel. An example can be found in a loudspeaker transducers (driver). • A helical magnetic field is corkscrew-shaped, and sometimes seen in space plasmas such as the Orion Molecular Cloud.
The magnetic field of a magnetic dipole is depicted in the figure. From outside, the ideal magnetic dipole is identical to that of an ideal electric dipole of the same strength. Unlike the electric dipole, a magnetic dipole is properly modeled as a current loop having a current I and an area a. Such a current loop has a magnetic moment of:
where the direction of m is perpendicular to the area of the loop and depends on the direction of the current using the right-hand rule. An ideal magnetic dipole is modeled as a real magnetic dipole whose area a has been reduced to zero and its current I increased to infinity such that the product m = Ia is finite. This model clarifies the connection Magnetic field lines around a ”magnetostatic between angular momentum and magnetic moment, which is the basis dipole” pointing to the right. of the Einstein-de Haas effect rotation by magnetization and its inverse, the Barnett effect or magnetization by rotation. Rotating the loop faster (in the same direction) increases the current and therefore the magnetic moment, for example. It is sometimes useful to model the magnetic dipole similar to the electric dipole with two equal but opposite magnetic charges (one south the other north) separated by distance d. This model produces an H-field not a B-field. Such a model is deficient, though, both in that there are no magnetic charges and in that it obscures the link between electricity and magnetism. Further, as discussed above it fails to explain the inherent connection between angular momentum and magnetism.
Magnetic monopole (hypothetical)
A magnetic monopole is a hypothetical particle (or class of particles) that has, as its name suggests, only one magnetic pole (either a north pole or a south pole). In other words, it would possess a "magnetic charge" analogous to an electric charge. Magnetic field lines would start or end on magnetic monopoles, so if they exist, they would give exceptions to the rule that magnetic field lines neither start nor end. Modern interest in this concept stems from particle theories, notably Grand Unified Theories and superstring theories, that predict either the existence, or the possibility, of magnetic monopoles. These theories and others have inspired extensive efforts to search for monopoles. Despite these efforts, no magnetic monopole has been observed to date. In recent research, materials known as spin ices can simulate monopoles, but do not contain actual monopoles.
 Technically, a magnetic field is a pseudo vector; pseudo-vectors, which also include torque and rotational velocity, are similar to vectors except that they remain unchanged when the coordinates are inverted.  His Epistola Petri Peregrini de Maricourt ad Sygerum de Foucaucourt Militem de Magnete, which is often shortened to Epistola de magnete, is dated 1269 C.E.  From the outside, the field of a dipole of magnetic charge has the exact same form as that of a current loop when both are sufficiently small. Therefore, the two models differ only for magnetism inside magnetic material.  Electromagnetics, by Rothwell and Cloud, p23 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=jCqv1UygjA4C& pg=PA23)  Edward Purcell, in Electricity and Magnetism, McGraw-Hill, 1963, writes, Even some modern writers who treat as the primary field feel obliged to call it the magnetic induction because the name magnetic field was historically preempted by . This seems clumsy and pedantic. If you go into the laboratory and ask a physicist what causes the pion trajectories in his bubble chamber to curve, he'll probably answer "magnetic field", not "magnetic induction." You will seldom hear a geophysicist refer to the Earth's magnetic induction, or an astrophysicist talk about the magnetic induction of the galaxy. We propose to keep on calling the magnetic field. As for , although other names have been invented for it, we shall call it "the field " or even "the magnetic field ." In a similar vein, says: "So we may think of both and as magnetic fields, but drop the word 'magnetic' from so as to maintain the distinction ... As Purcell points out, 'it is only the names that give trouble, not the symbols'."  This can be seen from the magnetic part of the Lorentz force law .  Kouveliotou, C.; Duncan, R. C.; Thompson, C. (February 2003). " Magnetars (http:/ / solomon. as. utexas. edu/ ~duncan/ sciam. pdf)". Scientific American; Page 36.  The use of iron filings to display a field presents something of an exception to this picture; the filings alter the magnetic field so that it is much larger along the "lines" of iron, due to the large permeability of iron relative to air.  Here 'small' means that the observer is sufficiently far away that it can be treated as being infinitesimally small. 'Larger' magnets need to include more complicated terms in the expression and depend on the entire geometry of the magnet not just .  Magnetic field lines may also wrap around and around without closing but also without ending. These more complicated non-closing non-ending magnetic field lines are moot, though, since the magnetic field of objects that produce them are calculated by adding the magnetic fields of 'elementary parts' having magnetic field lines that do form closed curves or extend to infinity.  To see that this must be true imagine placing a compass inside a magnet. There, the north pole of the compass points toward the north pole of the magnet since magnets stacked on each other point in the same direction.  As discussed above, magnetic field lines are primarily a conceptual tool used to represent the mathematics behind magnetic fields. The total 'number' of field lines is dependent on how the field lines are drawn. In practice, integral equations such as the one that follows in the main text are used instead.  Either or may be used for the magnetic field outside of the magnet.  See Eq. 11.42 in  In practice, the Biot–Savart law and other laws of magnetostatics are often used even when a current change in time, as long as it does not change too quickly. It is often used, for instance, for standard household currents, which oscillate sixty times per second.  The Biot–Savart law contains the additional restriction (boundary condition) that the B-field must go to zero fast enough at infinity. It also depends on the divergence of being zero, which is always valid. (There are no magnetic charges.)  A third term is needed for changing electric fields and polarization currents; this displacement current term is covered in Maxwell's equations below.  A complete expression for Faraday's law of induction in terms of the electric and magnetic fields can be written as: UNIQ-math-0-044beec7415b8557-QINU UNIQ-math-1-044beec7415b8557-QINU UNIQ-math-2-044beec7415b8557-QINU where is the moving closed path bounding the moving surface , and is an element of surface area of . The first integral calculates the work done moving a charge a distance based upon the Lorentz force law. In the case where the bounding surface is stationary, the Kelvin–Stokes theorem can be used to show this equation is equivalent to the Maxwell–Faraday equation.
 C. Doran and A. Lasenby (2003) Geometric Algebra for Physicists, Cambridge University Press, p.233  For a good qualitative introduction see:  http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?vid=381968  The Solar Dynamo (http:/ / www. cora. nwra. com/ ~werne/ eos/ text/ dynamo. html), retrieved September 15, 2007.  I. S. Falconer and M. I. Large (edited by I. M. Sefton), " Magnetism: Fields and Forces (http:/ / www. physics. usyd. edu. au/ super/ life_sciences/ electricity. html)" Lecture E6, The University of Sydney, retrieved 3 October 2008  Robert Sanders, " Astronomers find magnetic Slinky in Orion (http:/ / berkeley. edu/ news/ media/ releases/ 2006/ 01/ 12_helical. shtml)", 12 January 2006 at UC Berkeley. Retrieved 3 October 2008  (See magnetic moment for further information.)  Two experiments produced candidate events that were initially interpreted as monopoles, but these are now regarded to be inconclusive. For details and references, see magnetic monopole.
References Further reading
• Durney, Carl H. and Johnson, Curtis C. (1969). Introduction to modern electromagnetics. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-018388-0. • Furlani, Edward P. (2001). Permanent Magnet and Electromechanical Devices: Materials, Analysis and Applications. Academic Press Series in Electromagnetism. ISBN 0-12-269951-3. OCLC 162129430 (http:// www.worldcat.org/oclc/162129430). • Griffiths, David J. (1999). Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 438. ISBN 0-13-805326-X. OCLC 40251748 (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/40251748). • Jiles, David (1994). Introduction to Electronic Properties of Materials (1st ed ed.). Springer. ISBN 0-412-49580-5. • Kraftmakher, Yaakov (2001). "Two experiments with rotating magnetic field" (http://www.iop.org/EJ/ abstract/0143-0807/22/5/302). Eur. J. Phys. 22: 477–482. • Melle, Sonia; Rubio, Miguel A.; Fuller, Gerald G. (2000). "Structure and dynamics of magnetorheological fluids in rotating magnetic fields" (http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PRE/v61/i4/p4111_1). Phys. Rev. E 61: 4111–4117. Bibcode: 2000PhRvE..61.4111M (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhRvE..61.4111M). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.61.4111 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.61.4111). • Rao, Nannapaneni N. (1994). Elements of engineering electromagnetics (4th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-948746-8. OCLC 221993786 (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/221993786). • Mielnik, Bogdan (1989). "An electron trapped in a rotating magnetic field" (http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/ servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=JMAPAQ000030000002000537000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes). Journal of Mathematical Physics 30 (2): 537–549. Bibcode: 1989JMP....30..537M (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/ abs/1989JMP....30..537M). doi: 10.1063/1.528419 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.528419). • Thalmann, Julia K. (2010). Evolution of Coronal Magnetic Fields. uni-edition. ISBN 978-3-942171-41-0. • Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Electricity, Magnetism, Light, and Elementary Modern Physics (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0810-8. OCLC 51095685 (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/ 51095685). • Whittaker, E. T. (1951). A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity (http://www.archive.org/details/ historyoftheorie00whitrich). Dover Publications. p. 34. ISBN 0-486-26126-3.
• • • • Crowell, B., " Electromagnetism (http:/ / www. lightandmatter. com/ html_books/ 0sn/ ch11/ ch11. html)". Nave, R., " Magnetic Field (http:/ / hyperphysics. phy-astr. gsu. edu/ hbase/ magnetic/ magfie. html)". HyperPhysics. "Magnetism", The Magnetic Field (http:/ / theory. uwinnipeg. ca/ physics/ mag/ node2. html#SECTION00110000000000000000). theory.uwinnipeg.ca. Hoadley, Rick, " What do magnetic fields look like (http:/ / my. execpc. com/ ~rhoadley/ magfield. htm)?" 17 July 2005.
Rotating magnetic fields
• • " Rotating magnetic fields (http:/ / www. tpub. com/ neets/ book5/ 18a. htm)". Integrated Publishing. "Introduction to Generators and Motors", rotating magnetic field (http:/ / www. tpub. com/ content/ neets/ 14177/ css/ 14177_87. htm). Integrated Publishing. " Induction Motor – Rotating Fields (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20050929102550/ http:/ / www. egr. msu. edu/ ~jurkovi4/ Experiment4. pdf)".
• Oppelt, Arnulf (2 November 2006). "magnetic field strength" (http:/ / searchsmb. techtarget. com/ sDefinition/ 0,290660,sid44_gci763586,00. html). Retrieved 04 June 2007. "magnetic field strength converter" (http:/ / www. unitconversion. org/ unit_converter/ magnetic-field-strength. html). Retrieved 04 June 2007.
• "AC Motor Theory" Figure 2 Rotating Magnetic Field (http:/ / www. tpub. com/ content/ doe/ h1011v4/ css/ h1011v4_23. htm). Integrated Publishing. "Magnetic Fields" Arc & Mitre Magnetic Field Diagrams (http:/ / www. first4magnets. com/ ekmps/ shops/ trainer27/ resources/ Other/ magnetic-fields. pdf). Magnet Expert Ltd.
In classical electromagnetism, magnetization  or magnetic polarization is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced magnetic dipole moments in a magnetic material. The origin of the magnetic moments responsible for magnetization can be either microscopic electric currents resulting from the motion of electrons in atoms, or the spin of the electrons or the nuclei. Net magnetization results from the response of a material to an external magnetic field, together with any unbalanced magnetic dipole moments that may be inherent in the material itself; for example, in ferromagnets. Magnetization is not always homogeneous within a body, but rather varies between different points. Magnetization also describes how a material responds to an applied magnetic field as well as the way the material changes the magnetic field, and can be used to calculate the forces that result from those interactions. It can be compared to electric polarization, which is the measure of the corresponding response of a material to an electric field in electrostatics. Physicists and engineers define magnetization as the quantity of magnetic moment per unit volume. It is represented by a vector M.
Magnetization can be defined according to the following equation:
Here, M represents magnetization; m is the vector that defines the magnetic moment; V represents volume; and N is the number of magnetic moments in the sample. The quantity N/V is usually written as n, the number density of magnetic moments. The M-field is measured in amperes per meter (A/m) in SI units.
Magnetization in Maxwell's equations
The behavior of magnetic fields (B, H), electric fields (E, D), charge density (ρ), and current density (J) is described by Maxwell's equations. The role of the magnetization is described below.
Relations between B, H, and M
The magnetization defines the auxiliary magnetic field H as (SI units) (Gaussian units) which is convenient for various calculations. The vacuum permeability μ0 is, by definition, 4π×10−7 V·s/(A·m). A relation between M and H exists in many materials. In diamagnets and paramagnets, the relation is usually linear:
where χm is called the volume magnetic susceptibility. In ferromagnets there is no one-to-one correspondence between M and H because of hysteresis.
The magnetization M makes a contribution to the current density J, known as the magnetization current or bound current:
so that the total current density that enters Maxwell's equations is given by
where Jf is the electric current density of free charges (also called the free current), the second term is the contribution from the magnetization, and the last term is related to the electric polarization P.
In the absence of free electric currents and time-dependent effects, Maxwell's equations describing the magnetic quantities reduce to
These equations can be easily solved in analogy with electrostatic problems where
In this sense
plays the role of a "magnetic charge density" analogous to the electric charge density
also demagnetizing field).
Magnetization Magnetization is volume density of magnetic moment. That is: if a certain volume has magnetization volume element has a magnetic moment of then the
Main article: Magnetization dynamics The time-dependent behavior of magnetization becomes important when considering nanoscale and nanosecond timescale magnetization. Rather than simply aligning with an applied field, the individual magnetic moments in a material begin to precess around the applied field and come into alignment through relaxation as energy is transferred into the lattice.
In addition to magnetization, there is also demagnetization. Demagnetization is the process by which the magnetic field of an object is reduced or eliminated. The process of demagnetizing can be accomplished in many ways. One technique used for demagnetization is to heat the object above its Curie Temperature. The reason for this is that when a magnetic material is heated to its Curie Temperature, thermal fluctuations have enough energy to overcome the exchange interactions which cause ferromagnetism, and magnetic ordering is destroyed. One other way of achieving demagnetization is to use an electric coil. If the object is retracted out of a coil with alternating current running through it, the object's dipoles will become randomized and the object will be demagnetized.
Applications of Demagnetization
One application of demagnetization is to eliminate unwanted magnetic fields. The reason for doing this is that magnetic fields can have unwanted effects on different devices. In particular magnetic fields can affect electronic devices such as cell phones or computers. If such a device is going to be coming into contact with other possibly magnetic objects, the magnetic fields might need to be reduced in order to protect the electronic device. Therefore demagnetization is sometimes used to keep magnetic fields from damaging electrical devices.
 American spelling. The British spelling is magnetisation.
In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the magnetic flux (often denoted Φ or ΦB) through a surface is the component of the magnetic B field passing through that surface. The SI unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb) (in derived units: volt-seconds), and the CGS unit is the maxwell. Magnetic flux is usually measured with a fluxmeter, which contains measuring coils and electronics that evaluates the change of voltage in the measuring coils to calculate the magnetic flux.
The magnetic flux through a surface when the magnetic field is variable relies on splitting the surface into small surface elements, over which the magnetic field can be considered to be locally constant. The total flux is then a formal summation of these surface elements (see surface integration).
Each point on a surface is associated with a direction, called the surface normal; the magnetic flux through a point is then the component of the magnetic field along this direction. The magnetic interaction is described in terms of a vector field, where each point in space (and time) is associated with a vector that determines what force a moving charge would experience at that point (see Lorentz force). Since a vector field is quite difficult to visualize at first, in elementary physics one may instead visualize this field with field lines. The magnetic flux through some surface, in this simplified picture, is proportional to the number of field lines passing through that surface (in some contexts, the flux may be defined to be precisely the number of field lines passing through that surface; although technically misleading, this distinction is not important). Note that the magnetic flux is the net number of field lines passing through that surface; that is, the number passing through in one direction minus the number passing through in the other direction (see below for deciding in which direction the
Magnetic flux field lines carry a positive sign and in which they carry a negative sign). In more advanced physics, the field line analogy is dropped and the magnetic flux is properly defined as the component of the magnetic field passing through a surface. If the magnetic field is constant, the magnetic flux passing through a surface of vector area S is where B is the magnitude of the magnetic field (the magnetic flux density) having the unit of Wb/m2 (tesla), S is the area of the surface, and θ is the angle between the magnetic field lines and the normal (perpendicular) to S. For a varying magnetic field, we first consider the magnetic flux through an infinitesimal area element dS, where we may consider the field to be constant:
A generic surface, S, can then be broken into infinitesimal elements and the total magnetic flux through the surface is then the surface integral
From the definition of the magnetic vector potential A and the fundamental theorem of the curl the magnetic flux may also be defined as:
where the line integral is taken over the boundary of the surface S, which is denoted ∂S.
Magnetic flux through a closed surface
Gauss's law for magnetism, which is one of the four Maxwell's equations, states that the total magnetic flux through a closed surface is equal to zero. (A "closed surface" is a surface that completely encloses a volume(s) with no holes.) This law is a consequence of the empirical observation that magnetic monopoles have never been found. In other words, Gauss's law for magnetism is the statement:
for any closed surface S.
Some examples of closed surfaces (left) and open surfaces (right). Left: Surface of a sphere, surface of a torus, surface of a cube. Right: Disk surface, square surface, surface of a hemisphere. (The surface is blue, the boundary is red.)
Magnetic flux through an open surface
While the magnetic flux through a closed surface is always zero, the magnetic flux through an open surface need not be zero and is an important quantity in electromagnetism. For example, a change in the magnetic flux passing through a loop of conductive wire will cause an electromotive force, and therefore an electric current, in the loop. The relationship is given by Faraday's law:
where is the electromotive force (EMF), ΦB is the magnetic flux through the open surface Σ,
For an open surface Σ, the electromotive force along the surface boundary, ∂Σ, is a combination of the boundary's motion, with velocity v, through a magnetic field B (illustrated by the generic F field in the diagram) and the induced electric field caused by the changing magnetic field.
∂Σ is the boundary of the open surface Σ; note that the surface, in general, may be in motion and deforming, and so is generally a function of time. The electromotive force is induced along this boundary. dℓ is an infinitesimal vector element of the contour ∂Σ, v is the velocity of the boundary ∂Σ, E is the electric field, B is the magnetic field. The two equations for the EMF are, firstly, the work per unit charge done against the Lorentz force in moving a test charge around the (possibly moving) surface boundary ∂Σ and, secondly, as the change of magnetic flux through the open surface Σ. This equation is the principle behind an electrical generator.
Area defined by an electric coil with three turns.
Comparison with electric flux
By way of contrast, Gauss's law for electric fields, another of Maxwell's equations, is
where E is the electric field, S is any closed surface, Q is the total electric charge inside the surface S, ε0 is the electric constant (a universal constant, also called the "permittivity of free space"). Note that the flux of E through a closed surface is not always zero; this indicates the presence of "electric monopoles", that is, free positive or negative charges.
Magnetic Circuits Conventional Magnetic Circuits • • • Magnetomotive force Magnetic flux Magnetic reluctance
Phasor Magnetic Circuits • Complex reluctance
Related Concepts • Magnetic permeability
Gyrator-capacitor model variables • • • • Magnetic impedance Effective resistance Magnetic inductivity Magnetic capacitivity
Patents • Vicci, U.S. Patent 6,720,855 , Magnetic-flux conduits • Magnetic Flux through a Loop of Wire  by Ernest Lee, Wolfram Demonstrations Project. • Conversion Magnetic flux Φ in nWb per meter track width to flux level in dB - Tape Operating Levels and Tape Alignment Levels 
 http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?vid=6720855  http:/ / demonstrations. wolfram. com/ MagneticFluxThroughALoopOfWire/  http:/ / www. sengpielaudio. com/ calculator-magneticflux. htm
In physics, particularly electromagnetism, the Biot–Savart law (pron.: /ˈbiːoʊHelp:IPA for English#Keysəˈvɑr/ or /ˈbjoʊHelp:IPA for English#Keysəˈvɑr/) is an equation that describes the magnetic field generated by an electric current. It relates the magnetic field to the magnitude, direction, length, and proximity of the electric current. The law is valid in the magnetostatic approximation, and is consistent with both Ampère's circuital law and Gauss's law for magnetism. It is named for Jean-Baptiste Biot and Felix Savart who discovered this relationship in 1820.
Electric currents (along closed curve)
The Biot–Savart law is used to compute the resultant magnetic field B at position r generated by a steady current I (for example due to a wire): a continual flow of charges which is constant in time and the charge neither accumulates nor depletes at any point. The law is a physical example of a line integral: evaluated over the path C the electric currents flow. The equation in SI units is
where r is the full displacement vector from the wire element to the point at which the field is being computed and is the unit vector of r. Using this the equation can be equivalently written
where dl is a vector whose magnitude is the length of the differential element of the wire, in the direction of conventional current, and μ0 is the magnetic constant. The symbols in boldface denote vector quantities. The integral is usually around a closed curve, since electric currents can only flow around closed paths. An infinitely long wire (as used in the definition of the SI unit of electric current - the Ampere) is a counter-example. To apply the equation, the point in space where the magnetic field is to be calculated is arbitrarily chosen. Holding that point fixed, the line integral over the path of the electric currents is calculated to find the total magnetic field at that point. The application of this law implicitly relies on the superposition principle for magnetic fields, i.e. the fact that the magnetic field is a vector sum of the field created by each infinitesimal section of the wire individually.
Electric currents (throughout conductor volume)
The formulations given above work well when the current can be approximated as running through an infinitely-narrow wire. If the current has some thickness, the proper formulation of the Biot–Savart law (again in SI units) is:
where dV is the differential element of volume and J is the current density vector in that volume. In this case the integral is over the volume of the conductor. The Biot–Savart law is fundamental to magnetostatics, playing a similar role to Coulomb's law in electrostatics. When magnetostatics does not apply, the Biot–Savart law should be replaced by Jefimenko's equations.
Constant uniform current
In the special case of a steady constant current I, the magnetic field B is
i.e. the current can be taken out the integral.
Point charge at constant velocity
In the case of a point charged particle q moving at a constant velocity v, then Maxwell's equations give the following expression for the electric field and magnetic field:
where r̂ is the vector pointing from the current (non-retarded) position of the particle to the point at which the field is being measured, and θ is the angle between v and r. When v2 ≪ c2, the electric field and magnetic field can be approximated as
These equations are called the "Biot–Savart law for a point charge" due to its closely analogous form to the "standard" Biot–Savart law given previously. These equations were first derived by Oliver Heaviside in 1888.
Magnetic responses applications
The Biot–Savart law can be used in the calculation of magnetic responses even at the atomic or molecular level, e.g. chemical shieldings or magnetic susceptibilities, provided that the current density can be obtained from a quantum mechanical calculation or theory.
The Biot–Savart law is also used in aerodynamic theory to calculate the velocity induced by vortex lines. In the aerodynamic application, the roles of vorticity and current are reversed as when compared to the magnetic application. In Maxwell's 1861 paper 'On Physical Lines of Force', magnetic field strength H was directly equated with pure vorticity (spin), whereas B was a weighted vorticity that was weighted for the density of the vortex sea. Maxwell considered magnetic permeability μ to be a measure of the density of the vortex sea. Hence the relationship, 1. Magnetic induction current
The figure shows the velocity ( strength .
) induced at a ) of
point P by an element of vortex filament (
was essentially a rotational analogy to the linear electric current relationship, 2. Electric convection current where ρ is electric charge density. B was seen as a kind of magnetic current of vortices aligned in their axial planes, with H being the circumferential velocity of the vortices. The electric current equation can be viewed as a convective current of electric charge that involves linear motion. By analogy, the magnetic equation is an inductive current involving spin. There is no linear motion in the inductive current along the direction of the B vector. The magnetic inductive current represents lines of force. In particular, it represents lines of inverse square law force. In aerodynamics the induced air currents are forming solenoidal rings around a vortex axis that is playing the role that electric current plays in magnetism. This puts the air currents of aerodynamics into the equivalent role of the magnetic induction vector B in electromagnetism. In electromagnetism the B lines form solenoidal rings around the source electric current, whereas in aerodynamics, the air currents form solenoidal rings around the source vortex axis. Hence in electromagnetism, the vortex plays the role of 'effect' whereas in aerodynamics, the vortex plays the role of 'cause'. Yet when we look at the B lines in isolation, we see exactly the aerodynamic scenario in so much as that B is the vortex axis and H is the circumferential velocity as in Maxwell's 1861 paper. For a vortex line of infinite length, the induced velocity at a point is given by
where Γ is the strength of the vortex and r is the perpendicular distance between the point and the vortex line. This is a limiting case of the formula for vortex segments of finite length:
where A and B are the (signed) angles between the line and the two ends of the segment.
The Biot–Savart law, Ampère's circuital law, and Gauss's law for magnetism
The magnetic field B as calculated from the Biot–Savart law will always satisfy Ampère's circuital law and Gauss's law for magnetism.
Outline of proof that a magnetic field calculated by the Biot–Savart law will always satisfy Gauss's law for magnetism and Ampère's  law. Starting with the Biot–Savart law:
Substituting the relation
 and using the product rule for curls, as well as the fact that J does not depend on the unprimed coordinates, this equation can be rewritten as
Since the divergence of a curl is always zero, this establishes Gauss's law for magnetism. Next, taking the curl of both sides, using the formula for  the curl of a curl, and again using the fact that J does not depend on the unprimed coordinates, we eventually get the result
Finally, plugging in the relations
(where δ is the Dirac delta function), using the fact that the divergence of J is zero (due to the assumption of magnetostatics), and performing an  integration by parts, the result turns out to be
i.e. Ampère's law (without Maxwell's correction, the displacement current.).
 (http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ browse/ biot+ savart+ law?qsrc=2446)  Electromagnetism (2nd Edition), I.S. Grant, W.R. Phillips, Manchester Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2008, ISBN 978-0-471-92712-9  The superposition principle holds for the electric and magnetic fields because they are the solution to a set of linear differential equations, namely Maxwell's equations, where the current is one of the "source terms".  http:/ / maxwell. ucdavis. edu/ ~electro/ magnetic_field/ pointcharge. html  See Jackson, page 178–79 or Griffiths p. 222–24. The presentation in Griffiths is particularly thorough, with all the details spelled out.
• Griffiths, David J. (1998). Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed. ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-805326-X. • Feynman, Richard (1966). The Feynman Lectures on Physics (2nd ed. ed.). Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-63-20717 Check |isbn= value (help).
• Electricity and Modern Physics (2nd Edition), G.A.G. Bennet, Edward Arnold (UK), 1974, ISBN 0-7131-2459-8 • Essential Principles of Physics, P.M. Whelan, M.J. Hodgeson, 2nd Edition, 1978, John Murray, ISBN 0-7195-3382-1 • The Cambridge Handbook of Physics Formulas, G. Woan, Cambridge University Press, 2010, ISBN 978-0-521-57507-2. • Physics for Scientists and Engineers - with Modern Physics (6th Edition), P. A. Tipler, G. Mosca, Freeman, 2008, ISBN 0-7167-8964-7 • Encyclopaedia of Physics (2nd Edition), R.G. Lerner, G.L. Trigg, VHC publishers, 1991, ISBN (Verlagsgesellschaft) 3-527-26954-1, ISBN (VHC Inc.) 0-89573-752-3 • McGraw Hill Encyclopaedia of Physics (2nd Edition), C.B. Parker, 1994, ISBN 0-07-051400-3
• Electromagnetism (http://www.lightandmatter.com/html_books/0sn/ch11/ch11.html), B. Crowell, Fullerton College • The Ampère–Laplace–Biot–Savart Law (http://physnet2.pa.msu.edu/home/modules/pdf_modules/ m125.pdf) by Orilla McHarris and Peter Signell for Project PHYSNET (http://www.physnet.org).
Gauss's law for magnetism
In physics, Gauss's law for magnetism is one of Maxwell's equations, the four equations that underlie classical electrodynamics. It states that the magnetic field B has divergence equal to zero, in other words, that it is a solenoidal vector field. It is equivalent to the statement that magnetic monopoles do not exist. Rather than "magnetic charges", the basic entity for magnetism is the magnetic dipole. (Of course, if monopoles were ever found, the law would have to be modified, as elaborated below.) Gauss's law for magnetism can be written in two forms, a differential form and an integral form. These forms are equivalent due to the divergence theorem. The name "Gauss's law for magnetism" is not universally used. The law is also called "Absence of free magnetic poles". (or some variant); one reference even explicitly says the law has "no name". It is also referred to as the "transversality requirement" because for plane waves it requires that the polarization be transverse to the direction of propagation.
Gauss's law for magnetism
The differential form for Gauss's law for magnetism is:
where ∇• denotes divergence, and B is the magnetic field.
The integral form of Gauss's law for magnetism states:
where S is any closed surface (see image right), and dA is a vector, whose magnitude is the area of an infinitesimal piece of the surface S, and whose direction is the outward-pointing surface normal (see surface integral for more details). The left-hand side of this equation is called the net flux of the magnetic field out of the surface, and Gauss's law for magnetism states that it is always zero. The integral and differential forms of Gauss's law for magnetism are mathematically equivalent, due to the divergence theorem. That said, one or the other might be more convenient to use in a particular computation.
The law in this form states that for each volume element in space, there are exactly the same number of "magnetic field lines" entering and exiting the volume. No total "magnetic charge" can build up in any point in space. For example, the south pole of the magnet is exactly as strong as the north pole, and free-floating south poles without accompanying north poles (magnetic monopoles) are not allowed. In contrast, this is not true for other fields such as electric fields or gravitational fields, where total electric charge or mass can build up in a volume of space.
Definition of a closed surface. Left: Some examples of closed surfaces include the surface of a sphere, surface of a torus, and surface of a cube. The magnetic flux through any of these surfaces is zero. Right: Some examples of non-closed surfaces include the disk surface, square surface, or hemisphere surface. They all have boundaries (red lines) and they do not fully enclose a 3D volume. The magnetic flux through these surfaces is not necessarily zero.
In terms of vector potential
Due to the Helmholtz decomposition theorem, Gauss's law for magnetism is equivalent to the following statement: There exists a vector field A such that . The vector field A is called the magnetic vector potential. Note that there is more than one possible A which satisfies this equation for a given B field. In fact, there are infinitely many: any field of the form ∇φ can be added onto A to get an alternative choice for A, by the identity (see Vector calculus identities):
since the curl of a gradient is the zero vector field:
Gauss's law for magnetism This arbitrariness in A is called gauge freedom.
In terms of field lines
The magnetic field B, like any vector field, can be depicted via field lines (also called flux lines)-- that is, a set of curves whose direction corresponds to the direction of B, and whose areal density is proportional to the magnitude of B. Gauss's law for magnetism is equivalent to the statement that the field lines have neither a beginning nor an end: Each one either forms a closed loop, winds around forever without ever quite joining back up to itself exactly, or extends to infinity.
Modification if magnetic monopoles exist
If magnetic monopoles were discovered, then Gauss's law for magnetism would state the divergence of B would be proportional to the magnetic charge density ρm, analogous to Gauss's law for electric field. For zero net magnetic charge density (ρm = 0), the original form of Gauss's magnetism law is the result. The modified formula in SI units is not standard; in one variation, magnetic charge has units of webers, in another it has units of ampere·meters.
Units cgs units    Equation
SI units (weber convention)
SI units (ampere·meter convention)
where μ0 is the vacuum permeability. So far no magnetic monopoles have been found, despite extensive search.
The equation was one of Maxwell's original eight equations. However, the interpretation was somewhat different: Maxwell's A field directly corresponded to an important physical quantity which he believed corresponded to Faraday's electrotonic state, while the modern interpretation emphasizes gauge freedom, the idea that there are many possible A fields, all equally valid.
 See for example equation (4) in
Classical electromagnetism (or classical electrodynamics) is a branch of theoretical physics that studies consequences of the electromagnetic forces between electric charges and currents. It provides an excellent description of electromagnetic phenomena whenever the relevant length scales and field strengths are large enough that quantum mechanical effects are negligible (see quantum electrodynamics). Fundamental physical aspects of classical electrodynamics are presented e.g. by Feynman, Leighton and Sands, Panofsky and Phillips, and Jackson. The theory of electromagnetism was developed over the course of the 19th century, most prominently by James Clerk Maxwell. For a detailed historical account, consult Pauli, Whittaker, and Pais. See also History of optics, History of electromagnetism and Maxwell's equations.
The electromagnetic field exerts the following force (often called the Lorentz force) on charged particles:
where all boldfaced quantities are vectors: F is the force that a charge q experiences, E is the electric field at the location of the charge, v is the velocity of the charge, B is the magnetic field at the location of the charge. The above equation illustrates that the Lorentz force is the sum of two vectors. One is the cross product of the velocity and magnetic field vectors. Based on the properties of the cross product, this produces a vector that is perpendicular to both the velocity and magnetic field vectors. The other vector is in the same direction as the electric field. The sum of these two vectors is the Lorentz force. Therefore, in the absence of a magnetic field, the force is in the direction of the electric field, and the magnitude of the force is dependent on the value of the charge and the intensity of the electric field. In the absence of an electric field, the force is perpendicular to the velocity of the particle and the direction of the magnetic field. If both electric and magnetic fields are present, the Lorentz force is the sum of both of these vectors.
The electric field E
The electric field E is defined such that, on a stationary charge:
where q0 is what is known as a test charge. The size of the charge doesn't really matter, as long as it is small enough not to influence the electric field by its mere presence. What is plain from this definition, though, is that the unit of E is N/C (newtons per coulomb). This unit is equal to V/m (volts per meter), see below. In electrostatics, where charges are not moving, around a distribution of point charges, the forces determined from Coulomb's law may be summed. The result after dividing by q0 is:
where n is the number of charges, qi is the amount of charge associated with the ith charge, ri is the position of the ith charge, r is the position where the electric field is being determined, and ε0 is the electric constant. If the field is instead produced by a continuous distribution of charge, the summation becomes an integral:
is the charge density and
is the vector that points from the volume element
to the point in
space where E is being determined. Both of the above equations are cumbersome, especially if one wants to determine E as a function of position. A scalar function called the electric potential can help. Electric potential, also called voltage (the units for which are the volt), is defined by the line integral
where φ(r) is the electric potential, and C is the path over which the integral is being taken. Unfortunately, this definition has a caveat. From Maxwell's equations, it is clear that ∇ × E is not always zero, and hence the scalar potential alone is insufficient to define the electric field exactly. As a result, one must add a correction factor, which is generally done by subtracting the time derivative of the A vector potential described below. Whenever the charges are quasistatic, however, this condition will be essentially met. From the definition of charge, one can easily show that the electric potential of a point charge as a function of position is:
where q is the point charge's charge, r is the position at which the potential is being determined, and ri is the position of each point charge. The potential for a continuous distribution of charge is:
is the charge density, and
is the distance from the volume element
to point in space
where φ is being determined. The scalar φ will add to other potentials as a scalar. This makes it relatively easy to break complex problems down in to simple parts and add their potentials. Taking the definition of φ backwards, we see that the electric field is just the negative gradient (the del operator) of the potential. Or:
From this formula it is clear that E can be expressed in V/m (volts per meter).
A changing electromagnetic field propagates away from its origin in the form of a wave. These waves travel in vacuum at the speed of light and exist in a wide spectrum of wavelengths. Examples of the dynamic fields of electromagnetic radiation (in order of increasing frequency): radio waves, microwaves, light (infrared, visible light and ultraviolet), x-rays and gamma rays. In the field of particle physics this electromagnetic radiation is the manifestation of the electromagnetic interaction between charged particles.
General field equations
As simple and satisfying as Coulomb's equation may be, it is not entirely correct in the context of classical electromagnetism. Problems arise because changes in charge distributions require a non-zero amount of time to be "felt" elsewhere (required by special relativity). For the fields of general charge distributions, the retarded potentials can be computed and differentiated accordingly to yield Jefimenko's Equations. Retarded potentials can also be derived for point charges, and the equations are known as the Liénard-Wiechert potentials. The scalar potential is:
where q is the point charge's charge and r is the position. rq and vq are the position and velocity of the charge, respectively, as a function of retarded time. The vector potential is similar:
These can then be differentiated accordingly to obtain the complete field equations for a moving point particle.
A branch of classical electromagnetisms such as optics, electrical and electronic engineering consist of a collection of relevant mathematical models of different degree of simplification and idealization to enhance our understanding of the specific electrodynamics phenomena, cf. An electrodynamics phenomenon is determined by the particular fields, specific densities of electric charges and currents, and the particular transmission medium. Since there are infinitely many of them, in modeling there is a need for some typical, representative (a) electrical charges and currents, e.g. moving pointlike charges and electric and magnetic dipoles, electric currents in a conductor etc; (b) electromagnetic fields, e.g. voltages, the Liénard-Wiechert potentials, the monochromatic plane waves , optical rays; radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays , gamma rays etc; (c) transmission media, e.g. electronic components, antennas, electromagnetic waveguides, flat mirrors, mirrors with curved surfaces convex lenses, concave lenses; resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches; wires, electric and optical cables, transmission lines, integrated circuits etc; which all have only few variable characteristics.
 Feynman, R.P., R.B. Leighton, and M. Sands, 1965, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol. II: the Electromagnetic Field, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.  Panofsky, W.K., and M. Phillips, 1969, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, 2nd edition, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.  Pauli, W., 1958, Theory of Relativity, Pergamon, London  Whittaker, E.T., 1960, History of the Theories of the Aether and Electricity, Harper Torchbooks, New York.  Pais, A., 1983, »Subtle is the Lord...«; the Science and Life of Albert Einstein, Oxford University Press, Oxford  Peierls, Rudolf. Model-making in physics (http:/ / www. informaworld. com/ smpp/ content~content=a752582770~db=all~order=page), Contemporary Physics, Volume 21 (1), January 1980, 3-17.
• Electromagnetic Field Theory (http://www.plasma.uu.se/CED/Book/EMFT_Book.pdf) by Bo Thidé
In physics, particularly electromagnetism, the Lorentz force is the force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields. If a particle of charge q moves with velocity v in the presence of an electric field E and a magnetic field B, then it will experience a force
Variations on this basic formula describe the magnetic force on a current-carrying wire (sometimes called Laplace force), the electromotive force in a wire loop moving through a magnetic field (an aspect of Faraday's law of induction), and the force on a particle which might be traveling near the speed of light (relativistic form of the Lorentz force). The first derivation of the Lorentz force is commonly attributed to Oliver Heaviside in 1889, although other historians suggest an earlier origin in an 1865 paper by James Clerk Maxwell. Lorentz derived it a few years after Heaviside.
Equation (SI units)
The force F acting on a particle of electric charge q with instantaneous velocity v, due to an external electric field E and magnetic field B, is given by:
where × is the vector cross product. All boldface quantities are vectors. More explicitly stated:
in which r is the position vector of the charged particle, t is time, and the overdot is a time derivative. A positively charged particle will be accelerated in the same linear orientation as the E field, but will curve perpendicularly to both the instantaneous velocity vector v and the B field according to the right-hand rule (in detail, if the thumb of the right hand points along v and the index finger along B, then the middle finger points along F).
Lorentz force f on a charged particle (of charge q) in motion (instantaneous velocity v). The E field and B field vary in space and time.
The term qE is called the electric force, while the term qv × B is called the magnetic force. According to some definitions, the term "Lorentz force" refers specifically to the formula for the magnetic force, with the total electromagnetic force (including the electric force) given some other (nonstandard) name. This article will not follow this nomenclature: In what follows, the term "Lorentz force" will refer only to the expression for the total force. The magnetic force component of the Lorentz force manifests itself as the force that acts on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field. In that context, it is also called the Laplace force.
Continuous charge distribution
For a continuous charge distribution in motion, the Lorentz force equation becomes:
where dF is the force on a small piece of the charge distribution with charge dq. If both sides of this equation are divided by the volume of this small piece of the charge distribution dV, the result is:
where f is the force density (force per unit volume) and ρ is the charge density (charge per unit volume). Next, the current density corresponding to the motion of the charge continuum is so the continuous analogue to the equation is
Lorentz force (per unit 3-volume) f on a continuous charge distribution (charge density ρ) in motion. The 3-current density J corresponds to the motion of the charge element dq in volume element dV and varies throughout the continuum.
The total force is the volume integral over the charge distribution:
By eliminating ρ and J, using Maxwell's equations, and manipulating using the theorems of vector calculus, this form of the equation can be used to derive the Maxwell stress tensor σ, in turn this can be combined with the Poynting vector S to obtain the electromagnetic stress-energy tensor T used in general relativity. In terms of σ and S, another way to write the Lorentz force (per unit 3d volume) is
where c is the speed of light and ∇· denotes the divergence of a tensor field. Rather than the amount of charge and its velocity in electric and magnetic fields, this equation relates the energy flux (flow of energy per unit time per unit distance) in the fields to the force exerted on a charge distribution. See Covariant formulation of classical electromagnetism for more details.
Trajectory of a particle with a positive or negative charge q under the influence of a magnetic field B, which is directed perpendicularly out of the screen.
Beam of electrons moving in a circle, due to the presence of a magnetic field. Purple light is emitted along the electron path, due to the electrons colliding with gas molecules in the bulb. Using a Teltron tube. Charged particles experiencing the Lorentz force. Early attempts to quantitatively describe the electromagnetic force were made in the mid-18th century. It was proposed that the force on magnetic poles, by Johann Tobias Mayer and others in 1760, and electrically charged objects, by Henry Cavendish in 1762, obeyed an inverse-square law. However, in both cases the experimental proof was neither complete nor conclusive. It was not until 1784 when Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, using a torsion balance, was able to definitively show through experiment that this was true. Soon after the discovery in 1820 by H. C. Ørsted that a magnetic needle is acted on by a voltaic current, André-Marie Ampère that same year was able to devise through experimentation the formula for the angular dependence of the force between two current elements. In all these descriptions, the force was always given in terms of the properties of the objects involved and the distances between them rather than in terms of electric and magnetic fields. The modern concept of electric and magnetic fields first arose in the theories of Michael Faraday, particularly his idea of lines of force, later to be given full mathematical description by Lord Kelvin and James Clerk Maxwell. From a modern perspective it is possible to identify in Maxwell's 1865 formulation of his field equations a form of the Lorentz force equation in relation to electric currents, however, in the time of Maxwell it was not evident how his equations related to the forces on moving charged objects. J. J. Thomson was the first to attempt to derive from Maxwell's field equations the electromagnetic forces on a moving charged object in terms of the object's properties and external fields. Interested in determining the electromagnetic behavior of the charged particles in cathode rays, Thomson published a paper in 1881 wherein he gave the force on the particles due to an external magnetic field as
Thomson derived the correct basic form of the formula, but, because of some miscalculations and an incomplete description of the displacement current, included an incorrect scale-factor of a half in front of the formula. It was Oliver Heaviside, who had invented the modern vector notation and applied them to Maxwell's field equations, that in 1885 and 1889 fixed the mistakes of Thomson's derivation and arrived at the correct form of the magnetic force on a moving charged object. Finally, in 1892, Hendrik Lorentz derived the modern form of the formula for the electromagnetic force which includes the contributions to the total force from both the electric and the magnetic fields. Lorentz began by abandoning the Maxwellian descriptions of the ether and conduction. Instead, Lorentz made a distinction between matter and the luminiferous aether and sought to apply the Maxwell equations at a microscopic scale. Using the Heaviside's version of the Maxwell equations for a stationary ether and applying Lagrangian mechanics (see below), Lorentz arrived at the correct and complete form of the force law that now bears his name.
Trajectories of particles due to the Lorentz force
In many cases of practical interest, the motion in a magnetic field of an electrically charged particle (such as an electron or ion in a plasma) can be treated as the superposition of a relatively fast circular motion around a point called the guiding center and a relatively slow drift of this point. The drift speeds may differ for various species depending on their charge states, masses, or temperatures, possibly resulting in electric currents or chemical separation.
Significance of the Lorentz force
While the modern Maxwell's equations describe how electrically charged particles and currents or moving charged particles give rise to electric and magnetic fields, the Lorentz force law completes that picture by describing the force acting on a moving point charge q in the presence of electromagnetic fields. The Lorentz force law describes the effect of E and B upon a point charge, but such electromagnetic forces are not the entire picture. Charged particles are possibly coupled to other forces, notably gravity and nuclear forces. Thus, Maxwell's equations do not stand separate from other physical laws, but are coupled to them via the charge and current densities. The response of a point charge to the Lorentz law is one aspect; the generation of E and B by currents and charges is another.
Charged particle drifts in a homogeneous magnetic field. (A) No disturbing force (B) With an electric field, E (C) With an independent force, F (e.g. gravity) (D) In an inhomogeneous magnetic field, grad H
In real materials the Lorentz force is inadequate to describe the behavior of charged particles, both in principle and as a matter of computation. The charged particles in a material medium both respond to the E and B fields and generate these fields. Complex transport equations must be solved to determine the time and spatial response of charges, for example, the Boltzmann equation or the Fokker–Planck equation or the Navier–Stokes equations. For example, see magnetohydrodynamics, fluid dynamics, electrohydrodynamics, superconductivity, stellar evolution. An entire physical apparatus for dealing with these matters has developed. See for example, Green–Kubo relations and Green's function (many-body theory).
Lorentz force law as the definition of E and B
In many textbook treatments of classical electromagnetism, the Lorentz force Law is used as the definition of the electric and magnetic fields E and B. To be specific, the Lorentz force is understood to be the following empirical statement: The electromagnetic force F on a test charge at a given point and time is a certain function of its charge q and velocity v, which can be parameterized by exactly two vectors E and B, in the functional form:
which is valid; countless experiments have shown that it is, even for particles approaching the speed of light (that is, magnitude of v = |v| = c). So the two vector fields E and B are thereby defined throughout space and time, and these are called the "electric field" and "magnetic field". Note that the fields are defined everywhere in space and
Lorentz force time with respect to what force a test charge would receive regardless of whether a charge is present to experience the force. Note also that as a definition of E and B, the Lorentz force is only a definition in principle because a real particle (as opposed to the hypothetical "test charge" of infinitesimally-small mass and charge) would generate its own finite E and B fields, which would alter the electromagnetic force that it experiences. In addition, if the charge experiences acceleration, as if forced into a curved trajectory by some external agency, it emits radiation that causes braking of its motion. See for example Bremsstrahlung and synchrotron light. These effects occur through both a direct effect (called the radiation reaction force) and indirectly (by affecting the motion of nearby charges and currents). Moreover, net force must include gravity, electroweak, and any other forces aside from electromagnetic force.
Force on a current-carrying wire
When a wire carrying an electrical current is placed in a magnetic field, each of the moving charges, which comprise the current, experiences the Lorentz force, and together they can create a macroscopic force on the wire (sometimes called the Laplace force). By combining the Lorentz force law above with the definition of electrical current, the following equation results, in the case of a straight, stationary wire:
Right-hand rule for a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field B
where ℓ is a vector whose magnitude is the length of wire, and whose direction is along the wire, aligned with the direction of conventional current flow I. If the wire is not straight but curved, the force on it can be computed by applying this formula to each infinitesimal segment of wire dℓ, then adding up all these forces by integration. Formally, the net force on a stationary, rigid wire carrying a steady current I is
This is the net force. In addition, there will usually be torque, plus other effects if the wire is not perfectly rigid. One application of this is Ampère's force law, which describes how two current-carrying wires can attract or repel each other, since each experiences a Lorentz force from the other's magnetic field. For more information, see the article: Ampère's force law.
The magnetic force (q v × B) component of the Lorentz force is responsible for motional electromotive force (or motional EMF), the phenomenon underlying many electrical generators. When a conductor is moved through a magnetic field, the magnetic force tries to push electrons through the wire, and this creates the EMF. The term "motional EMF" is applied to this phenomenon, since the EMF is due to the motion of the wire. In other electrical generators, the magnets move, while the conductors do not. In this case, the EMF is due to the electric force (qE) term in the Lorentz Force equation. The electric field in question is created by the changing magnetic field, resulting in an induced EMF, as described by the Maxwell-Faraday equation (one of the four modern Maxwell's equations). Both of these EMF's, despite their different origins, can be described by the same equation, namely, the EMF is the rate of change of magnetic flux through the wire. (This is Faraday's law of induction, see above.) Einstein's theory of special relativity was partially motivated by the desire to better understand this link between the two effects. In
Lorentz force fact, the electric and magnetic fields are different faces of the same electromagnetic field, and in moving from one inertial frame to another, the solenoidal vector field portion of the E-field can change in whole or in part to a B-field or vice versa.
Lorentz force and Faraday's law of induction
Given a loop of wire in a magnetic field, Faraday's law of induction states the induced electromotive force (EMF) in the wire is:
is the magnetic flux through the loop, B is the magnetic field, Σ(t) is a surface bounded by the closed contour ∂Σ(t), at all at time t, dA is an infinitesimal vector area element of Σ(t) (magnitude is the area of an infinitesimal patch of surface, direction is orthogonal to that surface patch). The sign of the EMF is determined by Lenz's law. Note that this is valid for not only a stationary wire — but also for a moving wire. From Faraday's law of induction (that is valid for a moving wire, for instance in a motor) and the Maxwell Equations, the Lorentz Force can be deduced. The reverse is also true, the Lorentz force and the Maxwell Equations can be used to derive the Faraday Law. Let Σ(t) be the moving wire, moving together without rotation and with constant velocity v and Σ(t) be the internal surface of the wire. The EMF around the closed path ∂Σ(t) is given by:
is the electric field and dℓ is an infinitesimal vector element of the contour ∂Σ(t). NB: Both dℓ and dA have a sign ambiguity; to get the correct sign, the right-hand rule is used, as explained in the article Kelvin-Stokes theorem. The above result can be compared with the version of Faraday's law of induction that appears in the modern Maxwell's equations, called here the Maxwell-Faraday equation:
The Maxwell-Faraday equation also can be written in an integral form using the Kelvin-Stokes theorem:. So we have, the Maxwell Faraday equation:
and the Faraday Law,
The two are equivalent if the wire is not moving. Using the Leibniz integral rule and that div B = 0, results in,
Lorentz force and using the Maxwell Faraday equation,
since this is valid for any wire position it implies that,
Faraday's law of induction holds whether the loop of wire is rigid and stationary, or in motion or in process of deformation, and it holds whether the magnetic field is constant in time or changing. However, there are cases where Faraday's law is either inadequate or difficult to use, and application of the underlying Lorentz force law is necessary. See inapplicability of Faraday's law. If the magnetic field is fixed in time and the conducting loop moves through the field, the magnetic flux ΦB linking the loop can change in several ways. For example, if the B-field varies with position, and the loop moves to a location with different B-field, ΦB will change. Alternatively, if the loop changes orientation with respect to the B-field, the B • dA differential element will change because of the different angle between B and dA, also changing ΦB. As a third example, if a portion of the circuit is swept through a uniform, time-independent B-field, and another portion of the circuit is held stationary, the flux linking the entire closed circuit can change due to the shift in relative position of the circuit's component parts with time (surface ∂Σ(t) time-dependent). In all three cases, Faraday's law of induction then predicts the EMF generated by the change in ΦB. Note that the Maxwell Faraday's equation implies that the Electric Field E is non conservative when the Magnetic Field B varies in time, and is not expressible as the gradient of a scalar field, and not subject to the gradient theorem since its rotational is not zero. See also.
Lorentz force in terms of potentials
The E and B fields can be replaced by the magnetic vector potential A and (scalar) electrostatic potential ϕ by
where ∇ is the gradient, ∇• is the divergence, ∇ × is the curl. The force becomes
and using an identity for the triple product simplifies to
using the chain rule, the total derivative of A is:
so the above expression can be rewritten as;
which can take the convinient Euler-Lagrange form
Lorentz force and analytical mechanics
The Lagrangian for a charged particle of mass m and charge q in an electromagnetic field equivalently describes the dynamics of the particle in terms of its energy, rather than the force exerted on it. The classical expression is given by:
where A and ϕ are the potential fields as above. Using Lagrange's equations, the equation for the Lorentz force can be obtained.
Derivation of Lorentz force from classical Lagrangian (SI units) For an A field, a particle moving with velocity v = ṙ has potential momentum particle's potential energy is The total potential energy is then: . , so its potential energy is . For a ϕ field, the
and the kinetic energy is:
hence the Lagrangian:
Lagrange's equations are
(same for y and z). So calculating the partial derivatives:
equating and simplifying:
and similarly for the y and z directions. Hence the force equation is:
The potential energy depends on the velocity of the particle, so the force is velocity dependent, so it is not conservative. The relativistic Lagrangian is
Lorentz force The action is the relativistic arclength of the path of the particle in space time, minus the potential energy contribution, plus an extra contribution which quantum mechanically is an extra phase a charged particle gets when it is moving along a vector potential.
Derivation of Lorentz force from relativistic Lagrangian (SI units) The equations of motion derived by extremizing the action (see matrix calculus for the notation):
are the same as Hamilton's equations of motion:
both are equivalent to the noncanonical form:
This formula is the Lorentz force, representing the rate at which the EM field adds relativistic momentum to the particle.
Equation (cgs units)
The above-mentioned formulae use SI units which are the most common among experimentalists, technicians, and engineers. In cgs-Gaussian units, which are somewhat more common among theoretical physicists, one has instead
where c is the speed of light. Although this equation looks slightly different, it is completely equivalent, since one has the following relations:
where ε0 is the vacuum permittivity and μ0 the vacuum permeability. In practice, the subscripts "cgs" and "SI" are always omitted, and the unit system has to be assessed from context.
Relativistic form of the Lorentz force
STA form of the Lorentz force
Because the electric and magnetic fields are dependent on the velocity of an observer, the relativistic form of the Lorentz force law can best be exhibited starting from a coordinate-independent expression for the electromagnetic and magnetic fields, , and an arbitrary time-direction, , where
is a space-time bivector (an oriented plane segment, just like a vector is an oriented line segment), which has six degrees of freedom corresponding to boosts (rotations in space-time planes) and rotations (rotations in space-space planes). The dot product with the vector pulls a vector (in the space algebra) from the translational part, while the wedge-product creates a trivector (in the space algebra) who is dual to a vector which is the usual magnetic field
Lorentz force vector. The relativistic velocity is given by the (time-like) changes in a time-position vector , where
(which shows our choice for the metric) and the velocity is
The proper (invariant is an inadequate term because no transformation has been defined) form of the Lorentz force law is simply
Note that the order is important because between a bivector and a vector the dot product is anti-symmetric. Upon a space time split like one can obtain the velocity, and fields as above yielding the usual expression.
Covariant form of the Lorentz force
Field tensor Using the metric signature (-1,1,1,1), The Lorentz force for a charge q can be written in covariant form:
where pα is the four-momentum, defined as: the proper time of the particle, Fαβ the contravariant electromagnetic tensor
and U is the covariant 4-velocity of the particle, defined as:
is the Lorentz factor defined above.
The fields are transformed to a frame moving with constant relative velocity by: where Λμα is the Lorentz transformation tensor.
Translation to vector notation
The α = 1 component (x-component) of the force is
Substituting the components of the covariant electromagnetic tensor F yields
Using the components of covariant four-velocity yields
Lorentz force The calculation for α = 2, 3 (force components in the y and z directions) yields similar results, so collecting the 3 equations into one:
which is the Lorentz force.
The Lorentz force occurs in many devices, including: • • • • Cyclotrons and other circular path particle accelerators Mass spectrometers Velocity Filters Magnetrons
In its manifestation as the Laplace force on an electric current in a conductor, this force occurs in many devices including:
• • • • Electric motors Railguns Linear motors Loudspeakers • • • • Magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters Electrical generators Homopolar generators Linear alternators
 Oliver Heaviside By Paul J. Nahin, p120 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=e9wEntQmA0IC& pg=PA120)  See Jackson page 2. The book lists the four modern Maxwell's equations, and then states, "Also essential for consideration of charged particle motion is the Lorentz force equation, F = q ( E+ v × B ), which gives the force acting on a point charge q in the presence of electromagnetic fields."  See Griffiths page 204.  For example, see the website of the "Lorentz Institute": \ (http:/ / ilorentz. org/ history/ lorentz/ lorentz. html), or Griffiths.  See Griffiths page 326, which states that Maxwell's equations, "together with the [Lorentz] force law...summarize the entire theoretical content of classical electrodynamics".  See, for example, Jackson p777-8.  . These authors use the Lorentz force in tensor form as definer of the electromagnetic tensor F, in turn the fields E and B.  See Griffiths pages 301–3.  Classical Mechanics (2nd Edition), T.W.B. Kibble, European Physics Series, Mc Graw Hill (UK), 1973, ISBN 07-084018-0.
The numbered references refer in part to the list immediately below. • Feynman, Richard Phillips; Leighton, Robert B.; Sands, Matthew L. (2006). The Feynman lectures on physics (3 vol.). Pearson / Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-8053-9047-2: volume 2. • Griffiths, David J. (1999). Introduction to electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, [NJ.]: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-805326-X • Jackson, John David (1999). Classical electrodynamics (3rd ed.). New York, [NY.]: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-30932-X • Serway, Raymond A.; Jewett, John W., Jr. (2004). Physics for scientists and engineers, with modern physics. Belmont, [CA.]: Thomson Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0-534-40846-X • Srednicki, Mark A. (2007). Quantum field theory (http://books.google.com/?id=5OepxIG42B4C& pg=PA315&dq=isbn=9780521864497). Cambridge, [England] ; New York [NY.]: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86449-7
• Interactive Java tutorial on the Lorentz force (http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/java/ lorentzforce/index.html) National High Magnetic Field Laboratory • Lorentz force (demonstration) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mxMMqNrm598) • Faraday's law: Tankersley and Mosca (http://www.nadn.navy.mil/Users/physics/tank/Public/FaradaysLaw. pdf) • Notes from Physics and Astronomy HyperPhysics at Georgia State University (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr. gsu.edu/HBASE/hframe.html); see also home page (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/HBASE/hframe. html) • Interactive Java applet on the magnetic deflection of a particle beam in a homogeneous magnetic field (http:// chair.pa.msu.edu/applets/Lorentz/a.htm) by Wolfgang Bauer
Electromagnetic induction is the production of a potential difference (voltage) across a conductor when it is exposed to a varying magnetic field. Michael Faraday is generally credited with the discovery of induction in 1831 though it may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi in 1829. Around 1830 to 1832, Joseph Henry made a similar discovery, but did not publish his findings until later. Faraday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism that predicts how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF). It is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators and solenoids. The Maxwell–Faraday equation is a generalisation of Faraday's law, and forms one of Maxwell's equations.
Electromagnetic induction was discovered independently by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry in 1831; however, Faraday was the first to publish the results of his experiments. In Faraday's first experimental demonstration of electromagnetic induction (August 29, 1831), he wrapped two wires A diagram of Faraday's iron ring apparatus. Change in the magnetic around opposite sides of an iron ring or "torus" (an  flux of the left coil induces a current in the right coil. arrangement similar to a modern toroidal transformer). Based on his assessment of recently discovered properties of electromagnets, he expected that when current started to flow in one wire, a sort of wave would travel through the ring and cause some electrical effect on the opposite side. He plugged one wire into a galvanometer, and watched it as he connected the other wire to a battery. Indeed, he saw a transient current (which he called a "wave of electricity") when he connected the wire to the battery, and another when he disconnected it. This induction was due to the change in magnetic flux that occurred when the battery was Faraday's disk (see homopolar generator) connected and disconnected. Within two months, Faraday had found several other manifestations of electromagnetic induction. For example, he saw transient currents when he quickly slid a bar magnet in and out of a coil of wires, and he generated a steady (DC) current by rotating a copper disk near the bar magnet with a sliding electrical lead ("Faraday's disk"). Faraday explained electromagnetic induction using a concept he called lines of force. However, scientists at the time widely rejected his theoretical ideas, mainly because they were not formulated mathematically. An exception was Maxwell, who used Faraday's ideas as the basis of his quantitative electromagnetic theory. In Maxwell's papers, the time varying aspect of electromagnetic induction is expressed as a differential equation which Oliver Heaviside referred to as Faraday's law even though it is slightly different in form from the original version of Faraday's law, and does not describe motional EMF. Heaviside's version (see Maxwell–Faraday equation below) is the form recognized today in the group of equations known as Maxwell's equations. Lenz's law, formulated by Heinrich Lenz in 1834, describes "flux through the circuit", and gives the direction of the induced EMF and current resulting from electromagnetic induction (elaborated upon in the examples below).
The most widespread version of Faraday's law states: The induced electromotive force in any closed circuit is equal to the negative of the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit. This version of Faraday's law strictly holds only when the closed circuit is a loop of infinitely thin wire, and is invalid in other circumstances as discussed below. A different version, the Maxwell–Faraday equation (discussed below), is valid in all circumstances.
Faraday's experiment showing induction between coils of wire: The liquid battery (right) provides a current which flows through the small coil (A), creating a magnetic field. When the coils are stationary, no current is induced. But when the small coil is moved in or out of the large coil (B), the magnetic flux through the large coil changes, inducing a current which is detected by the galvanometer  (G).
Faraday's law of induction makes use of the magnetic flux ΦB through a hypothetical surface Σ whose boundary is a wire loop. Since the wire loop may be moving, we write Σ(t) for the surface. The magnetic flux is defined by a surface integral:
where dA is an element of surface area of the moving surface Σ(t), B is the magnetic field, and B·dA is a vector dot product (the infinitesimal amount of magnetic flux). In more visual terms, the magnetic flux through the wire loop is proportional to the number of magnetic flux lines that pass through the loop. When the flux changes—because B changes, or because the wire loop is moved or deformed, or both—Faraday's law of induction says that the wire loop acquires an EMF , defined as the energy available per
The wire loop (red) forms the boundary of a surface Σ (blue). The black arrows denote any vector field F(r, t) defined throughout space; in the case of Faraday's law, the relevant vector field is the magnetic flux density B, and it is integrated over the blue surface. The red arrow represents the fact that the wire loop may be moving and/or deforming.
unit charge that travels once around the wire loop (the unit of EMF is the volt). Equivalently, it is the voltage that would be measured by cutting the wire to create an open circuit, and attaching a voltmeter to the leads. According to the Lorentz force law (in SI units),
the EMF on a wire loop is:
The definition of surface integral relies on splitting the surface Σ into small surface elements. Each element is associated with a vector dA of magnitude equal to the area of the element and with direction normal to the element and pointing “outward” (with respect to the orientation of the surface).
where E is the electric field, B is the magnetic field (aka magnetic flux density, magnetic induction), dℓ is an infinitesimal arc length along the wire, and the line integral is evaluated along the wire (along the curve the conincident with the shape of the wire). The EMF is also given by the rate of change of the magnetic flux:
is the electromotive force (EMF) in volts and ΦB is the magnetic flux in webers. The direction of the
electromotive force is given by Lenz's law. For a tightly wound coil of wire, composed of N identical loops, each with the same ΦB, Faraday's law of induction states that
where N is the number of turns of wire and ΦB is the magnetic flux in webers through a single loop.
The Maxwell–Faraday equation is a generalisation of Faraday's law that states that a time-varying magnetic field is always accompanied by a spatially-varying, non-conservative electric field, and vice-versa. The Maxwell–Faraday equation is
(in SI units) where
is the curl operator and again E(r, t) is the
electric field and B(r, t) is the magnetic field. These fields can generally be functions of position r and time t. The Maxwell–Faraday equation is one of the four Maxwell's equations, and therefore plays a fundamental role in the theory of classical electromagnetism. It can also be written in an integral form by the Kelvin-Stokes theorem:
An illustration of Kelvin-Stokes theorem with surface Σ its boundary ∂Σ and orientation n set by the right-hand rule.
where, as indicated in the figure: Σ is a surface bounded by the closed contour ∂Σ, E is the electric field, B is the magnetic field. dℓ is an infinitesimal vector element of the contour ∂Σ, dA is an infinitesimal vector element of surface Σ. If its direction is orthogonal to that surface patch, the magnitude is the area of an infinitesimal patch of surface. Both dℓ and dA have a sign ambiguity; to get the correct sign, the right-hand rule is used, as explained in the article Kelvin-Stokes theorem. For a planar surface Σ, a positive path element dℓ of curve ∂Σ is defined by the right-hand rule as one that points with the fingers of the right hand when the thumb points in the direction of the normal n to the surface Σ. The integral around ∂Σ is called a path integral or line integral. Notice that a nonzero path integral for E is different from the behavior of the electric field generated by charges. A charge-generated E-field can be expressed as the gradient of a scalar field that is a solution to Poisson's equation, and has a zero path integral. See gradient theorem. The integral equation is true for any path ∂Σ through space, and any surface Σ for which that path is a boundary. If the path Σ is not changing in time, the equation can be rewritten:
The surface integral at the right-hand side is the explicit expression for the magnetic flux ΦB through Σ.
Proof of Faraday's law
The four Maxwell's equations (including the Maxwell–Faraday equation), along with the Lorentz force law, are a sufficient foundation to derive everything in classical electromagnetism. Therefore it is possible to "prove" Faraday's law starting with these equations. Click "show" in the box below for an outline of this proof. (In an alternative approach, not shown here but equally valid, Faraday's law could be taken as the starting point and used to "prove" the Maxwell–Faraday equation and/or other laws.) Outline of proof of Faraday's law from Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz force law. Consider the time-derivative of flux through a possibly moving loop, with area :
The integral can change over time for two reasons: The integrand can change, or the integration region can change. These add linearly, therefore:
where t0 is any given fixed time. We will show that the first term on the right-hand side corresponds to transformer EMF, the second to motional EMF (see above). The first term on the right-hand side can be rewritten using the integral form of the Maxwell–Faraday equation:
Next, we analyze the second term on the right-hand side:
This is the most difficult part of the proof; more details and alternate approaches can be found in references. As the loop moves and/or deforms, it sweeps out a surface (see figure on right). The magnetic flux through this swept-out surface Area swept out by vector element dℓ of curve ∂Σ in time dt when moving with corresponds to the magnetic flux that is velocity v. either entering or exiting the loop, and therefore this is the magnetic flux that contributes to the time-derivative. (This step implicitly uses Gauss's law for magnetism: Since the flux lines have no beginning or end, they can only get into the loop by getting cut through by the wire.) As a small part of the loop moves with velocity v for a short time , it sweeps out a vector area vector . Therefore, the change in magnetic flux through the loop here is
where v is the velocity of a point on the loop Putting these together,
Meanwhile, EMF is defined as the energy available per unit charge that travels once around the wire loop. Therefore, by the Lorentz force law,
"Counterexamples" to Faraday's law
Faraday's disc electric generator. The disc rotates with angular rate ω, sweeping the conducting radius circularly in the static magnetic field B. The magnetic Lorentz force v × B drives the current along the conducting radius to the conducting rim, and from there the circuit completes through the lower brush and the axle supporting the disc. Thus, current is generated from mechanical motion.
A counterexample to Faraday's Law when over-broadly interpreted. A wire (solid red lines) connects to two touching metal plates (silver) to form a circuit. The whole system sits in a uniform magnetic field, normal to the page. If the word "circuit" is interpreted as "primary path of current flow" (marked in red), then the magnetic flux through the "circuit" changes dramatically as the plates are rotated, yet the EMF is almost zero, which contradicts Faraday's Law. After Feynman Lectures on Physics Vol. II page 17-3
Although Faraday's law is always true for loops of thin wire, it can give the wrong result if naively extrapolated to other contexts. One example is the homopolar generator (above left): A spinning circular metal disc in a homogeneous magnetic field generates a DC (constant in time) EMF. In Faraday's law, EMF is the time-derivative of flux, so a DC EMF is only possible if the magnetic flux is getting uniformly larger and larger perpetually. But in the generator, the magnetic field is constant and the disc stays in the same position, so no magnetic fluxes are growing larger and larger. So this example cannot be analyzed directly with Faraday's law. Another example, due to Feynman, has a dramatic change in flux through a circuit, even though the EMF is arbitrarily small. See figure and caption above right. In both these examples, the changes in the current path are different from the motion of the material making up the circuit. The electrons in a material tend to follow the motion of the atoms that make up the material, due to scattering in the bulk and work function confinement at the edges. Therefore, motional EMF is generated when a material's atoms are moving through a magnetic field, dragging the electrons with them, thus subjecting the electrons to the Lorentz force. In the homopolar generator, the material's atoms are moving, even though the overall geometry of the circuit is staying the same. In the second example, the material's atoms are almost stationary, even though the overall geometry of the circuit is changing dramatically. On the other hand, Faraday's law always holds for thin wires, because there the geometry of the circuit always changes in a direct relationship to the motion of the material's
Electromagnetic induction atoms. Although Faraday's law does not apply to all situations, the Maxwell–Faraday equation and Lorentz force law are always correct and can always be used directly. Both of the above examples can be correctly worked by choosing the appropriate path of integration for Faraday's Law. Outside of context of thin wires, the path must never be chosen to go through the conductor in the shortest direct path. This is explained in detail in "The Electromagnetodynamics of Fluid" by W. F. Hughes and F. J. Young, John Wiley Inc. (1965)
The principles of electromagnetic induction are applied in many devices and systems, including: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Current clamp Electrical generators Electromagnetic forming Graphics tablet Hall effect meters Induction cookers Induction motors Induction sealing Induction welding Inductive charging Inductors Magnetic flow meters Mechanically powered flashlight Pickups Rowland ring Transcranial magnetic stimulation Transformers Wireless energy transfer
The EMF generated by Faraday's law of induction due to relative movement of a circuit and a magnetic field is the phenomenon underlying electrical generators. When a permanent magnet is moved relative to a conductor, or vice versa, an electromotive force is created. If the wire is connected through an electrical load, current will flow, and thus electrical energy is generated, converting the mechanical energy of motion to electrical energy. For example, the drum generator is based upon the figure to the right. A different implementation of this idea is the Faraday's disc, shown in simplified form on the right.
Rectangular wire loop rotating at angular velocity ω in radially outward pointing magnetic field B of fixed magnitude. The circuit is completed by brushes making sliding contact with top and bottom discs, which have conducting rims. This is a simplified version of the drum generator
In the Faraday's disc example, the disc is rotated in a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the disc, causing a current to flow in the radial arm due to the Lorentz force. It is interesting to understand how it arises that mechanical work is necessary to drive this current. When the generated current flows through the conducting rim, a magnetic field is generated by this current through Ampère's circuital law (labeled "induced B" in the figure). The rim thus becomes an electromagnet that resists rotation of the disc (an example of Lenz's law). On the far side of the figure, the return current flows from the rotating arm through the far side of the rim to the bottom brush. The B-field induced by this return current opposes the applied B-field, tending to decrease the flux through that side of the circuit, opposing the increase in flux due to rotation. On the near side of the figure, the return current flows from the rotating arm through the near side of the rim to the bottom brush. The induced B-field increases the flux on this side of the circuit, opposing the decrease in flux due to rotation. Thus, both sides of the circuit generate an emf opposing the rotation. The energy required to keep the disc moving, despite this reactive force, is exactly equal to the electrical energy generated (plus energy wasted due to friction, Joule heating, and other inefficiencies). This behavior is common to all generators converting mechanical energy to electrical energy.
The EMF predicted by Faraday's law is also responsible for electrical transformers. When the electric current in a loop of wire changes, the changing current creates a changing magnetic field. A second wire in reach of this magnetic field will experience this change in magnetic field as a change in its coupled magnetic flux, d ΦB / d t. Therefore, an electromotive force is set up in the second loop called the induced EMF or transformer EMF. If the two ends of this loop are connected through an electrical load, current will flow.
Magnetic flow meter
Faraday's law is used for measuring the flow of electrically conductive liquids and slurries. Such instruments are called magnetic flow meters. The induced voltage ℇ generated in the magnetic field B due to a conductive liquid moving at velocity v is thus given by:
where ℓ is the distance between electrodes in the magnetic flow meter.
Conductors (of finite dimensions) moving through a uniform magnetic field, or stationary within a changing magnetic field, will have currents induced within them. These induced eddy currents can be undesirable, since they dissipate energy in the resistance of the conductor. There are a number of methods employed to control these undesirable inductive effects. • Electromagnets in electric motors, generators, and transformers do not use solid metal, but instead use thin sheets of metal plate, called laminations. These thin plates reduce the parasitic eddy currents, as described below. • Inductive coils in electronics typically use magnetic cores to minimize parasitic current flow. They are a mixture of metal powder plus a resin binder that can hold any shape. The binder prevents parasitic current flow through the powdered metal.
Eddy currents occur when a solid metallic mass is rotated in a magnetic field, because the outer portion of the metal cuts more lines of force than the inner portion, hence the induced electromotive force not being uniform, tends to set up currents between the points of greatest and least potential. Eddy currents consume a considerable amount of energy and often cause a harmful rise in temperature.
94 Only five laminations or plates are shown in this example, so as to show the subdivision of the eddy currents. In practical use, the number of laminations or punchings ranges from 40 to 66 per inch, and brings the eddy current loss down to about one percent. While the plates can be separated by insulation, the voltage is so low that the natural rust/oxide coating of the plates is enough to prevent current flow across the laminations.
This is a rotor approximately 20mm in diameter from a DC motor used in a CD player. Note the laminations of the electromagnet pole pieces, used to limit parasitic inductive losses.
Parasitic induction within inductors
In this illustration, a solid copper bar inductor on a rotating armature is just passing under the tip of the pole piece N of the field magnet. Note the uneven distribution of the lines of force across the bar inductor. The magnetic field is more concentrated and thus stronger on the left edge of the copper bar (a,b) while the field is weaker on the right edge (c,d). Since the two edges of the bar move with the same velocity, this difference in field strength across the bar creates whorls or current eddies within the copper bar.
Electromagnetic induction High current power-frequency devices such as electric motors, generators and transformers use multiple small conductors in parallel to break up the eddy flows that can form within large solid conductors. The same principle is applied to transformers used at higher than power frequency, for example, those used in switch-mode power supplies and the intermediate frequency coupling transformers of radio receivers.
Faraday's law and relativity
Some physicists have remarked that Faraday's law is a single equation describing two different phenomena: the motional EMF generated by a magnetic force on a moving wire (see Lorentz force), and the transformer EMF generated by an electric force due to a changing magnetic field (due to the Maxwell–Faraday equation). James Clerk Maxwell drew attention to this fact in his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force. In the latter half of part II of that paper, Maxwell gives a separate physical explanation for each of the two phenomena. A reference to these two aspects of electromagnetic induction is made in some modern textbooks. As Richard Feynman states: So the "flux rule" that the emf in a circuit is equal to the rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit applies whether the flux changes because the field changes or because the circuit moves (or both).... Yet in our explanation of the rule we have used two completely distinct laws for the two cases – for "circuit moves" and for "field changes". We know of no other place in physics where such a simple and accurate general principle requires for its real understanding an analysis in terms of two different phenomena. — Richard P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics
Reflection on this apparent dichotomy was one of the principal paths that led Einstein to develop special relativity: It is known that Maxwell's electrodynamics—as usually understood at the present time—when applied to moving bodies, leads to asymmetries which do not appear to be inherent in the phenomena. Take, for example, the reciprocal electrodynamic action of a magnet and a conductor. The observable phenomenon here depends only on the relative motion of the conductor and the magnet, whereas the customary view draws a sharp distinction between the two cases in which either the one or the other of these bodies is in motion. For if the magnet is in motion and the conductor at rest, there arises in the neighbourhood of the magnet an electric field with a certain definite energy, producing a current at the places where parts of the conductor are situated. But if the magnet is stationary and the conductor in motion, no electric field arises in the neighbourhood of the magnet. In the conductor, however, we find an electromotive force, to which in itself there is no corresponding energy, but which gives rise—assuming equality of relative motion in the two cases discussed—to electric currents of the same path and intensity as those produced by the electric forces in the former case. Examples of this sort, together with unsuccessful attempts to discover any motion of the earth relative to the "light medium," suggest that the phenomena of electrodynamics as well as of mechanics possess no properties corresponding to the idea of absolute rest. — Albert Einstein, On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies
 Michael Faraday, by L. Pearce Williams, p. 182-3  Michael Faraday, by L. Pearce Williams, p. 191–5  Michael Faraday, by L. Pearce Williams, p. 510  Maxwell, James Clerk (1904), A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Vol. II, Third Edition. Oxford University Press, pp. 178–9 and 189.  "Archives Biographies: Michael Faraday", The Institution of Engineering and Technology. (http:/ / www. theiet. org/ about/ libarc/ archives/ biographies/ faraday. cfm)  Poyser, Arthur William (1892), Magnetism and electricity: A manual for students in advanced classes (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=JzBAAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA285). London and New York; Longmans, Green, & Co., p. 285, fig. 248. Retrieved 2009-08-06.  "The flux rule" is the terminology that Feynman uses to refer to the law relating magnetic flux to EMF.  Tipler and Mosca, Physics for Scientists and Engineers, p795, google books link (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=R2Nuh3Ux1AwC& pg=PA795)  Note that different textbooks may give different definitions. The set of equations used throughout the text was chosen to be compatible with the special relativity theory.  Essential Principles of Physics, P.M. Whelan, M.J. Hodgeson, 2nd Edition, 1978, John Murray, ISBN 0-7195-3382-1  Basic Theoretical Physics: A Concise Overview by Krey and Owen, p155, google books link (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=xZ_QelBmkxYC& pg=PA155)  K. Simonyi, Theoretische Elektrotechnik, 5th edition, VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1973, equation 20, page 47  Images and reference text are from the public domain book: Hawkins Electrical Guide, Volume 1, Chapter 19: Theory of the Armature, pp. 272–273, Copyright 1917 by Theo. Audel & Co., Printed in the United States  Images and reference text are from the public domain book: Hawkins Electrical Guide, Volume 1, Chapter 19: Theory of the Armature, pp. 270–271, Copyright 1917 by Theo. Audel & Co., Printed in the United States  Note that the law relating flux to EMF, which this article calls "Faraday's law", is referred to in Griffiths' terminology as the "universal flux rule". Griffiths uses the term "Faraday's law" to refer to what article calls the "Maxwell–Faraday equation". So in fact, in the textbook, Griffiths' statement is about the "universal flux rule".  A. Einstein, On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies (http:/ / www. fourmilab. ch/ etexts/ einstein/ specrel/ specrel. pdf)
• Maxwell, James Clerk (1881), A treatise on electricity and magnetism, Vol. II, Chapter III, §530, p. 178. (http:// books.google.com/books?id=vAsJAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=intitle:a+intitle:treatise+intitle:on+ intitle:electricity+intitle:an+intitle:magnetism&cad=0_1#v=onepage&q&f=false) Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-486-60637-6.
• A simple interactive Java tutorial on electromagnetic induction (http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/ tutorials/java/electromagneticinduction/index.html) National High Magnetic Field Laboratory • R. Vega Induction: Faraday's law and Lenz's law - Highly animated lecture (http://www.physics.smu.edu/ ~vega/em1304/lectures/lect13/lect13_f03.ppt) • Notes from Physics and Astronomy HyperPhysics at Georgia State University (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr. gsu.edu/HBASE/hframe.html) • Faraday's Law for EMC Engineers (http://www.learnemc.com/tutorials/Faraday/Faradays_Law.html) • Tankersley and Mosca: Introducing Faraday's law (http://usna.edu/Users/physics/tank/Public/FaradaysLaw. pdf) • Lenz's Law at work (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqMnDfNWlLM). • A free java simulation on motional EMF (http://www.phy.hk/wiki/englishhtm/Induction.htm) • Two videos demonstrating Faraday's and Lenz's laws at EduMation (http://msdaif.googlepages.com/physics) • Lenz's Law at work (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqMnDfNWlLM).
Lenz's law /ˈlɛntsɨzHelp:IPA for English#Keylɔː/ is a common way of understanding how electromagnetic circuits obey Newton's third law and the conservation of energy. Lenz's law is named after Heinrich Lenz, and it says: An induced electromotive force (emf) always gives rise to a current whose magnetic field opposes the original change in magnetic flux. Lenz's law is shown with the minus sign in Faraday's law of induction, which indicates that the
induced emf ( ) and the change in magnetic flux ( ) have opposite signs. For a rigorous mathematical treatment, see electromagnetic induction and Maxwell's equations.
If the magnetic field of current induces another electric current, and , the direction of is opposite that of and . If must these currents are in two circular conductors respectively, then the currents
counter-rotate. The opposing currents will repel each other as a result. Lenz's law states that the current induced in a circuit due to a change in the magnetic field is so directed as to oppose the change in flux or to exert a mechanical force opposing the motion.
Currents bound inside the atoms of strong magnets can create counter-rotating currents in a copper or aluminum pipe. This is done by dropping the magnet through the pipe. When done, the descent of the magnet is observably slower than when dropped outside the pipe. When an emf is generated by a change in magnetic flux according to Faraday's Law, the polarity of the induced emf is such that it produces a current whose magnetic field opposes the change which produces it. The induced magnetic field inside any loop of wire always acts to keep the magnetic flux in the loop constant. In the examples below, if the B field is increasing, the induced field acts in opposition to it. If it is decreasing, the induced field acts in the direction of the applied field to try to keep it constant.
Detailed interaction of charges in these currents
In electromagnetism, when charges change positions along electric field lines, work is done on them, whether it involves storing potential energy (negative work) or increasing kinetic energy (positive work). When net positive work is applied to a charge , it gains momentum. The net work on thereby generates a magnetic field whose strength (in units of magnetic flux density (1 Tesla = 1 volt-second per square meter)) is proportional to the speed increase of . This magnetic field can interact with a neighboring charge , passing on this momentum to it, and in return, can also act on effect. When current of loses momentum. . This and are, the greater the in a similar manner, by which it returns some of the emf that it received from
back-and-forth component of emf contributes to magnetic inductance. The closer that reacts to the emf sent to it by . The energy of
is inside a conductive medium such as a thick slab made of copper or aluminum, it more readily is not "instantly" consumed only as heat generated by the but is also stored in two opposing magnetic fields. The energy density of magnetic fields tends to vary
by the square of the magnetic field's intensity; however, in the case of magnetically non-linear materials such as ferromagnets and superconductors, this relationship breaks down.
The electric field stores energy. The energy density of the electric field is given by:
In general the incremental amount of work per unit volume δW needed to cause a small change of magnetic field δB is:
Conservation of momentum
Momentum must be conserved in the process, so if is pushed in one direction, then ought to be pushed in the other direction by the same force at the same time. However, the situation becomes more complicated when the finite speed of electromagnetic wave propagation is introduced (see retarded potential). This means that for a brief period of time, the total momentum of the two charges is not conserved, implying that the difference should be accounted for by momentum in the fields, as speculated by Richard P. Feynman. Famous 19th century electrodynamicist James Clerk Maxwell called this the "electromagnetic momentum", although this idea is not generally accepted as a part of standard curricula in physics classes as of 2010. Yet, such a treatment of fields may be necessary in the case of applying Lenz's law to opposite charges. It is normally assumed that the charges in question are like charges. If they are not, such as a proton and an electron, the interaction is different. An electron generating a magnetic field would generate an emf that causes a proton to change its motion in the same direction as the electron. At first, this might seem to violate the law of conservation of momentum, but of course, such an interaction indeed conserves momentum once taking into account the momentum of electromagnetic fields.
 Schmitt, Ron. Electromagnetics explained (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=MLzPNpJQz9UC& lpg=PA75& ots=iyX4CjMdu1& dq="lenz's law" "newton's third law"& pg=PA75#v=onepage& q="lenz's law" "newton's third law"& f=false). 2002. Retrieved 16 July 2010.  The Feynman Lectures on Physics: Volume I, Chapter 10, Page 9.  Maxwell, James C. A treatise on electricity and magnetism, Volume 2 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=t5vCDCXPUswC& pg=PA247& dq="electromagnetic+ momentum"+ maxwell& hl=en& ei=idFATN-UCIP48Aaun-GaDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=2& ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q=electromagnetic momentum& f=false). Retrieved 16 July 2010.
• Eddy Currents and Lenz's Law (http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/community/slideshows/eddycurrents/ index.html) (audio slideshow from the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) • EduMation A brief video demonstrating Lenz's law (http://msdaif.googlepages.com/demo_lenz) • A dramatic demonstration of the effect with an [[aluminum (http://youtube.com/watch?v=fxC-AEC0ROk)] block in an MRI] • Eddy currents produced by magnet and copper pipe. (http://www.wimp.com/copperpipe/)
In electromagnetism, displacement current is a quantity appearing in Maxwell's equations that is defined in terms of the rate of change of electric displacement field. Displacement current has the units of electric current density, and it has an associated magnetic field just as actual currents do. However it is not an electric current of moving charges, but a time-varying electric field. In materials, there is also a contribution from the slight motion of charges bound in atoms, dielectric polarization. The idea was conceived by James Clerk Maxwell in his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force in connection with the displacement of electric particles in a dielectric medium. Maxwell added displacement current to the electric current term in Ampère's Circuital Law. In his 1865 paper A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field Maxwell used this amended version of Ampère's Circuital Law to derive the electromagnetic wave equation. This derivation is now generally accepted as a historical landmark in physics by virtue of uniting electricity, magnetism and optics into one single unified theory. The displacement current term is now seen as a crucial addition that completed Maxwell's equations and is necessary to explain many phenomena, most particularly the existence of electromagnetic waves.
The electric displacement field is defined as:
where: ε0 is the permittivity of free space E is the electric field intensity P is the polarization of the medium Differentiating this equation with respect to time defines the displacement current density, which therefore has two components in a dielectric:
The first term on the right hand side is present in material media and in free space. It doesn't necessarily involve any actual movement of charge, but it does have an associated magnetic field, just as does a current due to charge motion. Some authors apply the name displacement current to only this contribution. The second term on the right hand side is associated with the polarization of the individual molecules of the dielectric material. Polarization results when the charges in molecules move a little under the influence of an applied electric field. The positive and negative charges in molecules separate, causing an increase in the state of polarization P. A changing state of polarization corresponds to charge movement and so is equivalent to a current. This polarization is the displacement current as it was originally conceived by Maxwell. Maxwell made no special treatment of the vacuum, treating it as a material medium. For Maxwell, the effect of P was simply to change the relative permittivity εr in the relation D = εrε0 E. The modern justification of displacement current is explained below.
Isotropic dielectric case
In the case of a very simple dielectric material the constitutive relation holds:
where the permittivity ε = ε0 εr, • εr is the relative permittivity of the dielectric and • ε0 is the electric constant. In this equation the use of ε, accounts for the polarization of the dielectric. The scalar value of displacement current may also be expressed in terms of electric flux:
The forms in terms of ε are correct only for linear isotropic materials. More generally ε may be replaced by a tensor, may depend upon the electric field itself, and may exhibit time dependence (dispersion). For a linear isotropic dielectric, the polarization P is given by:
where χe is known as the electric susceptibility of the dielectric. Note that:
Some implications of the displacement current follow, which agree with experimental observation, and with the requirements of logical consistency for the theory of electromagnetism.
Generalizing Ampère's circuital law
Current in capacitors An example illustrating the need for the displacement current arises in connection with capacitors with no medium between the plates. Consider the charging capacitor in the figure. The capacitor is in a circuit that transfers charge (on a wire external to the capacitor) from the left plate to the right plate, charging the capacitor and increasing the electric field between its plates. The same current enters the right plate (say I ) as leaves the left plate. Although current is flowing through the capacitor, no actual charge is transported through the vacuum between its plates. Nonetheless, a magnetic field exists between the plates as though a current were present there as well. The explanation is that a displacement current ID flows in the vacuum, and this current produces the magnetic field in the region between the plates according to Ampère's law:
where • • • • is the closed line integral around some closed curve C. is the magnetic field in tesla. is the vector dot product. is an infinitesimal element (differential) of the curve C (that is, a vector with magnitude equal to the length of the infinitesimal line element, and direction given by the tangent to the curve C). • • is the magnetic constant also called the permeability of free space. is the net displacement current that links the curve C.
An electrically charging capacitor with an imaginary cylindrical surface surrounding the left-hand plate. Right-hand surface R lies in the space between the plates and left-hand surface L lies to the left of the left plate. No conduction current enters cylinder surface R, while current I leaves through surface L. Consistency of Ampère's law requires a displacement current ID = I to flow across surface R.
The magnetic field between the plates is the same as that outside the plates, so the displacement current must be the same as the conduction current in the wires, that is,
which extends the notion of current beyond a mere transport of charge. Next, this displacement current is related to the charging of the capacitor. Consider the current in the imaginary cylindrical surface shown surrounding the left plate. A current, say I, passes outward through the left surface L of the cylinder, but no conduction current (no transport of real charges) enters the right surface R. Notice that the electric field between the plates E increases as the capacitor charges. That is, in a manner described by Gauss's law, assuming no dielectric between the plates:
where S refers to the imaginary cylindrical surface. Assuming a parallel plate capacitor with uniform electric field, and neglecting fringing effects around the edges of the plates, differentiation provides:
Displacement current where the sign is negative because charge leaves this plate (the charge is decreasing), and where S is the area of the face R. The electric field at face L is zero because the field due to charge on the right-hand plate is terminated by the equal but opposite charge on the left-hand plate. Under the assumption of a uniform electric field distribution inside the capacitor, the displacement current density JD is found by dividing by the area of the surface:
where I is the current leaving the cylindrical surface (which must equal −ID as the two currents sum to zero) and JD is the flow of charge per unit area into the cylindrical surface through the face R. Combining these results, the magnetic field is found using the integral form of Ampère's law with an arbitrary choice of contour provided the displacement current density term is added to the conduction current density (the Ampère-Maxwell equation):
Example showing two surfaces S1 and S2 that share the same bounding contour ∂S. However, S1 is pierced by conduction current, while S2 is pierced by displacement current.
This equation says that the integral of the magnetic field B around a loop ∂S is equal to the integrated current J through any surface spanning the loop, plus the displacement current term ε0 ∂E / ∂t through the surface. Applying the Ampère-Maxwell equation to surface S1 we find:
However, applying this law to surface S2, which is bounded by exactly the same curve plates, provides:
, but lies between the
Any surface that intersects the wire has current I passing through it so Ampère's law gives the correct magnetic field. Also, any surface bounded by the same loop but passing between the capacitor's plates has no charge transport flowing through it, but the ε0 ∂E / ∂t term provides a second source for the magnetic field besides charge conduction current. Because the current is increasing the charge on the capacitor's plates, the electric field between the plates is increasing, and the rate of change of electric field gives the correct value for the field B found above.
Displacement current Mathematical formulation In a more mathematical vein, the same results can be obtained from the underlying differential equations. Consider for simplicity a non-magnetic medium where the relative magnetic permeability is unity, and the complication of magnetization current is absent. The current leaving a volume must equal the rate of decrease of charge in a volume. In differential form this continuity equation becomes:
where the left side is the divergence of the free current density and the right side is the rate of decrease of the free charge density. However, Ampère's law in its original form states:
which implies that the divergence of the current term vanishes, contradicting the continuity equation. (Vanishing of the divergence is a result of the mathematical identity that states the divergence of a curl is always zero.) This conflict is removed by addition of the displacement current, as then:
which is in agreement with the continuity equation because of Gauss's law:
The added displacement current also leads to wave propagation by taking the curl of the equation for magnetic field.
Substituting this form for J into Ampère's law, and assuming there is no bound or free current density contributing to J:
with the result:
leading to the wave equation:
where use is made of the vector identity that holds for any vector field V(r, t):
and the fact that the divergence of the magnetic field is zero. An identical wave equation can be found for the electric field by taking the curl:
Displacement current If J, P and ρ are zero, the result is:
The electric field can be expressed in the general form:
where φ is the electric potential (which can be chosen to satisfy Poisson's equation) and A is a vector potential. The ∇φ component on the right hand side is the Gauss's law component, and this is the component that is relevant to the conservation of charge argument above. The second term on the right-hand side is the one relevant to the electromagnetic wave equation, because it is the term that contributes to the curl of E. Because of the vector identity that says the curl of a gradient is zero, ∇φ does not contribute to ∇×E.
History and interpretation
Maxwell's displacement current was postulated in part III of his 1861 paper 'On Physical Lines of Force'. Few topics in modern physics have caused as much confusion and misunderstanding as that of displacement current. This is in part due to the fact that Maxwell used a sea of molecular vortices in his derivation, while modern textbooks operate on the basis that displacement current can exist in free space. Maxwell's derivation is unrelated to the modern day derivation for displacement current in the vacuum, which is based on consistency between Ampère's law for the magnetic field and the continuity equation for electric charge. Maxwell's purpose is stated by him at (Part I, p. 161): I propose now to examine magnetic phenomena from a mechanical point of view, and to determine what tensions in, or motions of, a medium are capable of producing the mechanical phenomena observed. He is careful to point out the treatment is one of analogy: The author of this method of representation does not attempt to explain the origin of the observed forces by the effects due to these strains in the elastic solid, but makes use of the mathematical analogies of the two problems to assist the imagination in the study of both. In part III, in relation to displacement current, he says I conceived the rotating matter to be the substance of certain cells, divided from each other by cell-walls composed of particles which are very small compared with the cells, and that it is by the motions of these particles, and their tangential action on the substance in the cells, that the rotation is communicated from one cell to another. Clearly Maxwell was driving at magnetization even though the same introduction clearly talks about dielectric polarization. Maxwell concluded, using Newton's equation for the speed of sound (Lines of Force, Part III, equation (132)), that “light consists of transverse undulations in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena.” But although the above quotations point towards a magnetic explanation for displacement current, for example, based upon the divergence of the above curl equation, Maxwell's explanation ultimately stressed linear polarization of dielectrics: This displacement...is the commencement of a current...The amount of displacement depends on the nature of the body, and on the electromotive force so that if h is the displacement, R the electromotive force, and E a coefficient depending on the nature of the dielectric:
and if r is the value of the electric current due to displacement
These relations are independent of any theory about the mechanism of dielectrics; but when we find electromotive force producing electric displacement in a dielectric, and when we find the dielectric recovering from its state of electric displacement...we cannot help regarding the phenomena as those of an elastic body, yielding to a pressure and recovering its form when the pressure is removed.—Part III – The theory of molecular vortices applied to statical electricity , pp. 14–15 With some change of symbols (and units): r → J, R → −E and the material constant E−2 → 4π εrε0 these equations take the familiar form:
When it came to deriving the electromagnetic wave equation from displacement current in his 1865 paper A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, he got around the problem of the non-zero divergence associated with Gauss's law and dielectric displacement by eliminating the Gauss term and deriving the wave equation exclusively for the solenoidal magnetic field vector. Maxwell's emphasis on polarization diverted attention towards the electric capacitor circuit, and led to the common belief that Maxwell conceived of displacement current so as to maintain conservation of charge in an electric capacitor circuit. There are a variety of debatable notions about Maxwell's thinking, ranging from his supposed desire to perfect the symmetry of the field equations to the desire to achieve compatibility with the continuity equation.
 For example, see and  from
• On Faraday's Lines of Force (http://blazelabs.com/On Faraday's Lines of Force.pdf) Maxwell's paper of 1855 • On Physical Lines of Force Maxwell's paper of 1861 • A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field Maxwell's paper of 1864
• AM Bork (http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.1969140) Maxwell, Displacement Current, and Symmetry (1963) • AM Bork (http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.1974263) Maxwell and the Electromagnetic Wave Equation (1967)
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electrodynamics, classical optics, and electric circuits. These fields in turn underlie modern electrical and communications technologies. Maxwell's equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated and altered by each other and by charges and currents. They are named after the Scottish physicist and mathematician James Clerk Maxwell who published an early form of those equations between 1861 and 1862. The equations have two major variants. The "microscopic" set of Maxwell's equations uses total charge and total current, including the complicated charges and currents in materials at the atomic scale; it has universal applicability, but may be unfeasible to calculate. The "macroscopic" set of Maxwell's equations defines two new auxiliary fields that describe large-scale behavior without having to consider these atomic scale details, but it requires the use of parameters characterizing the electromagnetic properties of the relevant materials. The term "Maxwell's equations" is often used for other forms of Maxwell's equations. For example, space-time formulations are commonly used in high energy and gravitational physics. These formulations defined on space-time, rather than space and time separately are manifestly compatible with special and general relativity. In quantum mechanics, versions of Maxwell's equations based on the electric and magnetic potentials are preferred. Since the mid-20th century, it has been understood that Maxwell's equations are not exact laws of the universe, but are a classical approximation to the more accurate and fundamental theory of quantum electrodynamics. In most cases, though, quantum deviations from Maxwell's equations are immeasurably small. Exceptions occur when the particle nature of light is important or for very strong electric fields.
Conceptually, Maxwell's equations describe how electric charges and electric currents act as sources for the electric and magnetic fields and how they affect each other. (Mathematical descriptions are below). Using vector calculus there are four equations. Two describe how the fields vary in space due to sources (if any); electric fields emanating from electric charges in Gauss's law, and magnetic fields as closed field lines (not due to magnetic monopoles) in Gauss's law for magnetism. The other two describe how the fields 'circulate' around their respective sources; the magnetic field 'circulates' around electric currents and time varying electric fields in Ampère's law with Maxwell's correction, while the electric field 'circulates' around time varying magnetic fields in Faraday's law.
Gauss's law describes the relationship between a static electric field and the electric charges that cause it: The static electric field points away from positive charges and towards negative charges. In the field line description, electric field lines begin only at positive electric charges and end only at negative electric charges. 'Counting' the number of field lines passing though a closed surface, therefore, yields the total charge (including bound charge due to polarization of material) enclosed by that surface divided by dielectricity of free space (the vacuum permittivity). More technically, it relates the electric flux through any hypothetical closed "Gaussian surface" to the enclosed electric charge.
Gauss's law for magnetism
Gauss's law for magnetism states that there are no "magnetic charges" (also called magnetic monopoles), analogous to electric charges. Instead, the magnetic field due to materials is generated by a configuration called a dipole. Magnetic dipoles are best represented as loops of current but resemble positive and negative 'magnetic charges', inseparably bound together, having no net 'magnetic charge'. In terms of field lines, this equation states that magnetic field lines neither begin nor end but make loops or extend to infinity and back. In other words, any magnetic field line that enters a given volume must somewhere exit that volume. Equivalent technical statements are that the sum total magnetic flux through any Gaussian surface is zero, or that the magnetic field is a solenoidal vector field.
Gauss's law for magnetism: magnetic field lines never begin nor end but form loops or extend to infinity as shown here with the magnetic field due to a ring of current.
Faraday's law describes how a time varying magnetic field creates ("induces") an electric field. This dynamically induced electric field has closed field lines just as the magnetic field, if NOT superposed by a static (charge induced) electric field. This aspect of electromagnetic induction is the operating principle behind many electric generators: for example, a rotating bar magnet creates a changing magnetic field, which in turn generates an electric field in a nearby wire. (Note: there are two closely related equations which are called Faraday's law. The form used in Maxwell's equations is always valid but more restrictive than that originally formulated by Michael Faraday.)
In a geomagnetic storm, a surge in the flux of charged particles temporarily alters Earth's magnetic field, which induces electric fields in Earth's atmosphere, thus causing surges in electrical power grids. Artist's rendition; sizes are not to scale.
Ampère's law with Maxwell's correction
Ampère's law with Maxwell's correction states that magnetic fields can be generated in two ways: by electrical current (this was the original "Ampère's law") and by changing electric fields (this was "Maxwell's correction"). Maxwell's correction to Ampère's law is particularly important: it shows that not only does a changing magnetic field induce an electric field, but also a changing electric field induces a magnetic field. Therefore, these equations allow self-sustaining "electromagnetic waves" to travel through empty space (see electromagnetic wave equation).
The speed calculated for electromagnetic waves, which could be predicted from experiments on charges and currents, exactly matches the speed of light; indeed, light is one form of electromagnetic radiation (as are X-rays, radio waves, and others). Maxwell understood the connection between electromagnetic waves and light in 1861, thereby unifying the theories of electromagnetism and optics.
An Wang's magnetic core memory (1954) is an application of Ampère's law. Each core stores one bit of data.
Conventional formulation in SI units
The precise formulation of the Maxwell equation depends on the precise definition of the quantities involved. Conventions differ with the unit systems because various definitions (and dimensions) are changed by absorbing dimensionfull factors like the speed of light c. This makes constants come out differently. The equations in this section are given in the convention used with SI units. Other units commonly used are Gaussian units based on the cgs system, Lorentz–Heaviside units (used mainly in particle physics), and Planck units (used in theoretical physics). See below for the formulation with Gaussian units. The following equations are the conventional formulation of the Maxwell equations in terms of vector calculus using time dependent vector fields. Symbols in bold represent vector quantities, and symbols in italics represent scalar quantities. The definitions of terms used in the two tables of equations are given in another table immediately following. For a detailed description of the differences between the microscopic (total charge and current including material contributes or in air/vacuum) and macroscopic (free charge and current; practical to use on materials) variants of Maxwell's equations, see below.
Formulation Integral Name Gauss's law "Microscopic" equations "Macroscopic" equations
Gauss's law for magnetism
Same as microscopic
Maxwell–Faraday equation (Faraday's law of induction) Ampère's circuital law (with Maxwell's correction)
Same as microscopic
Gauss's law Gauss's law for magnetism Same as microscopic Same as microscopic
Maxwell–Faraday equation (Faraday's law of induction) Ampère's circuital law (with Maxwell's correction)
Table of terms
The following table provides the meaning of each symbol and the SI unit of measure:
Definitions and units
Type Differential operators Symbol Meaning (first term is the most common) the divergence operator SI unit of measure per meter (factor contributed by applying the operator) per meter (factor contributed by applying the operator) per second (factor contributed by applying the operator) volt per meter or, equivalently, newton per coulomb tesla, or equivalently, • • • • weber per square meter, volt-second per square meter coulombs per square meter or equivalently, newton per volt-meter
the curl operator
partial derivative with respect to time
• • • • • • • • • • • • •
electric field, also called the electric field intensity magnetic field, also called: the magnetic induction the magnetic field density the magnetic flux density electric displacement field, also called: the electric induction the electric flux density magnetizing field, also called: auxiliary magnetic field magnetic field intensity magnetic field
ampere per meter
ε0 μ0 Charges and currents Qf(V) Q(V)
permittivity of free space, also called the electric constant, a universal constant permeability of free space, also called the magnetic constant, a universal constant net free electric charge within the volume V (not including bound charge) net electric charge within the volume V (including both free and bound charge) free charge density (not including bound charge) total charge density (including both free and bound charge) free current density (not including bound current) total current density (including both free and bound current)
farads per meter
henries per meter, or newtons per ampere squared coulombs
ρf ρ Jf J
coulombs per cubic meter coulombs per cubic meter amperes per square meter amperes per square meter
Σ is any surface, and ∂Σ is its boundary curve. The surface is fixed (unchanging in time). differential vector element of path length tangential to the path/curve meters line integral of the electric field along the boundary ∂Σ of a surface Σ joules per coulomb (∂Σ is always a closed curve). line integral of the magnetic field over the closed boundary ∂Σ of the tesla-meters surface Σ Ω and ∂Ω Ω is any volume, and ∂Ω is its boundary surface. The volume is fixed (unchanging in time). differential vector element of surface area S normal to surface Σ (also square meters denoted by A rather than S, but this conflicts with the magnetic potential) the electric flux (surface integral of the electric field) through the (closed) surface ∂Ω (the boundary of the volume Ω) the magnetic flux (surface integral of the magnetic B-field) through the (closed) surface ∂Ω (the boundary of the volume Ω) flux of electric displacement field through the (closed) surface ∂Ω (the boundary of the volume Ω) net free electrical current passing through the surface Σ (not including bound current) net electrical current passing through the surface Σ (including both free and bound current) joule-meter per coulomb
Line and surface Σ and ∂Σ integrals dℓ
tesla meters-squared or webers
Relationship between differential and integral formulations
The differential and integral formulations of the equations are mathematically equivalent, by the divergence theorem in the case of Gauss's law and Gauss's law for magnetism, and by the Kelvin–Stokes theorem in the case of Faraday's law and Ampère's law. Both the differential and integral formulations are useful. The integral formulation can often be used to simply and directly calculate fields from symmetric distributions of charges and currents. On the other hand, the differential formulation is a more natural starting point for calculating the fields in more complicated (less symmetric) situations, for example using finite element analysis.
Vacuum equations, electromagnetic waves and speed of light
In a region with no charges (ρ = 0) and no currents (J = 0), such as in a vacuum, Maxwell's equations reduce to:
This 3D diagram shows a plane linearly polarized wave propagating from left to right with the same wave equations where E = E0 sin(-ωt + k ⋅ r) and B= B0 sin(-ωt + k ⋅ r)
= 2.99792458×108 m/s (in material:
can be slower). Taking the curl ( we obtain the
) of the curl equations, and using the curl of the curl identity wave equations
which identify c with the speed of light in free space. In addition, E and B are mutually perpendicular to each other and the direction of wave propagation, and are in phase with each other. A sinusoidal plane wave is one special solution of these equations. Maxwell's equations explain how these waves can physically propagate through space. The changing magnetic field creates a changing electric field through Faraday's law. In turn, that electric field creates a changing magnetic field through Maxwell's correction to Ampère's law. This perpetual cycle allows these waves, now known as electromagnetic radiation, to move through space at velocity c.
Equations in Gaussian units
Gaussian units are a popular system of units, that is part of the centimetre–gram–second system of units (cgs). When using cgs units it is conventional to use a slightly different definition of electric field . This implies
that the modified electric and magnetic field have the same units (in the SI convention this is not the case: e.g. for EM waves in vacuum, |ESI| = c|B|, making dimensional analysis of the equations different). Then it uses a unit of charge defined in such a way that the permittivity of the vacuum different conventions, the Maxwell equations become: , hence . Using these
Equations in Gaussian units
Name Gauss's law Gauss's law for magnetism Maxwell–Faraday equation (Faraday's law of induction) Ampère's law (with Maxwell's extension) same as microscopic same as microscopic Microscopic equations Macroscopic equations
"Microscopic" versus "macroscopic"
The microscopic variant of Maxwell's equation expresses the electric E field and the magnetic B field in terms of the total charge and total current present including the charges and currents at the atomic level. It is sometimes called the general form of Maxwell's equations or "Maxwell's equations in a vacuum". The macroscopic variant of Maxwell's equation is equally general, however, with the difference being one of bookkeeping. "Maxwell's macroscopic equations", also known as Maxwell's equations in matter, are more similar to those that Maxwell introduced himself. Unlike the "microscopic" equations, they factor out the bound charge and current to obtain equations that depend only on the free charges and currents. The cost of this factorization is that additional fields, the displacement field D and the magnetizing field-H, are defined that need to be determined. Phenomenological constituent equations relate the additional fields to the electric field E and the magnetic B-field, often through a simple linear relation.
Bound charge and current
When an electric field is applied to a dielectric material its molecules respond by forming microscopic electric dipoles – their atomic nuclei move a tiny distance in the direction of the field, while their electrons move a tiny distance in the opposite direction. This produces a macroscopic bound charge in the material even though all of the charges involved are bound to individual molecules. For example, if every molecule responds the same, similar to that shown in the figure, these tiny movements of charge combine to produce a layer of Left: A schematic view of how an assembly of microscopic dipoles produces opposite surface charges as shown at top and bottom. Right: How an assembly of positive bound charge on one side of the microscopic current loops add together to produce a macroscopically circulating material and a layer of negative charge on current loop. Inside the boundaries, the individual contributions tend to cancel, but the other side. The bound charge is most at the boundaries no cancelation occurs. conveniently described in terms of the polarization P of the material, its dipole moment per unit volume. If P is uniform, a macroscopic separation of charge is produced only at the surfaces where P enter and leave the material. For non-uniform P, a charge is also produced in the bulk. Somewhat similarly, in all materials the constituent atoms exhibit magnetic moments that are intrinsically linked to the angular momentum of the components of the atoms, most notably their electrons. The connection to angular
Maxwell's equations momentum suggests the picture of an assembly of microscopic current loops. Outside the material, an assembly of such microscopic current loops is not different from a macroscopic current circulating around the material's surface, despite the fact that no individual magnetic moment is traveling a large distance. These bound currents can be described using the magnetization M. The very complicated and granular bound charges and bound currents, therefore can be represented on the macroscopic scale in terms of P and M which average these charges and currents on a sufficiently large scale so as not to see the granularity of individual atoms, but also sufficiently small that they vary with location in the material. As such, the Maxwell's macroscopic equations ignores many details on a fine scale that can be unimportant to understanding matters on a gross scale by calculating fields that are averaged over some suitable volume.
Auxiliary fields, polarisation and magnetisation
The definitions (not constitutive relations) of the auxiliary fields are:
where P is the polarization field and M is the magnetization field which are defined in terms of microscopic bound charges and bound current respectively. The macroscopic bound charge density ρb and bound current density Jb in terms of polarization P and magnetization M are then defined as
If we define the free, bound, and total charge and current density by
and use the defining relations above to eliminate D, and H, the "macroscopic" Maxwell's equations reproduce the "microscopic" equations.
In order to apply 'Maxwell's macroscopic equations', it is necessary to specify the relations between displacement field D and the electric field E, as well as the magnetizing field H and the magnetic field B. Equivalently, we have to specify the dependence of the polarisation P (hence the bound charge) and the magnetisation M (hence the bound current) on the applied electric and magnetic field. The equations specifying this response are called constitutive relations. For real-world materials, the constitutive relations are rarely simple, except approximately, and usually determined by experiment. See the main article for a fuller description. For materials without polarisation and magnetisation ("vacuum"), the constitutive relations are
for scalar constants
. Since there is no bound charge, the total and the free charge and current are equal.
More generally, for linear materials the constitutive relations are
where ε is the permittivity and μ the permeability of the material. Even the linear case can have various complications, however. • For homogeneous materials, ε and μ are constant throughout the material, while for inhomogeneous materials they depend on location within the material (and perhaps time).
Maxwell's equations • For isotropic materials, ε and μ are scalars, while for anisotropic materials (e.g. due to crystal structure) they are tensors. • Materials are generally dispersive, so ε and μ depend on the frequency of any incident EM waves. Even more generally, in the case of non-linear materials (see for example nonlinear optics), D and P are not necessarily proportional to E, similarly B is not necessarily proportional to H or M. In general D and H depend on both E and B, on location and time, and possibly other physical quantities. In applications one also has to describe how the free currents and charge density behave in terms of E and B possibly coupled to other physical quantities like pressure, and the mass, number density, and velocity of charge carying particles. E.g., the original equations given by Maxwell (see History section) included Ohms law in the form .
Following is a summary of some of the numerous other ways to write Maxwell's equations in vacuum, showing they can be collected together and formulated using different mathematical formalisms that describe the same physics. Often, they are also called the Maxwell equations. See the main articles for the details of each formulation. SI units are used throughout.
Formalism Vector calculus Formulation Fields 3D space + time Potentials (any gauge) 3D space + time Potentials (Lorenz gauge) 3D space + time Tensor calculus Fields flat space-time Potentials (any gauge) flat space-time Potentials (Lorenz gauge) flat space-time Differential forms Fields any space-time Potentials (any gauge) any space-time Potentials (Lorenz gauge) any space-time Homogeneous equations Non-homogeneous equations
Fields any space-time Potentials (any gauge) any space-time Potentials (Lorenz gauge) any space-time
where • • is the four-gradient with respect to coordinates in an inertial frame; is the D'Alembert operator, ,
• the square bracket [ ] denotes antisymmetrization of indices, • d is the exterior derivative, and is the Hodge star on forms defined by the Lorentzian metric of space-time (in the case of defined on two forms depending only on the conformal class of the metric). • in geometric calculus, D is the covector derivative in any spacetime and reduces to ∇ in flat spacetime. Where ∇ in spacetime and is similar to ∇ in space and is related to the D'Alambertian by Following are the reasons for using such formulations. In advanced classical mechanics it is often useful, and in quantum mechanics frequently essential, to express Maxwell's equations in a potential formulation involving the electric potential (also called scalar potential) φ, and the magnetic potential (also called vector potential) A. For example, the analysis of radio antennas makes full use of Maxwell's vector and scalar potentials to separate the variables, a common technique used in formulating the solutions of differential equations. The potentials can be introduced by using the Poincaré lemma on the homogeneous equations to solve them in a universal way (this assumes that we consider a topologically simple, e.g. contractible space). The potentials are defined as in the table above. Alternatively, these equations define E and B in terms of the electric and magnetic potentials which then satisfy the homogeneous equations for E and B as identities. Substitution gives the non-homogeneous Maxwell equations in potential form. Many different choices of A and φ are consistent with given observable electric and magnetic fields E and B, so the potentials seem to contain more, (classically) unobservable information. The non uniqueness of the potentials is well understood, however. For every scalar function of position and time λ(x, t), the potentials can be changed by a gauge transformation as
without changing the electric and magnetic field. Two pairs of gauge transformed potentials (φ, A) and (φ′, A′) are called gauge equivalent, and the freedom to select any pair of potentials in its gauge equivalence class is called gauge freedom. Again by the Poincaré lemma (and under its assumptions), gauge freedom is the only source of indeterminacy, so the field formulation is equivalent to the potential formulation if we consider the potential equations as equations for gauge equivalence classes. The potential equations can be simplified using a procedure called gauge fixing. Since the potentials are only defined up to gauge equivalence, we are free to impose additional equations on the potentials, as long as for every pair of potentials there is a gauge equivalent pair that satisfies the additional equations (i.e. if the gauge fixing equations define a slice to the gauge action). The gauge-fixed potentials still have a gauge freedom under all gauge transformations that leave the gauge fixing equations invariant. Inspection of the potential equations suggests two natural choices. In the Coulomb gauge, we impose which is mostly used in the case of magneto statics when we can neglect the c−2∂2A/∂t2 term. In the Lorenz gauge (named after the Dane Ludvig Lorenz), we impose
The Lorenz gauge condition has the advantage of being Lorentz invariant and leading to Lorentz-invariant equations for the potentials. Maxwell's equations are exactly consistent with special relativity—i.e., if they are valid in one inertial reference frame, then they are automatically valid in every other inertial reference frame. In fact, Maxwell's equations were crucial in the historical development of special relativity. However, in the usual formulation of Maxwell's equations, their consistency with special relativity is not obvious; it can only be proven by a laborious calculation. For example, consider a conductor moving in the field of a magnet. In the frame of the magnet, that conductor experiences a magnetic force. But in the frame of a conductor moving relative to the magnet, the conductor experiences a force due to an electric field. The motion is exactly consistent in these two different reference frames, but it mathematically arises in quite different ways. For this reason and others, it is often useful to rewrite Maxwell's equations in a way that is "manifestly covariant"—i.e. obviously consistent with special relativity, even with just a glance at the equations—using covariant and contravariant four-vectors and tensors. This can be done using the EM tensor F, or the 4-potential A, with the 4-current J – see covariant formulation of classical electromagnetism. Gauss's law for magnetism and the Faraday–Maxwell law can be grouped together since the equations are homogeneous, and be seen as geometric identities expressing the field F (a 2-form), which can be derived from the 4-potential A. Gauss's law for electricity and the Ampere–Maxwell law could be seen as the dynamical equations of motion of the fields, obtained via the Lagrangian principle of least action, from the "interaction term" A J (introduced through gauge covariant derivatives), coupling the field to matter. For the field formulation of Maxwell's equations in terms of a principle of extremal action, see electromagnetic tensor. Often, the time derivative in the Faraday–Maxwell equation motivates calling this equation "dynamical", which is somewhat misleading in the sense of the preceding analysis. This is rather an artifact of breaking relativistic covariance by choosing a preferred time direction. To have physical degrees of freedom propagated by these field equations, one must include a kinetic term F *F for A, and take into account the non-physical degrees of freedom which can be removed by gauge transformation A → A' = A − dα. See also gauge fixing and Faddeev–Popov ghosts. This formulation is structured on the algebra that spacetime generates through the introduction of a distributive, associative (but not commutative) product called the geometric product. Every element and every operation within the algebra has geometric meaning. The members of the algebra carry a grade (as in the formalism of differential forms) and the (geometric) product of a vector with a k-vector can always be decomposed into a (k-1)-vector and a (k+1)-vector. The grade-lowering product can be identified with the inner product and the grade-raising product as the outer product. Of great importance is the fact that the geometric product is invertible while the inner and outer products are not. The derivatives that appear in Maxwell's equations are vectors and Electromagnetic fields are represented by the Faraday bivector F. This formulation is more general than that of differential forms as one can construct a unique r-vector which yields a quantity which has al the properties of a differential form. The description is more general in many senses and all results of differential forms can be reproduced. In the light of this formulation one can identify that the dynamics of electromagnetic fields is given by one equation, Maxwell's equation. This equation can be separated into parts as is done above for comparative reasons.
Maxwell's equations are partial differential equations that relate the electric and magnetic fields to each other and to the electric charges and currents. Often, the charges and currents are themselves dependent on the electric and magnetic fields via the Lorentz force equation and the constitutive relations. These all form a set of coupled partial differential equations, which are often very difficult to solve. In fact, the solutions of these equations encompass all the diverse phenomena in the entire field of classical electromagnetism. A thorough discussion is far beyond the scope of the article, but some general notes follow: • Like any differential equation, boundary conditions and initial conditions are necessary for a unique solution. For example, even with no charges and no currents anywhere in spacetime, many solutions to Maxwell's equations are possible, not just the obvious solution E = B = 0. Another solution is E = constant, B = constant, while yet other solutions have electromagnetic waves filling spacetime. In some cases, Maxwell's equations are solved through infinite space, and boundary conditions are given as asymptotic limits at infinity. In other cases, Maxwell's equations are solved in just a finite region of space, with appropriate boundary conditions on that region: For example, the boundary could be an artificial absorbing boundary representing the rest of the universe, or periodic boundary conditions, or (as with a waveguide or cavity resonator) the boundary conditions may describe the walls that isolate a small region from the outside world. • Jefimenko's equations (or the closely related Liénard–Wiechert potentials) are the explicit solution to Maxwell's equations for the electric and magnetic fields created by any given distribution of charges and currents. It assumes specific initial conditions to obtain the so-called "retarded solution", where the only fields present are the ones created by the charges. Jefimenko's equations are not so helpful in situations when the charges and currents are themselves affected by the fields they create. • Numerical methods for differential equations can be used to approximately solve Maxwell's equations when an exact solution is impossible. These methods usually require a computer, and include the finite element method and finite-difference time-domain method. For more details, see Computational electromagnetics. • Maxwell's equations seem overdetermined, in that they involve six unknowns (the three components of E and B) but eight equations (one for each of the two Gauss's laws, three vector components each for Faraday's and Ampere's laws). (The currents and charges are not unknowns, being freely specifiable subject to charge conservation.) This is related to a certain limited kind of redundancy in Maxwell's equations: It can be proven that any system satisfying Faraday's law and Ampere's law automatically also satisfies the two Gauss's laws, as long as the system's initial condition does. Although it is possible to simply ignore the two Gauss's laws in a numerical algorithm (apart from the initial conditions), the imperfect precision of the calculations can lead to ever-increasing violations of those laws. By introducing dummy variables characterizing these violations, the four equations become not overdetermined after all. The resulting formulation can lead to more accurate algorithms that take all four laws into account.
Limitations as a theory of electromagnetism
While Maxwell's equations (along with the rest of classical electromagnetism) are extraordinarily successful at explaining and predicting a variety of phenomena, they are not exact laws of the universe, but merely approximations. In some special situations, they can be noticeably inaccurate. Examples include extremely strong fields (see Euler–Heisenberg Lagrangian) and extremely short distances (see vacuum polarization). Moreover, various phenomena occur in the world even though Maxwell's equations predicts them to be impossible, such as "nonclassical light" and quantum entanglement of electromagnetic fields (see quantum optics). Finally, any phenomenon involving individual photons, such as the photoelectric effect, Planck's law, the Duane–Hunt law, single-photon light detectors, etc., would be difficult or impossible to explain if Maxwell's equations were exactly true, as Maxwell's equations do not involve photons. For the most accurate predictions in all situations, Maxwell's equations have been superseded by quantum electrodynamics.
Popular variations on the Maxwell equations as a classical theory of electromagnetic fields are relatively scarce because the standard equations have stood the test of time remarkably well.
Maxwell's equations posit that there is electric charge, but no magnetic charge (also called magnetic monopoles), in the universe. Indeed, magnetic charge has never been observed (despite extensive searches) and may not exist. If they did exist, both Gauss's law for magnetism and Faraday's law would need to be modified, and the resulting four equations would be fully symmetric under the interchange of electric and magnetic fields.
Relation between electricity, magnetism, and the speed of light
The relation between electricity, magnetism, and the speed of light can be summarized by the modern equation:
The left-hand side is the speed of light, and the right-hand side is a quantity related to the equations governing electricity and magnetism. Although the right-hand side has units of velocity, it can be inferred from measurements of electric and magnetic forces, which involve no physical velocities. Therefore, establishing this relationship provided convincing evidence that light is an electromagnetic phenomenon. The discovery of this relationship started in 1855, when Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch determined that there was a quantity related to electricity and magnetism, "the ratio of the absolute electromagnetic unit of charge to the absolute electrostatic unit of charge" (in modern language, the value ), and determined that it should have units of velocity. They then measured this ratio by an experiment which involved charging and discharging a Leyden jar and measuring the magnetic force from the discharge current, and found a value 3.107×108 m/s, remarkably close to the speed of light, which had recently been measured at 3.14×108 m/s by Hippolyte Fizeau in 1848 and at 2.98×108 m/s by Léon Foucault in 1850. However, Weber and Kohlrausch did not make the connection to the speed of light. Towards the end of 1861 while working on part III of his paper On Physical Lines of Force, Maxwell travelled from Scotland to London and looked up Weber and Kohlrausch's results. He converted them into a format which was compatible with his own writings, and in doing so he established the connection to the speed of light and concluded that light is a form of electromagnetic radiation.
The term Maxwell's equations
The four modern Maxwell's equations can be found individually throughout his 1861 paper, derived theoretically using a molecular vortex model of Michael Faraday's "lines of force" and in conjunction with the experimental result of Weber and Kohlrausch. But it wasn't until 1884 that Oliver Heaviside, concurrently with similar work by Willard Gibbs and Heinrich Hertz, grouped the four together into a distinct set. This group of four equations was known variously as the Hertz–Heaviside equations and the Maxwell–Hertz equations, and are sometimes still known as the Maxwell–Heaviside equations. Maxwell's contribution to science in producing these equations lies in the correction he made to Ampère's circuital law in his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force. He added the displacement current term to Ampère's circuital law and this enabled him to derive the electromagnetic wave equation in his later 1865 paper A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field and demonstrate the fact that light is an electromagnetic wave. This fact was then later confirmed experimentally by Heinrich Hertz in 1887. The physicist Richard Feynman predicted that, "The American Civil War will pale into provincial insignificance in comparison with this important scientific event of the same
Maxwell's equations decade." The concept of fields was introduced by, among others, Faraday. Albert Einstein wrote: The precise formulation of the time-space laws was the work of Maxwell. Imagine his feelings when the differential equations he had formulated proved to him that electromagnetic fields spread in the form of polarised waves, and at the speed of light! To few men in the world has such an experience been vouchsafed ... it took physicists some decades to grasp the full significance of Maxwell's discovery, so bold was the leap that his genius forced upon the conceptions of his fellow workers —(Science, May 24, 1940) Heaviside worked to eliminate the potentials (electric potential and magnetic potential) that Maxwell had used as the central concepts in his equations; this effort was somewhat controversial, though it was understood by 1884 that the potentials must propagate at the speed of light like the fields, unlike the concept of instantaneous action-at-a-distance like the then conception of gravitational potential.
On Physical Lines of Force
The four modern day Maxwell's equations appeared throughout Maxwell's 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force: 1. Equation (56) in Maxwell's 1861 paper is ∇ • B = 0. 2. Equation (112) is Ampère's circuital law with Maxwell's displacement current added. It is the addition of displacement current that is the most significant aspect of Maxwell's work in electromagnetism, as it enabled him to later derive the electromagnetic wave equation in his 1865 paper A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, and hence show that light is an electromagnetic wave. It is therefore this aspect of Maxwell's work which gives the equations their full significance. (Interestingly, Kirchhoff derived the telegrapher's equations in 1857 without using displacement current. But he did use Poisson's equation and the equation of continuity which are the mathematical ingredients of the displacement current. Nevertheless, Kirchhoff believed his equations to be applicable only inside an electric wire and so he is not credited with having discovered that light is an electromagnetic wave). 3. Equation (115) is Gauss's law. 4. Equation (54) is an equation that Oliver Heaviside referred to as 'Faraday's law'. This equation caters for the time varying aspect of electromagnetic induction, but not for the motionally induced aspect, whereas Faraday's original flux law caters for both aspects. Maxwell deals with the motionally dependent aspect of electromagnetic induction, v × B, at equation (77). Equation (77) which is the same as equation (D) in the original eight Maxwell's equations listed below, corresponds to all intents and purposes to the modern day force law F = q( E + v × B ) which sits adjacent to Maxwell's equations and bears the name Lorentz force, even though Maxwell derived it when Lorentz was still a young boy. The difference between the B and the H vectors can be traced back to Maxwell's 1855 paper entitled On Faraday's Lines of Force which was read to the Cambridge Philosophical Society. The paper presented a simplified model of Faraday's work, and how the two phenomena were related. He reduced all of the current knowledge into a linked set of differential equations.
It is later clarified in his concept of a sea of molecular vortices that appears in his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force. Within that context, H represented pure vorticity (spin), whereas B was a weighted vorticity that was weighted for the density of the vortex sea. Maxwell considered magnetic permeability µ to be a measure of the density of the vortex sea. Hence the relationship, 1. Magnetic induction current causes a magnetic current density B = μ H was essentially a rotational analogy to the linear electric current relationship, 2. Electric convection current J = ρ v where ρ is electric charge density. B was seen as a kind of magnetic current of vortices aligned in their axial planes, with H being the circumferential velocity of the vortices. With µ representing vortex density, it follows that the product of µ with vorticity H leads to the magnetic field denoted as B.
Figure of Maxwell's molecular vortex model. For a uniform magnetic field, the field lines point outward from the display screen, as can be observed from the black dots in the middle of the hexagons. The vortex of each hexagonal molecule rotates counter-clockwise. The small green circles are clockwise rotating particles sandwiching between the molecular vortices.
The electric current equation can be viewed as a convective current of electric charge that involves linear motion. By analogy, the magnetic equation is an inductive current involving spin. There is no linear motion in the inductive current along the direction of the B vector. The magnetic inductive current represents lines of force. In particular, it represents lines of inverse square law force. The extension of the above considerations confirms that where B is to H, and where J is to ρ, then it necessarily follows from Gauss's law and from the equation of continuity of charge that E is to D. i.e. B parallels with E, whereas H parallels with D.
A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field
In 1864 Maxwell published A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field in which he showed that light was an electromagnetic phenomenon. Confusion over the term "Maxwell's equations" sometimes arises because it has been used for a set of eight equations that appeared in Part III of Maxwell's 1864 paper A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, entitled "General Equations of the Electromagnetic Field", and this confusion is compounded by the writing of six of those eight equations as three separate equations (one for each of the Cartesian axes), resulting in twenty equations and twenty unknowns. (As noted above, this terminology is not common: Modern references to the term "Maxwell's equations" refer to the Heaviside restatements.) The eight original Maxwell's equations can be written in modern vector notation as follows:
(A) The law of total currents (B) The equation of magnetic force (C) Ampère's circuital law (D) Electromotive force created by convection, induction, and by static electricity. (This is in effect the Lorentz force) (E) The electric elasticity equation (F) Ohm's law (G) Gauss's law (H) Equation of continuity or
Notation H is the magnetizing field, which Maxwell called the magnetic intensity. J is the current density (withJtot being the total current including displacement current). D is the displacement field (called the electric displacement by Maxwell). ρ is the free charge density (called the quantity of free electricity by Maxwell). A is the magnetic potential (called the angular impulse by Maxwell). E is called the electromotive force by Maxwell. The term electromotive force is nowadays used for voltage, but it is clear from the context that Maxwell's meaning corresponded more to the modern term electric field. φ is the electric potential (which Maxwell also called electric potential). σ is the electrical conductivity (Maxwell called the inverse of conductivity the specific resistance, what is now called the resistivity). It is interesting to note the μv × H term that appears in equation D. Equation D is therefore effectively the Lorentz force, similarly to equation (77) of his 1861 paper (see above). When Maxwell derives the electromagnetic wave equation in his 1865 paper, he uses equation D to cater for electromagnetic induction rather than Faraday's law of induction which is used in modern textbooks. (Faraday's law itself does not appear among his equations.) However, Maxwell drops the μv × H term from equation D when he is deriving the electromagnetic wave equation, as he considers the situation only from the rest frame.
A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism
In A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, an 1873 treatise on electromagnetism written by James Clerk Maxwell, eleven general equations of the electromagnetic field are listed and these include the eight that are listed in the 1865 paper.
Maxwell's original equations are based on the idea that light travels through a sea of molecular vortices known as the "luminiferous aether", and that the speed of light has to be respective to the reference frame of this aether. Measurements designed to measure the speed of the Earth through the aether conflicted with this notion, though. A more theoretical approach was suggested by Hendrik Lorentz along with George FitzGerald and Joseph Larmor. Both Larmor (1897) and Lorentz (1899, 1904) derived the Lorentz transformation (so named by Henri Poincaré) as
Maxwell's equations one under which Maxwell's equations were invariant. Poincaré (1900) analyzed the coordination of moving clocks by exchanging light signals. He also established the mathematical group property of the Lorentz transformation (Poincaré 1905). Sometimes this transformation is called the FitzGerald–Lorentz transformation or even the FitzGerald–Lorentz–Einstein transformation. Albert Einstein dismissed the notion of the aether as an unnecessary one, and he concluded that Maxwell's equations predicted the existence of a fixed speed of light, independent of the velocity of the observer. Hence, he used the Maxwell's equations as the starting point for his Special Theory of Relativity. In doing so, he established that the FitzGerald–Lorentz transformation is valid for all matter and space, and not just Maxwell's equations. Maxwell's equations played a key role in Einstein's groundbreaking scientific paper on special relativity (1905). For example, in the opening paragraph of his paper, he began his theory by noting that a description of an electric conductor moving with respect to a magnet must generate a consistent set of fields regardless of whether the force is calculated in the rest frame of the magnet or that of the conductor. The general theory of relativity has also had a close relationship with Maxwell's equations. For example, Theodor Kaluza and Oskar Klein in the 1920s showed that Maxwell's equations could be derived by extending general relativity into five physical dimensions. This strategy of using additional dimensions to unify different forces remains an active area of research in physics.
 Maxwell's equations in any form are compatible with relativity. These space-time formulations, though, make that compatibility more readily apparent.  J.D. Jackson, "Maxwell's Equations" video glossary entry (http:/ / videoglossary. lbl. gov/ 2009/ maxwells-equations/ )  Principles of physics: a calculus-based text (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=1DZz341Pp50C& pg=PA809), by R.A. Serway, J.W. Jewett, page 809.  The quantity we would now call UNIQ-math-0-044beec7415b8557-QINU , with units of velocity, was directly measured before Maxwell's equations, in an 1855 experiment by Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch. They charged a leyden jar (a kind of capacitor), and measured the electrostatic force associated with the potential; then, they discharged it while measuring the magnetic force from the current in the discharge wire. Their result was , remarkably close to the speed of light. See The story of electrical and magnetic measurements: from 500 B.C. to the 1940s, by Joseph F. Keithley, p115 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=uwgNAtqSHuQC& pg=PA115)  In some books—e.g., in U. Krey and A. Owen's Basic Theoretical Physics (Springer 2007)—the term effective charge is used instead of total charge, while free charge is simply called charge.  See for a good description of how P relates to the bound charge.  See for a good description of how M relates to the bound current.  Albert Einstein (1905) On the electrodynamics of moving bodies  S. G. Johnson, Notes on Perfectly Matched Layers (http:/ / math. mit. edu/ ~stevenj/ 18. 369/ pml. pdf), online MIT course notes (Aug. 2007).  See magnetic monopole for a discussion of monopole searches. Recently, scientists have discovered that some types of condensed matter, including spin ice and topological insulators, which display emergent behavior resembling magnetic monopoles. (See (http:/ / www. sciencemag. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 1178868) and (http:/ / www. nature. com/ nature/ journal/ v461/ n7266/ full/ nature08500. html).) Although these were described in the popular press as the long-awaited discovery of magnetic monopoles, they are only superficially related. A "true" magnetic monopole is something where ∇⋅B≠0, whereas in these condensed-matter systems, ∇⋅B=0 while only ∇⋅H≠0.  The story of electrical and magnetic measurements: from 500 B.C. to the 1940s, by Joseph F. Keithley, p115 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=uwgNAtqSHuQC& pg=PA115)  "The Dictionary of Scientific Biography", by Charles Coulston Gillispie  but are now universally known as Maxwell's equations. However, in 1940 Einstein referred to the equations as Maxwell's equations in "The Fundamentals of Theoretical Physics" published in the Washington periodical Science, May 24, 1940.  Crease, Robert. The Great Equations: Breakthroughs in Science from Pythagoras to Heisenberg (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=IU04tZsVjXkC& lpg=PA133& dq="Civil War will pale into provincial insignificance"& pg=PA133#v=onepage& q="Civil War will pale into provincial insignificance"& f=false), page 133 (2008).  page 480. (http:/ / upload. wikimedia. org/ wikipedia/ commons/ 1/ 19/ A_Dynamical_Theory_of_the_Electromagnetic_Field. pdf)  Here it is noted that a quite different quantity, the magnetic polarization, μ0M by decision of an international IUPAP commission has been given the same name J. So for the electric current density, a name with small letters, j would be better. But even then the mathematicians would still use the large-letter name J for the corresponding current two-form (see below).  http:/ / www. mathematik. tu-darmstadt. de/ ~bruhn/ Original-MAXWELL. htm
 Experiments like the Michelson–Morley experiment in 1887 showed that the "aether" moved at the same speed as Earth. While other experiments, such as measurements of the aberration of light from the stars, showed that the ether is moving relative to the Earth.
References Further reading
• James Clerk Maxwell, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 155, 459–512 (1865). (This article accompanied a December 8, 1864 presentation by Maxwell to the Royal Society.) The developments before relativity • Joseph Larmor (1897) "On a dynamical theory of the electric and luminiferous medium", Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 190, 205–300 (third and last in a series of papers with the same name). • Hendrik Lorentz (1899) "Simplified theory of electrical and optical phenomena in moving systems", Proc. Acad. Science Amsterdam, I, 427–43. • Hendrik Lorentz (1904) "Electromagnetic phenomena in a system moving with any velocity less than that of light", Proc. Acad. Science Amsterdam, IV, 669–78. • Henri Poincaré (1900) "La theorie de Lorentz et la Principe de Reaction", Archives Néerlandaises, V, 253–78. • Henri Poincaré (1901) Science and Hypothesis • Henri Poincaré (1905) "Sur la dynamique de l'électron" (http://www.soso.ch/wissen/hist/SRT/P-1905-1. pdf), Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, 140, 1504–8. see • Macrossan, M. N. (1986). "A note on relativity before Einstein" (http://eprint.uq.edu.au/archive/00002307/). Brit. J. Phil. Sci. 37 (2): 232–234. doi: 10.1093/bjps/37.2.232 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/37.2.232).
University level textbooks
Undergraduate • Feynman, Richard P. (2005). The Feynman Lectures on Physics 2 (2nd ed.). Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-8053-9065-0. • Fleisch, Daniel (2008). A Student's Guide to Maxwell's Equations. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87761-9. • Griffiths, David J. (1998). Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-805326-X. • Hoffman, Banesh (1983). Relativity and Its Roots. W. H. Freeman. • Krey, U.; Owen, A. (2007). Basic Theoretical Physics: A Concise Overview. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-36804-5. See especially part II. • Pollack, Gerald L.; Stump, Daniel R. (2002). Electromagnetism. Addison Wesley. ISBN 0-8053-8567-3. • Purcell, Edward Mills (1985). Electricity and Magnetism. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-004908-4. • Reitz, John R.; Milford, Frederick J.; Christy, Robert W. (2008). Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory (4th ed.). Addison Wesley. ISBN 978-0-321-58174-7. • Sadiku, Matthew N. O. (2006). Elements of Electromagnetics (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530048-3. • Schwarz, Melvin (1987). Principles of Electrodynamics. Dover. ISBN 0-486-65493-1. • Stevens, Charles F. (1995). The Six Core Theories of Modern Physics. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-69188-4.
Maxwell's equations • Tipler, Paul; Mosca, Gene (2007). Physics for Scientists and Engineers 2 (6th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 978-1-4292-0133-9. • Ulaby, Fawwaz T. (2007). Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics (5th ed.). Pearson Education. ISBN 0-13-241326-4. • I.S. Grant, W.R. Phillips (2008). Electromagnetism (2nd ed.). Manchester Physics, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-92712-9. Graduate • Jackson, J. D. (1999). Classical Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0-471-30932-X. • Panofsky, Wolfgang K. H.; Phillips, Melba (2005). Classical Electricity and Magnetism (2nd ed.). Dover. ISBN 978-0-486-43924-2. • Zangwill, A. (2012). Modern Electrodynamics (1st ed.). Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-89697-9. Older classics • Lifshitz, Evgeny; Landau, Lev (1980). The Classical Theory of Fields (4th ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-2768-9. • Lifshitz, Evgeny; Landau, Lev; Pitaevskii, L. P. (1984). Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-2634-8. • Maxwell, James Clerk (1873). A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Dover. ISBN 0-486-60637-6. • Misner, Charles W.; Thorne, Kip; Wheeler, John Archibald (1973). Gravitation. W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0344-0. Sets out the equations using differential forms. Computational techniques • Chew, W. C.; Jin, J.; Michielssen, E. ; Song, J. (2001). Fast and Efficient Algorithms in Computational Electromagnetics. Artech House. ISBN 1-58053-152-0. • Harrington, R. F. (1993). Field Computation by Moment Methods. Wiley-IEEE Press. ISBN 0-7803-1014-4. • Jin, J. (2002). The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics (2nd ed.). Wiley-IEEE Press. ISBN 0-471-43818-9. • Lounesto, Pertti (1997). Clifford Algebras and Spinors. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59916-4. Chapter 8 sets out several variants of the equations using exterior algebra and differential forms. • Taflove, Allen; Hagness, Susan C. (2005). Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (3rd ed.). Artech House. ISBN 1-58053-832-0.
• Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. (2001), "Maxwell equations" (http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index. php?title=p/m063140), Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4 • maxwells-equations.com (http://www.maxwells-equations.com) — An intuitive tutorial of Maxwell's equations. • Mathematical aspects of Maxwell's equation are discussed on the Dispersive PDE Wiki (http://tosio.math. toronto.edu/wiki/index.php/Main_Page).
• Electromagnetism (http://www.lightandmatter.com/html_books/0sn/ch11/ch11.html), B. Crowell, Fullerton College • Lecture series: Relativity and electromagnetism (http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/~rfitzp/teaching/jk1/lectures/ node6.html), R. Fitzpatrick, University of Texas at Austin • Electromagnetic waves from Maxwell's equations (http://www.physnet.org/modules/pdf_modules/m210.pdf) on Project PHYSNET (http://www.physnet.org). • MIT Video Lecture Series (36 x 50 minute lectures) (in .mp4 format) – Electricity and Magnetism (http://ocw. mit.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/8-02Electricity-and-MagnetismSpring2002/VideoAndCaptions/index.htm) Taught by Professor Walter Lewin.
• James Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity And Magnetism Vols 1 and 2 (http://www.antiquebooks.net/ readpage.html#maxwell) 1904—most readable edition with all corrections—Antique Books Collection suitable for free reading online. • Maxwell, J.C., A Treatise on Electricity And Magnetism – Volume 1 – 1873 (http://posner.library.cmu.edu/ Posner/books/book.cgi?call=537_M46T_1873_VOL._1) – Posner Memorial Collection – Carnegie Mellon University • Maxwell, J.C., A Treatise on Electricity And Magnetism – Volume 2 – 1873 (http://posner.library.cmu.edu/ Posner/books/book.cgi?call=537_M46T_1873_VOL._2) – Posner Memorial Collection – Carnegie Mellon University • On Faraday's Lines of Force – 1855/56 (http://blazelabs.com/On Faraday's Lines of Force.pdf) Maxwell's first paper (Part 1 & 2) – Compiled by Blaze Labs Research (PDF) • On Physical Lines of Force – 1861 Maxwell's 1861 paper describing magnetic lines of Force – Predecessor to 1873 Treatise • Maxwell, James Clerk, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 155, 459–512 (1865). (This article accompanied a December 8, 1864 presentation by Maxwell to the Royal Society.) • Catt, Walton and Davidson. "The History of Displacement Current". Wireless World, March 1979. (http://www. electromagnetism.demon.co.uk/z014.htm) • Reprint from Dover Publications (ISBN 0-486-60636-8) • Full text of 1904 Edition including full text search. (http://www.antiquebooks.net/readpage.html#maxwell) • A Dynamical Theory Of The Electromagnetic Field – 1865 (http://books.google.com/ books?id=5HE_cmxXt2MC&vid=02IWHrbcLC9ECI_wQx&dq=Proceedings+of+the+Royal+Society+Of+ London+Vol+XIII&ie=UTF-8&jtp=531) Maxwell's 1865 paper describing his 20 Equations in 20 Unknowns – Predecessor to the 1873 Treatise
• Feynman's derivation of Maxwell equations and extra dimensions (http://uk.arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0106235) • Nature Milestones: Photons – Milestone 2 (1861) Maxwell's equations (http://www.nature.com/milestones/ milephotons/full/milephotons02.html)
An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects. It affects the behavior of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. The electromagnetic field extends indefinitely throughout space and describes the electromagnetic interaction. It is one of the four fundamental forces of nature (the others are gravitation, the weak interaction, and the strong interaction). The field can be viewed as the combination of an electric field and a magnetic field. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents); these two are often described as the sources of the field. The way in which charges and currents interact with the electromagnetic field is described by Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz force law. From a classical perspective, the electromagnetic field can be regarded as a smooth, continuous field, propagated in a wavelike manner; whereas from the perspective of quantum field theory, the field is seen as quantized, being composed of individual particles.
Structure of the electromagnetic field
The electromagnetic field may be viewed in two distinct ways: a continuous structure or a discrete structure.
Classically, electric and magnetic fields are thought of as being produced by smooth motions of charged objects. For example, oscillating charges produce electric and magnetic fields that may be viewed in a 'smooth', continuous, wavelike fashion. In this case, energy is viewed as being transferred continuously through the electromagnetic field between any two locations. For instance, the metal atoms in a radio transmitter appear to transfer energy continuously. This view is useful to a certain extent (radiation of low frequency), but problems are found at high frequencies (see ultraviolet catastrophe).
The electromagnetic field may be thought of in a more 'coarse' way. Experiments reveal that in some circumstances electromagnetic energy transfer is better described as being carried in the form of packets called quanta (in this case, photons) with a fixed frequency. Planck's relation links the energy of a photon to its frequency through the equation:
is Planck's constant, named in honor of Max Planck, and
is the frequency of the photon . Although
modern quantum optics tells us that there also is a semi-classical explanation of the photoelectric effect—the emission of electrons from metallic surfaces subjected to electromagnetic radiation—the photon was historically (although not strictly necessarily) used to explain certain observations. It is found that increasing the intensity of the incident radiation (so long as one remains in the linear regime) increases only the number of electrons ejected, and has almost no effect on the energy distribution of their ejection. Only the frequency of the radiation is relevant to the energy of the ejected electrons. This quantum picture of the electromagnetic field (which treats it as analogous to harmonic oscillators) has proved very successful, giving rise to quantum electrodynamics, a quantum field theory describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with charged matter. It also gives rise to quantum optics, which is different from quantum electrodynamics in that the matter itself is modelled using quantum mechanics rather than quantum field theory.
Dynamics of the electromagnetic field
In the past, electrically charged objects were thought to produce two different, unrelated types of field associated with their charge property. An electric field is produced when the charge is stationary with respect to an observer measuring the properties of the charge, and a magnetic field (as well as an electric field) is produced when the charge moves (creating an electric current) with respect to this observer. Over time, it was realized that the electric and magnetic fields are better thought of as two parts of a greater whole — the electromagnetic field. Once this electromagnetic field has been produced from a given charge distribution, other charged objects in this field will experience a force (in a similar way that planets experience a force in the gravitational field of the Sun). If these other charges and currents are comparable in size to the sources producing the above electromagnetic field, then a new net electromagnetic field will be produced. Thus, the electromagnetic field may be viewed as a dynamic entity that causes other charges and currents to move, and which is also affected by them. These interactions are described by Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz force law. (This discussion ignores the radiation reaction force.)
Electromagnetic field as a feedback loop
The behavior of the electromagnetic field can be resolved into four different parts of a loop: • • • • the electric and magnetic fields are generated by electric charges, the electric and magnetic fields interact with each other, the electric and magnetic fields produce forces on electric charges, the electric charges move in space.
A common misunderstanding is that (a) the quanta of the fields act in the same manner as (b) the charged particles that generate the fields. In our everyday world, charged particles, such as electrons, move slowly through matter, typically on the order of a few inches (or centimeters) per second, but fields propagate at the speed of light - approximately 300 thousand kilometers (or 186 thousand miles) a second. The mundane speed difference between charged particles and field quanta is on the order of one to a million, more or less. Maxwell's equations relate (a) the presence and movement of charged particles with (b) the generation of fields. Those fields can then affect the force on, and can then move, other slowly moving charged particles. Charged particles can move at relativistic speeds nearing field propagation speeds, but, as Einstein showed, this requires enormous
Electromagnetic field field energies, which are not present in our everyday experiences with electricity, magnetism, matter, and time and space. The feedback loop can be summarized in a list, including phenomena belonging to each part of the loop: • charged particles generate electric and magnetic fields • the fields interact with each other • changing electric field acts like a current, generating 'vortex' of magnetic field • Faraday induction: changing magnetic field induces (negative) vortex of electric field • Lenz's law: negative feedback loop between electric and magnetic fields • fields act upon particles • Lorentz force: force due to electromagnetic field • electric force: same direction as electric field • magnetic force: perpendicular both to magnetic field and to velocity of charge • particles move • current is movement of particles • particles generate more electric and magnetic fields; cycle repeats
There are different mathematical ways of representing the electromagnetic field. The first one views the electric and magnetic fields as three-dimensional vector fields. These vector fields each have a value defined at every point of space and time and are thus often regarded as functions of the space and time coordinates. As such, they are often written as (electric field) and (magnetic field). If only the electric field ( ) is non-zero, and is constant in time, the field is said to be an electrostatic field. ) is non-zero and is constant in time, the field is said to be a magnetostatic Similarly, if only the magnetic field (
field. However, if either the electric or magnetic field has a time-dependence, then both fields must be considered together as a coupled electromagnetic field using Maxwell's equations. With the advent of special relativity, physical laws became susceptible to the formalism of tensors. Maxwell's equations can be written in tensor form, generally viewed by physicists as a more elegant means of expressing physical laws. The behaviour of electric and magnetic fields, whether in cases of electrostatics, magnetostatics, or electrodynamics (electromagnetic fields), is governed in a vacuum by Maxwell's equations. In the vector field formalism, these are: (Gauss's law) (Gauss's law for magnetism) (Faraday's law) (Ampère-Maxwell law) where space, is the charge density, which can (and often does) depend on time and position, is the permeability of free space, and is the permittivity of free
is the current density vector, also a function of time and position.
The units used above are the standard SI units. Inside a linear material, Maxwell's equations change by switching the permeability and permittivity of free space with the permeability and permittivity of the linear material in question. Inside other materials which possess more complex responses to electromagnetic fields, these terms are often represented by complex numbers, or tensors. The Lorentz force law governs the interaction of the electromagnetic field with charged matter.
Electromagnetic field When a field travels across to different media, the properties of the field change according to the various boundary conditions. These equations are derived from Maxwell's equations. The tangential components of the electric and magnetic fields as they relate on the boundary of two media are as follows:
The angle of refraction of an electric field between media is related to the permittivity
of each media:
The angle of refraction of a magnetic field between media is related to the permeability
of each media:
Properties of the field
Reciprocal behavior of electric and magnetic fields
The two Maxwell equations, Faraday's Law and the Ampère-Maxwell Law, illustrate a very practical feature of the electromagnetic field. Faraday's Law may be stated roughly as 'a changing magnetic field creates an electric field'. This is the principle behind the electric generator. Ampere's Law roughly states that 'a changing electric field creates a magnetic field'. Thus, this law can be applied to generate a magnetic field and run an electric motor.
Light as an electromagnetic disturbance
Maxwell's equations take the form of an electromagnetic wave in an area that is very far away from any charges or currents (free space) – that is, where and are zero. It can be shown, that, under these conditions, the electric and magnetic fields satisfy the electromagnetic wave equation:
James Clerk Maxwell was the first to obtain this relationship by his completion of Maxwell's equations with the addition of a displacement current term to Ampere's Circuital law.
Relation to and comparison with other physical fields
Being one of the four fundamental forces of nature, it is useful to compare the electromagnetic field with the gravitational, strong and weak fields. The word 'force' is sometimes replaced by 'interaction' because the fundamental forces operate by exchanging what are now known to be gauge bosons.
Electromagnetic and gravitational fields
Sources of electromagnetic fields consist of two types of charge – positive and negative. This contrasts with the sources of the gravitational field, which are masses. Masses are sometimes described as gravitational charges, the important feature of them being that there is only one type (no negative masses), or, in more colloquial terms,
Electromagnetic field 'gravity is always attractive'. The relative strengths and ranges of the four interactions and other information are tabulated below:
Theory Chromodynamics Electrodynamics Flavordynamics Interaction Strong interaction mediator gluon Relative Magnitude Behavior 1038 1036 1 1/r2 Range 10−15 m infinite
Electromagnetic interaction photon Weak interaction
W and Z bosons 1025 graviton 100
1/r5 to 1/r7 10−16 m 1/r2 infinite
Static E and B fields and static EM fields
When an EM field (see electromagnetic tensor) is not varying in time, it may be seen as a purely electrical field or a purely magnetic field, or a mixture of both. However the general case of a static EM field with both electric and magnetic components present, is the case that appears to most observers. Observers who see only an electric or magnetic field component of a static EM field, have the other (electric or magnetic) component suppressed, due to the special case of the immobile state of the charges that produce the EM field in that case. In such cases the other component becomes manifest in other observer frames. A consequence of this, is that any case that seems to consist of a "pure" static electric or magnetic field, can be converted to an EM field, with both E and B components present, by simply moving the observer into a frame of reference which is moving with regard to the frame in which only the “pure” electric or magnetic field appears. That is, a pure static electric field will show the familiar magnetic field associated with a current, in any frame of reference where the charge moves. Likewise, any new motion of a charge in a region that seemed previously to contain only a magnetic field, will show that that the space now contains an electric field as well, which will be found to produces an additional Lorentz force upon the moving charge. Thus, electrostatics, as well as magnetism and magnetostatics, are now seen as studies of the static EM field when a particular frame has been selected to suppress the other type of field, and since an EM field with both electric and magnetic will appear in any other frame, these "simpler" effects are merely the observer's. The "applications" of all such non-time varying (static) fields are discussed in the main articles linked in this section.
Time-varying EM fields in Maxwell’s equations
An EM field that varies in time has two “causes” in Maxwell’s equations. One is charges and currents (so-called “sources”), and the other cause for an E or B field is a change in the other type of field (this last cause also appears in “free space” very far from currents and charges). An electromagnetic field very far from currents and charges (sources) is called electromagnetic radiation (EMR) since it radiates from the charges and currents in the source, and has no "feedback" effect on them, and is also not affected directly by them in the present time (rather, it is indirectly produced by a sequences of changes in fields radiating out from them in the past). EMR consists of the radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum, including radio waves, microwave, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays, and gamma rays. The many commercial applications of these radiations are discussed in the named and linked articles. A notable application of visible light is that this type of energy from the Sun powers all life on Earth that either makes or uses oxygen.
Electromagnetic field A changing electromagnetic field which is physically close to currents and charges (see near and far field for a definition of “close”) will have a dipole characteristic that is dominated by either a changing electric dipole, or a changing magnetic dipole. This type of dipole field near sources is called an electromagnetic near-field. Changing electric dipole fields, as such, are used commercially as near-fields mainly as a source of dielectric heating. Otherwise, they appear parasitically around conductors which absorb EMR, and around antennas which have the purpose of generating EMR at greater distances. Changing magnetic dipole fields (i.e., magnetic near-fields) are used commercially for many types of magnetic induction devices. These include motors and electrical transformers at low frequencies, and devices such as metal detectors and MRI scanner coils at higher frequencies. Sometimes these high-frequency magnetic fields change at radio frequencies without being far-field waves and thus radio waves; see RFID tags. Further uses of near-field EM effects commercially, may be found in the article on virtual photons, since at the quantum level, these fields are represented by these particles. Far-field effects (EMR) in the quantum picture of radiation, are represented by ordinary photons.
Health and safety
The potential health effects of the very low frequency EMFs surrounding power lines and electrical devices are the subject of on-going research and a significant amount of public debate. The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has issued some cautionary advisories but stresses that the data is currently too limited to draw good conclusions. The potential effects of electromagnetic fields on human health vary widely depending on the frequency and intensity of the fields. For more information on the health effects due to specific parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, see the following articles: • • • • • • • • Static electric fields: see Electric shock Static magnetic fields: see MRI#Safety Extremely low frequency (ELF): see Power lines#Health concerns Radio frequency (RF): see Electromagnetic radiation and health Light: see Laser safety Ultraviolet (UV): see Sunburn Gamma rays: see Gamma ray Mobile telephony: see Mobile phone radiation and health
 Electromagnetic Fields (2nd Edition), Roald K. Wangsness, Wiley, 1986. ISBN 0-471-81186-6 (intermediate level textbook)  Schaum's outline of theory and problems of electromagnetics(2nd Edition), Joseph A. Edminister, McGraw-Hill, 1995. ISBN 0070212341(Examples and Problem Practice)  Field and Wave Electromagnetics (2nd Edition), David K. Cheng, Prentice Hall, 1989. ISBN 978-0-201-12819-2 (Intermediate level textbook)
• On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies (http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/specrel/www/) by Albert Einstein, June 30, 1905. • On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies (http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/specrel/specrel.pdf) (pdf) • Non-Ionizing Radiation, Part 1: Static and Extremely Low-Frequency (ELF) Electric and Magnetic Fields (2002) (http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol80/volume80.pdf) by the IARC.
Electromagnetic field • Zhang J, Clement D, Taunton J (January 2000). "The efficacy of Farabloc, an electromagnetic shield, in attenuating delayed-onset muscle soreness" (http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/ lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=1050-642X&volume=10&issue=1&spage=15). Clin J Sport Med 10 (1): 15–21. PMID 10695845 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10695845). • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health – EMF Topic Page (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/ emf/) • Biological Effects of Power Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields (May 1989) (http://www.princeton.edu/ ~ota/disk1/1989/8905/8905.PDF) (over 100 pages)
The electromagnetic waves that compose electromagnetic radiation can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. This diagram shows a plane linearly polarized EMR wave propagating from left to right. The electric field is in a vertical plane and the magnetic field in a horizontal plane. The two types of fields in EMR waves are always in phase with each other with a fixed ratio of electric to magnetic field intensity.
Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) is a form of energy emitted and absorbed by charged particles which exhibits wave-like behavior as it travels through space. EMR has both electric and magnetic field components, which stand in a fixed ratio of intensity to each other, and which oscillate in phase perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy and wave propagation. In a vacuum, electromagnetic radiation propagates at a characteristic speed, the speed of light. Electromagnetic radiation is a particular form of the more general electromagnetic field (EM field), which is produced by moving charges. Electromagnetic radiation is associated with EM fields that are far enough away from the moving charges that produced them that absorption of the EM radiation no longer affects the behavior of these moving charges. These two types or behaviors of EM field are sometimes referred to as the near and far field. In this language, EMR is merely another name for the far-field. Charges and currents directly produce the near-field. However, charges and currents produce EMR only indirectly—rather, in EMR, both the magnetic and electric fields are associated with changes in the other type of field, not directly by charges and currents. This close relationship assures that the electric and magnetic fields in EMR exist in a constant ratio of strengths to each other, and also to be
Electromagnetic radiation found in phase, with maxima and nodes in each found at the same places in space. EMR carries energy—sometimes called radiant energy—through space continuously away from the source (this is not true of the near-field part of the EM field). EMR also carries both momentum and angular momentum. These properties may all be imparted to matter with which it interacts. EMR is produced from other types of energy when created, and it is converted to other types of energy when it is destroyed. The photon is the quantum of the electromagnetic interaction, and is the basic "unit" or constituent of all forms of EMR. The quantum nature of light becomes more apparent at high frequencies (or high photon energy). Such photons behave more like particles than lower-frequency photons do. In classical physics, EMR is considered to be produced when charged particles are accelerated by forces acting on them. Electrons are responsible for emission of most EMR because they have low mass, and therefore are easily accelerated by a variety of mechanisms. Rapidly moving electrons are most sharply accelerated when they encounter a region of force, so they are responsible for producing much of the highest frequency electromagnetic radiation observed in nature. Quantum processes can also produce EMR, such as when atomic nuclei undergo gamma decay, and processes such as neutral pion decay. EMR is classified according to the frequency of its wave. The electromagnetic spectrum, in order of increasing frequency and decreasing wavelength, consists of radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays. The eyes of various organisms sense a somewhat variable but relatively small range of frequencies of EMR called the visible spectrum or light. The effects of EMR upon biological systems (and also to many other chemical systems, under standard conditions) depends both upon the radiation's power and frequency. For lower frequencies of EMR up to those of visible light (i.e., radio, microwave, infrared), the damage done to cells and also to many ordinary materials under such conditions is determined mainly by heating effects, and thus by the radiation power. By contrast, for higher frequency radiations at ultraviolet frequencies and above (i.e., X-rays and gamma rays) the damage to chemical materials and living cells by EMR is far larger than that done by simple heating, due to the ability of single photons in such high frequency EMR to damage individual molecules chemically.
Maxwell’s equations for EM fields far from sources James Clerk Maxwell first formally postulated electromagnetic waves. These were subsequently confirmed by Heinrich Hertz. Maxwell derived a wave form of the electric and magnetic equations, thus uncovering the wave-like nature of electric and magnetic fields, and their symmetry. Because the speed of EM waves predicted by the wave equation coincided with the measured speed of light, Maxwell concluded that light itself is an EM wave. According to Maxwell's equations, a spatially varying electric field is always associated with a magnetic field that changes over time. Likewise, a spatially varying magnetic field is associated with specific changes over time in the electric field. In an electromagnetic wave, the changes in the electric field are always accompanied by a wave in the
Shows the relative wavelengths of the electromagnetic waves of three different colors of light (blue, green, and red) with a distance scale in micrometers along the x-axis.
Electromagnetic radiation magnetic field in one direction, and vice versa. This relationship between the two occurs without either type field causing the other; rather they occur together in the same way that time and space changes occur together and are interlinked in special relativity (In fact, magnetic fields may be viewed as relativistic distortions of electric fields, so the close relationship between space and time changes here is more than an analogy). Together, these fields form a propagating electromagnetic wave, which moves out into space and need never again affect the source. The distant EM field formed in this way by the acceleration of a charge carries energy with it that "radiates" away through space, hence the term for it. Near and far fields Maxwell's equations established that some charges and currents ("sources") produce a local type of electromagnetic field near them that does not have the behavior of EMR. In particular, according to Maxwell, currents directly produce a magnetic field, but it is of a magnetic dipole type which dies out rapidly with distance from the current. In a similar manner, moving charges being separated from each other in a conductor by a changing electrical potential (such as in an In electromagnetic radiation (such as microwaves from an antenna, shown here) the term applies only to the parts of the electromagnetic field that radiate into antenna) produce an electric dipole type infinite space and decrease in intensity by an inverse-square law of power, so that electrical field, but this also dies away very the total radiation energy that crosses through an imaginary spherical surface is the quickly with distance. Both of these fields same, no matter how far away from the antenna the spherical surface is drawn. make up the near-field near the EMR Electromagnetic radiation thus includes the far field part of the electromagnetic field around a transmitter. A part of the "near-field" close to the transmitter, forms source. Neither of these behaviors are part of the changing electromagnetic field, but does not count as electromagnetic responsible for EM radiation. Instead, they radiation. cause electromagnetic field behavior that only efficiently transfers power to a receiver very close to the source, such as the magnetic induction inside an electrical transformer, or the feedback behavior that happens close to the coil of a metal detector. Typically, near-fields have a powerful effect on their own sources, causing an increased “load” (decreased electrical reactance) in the source or transmitter, whenever energy is withdrawn from the EM field by a receiver. Otherwise, these fields do not “propagate,” freely out into space, carrying their energy away without distance-limit, but rather oscillate back and forth, returning their energy to the transmitter if it is not received by a receiver. By contrast, the EM far-field is composed of radiation that is free of the transmitter in the sense that (unlike the case in an electrical transformer) the transmitter requires the same power to send these changes in the fields out, whether the signal is immediately picked up, or not. This distant part of the electromagnetic field is "electromagnetic radiation" (also called the far-field). The far-fields propagate without ability for the transmitter to affect them, and this causes them to be independent in the sense that their existence and their energy, after they have left the transmitter, is completely independent of both transmitter and receiver. Because such waves conserve the amount of energy they transmit through any spherical boundary surface drawn around their source, and because such surfaces have an area that is defined by the square of the distance from the source, the power of EM radiation always varies according to an inverse-square law. This is in contrast to dipole parts of the EM field close to the source (the near-field), which varies in power according to an inverse cube power law, and thus does not transport a conserved amount of energy over distances, but instead dies away rapidly with distance, with its energy (as noted) either rapidly returning to the transmitter, or else absorbed by a nearby receiver (such as a transformer secondary coil).
Electromagnetic radiation The far-field (EMR) depends on a different mechanism for its production than the near-field, and upon different terms in Maxwell’s equations. Whereas the magnetic part of the near-field is due to currents in the source, the magnetic field in EMR is due only to the local change in the electric field. In a similar way, while the electric field in the near-field is due directly to the charges and charge-separation in the source, the electric field in EMR is due to a change in the local magnetic field. Both of these processes for producing electric and magnetic EMR fields have a different dependence on distance than do near-field dipole electric and magnetic fields, and that is why the EMR type of EM field becomes dominant in power “far” from sources. The term “far from sources” refers to how far from the source (moving at the speed of light) any portion of the outward-moving EM field is located, by the time that source currents are changed by the varying source potential, and the source has therefore begun to generate an outwardly moving EM field of a different phase. A more compact view of EMR is that the far-field that composes EMR is generally that part of the EM field that has traveled sufficient distance from the source, that it has become completely disconnected from any feedback to the charges and currents that were originally responsible for it. Now independent of the source charges, the EM field, as it moves farther away, generates and regenerates itself only as a result of its own changing fields.
The physics of electromagnetic radiation is electrodynamics. Electromagnetism is the physical phenomenon associated with the theory of electrodynamics. Electric and magnetic fields obey the properties of superposition. Thus, a field due to any particular particle or time-varying electric or magnetic field contributes to the fields present in the same space due to other causes. Further, as they are vector fields, all magnetic and electric field vectors add together according to vector addition. For example, in optics two or more coherent lightwaves may interact and by constructive or destructive interference yield a resultant irradiance deviating from the sum of the component irradiances of the individual lightwaves. Since light is an oscillation it is not affected by travelling through static electric or magnetic fields in a linear medium such as a vacuum. However in nonlinear media, such as some crystals, interactions can occur between light and static electric and magnetic fields — these interactions include the Faraday effect and the Kerr effect.
Electromagnetic waves can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. This 3D diagram shows a plane linearly polarized wave propagating from left to right
In refraction, a wave crossing from one medium to another of different density alters its speed and direction upon entering the new medium. The ratio of the refractive indices of the media determines the degree of refraction, and is summarized by Snell's law. Light of composite wavelengths (natural sunlight) disperses into a visible spectrum passing through a prism, because of the wavelength dependent refractive index of the prism material (dispersion); that is, each component wave within the composite light is bent a different amount. EM radiation exhibits both wave properties and particle properties at the same time (see wave-particle duality). Both wave and particle characteristics have been confirmed in a large number of experiments.
Wave characteristics are more apparent when EM radiation is measured over relatively large timescales and over large distances while particle characteristics are more evident when measuring small timescales and distances. For example, when electromagnetic radiation is absorbed by matter, particle-like properties will be more obvious when the average number of photons in the cube of the relevant wavelength is much smaller than 1. It is not too difficult to experimentally observe non-uniform deposition of energy when light is absorbed, however this alone is not evidence of "particulate" behavior of light. Rather, it reflects the quantum nature of matter. Demonstrating that the light itself is quantized, not merely its interaction with matter, is a more subtle problem.
This 3D diagram shows a plane linearly polarized wave propagating from left to right. Note that the electric and magnetic fields in such a wave are in-phase with each other, reaching minima and maxima together
There are experiments in which the wave and particle natures of electromagnetic waves appear in the same experiment, such as the self-interference of a single photon. True single-photon experiments (in a quantum optical sense) can be done today in undergraduate-level labs. When a single photon is sent through an interferometer, it passes through both paths, interfering with itself, as waves do, yet is detected by a photomultiplier or other sensitive detector only once. A quantum theory of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter such as electrons is described by the theory of quantum electrodynamics.
Electromagnetic radiation is a transverse wave, meaning that the oscillations of the waves are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer and travel. The electric and magnetic parts of the field stand in a fixed ratio of strengths in order to satisfy the two Maxwell equations that specify how one is produced from the other. These E and B fields are also in phase, with both reaching maxima and minima at the same points in space (see illustrations). A common misconception is that the E and B fields in electromagnetic radiation are out of phase because a change in one produces the other, and this would produce a phase difference between them as sinusoidal functions (as indeed happens in electromagnetic induction, and in the near-field close to antennas). However, in the far-field EM radiation which is described by the two source-free Maxwell curl operator equations, a more correct description is that a time-change in one type of field is proportional to a space-change in the other. These derivatives require that the E and B fields in EMR are in-phase (see math section below). An important aspect of the nature of light is frequency. The frequency of a wave is its rate of oscillation and is measured in hertz, the SI unit of frequency, where one hertz is equal to one oscillation per second. Light usually has a spectrum of frequencies that sum to form the resultant wave. Different frequencies undergo different angles of refraction. A wave consists of successive troughs and crests, and the distance between two adjacent crests or troughs is called the wavelength. Waves of the electromagnetic spectrum vary in size, from very long radio waves the size of buildings to very short gamma rays smaller than atom nuclei. Frequency is inversely proportional to wavelength, according to the equation:
Electromagnetic radiation where v is the speed of the wave (c in a vacuum, or less in other media), f is the frequency and λ is the wavelength. As waves cross boundaries between different media, their speeds change but their frequencies remain constant. Interference is the superposition of two or more waves resulting in a new wave pattern. If the fields have components in the same direction, they constructively interfere, while opposite directions cause destructive interference. The energy in electromagnetic waves is sometimes called radiant energy.
Particle model and quantum theory
An anomaly arose in the late 19th century involving a contradiction between the wave theory of light on the one hand, and on the other, observers' actual measurements of the electromagnetic spectrum that was being emitted by thermal radiators known as black bodies. Physicists struggled with this problem, which later became known as the ultraviolet catastrophe, unsuccessfully for many years. In 1900, Max Planck developed a new theory of black-body radiation that explained the observed spectrum. Planck's theory was based on the idea that black bodies emit light (and other electromagnetic radiation) only as discrete bundles or packets of energy. These packets were called quanta. Later, Albert Einstein proposed that the quanta of light might be regarded as real particles, and (still later) the particle of light was given the name photon, to correspond with other particles being described around this time, such as the electron and proton. A photon has an energy, E, proportional to its frequency, f, by
where h is Planck's constant,
is the wavelength and c is the speed of light. This is sometimes known as the
Planck–Einstein equation. In quantum theory (see first quantization) the energy of the photons is thus directly proportional to the frequency of the EMR wave. Likewise, the momentum p of a photon is also proportional to its frequency and inversely proportional to its wavelength:
The source of Einstein's proposal that light was composed of particles (or could act as particles in some circumstances) was an experimental anomaly not explained by the wave theory: the photoelectric effect, in which light striking a metal surface ejected electrons from the surface, causing an electric current to flow across an applied voltage. Experimental measurements demonstrated that the energy of individual ejected electrons was proportional to the frequency, rather than the intensity, of the light. Furthermore, below a certain minimum frequency, which depended on the particular metal, no current would flow regardless of the intensity. These observations appeared to contradict the wave theory, and for years physicists tried in vain to find an explanation. In 1905, Einstein explained this puzzle by resurrecting the particle theory of light to explain the observed effect. Because of the preponderance of evidence in favor of the wave theory, however, Einstein's ideas were met initially with great skepticism among established physicists. Eventually Einstein's explanation was accepted as new particle-like behavior of light was observed, such as the Compton effect. As a photon is absorbed by an atom, it excites the atom, elevating an electron to a higher energy level (on average, one that is farther from the nucleus). When an electron in an excited molecule or atom descends to a lower energy level, it emits a photon of light equal to the energy difference. Since the energy levels of electrons in atoms are discrete, each element and each molecule emits and absorbs its own characteristic frequencies. When the emission of the photon is immediate, this phenomenon is called fluorescence, a type of photoluminescence. An example is visible light emitted from fluorescent paints, in response to ultraviolet (blacklight). Many other fluorescent emissions are known in spectral bands other than visible light. When the emission of the photon is delayed, the phenomenon is called phosphorescence.
The modern theory that explains the nature of light includes the notion of wave–particle duality. More generally, the theory states that everything has both a particle nature and a wave nature, and various experiments can be done to bring out one or the other. The particle nature is more easily discerned if an object has a large mass, and it was not until a bold proposition by Louis de Broglie in 1924 that the scientific community realised that electrons also exhibited wave–particle duality.
Wave and particle effects of electromagnetic radiation
Together, wave and particle effects explain the emission and absorption spectra of EM radiation, wherever it is seen. The matter-composition of the medium through which the light travels determines the nature of the absorption and emission spectrum. These bands correspond to the allowed energy levels in the atoms. Dark bands in the absorption spectrum are due to the atoms in an intervening medium between source and observer, absorbing certain frequencies of the light between emitter and detector/eye, then emitting them in all directions, so that a dark band appears to the detector, due to the radiation scattered out of the beam. For instance, dark bands in the light emitted by a distant star are due to the atoms in the star's atmosphere. A similar phenomenon occurs for emission, which is seen when the emitting gas is glowing due to excitation of the atoms from any mechanism, including heat. As electrons descend to lower energy levels, a spectrum is emitted that represents the jumps between the energy levels of the electrons, but lines are seen because again emission happens only at particular energies after excitation. An example is the emission spectrum of nebulae. Today, scientists use these phenomena to perform various chemical determinations for the composition of gases lit from behind (absorption spectra) and for glowing gases (emission spectra). Spectroscopy (for example) determines what chemical elements a star is composed of. Spectroscopy is also used in the determination of the distance of a star, using the red shift.
Speed of propagation
Any electric charge that accelerates, or any changing magnetic field, produces electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic information about the charge travels at the speed of light. Accurate treatment thus incorporates a concept known as retarded time (as opposed to advanced time, which is not physically possible in light of causality), which adds to the expressions for the electrodynamic electric field and magnetic field. These extra terms are responsible for electromagnetic radiation. When any wire (or other conducting object such as an antenna) conducts alternating current, electromagnetic radiation is propagated at the same frequency as the electric current. In many such situations it is possible to identify an electrical dipole moment that arises from separation of charges due to the exciting electrical potential, and this dipole moment oscillates in time, as the charges move back and forth. This oscillation at a given frequency gives rise to changing electric and magnetic fields, which then set the electromagnetic radiation in motion. At the quantum level, electromagnetic radiation is produced when the wavepacket of a charged particle oscillates or otherwise accelerates. Charged particles in a stationary state do not move, but a superposition of such states may result in transition state which has an electric dipole moment that oscillates in time. This oscillating dipole moment is responsible for the phenomenon of radiative transition between quantum states of a charged particle. Such states occur (for example) in atoms when photons are radiated as the atom shifts from one stationary state to another. Depending on the circumstances, electromagnetic radiation may behave as a wave or as particles. As a wave, it is characterized by a velocity (the speed of light), wavelength, and frequency. When considered as particles, they are known as photons, and each has an energy related to the frequency of the wave given by Planck's relation E = hν, where E is the energy of the photon, h = 6.626 × 10−34 J·s is Planck's constant, and ν is the frequency of the wave.
Electromagnetic radiation One rule is always obeyed regardless of the circumstances: EM radiation in a vacuum always travels at the speed of light, relative to the observer, regardless of the observer's velocity. (This observation led to Albert Einstein's development of the theory of special relativity.) In a medium (other than vacuum), velocity factor or refractive index are considered, depending on frequency and application. Both of these are ratios of the speed in a medium to speed in a vacuum.
Special theory of relativity
By the late nineteenth century, however, a handful of experimental anomalies remained that could not be explained by the simple wave theory. One of these anomalies involved a controversy over the speed of light. The speed of light and other EMR predicted by Maxwell's equations did not appear unless the equations were modified in a way first suggested by FitzGerald and Lorentz (see history of special relativity), or else otherwise it would depend on the speed of observer relative to the "medium" (called luminiferous aether) which supposedly "carried" the electromagnetic wave (in a manner analogous to the way air carries sound waves). Experiments failed to find any observer effect, however. In 1905, Albert Einstein proposed that space and time appeared to be velocity-changeable entities, not only for light propagation, but all other processes and laws as well. These changes then automatically accounted for the constancy of the speed of light and all electromagnetic radiation, from the viewpoints of all observers—even those in relative motion.
History of discovery
Electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths other than those of visible light were discovered in the early 19th century. The discovery of infrared radiation is ascribed to William Herschel, the astronomer. Herschel published his results in 1800 before the Royal Society of London. Herschel used a glass prism to refract light from the Sun and detected invisible rays that caused heating beyond the red part of the spectrum, through an increase in the temperature recorded with a thermometer. These "calorific rays" were later termed infrared. In 1801, the German physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter made the discovery of ultraviolet in an experiment similar to Hershel's, using sunlight and a glass prism. Ritter noted that invisible rays near the violet edge of a solar spectrum dispersed by a triangular prism darkened silver chloride preparations more quickly than did the nearby violet light. Ritter's experiments were an early precursor to what would become photography. Ritter noted that the rays (which at first were called "chemical rays") were capable of causing chemical reactions. In 1862-4 James Clerk Maxwell developed equations for the electromagnetic field which suggested that waves in the field would travel with a speed that was very close to the known speed of light. Maxwell therefore suggested that visible light (as well as invisible infrared and ultraviolet rays by inference) all consisted of propagating disturbances (or radiation) in the electromagnetic field. Radio waves were not first detected from a natural source, but were rather produced deliberately and artificially by the German scientist Heinrich Hertz in 1887, using electrical circuits calculated to produce oscillations at a much lower frequency than that of visible light, following recipes for producing oscillating charges and currents suggested by Maxwell's equations. Hertz also developed ways to detect these waves, and produced and characterized what were later termed radio waves and microwaves. Wilhelm Röntgen discovered and named X-rays. After experimenting with high voltages applied to an evaccuated tube on 8 November 1895, he noticed a fluorescence on a nearby plate of coated glass. In one month, he discovered the main properties of X-rays that we understand to this day. The last portion of the EM spectrum was discovered associated with radioactivity. Henri Becquerel found that uranium salts caused fogging of an unexposed photographic plate through a covering paper in a manner similar to X-rays, and Marie Curie discovered that only certain elements gave off these rays of energy, soon discovering the intense radiation of radium. The radiation from pitchblende was differentiated into alpha rays (alpha particles) and beta rays (beta particles) by Ernest Rutherford through simple experimentation in 1899, but these proved to be
Electromagnetic radiation charged particulate types of radiation. However, in 1900 the French scientist Paul Villard discovered a third neutrally charged and especially penetrating type of radiation from radium, and after he described it, Rutherford realized it must be yet a third type of radiation, which in 1903 Rutherford named gamma rays. In 1910 British physicist William Henry Bragg demonstrated that gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation, not particles, and in 1914 Rutherford and Edward Andrade measured their wavelengths, and found that they were similar to X-rays but with shorter wavelengths and higher frequency.
In general, EM radiation (the designation 'radiation' excludes static electric and magnetic and near fields) is classified by wavelength into radio, microwave, infrared, the visible spectrum we perceive as visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays. Arbitrary electromagnetic waves can always be expressed by Fourier analysis in terms of sinusoidal monochromatic waves, which in turn can each be classified into these regions of the EMR spectrum.
Electromagnetic spectrum with light highlighted
The behavior of EM radiation depends on its frequency. Lower frequencies have longer wavelengths, and higher frequencies have shorter wavelengths, and are associated with photons of higher energy. There is no fundamental limit known to these wavelengths or energies, at either end of the spectrum, although photons with energies near the Planck energy or exceeding it (far too high to have ever been observed) will require new physical theories to describe. Soundwaves are not electromagnetic radiation. At the lower end of the electromagnetic spectrum, about 20 Hz to about 20 kHz, are frequencies that might be considered in the audio range. However, electromagnetic waves cannot be directly perceived by human ears. Sound waves are the oscillating compression of molecules. To be
heard, electromagnetic radiation must be converted to pressure waves of the fluid in which the ear is located (whether the fluid is air, water or something else).
Radio and microwave heating and currents, and infrared heating
When EM radiation interacts with matter, its behavior changes qualitatively as its frequency changes. At radio and microwave frequencies, EMR interacts with matter largely as a bulk collection of charges which are spread out over large numbers of affected atoms. In electrical conductors, such induced bulk movement of charges (electric currents) results in absorption of the EMR, or else separations of charges that cause generation of new EMR (effective reflection of the EMR). An example is absorption or emission of radio waves by antennas, or absorption of microwaves by water or other molecules with an electric dipole moment, as for example inside a microwave oven. These interactions produce either electric currents or heat, or both. Infrared EMR interacts with dipoles present in single molecules, which change as atoms vibrate at the ends of a single chemical bond. For this reason, infrared is reflected by metals (as is most EMR into the ultraviolet) but is absorbed by a wide range of substances, causing them to increase in temperature as the vibrations dissipate as heat. In the same process, bulk substances radiate in the infrared spontaneously (see thermal radiation section below).
Reversible and nonreversible molecular changes from visible light
Legend: γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme-ultraviolet NUV = Near-ultravioletVisible light (colored bands) NIR = Near-infrared MIR = Moderate-infrared FIR = Far-infrared EHF = Extremely high frequency (microwaves) SHF = Super-high frequency (microwaves) UHF = Ultrahigh frequency (radio waves) VHF = Very high frequency (radio) HF = High frequency (radio) MF = Medium frequency (radio) LF = Low frequency (radio) VLF = Very low frequency (radio) VF = Voice frequency ULF = Ultra-low frequency (radio) SLF = Super-low frequency (radio) ELF = Extremely low frequency(radio)
As frequency increases into the visible range, photons of EMR have enough energy to change the bond structure of some individual molecules. It is not a coincidence that this happens in the "visible range," as the mechanism of vision involves the change in bonding of a single molecule (retinal) which absorbs light in the rhodopsin the retina of the human eye. Photosynthesis becomes possible in this range as well, for similar reasons, as a single molecule of chlorophyll is excited by a single photon. Animals which detect infrared do not use such single molecule processes, but are forced to make use of small packets of water which change temperature, in an essentially thermal process that involves many photons (see infrared sensing in snakes). For this reason, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves are thought to damage molecules and biological tissue only by bulk heating, not excitation from single photons of the radiation (however, there does remain controversy about possible non-thermal biological damage from low frequency EM radiation, see below). Visible light is able to affect a few molecules with single photons, but usually not in a permanent or damaging way, in the absence of power high enough to increase temperature to damaging levels. However, in plant tissues that carry on photosynthesis, carotenoids act to quench electronically excited chlorophyll produced by visible light in a process called non-photochemical quenching, in order to prevent reactions which would otherwise infere with photosynthesis at high light levels. There is also some limited evidence that some reactive oxygen species are created by visible light in skin, and that these may have some role in photoaging, in the same manner as ultraviolet A does.
Molecular damage from ultraviolet
As a photon interacts with single atoms and molecules, the effect depends on the amount of energy the photon carries. As frequency increases beyond visible into the ultraviolet, photons now carry enough energy (about three electron volts or more) to excite certain doubly bonded molecules into permanent chemical rearrangement. If these molecules are biological molecules in DNA, this causes lasting damage. DNA is also indirectly damaged by reactive oxygen species produced by ultraviolet A, which has energy too low to damage DNA directly. This is why ultraviolet at all wavelengths can damage DNA, and is capable of causing cancer, and (for UVB) skin burns (sunburn) which are far worse than would be produced by simple heating (temperature increase) effects. This property of causing molecular damage that is far out of proportion to all temperature-changing (i.e., heating) effects, is characteristic of all EMR with frequencies at the visible light range and above. These properties of high-frequency EMR are due to quantum effects which cause permanent damage to materials and tissues at the single molecular level.
Ionization and extreme types of molecular damage from X-rays and gamma rays
At the higher end of the ultraviolet range, the energy of photons becomes large enough to impart enough energy to electrons to cause them to be liberated from the atom, in a process called photoionisation. The energy required for this is always larger than about 10 electron volts (eV) corresponding with wavelengths smaller than 124 nm (some sources suggest a more realistic cutoff of 33 eV, which is the energy required to ionize water). This high end of the ultraviolet spectrum with energies in the approximate ionization range, is sometimes called "extreme UV." (Most of this is filtered by the Earth's atmosphere). Electromagnetic radiation composed of photons that carry minimum-ionization energy, or more, (which includes the entire spectrum with shorter wavelengths), is therefore termed ionizing radiation. (There are also many other kinds of ionizing radiation made of non-EM particles). Electromagnetic-type ionizing radiation extends from the extreme ultraviolet to all higher frequencies and shorter wavelengths, which means that all X-rays and gamma rays are ionizing radiation. These are capable of the most severe types of molecular damage, which can happen in biology to any type of biomolecule, including mutation and cancer, and often at great depths from the skin, since the higher end of the X-ray spectrum, and all of the gamma ray spectrum, are penetrating to matter. It is this type of damage which causes these types of radiation to be especially carefully monitored, due to their hazard, even at comparatively low-energies, to all living organisms.
Propagation and absorption in the Earth's atmosphere
Most electromagnetic waves of higher frequency than visible light (UV and X-rays) are blocked by absorption from electronic excitation in ozone and dioxygen (for UV), and by ionization of air for energies in the extreme UV and above. Visible light is well transmitted in air, as it is not energetic enough to excite oxygen, but too energetic to excite molecular vibrational frequencies of molecules in air.
Rough plot of Earth's atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) to various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
Below visible light, a number of absorption bands in the infrared are due to modes of vibrational excitation in water vapor. However, at energies too low to excite water vapor the atmosphere becomes transparent again, allowing free
Electromagnetic radiation transmission of most microwave and radio waves. Finally, at radio wavelengths longer than 10 meters or so (about 30 MHz), the air in the lower atmosphere remains transparent to radio, but plasma in certain layers of the ionosphere of upper Earth atmosphere begins to interact with radio waves (see skywave). This property allows some longer wavelengths (100 meters or 3 MHz) to be reflected and results in farther shortwave radio than can be obtained by line-of-sight. However, certain ionospheric effects begin to block incoming radiowaves from space, when their frequency is less than about 10 MHz (wavelength longer than about 30 meters).
Types and sources, classed by spectral band (frequency)
See electromagnetic spectrum for detail
When EM radiation at the frequencies for which it is referred to as "radio waves" impinges upon a conductor, it couples to the conductor, travels along it, and induces an electric current on the surface of the conductor by moving the electrons of the conducting material in correlated bunches of charge. Such effects can cover macroscopic distances in conductors (including as radio antennas), since the wavelength of radiowaves is long, by human scales. Radio waves thus have the most overtly "wave-like" characteristics of all the types of EMR, since their waves are so long.
Natural sources produce EM radiation across the spectrum. EM radiation with a wavelength between approximately 400 nm and 700 nm is directly detected by the human eye and perceived as visible light. Other wavelengths, especially nearby infrared (longer than 700 nm) and ultraviolet (shorter than 400 nm) are also sometimes referred to as light, especially when visibility to humans is not relevant.
Thermal radiation and electromagnetic radiation as a form of heat
The basic structure of matter involves charged particles bound together in many different ways. When electromagnetic radiation is incident on matter, it causes the charged particles to oscillate and gain energy. The ultimate fate of this energy depends on the situation. It could be immediately re-radiated and appear as scattered, reflected, or transmitted radiation. It may also get dissipated into other microscopic motions within the matter, coming to thermal equilibrium and manifesting itself as thermal energy in the material. With a few exceptions related to high-energy photons (such as fluorescence, harmonic generation, photochemical reactions, the photovoltaic effect for ionizing radiations at far ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma radiation), absorbed electromagnetic radiation simply deposits its energy by heating the material. This happens both for infrared, microwave, and radio wave radiation. Intense radio waves can thermally burn living tissue and can cook food. In addition to infrared lasers, sufficiently intense visible and ultraviolet lasers can also easily set paper afire. Ionizing electromagnetic radiation creates high-speed electrons in a material and breaks chemical bonds, but after these electrons collide many times with other atoms in the material eventually most of the energy is downgraded to thermal energy; this whole process happens in a tiny fraction of a second. This process makes ionizing radiation far more dangerous per unit of energy than non-ionizing radiation. This caveat also applies to the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum, even though almost all of it is not ionizing, because UV can damage molecules due to electronic excitation which is far greater per unit energy than heating effects produce. Infrared radiation in the spectral distribution of a black body is usually considered a form of heat, since it has an equivalent temperature, and is associated with an entropy change per unit of thermal energy. However, the word "heat" is a highly technical term in physics and thermodynamics, and is often confused with thermal energy. Any
Electromagnetic radiation type of electromagnetic energy can be transformed into thermal energy in interaction with matter. Thus, any electromagnetic radiation can "heat" (in the sense of increase the thermal energy termperature of) a material, when it is absorbed. The inverse or time-reversed process of absorption is responsible for thermal radiation. Much of the thermal energy in matter consists of random motion of charged particles, and this energy can be radiated away from the matter. The resulting radiation may subsequently be absorbed by another piece of matter, with the deposited energy heating the material. Thermal radiation is an important mechanism of heat transfer. The electromagnetic radiation in an opaque cavity at thermal equilibrium is effectively a form of thermal energy, having maximum radiation entropy.
The effects of electromagnetic radiation upon living cells, including those in humans, depends upon the power and the frequency of the radiation. For low-frequency radiation (radio waves to visible light) the best-understood effects are those due to radiation power alone, acting through the effect of simple heating when the radiation is absorbed by the cell. For these thermal effects, the frequency of the radiation is important only as it affects radiation penetration into the organism (for example microwaves penetrate better than infrared). Initially, it was believed that low frequency fields that were too weak to cause significant heating could not possibly have any biological effect. Despite this opinion among researchers, evidence has accumulated that supports the existence of complex biological effects of weaker non-thermal electromagnetic fields, (including weak ELF magnetic fields, although the latter does not strictly qualify as EM radiation), and modulated RF and microwave fields. Fundamental mechanisms of the interaction between biological material and electromagnetic fields at non-thermal levels are not fully understood. Bioelectromagnetics is the study of these interactions and effects. The World Health Organization has classified radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation as a possible group 2b carcinogen. This group contains possible carcinogens with weaker evidence, at the same level as coffee and automobile exhaust. For example, there have been a number of epidemiological studies of looking for a relationship between cell phone use and brain cancer development, which have been largely inconclusive, save to demonstrate that the effect, if it exists, cannot be a large one. See the main article referenced above. At higher frequencies (visible and beyond), the effects of individual photons of the radiation begin to become important, as these now have enough energy individually directly or indirectly to damage biological molecules. All frequences of UV radiation have been classed as Group 1 carcinogens by the World Health Organization. Ultraviolet radiation from sun exposure is the primary cause of skin cancer. Thus, at UV frequencies and higher (and probably somewhat also in the visible range), electromagnetic radiation does far more damage to biological systems than simple heating predicts. This is most obvious in the "far" (or "extreme") ultraviolet, and also X-ray and gamma radiation, are referred to as ionizing radiation due to the ability of photons of this radiation to produce ions and free radicals in materials (including living tissue). Since such radiation can produce severe damage to life at powers that produce very little heating, it is considered far more dangerous (in terms of damage-produced per unit of energy, or power) than the rest of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Derivation from electromagnetic theory
Electromagnetic waves as a general phenomenon were predicted by the classical laws of electricity and magnetism, known as Maxwell's equations. Inspection of Maxwell's equations without sources (charges or currents) results in, along with the possibility of nothing happening, nontrivial solutions of changing electric and magnetic fields. Beginning with Maxwell's equations in free space:
where is a vector differential operator (see Del). One solution,
is trivial. For a more useful solution, we utilize vector identities, which work for any vector, as follows:
To see how we can use this, take the curl of equation (2):
Evaluating the left hand side:
where we simplified the above by using equation (1). Evaluate the right hand side:
Equations (6) and (7) are equal, so this results in a vector-valued differential equation for the electric field, namely
Applying a similar pattern results in similar differential equation for the magnetic field:
These differential equations are equivalent to the wave equation:
where c0 is the speed of the wave in free space and f describes a displacement Or more simply:
Electromagnetic radiation where is d'Alembertian:
Notice that, in the case of the electric and magnetic fields, the speed is:
This is the speed of light in vacuum. Maxwell's equations have unified the vacuum permittivity , the vacuum permeability , and the speed of light itself, c0. Before this derivation it was not known that there was such a strong relationship between light and electricity and magnetism. But these are only two equations and we started with four, so there is still more information pertaining to these waves hidden within Maxwell's equations. Let's consider a generic vector wave for the electric field.
is the constant amplitude,
is any second differentiable function,
is a unit vector in the direction of is a generic solution to the wave
is a position vector. We observe that
equation. In other words
for a generic wave traveling in the
This form will satisfy the wave equation, but will it satisfy all of Maxwell's equations, and with what corresponding magnetic field?
The first of Maxwell's equations implies that electric field is orthogonal to the direction the wave propagates.
The second of Maxwell's equations yields the magnetic field. The remaining equations will be satisfied by this choice of . Not only are the electric and magnetic field waves in the far-field traveling at the speed of light, but they always have a special restricted orientation and proportional magnitudes, , which can be seen immediately from the Poynting vector. The electric field, magnetic field, and direction of wave propagation are all orthogonal, and the wave propagates in the same direction as . Also, E and B far-fields in free space, which as wave solutions depend primarily on these two Maxwell equations, are always in-phase with each other. This is guaranteed since the generic wave solution is first order in both space and time, and the curl operator on one side of these equations results in first-order spacial derivatives of the wave solution, while the time-derivative on the other side of the equations, which gives the other field, is first order in time, resulting in the same phase shift for both fields in each mathematical operation. From the viewpoint of an electromagnetic wave traveling forward, the electric field might be oscillating up and down, while the magnetic field oscillates right and left; but this picture can be rotated with the electric field oscillating right and left and the magnetic field oscillating down and up. This is a different solution that is traveling in the same direction. This arbitrariness in the orientation with respect to propagation direction is known as
Electromagnetic radiation polarization. On a quantum level, it is described as photon polarization. The direction of the polarization is defined as the direction of the electric field. More general forms of the second-order wave equations given above are available, allowing for both non-vacuum propagation media and sources. A great many competing derivations exist, all with varying levels of approximation and intended applications. One very general example is a form of the electric field equation, which was factorized into a pair of explicitly directional wave equations, and then efficiently reduced into a single uni-directional wave equation by means of a simple slow-evolution approximation.
 http:/ / people. whitman. edu/ ~beckmk/ QM/ grangier/ Thorn_ajp. pdf  J Invest Dermatol. 2012 Feb 9. doi: 10.1038/jid.2011.476. Irradiation of Skin with Visible Light Induces Reactive Oxygen Species and Matrix-Degrading Enzymes. Liebel F, et al. PMID 22318388  Cleary, SF, Liu LM, Merchant RE 1990. In vitro lyphocyte proliferation induced by radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation under isothermal conditions. Bioelectromagnetics 11(1):47-56  Czerska EM, Elson EC, Davis CC 1992 Swicord ML, Czerski P, Effects of continuous and pulsed 2450-MHz radiation on spontaneous lymphoblastoid transformation of human lymphocytes in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics 13(4):247-259.  http:/ / www. iarc. fr/ en/ media-centre/ pr/ 2011/ pdfs/ pr208_E. pdf  See PMID 22318388 for evidence of quantum damage from visible light via reactive oxygen species generated in skin. This happens also with UVA. With UVB, the damage to DNA becomes direct, with photochemical formation of pyrimidine dimers.  See PMID 22318388 already quoted
• Hecht, Eugene (2001). Optics (4th ed.). Pearson Education. ISBN 0-8053-8566-5. • Serway, Raymond A.; Jewett, John W. (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (6th ed.). Brooks Cole. ISBN 0-534-40842-7. • Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Electricity, Magnetism, Light, and Elementary Modern Physics (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0810-8. • Reitz, John; Milford, Frederick; Christy, Robert (1992). Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory (4th ed.). Addison Wesley. ISBN 0-201-52624-7. • Jackson, John David (1999). Classical Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-30932-X. • Allen Taflove and Susan C. Hagness (2005). Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd ed. Artech House Publishers. ISBN 1-58053-832-0.
• Electromagnetism (http://www.lightandmatter.com/html_books/0sn/ch11/ch11.html) - a chapter from an online textbook • Electromagnetic Radiation (http://www.learnemc.com/tutorials/Radiation/EM_Radiation.html) - an introduction for electrical engineers • Electromagnetic Waves from Maxwell's Equations (http://www.physnet.org/modules/pdf_modules/m210. pdf) on Project PHYSNET (http://www.physnet.org). • Radiation of atoms? e-m wave, Polarisation, ... (http://www.hydrogenlab.de/elektronium/HTML/ einleitung_hauptseite_uk.html) • An Introduction to The Wigner Distribution in Geometric Optics (http://scripts.mit.edu/~raskar/lightfields/ index.php?title=An_Introduction_to_The_Wigner_Distribution_in_Geometric_Optics) • The windows of the electromagnetic spectrum, on Astronoo (http://www.astronoo.com/articles/ electromagneticSpectrum-en.html) • Introduction to light and electromagnetic radiation (https://www.khanacademy.org/science/ cosmology-and-astronomy/universe-scale-topic/light-fundamental-forces/v/introduction-to-light) course video
Electromagnetic radiation from the Khan Academy • Lectures on electromagnetic waves (http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/ 8-02sc-physics-ii-electricity-and-magnetism-fall-2010/electromagnetic-waves/) course video and notes from MIT Professor Walter Lewin
Eddy currents (also called Foucault currents) are electric currents induced within conductors by a changing magnetic field in the conductor. These circulating eddies of current have inductance and thus induce magnetic fields. These fields can cause repulsive, attractive, propulsion, drag and heating effects. The stronger the applied magnetic field, or the greater the electrical conductivity of the conductor, or the faster the field changes, then the greater the currents that are developed and the greater the fields produced. The term eddy current comes from analogous currents seen in water when dragging an oar breadthwise: localised areas of turbulence known as eddies give rise to persistent vortices. Somewhat analogously, eddy currents can take time to build up and can persist for very short times in conductors due to their inductance. Eddy currents in conductors of non-zero resistivity generate heat as well as electromagnetic forces. The heat can be used for induction heating. The electromagnetic forces can be used for levitation, creating movement, or to give a strong braking effect. Eddy currents can also have undesirable effects, for instance power loss in transformers. In this application, they are minimised with thin plates, by lamination of conductors or other details of conductor shape. Self-induced eddy currents are responsible for the skin effect in conductors. The latter can be used for non-destructive testing of materials for geometry features, like micro-cracks. A similar effect is the proximity effect, which is caused by externally-induced eddy currents.
The first person to observe current eddies was François Arago (1786–1853), the 25th Prime Minister of France, who was also a mathematician, physicist and astronomer. In 1824 he observed what has been called rotatory magnetism, and that most conductive bodies could be magnetized; these discoveries were completed and explained by Michael Faraday (1791–1867). In 1834, Heinrich Lenz stated Lenz's law, which says that the direction of induced current flow in an object will be such that its magnetic field will oppose the magnetic field that caused the current flow. Eddy currents produce a secondary field that cancels a part of the external field and causes some of the external flux to avoid the conductor. French physicist Léon Foucault (1819–1868) is credited with having discovered eddy currents. In September, 1855, he discovered that the force required for the rotation of a copper disc becomes greater when it is made to rotate with its rim between the poles of a magnet, the disc at the same time becoming heated by the eddy current induced in the
Eddy current metal. The first use of eddy current for non-destructive testing occurred in 1879 when David E. Hughes used the principles to conduct metallurgical sorting tests.
When a conductor moves through an inhomogeneous field generated by a source, electromotive forces (EMFs) can be generated around loops within the conductor. These EMFs acting on the resistivity of the material generate a current around the loop, in accordance with Faraday's law of induction. These currents dissipate energy, and create a magnetic field that tends to oppose changes in the current- they have inductance. Eddy currents are created when a conductor experiences changes in the magnetic field. If either the conductor is moving through a steady magnetic field, or the magnetic field is changing around a stationary conductor, eddy currents will occur in the conductor. Both effects are present when a conductor moves through a varying magnetic field, as is the case at the top and bottom edges of the magnetized region shown in the diagram. Eddy currents will be generated wherever a conducting object experiences a change in the intensity or direction of the magnetic field at any point within it, and not just at the boundaries.
As the circular plate moves down through a small region of constant magnetic field directed into the page, eddy currents are induced in the plate. The direction of those currents is given by Lenz's law, i.e. so that the plate's movement is hindered.
The swirling current set up in the conductor is due to electrons experiencing a Lorentz force that is perpendicular to their motion. Hence, they veer to their right, or left, depending on the direction of the applied field and whether the strength of the field is increasing or declining. The resistivity of the conductor acts to damp the amplitude of the eddy currents, as well as straighten their paths. Lenz's law states that the current swirls in such a way as to create an induced magnetic field that opposes the phenomenon that created it. In the case of a varying applied field, the induced field will always be in the opposite direction to that applied. The same will be true when a varying external field is increasing in strength. However, when a varying field is falling in strength, the induced field will be in the same direction as that originally applied, in order to oppose the decline. An object or part of an object experiences steady field intensity and direction where there is still relative motion of the field and the object (for example in the center of the field in the diagram), or unsteady fields where the currents cannot circulate due to the geometry of the conductor. In these situations charges collect on or within the object and these charges then produce static electric potentials that oppose any further current. Currents may be initially associated with the creation of static potentials, but these may be transitory and small.
Eddy currents generate resistive losses that transform some forms of energy, such as kinetic energy, into heat. This Joule heating reduces efficiency of iron-core transformers and electric motors and other devices that use changing magnetic fields. Eddy currents are minimized in these devices by selecting magnetic core materials that have low electrical conductivity (e.g., ferrites) or by using thin sheets of magnetic material, known as laminations. Electrons cannot cross the insulating gap between the laminations and so are unable to circulate on wide arcs. Charges gather at the lamination boundaries, in a process analogous to the Hall effect, producing electric fields that oppose any further accumulation of charge and hence suppressing the eddy currents. The shorter the distance between adjacent laminations (i.e., the greater the number of laminations per unit area, perpendicular to the applied field), the greater the suppression of eddy currents.
Lamination of conductors parallel to the field lines reduce eddy currents
The conversion of input energy to heat is not always undesirable, however, as there are some practical applications. One is in the brakes of some trains known as eddy current brakes. During braking, the metal wheels are exposed to a magnetic field from an electromagnet, generating eddy currents in the wheels. The eddy currents meet resistance as charges flow through the metal, thus dissipating energy as heat, and this acts to slow the wheels down. The faster the wheels are spinning, the stronger the effect, meaning that as the train slows the braking force is reduced, producing a smooth stopping motion. Induction heating makes use of eddy currents to provide heating of metal objects.
Power dissipation of eddy currents
Under certain assumptions (uniform material, uniform magnetic field, no skin effect, etc.) the power lost due to eddy currents per unit mass for a thin sheet or wire can be calculated from the following equation:
where P is the power lost per unit mass (W/kg), Bp is the peak magnetic field (T), d is the thickness of the sheet or diameter of the wire (m), f is the frequency (Hz), k is a constant equal to 1 for a thin sheet and 2 for a thin wire, ρ is the resistivity of the material (Ω m), and D is the density of the material (kg/m3). This equation is valid only under the so-called quasi-static conditions, where the frequency of magnetisation does not result in the skin effect; that is, the electromagnetic wave fully penetrates the material.
In very fast-changing fields, the magnetic field does not penetrate completely into the interior of the material. This skin effect renders the above equation invalid. However, in any case increased frequency of the same value of field will always increase eddy currents, even with non-uniform field penetration. The penetration depth can be calculated from the following equation:
where δ is the penetration depth (m), f is the frequency (Hz), μ is the magnetic permeability of the material (H/m), and σ is the electrical conductivity of the material (S/m).
The derivation of a useful equation for modelling the effect of eddy currents in a material starts with the differential, magnetostatic form of Ampère's Law, providing an expression for the magnetizing field H surrounding a current density J:
Taking the curl on both sides of this equation and then using a common vector calculus identity for the curl of the curl results in
From Gauss's law for magnetism, ∇ · H = 0, so
Using Ohm's law, J = σE, which relates current density J to electric field E in terms of a material's conductivity σ, and assuming isotropic homogeneous conductivity, the equation can be written as
Using the differential form of Faraday's law, ∇ × E = −∂B/∂t, this gives
By definition, B = μ0(H + M), where M is the magnetization of the material and μ0 is the vacuum permeability. The diffusion equation therefore is
Eddy currents are used for braking; since there is no contact with a brake shoe or drum, there is no mechanical wear. However, an eddy current brake cannot provide a "holding" torque and so may be used in combination with mechanical brakes, for example, on overhead cranes. Another application is on some roller coasters, where heavy copper plates extending from the car are moved between pairs of very strong permanent magnets. Electrical resistance within the plates Braking forces resulting from eddy currents in a metal plate causes a dragging effect analogous to friction, which dissipates moving through an external magnetic field the kinetic energy of the car. The same technique is used in electromagnetic brakes in railroad cars and to quickly stop the blades in power tools such as circular saws. Using electromagnets, the strength of the magnetic field can be adjusted and so the magnitude of braking effect changed.
Repulsive effects and levitation
In a varying magnetic field the induced currents exhibit diamagnetic-like repulsion effects. A conductive object will experience a repulsion force. This can lift objects against gravity, though with continual power input to replace the energy dissipated by the eddy currents. An example application is separation of aluminum cans from other metals in an eddy current separator). Ferrous metals cling to the magnet, and aluminum (and other non-ferrous conductors) are forced away from the magnet; this can separate a waste stream into ferrous and non-ferrous scrap metal.
With a very strong handheld magnet, such as those made from neodymium, one can easily observe a very similar effect by rapidly sweeping the magnet over a coin with only a small separation. Depending on the strength of the magnet, identity of the coin, and separation between the magnet and coin, one may induce the coin to be pushed slightly ahead of the magnet - even if the coin contains no magnetic elements, such as the US penny. Another example involves dropping a strong magnet down a tube of copper -- the magnet falls at a dramatically slow pace. Perfect conductors allow lossless conduction that allows eddy currents to form on the surface of the conductor that exactly cancel any changes in the magnetic field applied to the object after the material's resistance went to zero, thus allowing magnetic levitation. Superconductors are a subclass of perfect conductors in that they also exhibit the Meissner Effect, an inherently quantum mechanical phenomenon that is responsible for expelling any magnetic field lines present during the superconducting transition, thus making the magnetic field zero in the bulk of the superconductor.
A cross section through a linear motor placed above a thick aluminium slab. As the linear induction motor's field pattern sweeps to the left, eddy currents are left behind in the metal and this causes the field lines to lean.
In some geometries the overall force of eddy currents can be attractive, for example, where the flux lines are past 90 degrees to a surface, the induced currents in a nearby conductor cause a force that pushes a conductor towards an electromagnet.
Identification of metals
In coin operated vending machines, eddy currents are used to detect counterfeit coins, or slugs. The coin rolls past a stationary magnet, and eddy currents slow its speed. The strength of the eddy currents, and thus the retardation, depends on the conductivity of the coin's metal. Slugs are slowed to a different degree than genuine coins, and this is used to send them into the rejection slot.
Vibration and position Sensing
Eddy currents are used in certain types of proximity sensors to observe the vibration and position of rotating shafts within their bearings. This technology was originally pioneered in the 1930s by researchers at General Electric using vacuum tube circuitry. In the late 1950s, solid-state versions were developed by Donald E. Bently at Bently Nevada Corporation. These sensors are extremely sensitive to very small displacements making them well suited to observe the minute vibrations (on the order of several thousandths of an inch) in modern turbomachinery. A typical proximity sensor used for vibration monitoring has a scale factor of 200 mV/mil. Widespread use of such sensors in turbomachinery has led to development of industry standards that prescribe their use and application. Examples of such standards are American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard 670 and ISO 7919.
Eddy current techniques are commonly used for the nondestructive examination (NDE) and condition monitoring of a large variety of metallic structures, including heat exchanger tubes, aircraft fuselage, and aircraft structural components..
Eddy currents are the root cause of the skin effect in conductors carrying AC current. Similarly, in magnetic materials of finite conductivity eddy currents cause the confinement of the majority of the magnetic fields to only a couple skin depths of the surface of the material. This effect limits the flux linkage in inductors and transformers having magnetic cores.
• Metal detectors • Conductivity meters for non-magnetic metals  • Eddy current adjustable-speed drives • Eddy-current testing • Electric meters (Electromechanical Induction Meters) • Induction heating • Proximity sensor (Displacement sensors) • Vending machines (detection of coins)
Lamination of magnetic cores in transformers greatly improves the efficiency by minimising eddy currents
• Coating Thickness Measurements 
Eddy current • • • • Sheet Resistance Measurement  Eddy current separator for metal separation  Mechanical speedometers Safety Hazard and defect detection applications
 http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=6w5TAAAAMAAJ& q=foucault+ currents& dq=foucault+ currents& hl=en& ei=AFKbTLm0G47KjAf7uYnyCQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5& ved=0CDYQ6AEwBDgK  linear Electric Machines- A Personal View ERIC R. LAITHWAITE  http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=E8caSplsF28C& pg=PA73  http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ZvscLzOlkNgC& pg=PA570  http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=mMJxcWqm_1oC& pg=PA80  Short research about the history of eddy current (http:/ / ndt-review. blogspot. com/ 2010/ 12/ eddy-current-method-short-research. html)  F. Fiorillo, Measurement and characterisation of magnetic materials, Elsevier Academic Press, 2004, ISBN 0-12-257251-3, page. 31  G. Hysteresis in Magnetism: For Physicists, Materials Scientists, and Engineers, San Diego: Academic Press, 1998.  http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=nrw-i5Ku0mI  Conductivity meter for non-magnetic metals (http:/ / zappitec. com/ ?p=p& l=e)  Portable non-destructive conductivity gauge (http:/ / www. foerstergroup. de/ SIGMATEST. 171+ M5c50842c46a. 0. html)  Hand-Held Instruments - eddy current test method (http:/ / www. helmut-fischer. com/ Product_Group_overview_1. asp?PSG=0120& wg=11& CountryID=91& LanguageID=2)  Measure Sheet Resistance of conductive thin coatings on non-conductive substrates (metallization/ wafers/ ITO / CVD / PVD (http:/ / www. nagy-instruments. de/ ohm_sq___od1. html)  Eddy current separator (http:/ / www. cogelme. com/ eng/ e-eddy-current-metal-separator. htm)
• Fitzgerald, A. E.; Kingsley, Charles Jr. and Umans, Stephen D. (1983). Electric Machinery (4th ed. ed.). Mc-Graw-Hill, Inc. p. 20. ISBN 0-07-021145-0. • Sears, Francis Weston; Zemansky, Mark W. (1955). University Physics (2nd ed. ed.). Addison-Wesley. pp. 616–618.
• Stoll, R. L. (1974). The analysis of eddy currents. Oxford University Press. • Krawczyk, Andrzej; J. A. Tegopoulos. Numerical modelling of eddy currents.
• Eddy Currents and Lenz's Law (http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/community/slideshows/eddycurrents/ index.html) (Audio slideshow from the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) • Eddy Current Separator Cogelme for non-ferrous metals separation (http://www.cogelme.com/eng/ e-eddy-current-metal-separator.htm) - Info and Video in Cogelme site
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