Affirmative Answers to Statism Kritik - gigdebate | Great Depression | Recession

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THE STATE IS ESSENIAL FOR ECONOMY: LOOK EMPERICALLY TO JAPAN University of Kent at Canterbury. Economic Thought and the Role of the State in ‘Late Development’: Friedrich List and the Japanese ‘Miracle’ BY Ralf Kroessin (MA by Research in International Relations), 1998 In an era of so-called ‘globalisation’, the media and a growing part of the scientific community are arguing that the nation state and national economic objectives are increasingly devoid of meaning, and are generally pointing towards Anglo-American style market economies for ideal types. However, economic development does not necessarily have to be facilitated only through market forces, and there has been a growing tendency to overlook the statist perspective on development. Nevertheless, economic history illustrates that development has been brought about by various means: markets and states have often equally contributed to the economic success or failure of countries. But as this dissertation has shown, the Japanese economic ‘miracle’ is an extremely powerful illustration that the state is not completely out of the equation for economic development. Nevertheless, the notion of a ‘miracle’ alone usually would imply that there is more to it than simply just a continuous process of industrial development. The term ‘miracle’ has been coined by Anglo-American economists to ‘explain’ the inexplicable. But as we have seen, only in terms of classical or neo-classical theory the high-speed growth of the government-led industrialisation and development in Japan cannot be fully explained since the state is disregarded as an economic actor and only market forces are accounted for. The Japanese model, the developmental capitalism described, is still a controversial topic but there is a growing body of literature which points to this relatively new insight into national economic development. Chalmers Johnson, one of the outstanding scholars of Japan, has written, “that Japan has invented and put together the institutions of capitalism in new ways, ways that neither Adam Smith nor Karl Marx would recognise or understand.” Thus, the state has taken a truely active role in Japan by shaping the direction the market takes through the co-ordination of an industry-wide consensus on development objectives, industrial policy and administrative guidance for selected targets. Consequently, this has lead to a reconsideration of development models in the western world, even though in East Asia a fundamental understanding of this is already common place and was used to build up the tiger or dragon economies in the Newly Industrialising Countries (NICs) of the region. An important part of this rethinking process is the re-emergence of Friedrich List, who inspired and gave direction to the Japanese economic development from the Meiji period onwards. In conclusion, it is simply unjustified, despite the recent economic crisis in Asia, to declare the state’s role as invalid and unimportant. In theoretical terms, the common Anglo-American depiction of state versus market is too simplified to account for the economic reality, especially in East Asia. Not the choice between Stalinist state controlled (plan ideological) and free market (market ideological) economy has led to the success of Japan’s economic system, but the demonstrated synergy between state and markets was essential.

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AN ECONOMIC DOWNTURN WILL SPREAD THROUGHOUT THE GLOBAL ECONOMY Kupchan, Georgetown international relations professor, ‘03 [Charles, THE END OF THE AMERICAN ERA, Knopf, p. 95 (PDOCSS1071) The stock market and the economy as a whole cooled off with welcome calm in light of the excesses built up over the 1990s. By the spring of 2001, the average price-to-earnings ratio on the S&P Index had settled in less dangerous territory. But as the past makes all too clear, any number of unforeseen developments could have turned a relatively benign environment into an economic maelstrom. And the effects of a U.S. economy in distress would surely be felt throughout the global economy. The same features of globalization that Friedman finds so attractive-its speed, depth, scope, and low cost-make it a safe bet that bad times in America will be transmitted to the rest of the world with impressive efficiency. This is a central point. Globalization itself is a neutral phenomenon made possible by the expanding infrastructure-the plumbingof the global economy. In good times, this infrastructure quickly transmits prosperity and stability. But in bad times, it just as quickly transmits impoverishment and volatility: The effects of globalization depend entirely upon what is running through its fast and wide pipes. The East Asian financial crisis gave us a good taste of just how quickly and ruthlessly trouble can spread through the global economy. ANOTHER DEPRESSION WILL CAUSE AN ARMED CONFLICT THAT THREATENS SURVIVAL Norman Bailey, Senior Director of International Economic Affairs, THE WORLD AND I, 1990, p. 33 (MHBLUE1667) "The thirties after all began three months after the inception of the Great Depression and ended four months after the start of World War II. This is not a coincidence. Tens of millions were killed and maimed in the Second World War. If another historical credit liquidation cycle is allowed to take place in the usual chaotic fashion the chances of another global armed conflict will be greatly increased--time not only would hundreds of millions (rather than tens of millions) be killed or wounded but the very hopes and the future of mankind, as such, might well be destroyed in the process. TURN: THE STATE IS ESSENTIAL FOR PRESERVING SOVEREIGNTY, FREEDOM, AND JUSTICE. THE NATION: PROGRESS AND CHALLENGES Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León, President of the United Mexican States, September 1, 1997 The existence of the State is essential for preserving national sovereignty, guaranteeing democratic freedoms and ensuring observance of the law. But it is also essential because of the great responsibility it has to secure social justice

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TURN: FREEDOM CANNOT EXIST WITHOUT THE STATE TO SUSTAIN IT Fred Dalimayr, Political Scientist, POLITICAL THEORY, May 1984, pp. 204-234. (MHDRG/E735) Again in concordance with Heidegger, Arendt perceives a close proximity between genuine freedom and human solidarity "We first become aware of freedom or its opposite," she observes, "in our intercourse with others, not in the intercourse with ourselves. Before it became an attribute of thought or a quality of the will, freedom was understood to be the free man's status, which enabled him to move, to get away from home, to go out into the world and meet other people in deed and word." Basically, "without a politically guaranteed public realm, freedom lacks the worldly space to make its appearance." Given its connection with human solidarity or plurality. Freedom cannot coincide with voluntarism or the mere exercise of free will; even less can it coincide with an absolute free will or an absolute will power as it has traditionally been formulated in the doctrine of sovereignty. ANARCHY INCLUDES A PERPETUAL RISK OF THE DESTRUCTION OF OTHER’S LIVES AND PROPERTY. MOREOVER, THE STATE IS ESSENTIAL FOR HUMAN SOCIAL EXISTENCE. Reflections on the Minimal State, by John Hasnas, Associate Professor of Law George Mason University, 2002 The exemplar of the argument for the state can be taken from Chapter IX of John Locke's Second Treatise of Government.(9) There Locke contends that in the state of nature, i.e., in the absence of a state, human beings can have no "established, settled, known law," no "known and indifferent judge," and no "power to back and support [a] sentence when right, and to give it due execution."(10) The lack of a uniformly accepted body of law and any recognized judicial and enforcement authority means that individuals' lives and property are always at risk of invasion by others. Because only a state can supply the rule-making, adjudicative, and enforcement services that individuals require for "the mutual preservation of their lives, liberties and estates,"(11) the state is essential for human social existence, and is therefore morally justified.(12) THE STATE IS ESSENTIAL FOR EDUCATION Education: Question for Debate has been jointly prepared by the EI education department team composed of Elie Jouen, Monique Fouilhoux, Ulf Fredriksson and consultants Yves Baunay and Richard Langlois, 1999 The involvement of the State is essential to ensure: universal access to quality education, which requires appropriate social policy provisions (free education, support services, etc.); the continuity of public service provision accessible to all. In order to serve the interests of the general public and society at large, and in order to pursue long-term objectives, the public education system must not be subservient to the interests of individual groups (local pressure groups) or to short-term interests.

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EDUCATION IS THE MOST IMPORTANT ASPECT OF SOCIETY; WITHOUT IT, HUNDEREDS OF CULTURES AND LANGUAGES WOULD PERISH FROM THE EARTH. A SPEECH DELIVERED BY MR. ZING CUNG, VICE CHAIRMAN OF CHIN NATIONAL FRONT, CHINLAND. AT THE 16TH SESSION THE UNITED NATIONS WORKING GROUP ON INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS, Geneva, 27 - 31 July 1998 Education is the backbone of any society structure and all other social elements are the flesh, which are embedded in the framework called education. As I present the topic on indigenous peoples, their language and education. I would like to view this in terms of formal and informal education. Formal education simply includes basic schooling from kindergarten to college, and informal education includes cultural values and traditional wisdom which are passed on through education is designed by the dominant racial group. In Burma, Chin people are denied the possibility to learn and nurture their native language in a formal education setting. This is a very unfortunate situation, because once a language is dead, it can never be recovered. Chin language is push to the brink of extinction; their cultural values and traditional wisdom are left unnurtured. With the demise of any language however small it may seem, a priceless wisdom of a culture is lost which has been passed through the language. If big and powerful language group succeed to eliminate other smaller, it will be like creating a one color system flower in a garden because every language has its own unique color and beauty.

EXTRA CARDS US ECONOMIC DOWNTURN WILL CAUSE WORLDWIDE DEPRESSION Financial Post, April 3, 1999, p.D7 (BLUEOC1639) This year, eight economies will be in recession, two in depression. But all should be growing again in the second half of next year, he predicts. Asia is moving toward the beginnings of recovery and is no longer in crisis, in Mr. Sinai's view. South Korea has turned around, from depression to modest growth. Japan seems past the worst, judging by its stock market revival. However, if the U.S. economy falters seriously, so will the fledgling recoveries, Mr. Sinai warns. Asian growth would be stymied. China might devalue, causing new problems for the region. Europe could go into recession. Canada's growth, heavily dependent on exports to the U.S., would disappear. Latin America would fall into depression. All this could lead to financial market collapse, and perhaps a world depression. 'The odds on this are not zero,' Mr. Sinai says.

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