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Chapter 8 Composite Converters
The concept of composite converter
Composite converter: Combination of two or more converters in cascaded connection
Indirect AC to AC converters (AC-DC-AC converters)
Indirect DC to DC converters (Isolated DC to DC converters)
Power Electronics 8.1 Indirect AC to AC converters (AC-DC-AC converters) Classifications According to type of the DC links: Voltage-source type AC-DC-AC converters Current-source type According to whether output voltage and frequency is variable: AC-DC-AC converters Variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) (AC-DC-AC frequency converters) Constant voltage constant frequency (CVCF) 3 .
1.Power Electronics 8.1 Configurations of AC-DC-AC converters Configurations with one-direction power flow AC Source AC Load AC Source AC Load Voltage-source type Current-source type 4 .
Power Electronics Configuration with regenerative energy dissipating circuit AC Source V0 R0 AC Load Braking transistor and braking resistor 5 .
Configurations with regenerative power feedback through inversion-mode thyristor rectifier circuit Power Electronics Id AC Source AC Load AC Source Ud UL AC Load Voltage-source type Current-source type 6 .
Power Electronics Configurations realizing bi-directional power flow through double-sided PWM converters AC Source AC Source b Load c a U V Load W Voltage-source type Current-source type 7 .
Power Electronics 8.2 Major Applications of AC-DC-AC frequency converters (VVVF converters) Adjustable speed AC motor drives Advantages of AC motors over DC motors Energy saving on AC motors High-performance AC motor drives Control of AC motors driven by AC-DC-AC frequency converters (VVVF converters) Constant voltage frequency ratio control Slip frequency control Vector control Direct torque control 8 .1.
1.8.3 Major Applications of CVCF converters Power Electronics Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) Basic configuration of UPS Rectifier Electricity utility Inverter Load Source 9 .
Power Electronics UPS with back-up energy source Electricity utility Rectifier Inverter Load S Diesel Engine 1 2 Source 10 .
Power Electronics UPS with back-up energy source and bypass lines Bypass lines Electricity utility S1 Diesel Engine 1 2 Source Rectifier Load 3 4 S2 Inverter 11 .
Power Electronics 8. Schottky diodes. Synchronous rectifiers 12 . IGBTs Rectifier part: Fast recovery diodes.2 Indirect DC to DC converters (isolated DC to DC converters) DC input AC High frequency DC output AC Inverter Transformer Isolation Rectifier Filter Reasons to use indirect DC to DC structure Necessary isolation between input and output In some cases isolated multiple outputs are needed The ratio of input and output voltage is far away from 1 Reduction of transformer and filter volume and weight Power semiconductor devices usually used Inverter part: Power MOSFETs.
Classification of isolated DC to DC converters Power Electronics According to whether transformer current is uni-directional or bi-directional Single-ended converters • Forward converter • Flyback converter Double-ended converters • Half bridge • Push-pull • Full bridge Isolated DC to DC converters 13 .
low power applications 14 .2.Power Electronics 8. low cost Uni-polar transformer current.1 Forward converter VD1 Ui + N3 N 1 W1 W3 VD3 S N2 W2 L VD2 + Uo S O uS Ui O iL O iS O t t t U U o i N = N 2 1 t on T t Simple.
2 Flyback converter S O uS Ui O iS ton toff t N1 Ui + W1 S N2 VD + W2 Uo t U U o i N = N 2 1 t on t off O iVD O t Simple.Power Electronics 8. low power applications 15 .2. low cost t Uni-polar transformer current.
Power Electronics 8. up to several kilowatts 16 .2.3 Half bridge converter S1 S2 O O uS1 T ton t t Ui t Ui t C1 Ui + S1 N1 W2 VD1 + ud L N2 N3 + Uo O uS2 O + C2 W1 W S2 3 VD 2 iS1 iS2 O t U U o i = N N 2 1 t on T iD1 O t iL t iL t iS2 O O Cost higher than forward and flyback converter Bi-polar transformer current.
4 Push-pull converter Power Electronics S1 t on O O T t t 2Ui t 2Ui t S1 + N1 N1' S2 S2 VD1 N2 N2' VD2 L + Uo uS1 O uS2 O iS1 O Ui t i S2 Uo N 2 2 t on = Ui N1 T O i D1 O t iL t iL t iS2 O Cost higher than forward and flyback converter Center-tapped transformer 17 .2.8.
up to several hundreds of kilowatts 18 .Power Electronics 8.2.5 Full-bridge converter + ud VD3 L + Uo VD4 S1(S4) O S2(S3) O uS1(uS4) O uS2(uS3) O iS1(iS4) O i S2(iS3) t on t T t Ui t Ui t S1 + Ui + S3 uT N1 VD1 N2 S2 W1 W2 S4 VD2 t Uo N 2 2 t on = Ui N1 T O iD1(iD4) O i S2(iS3) O t iL t iL t Cost is even higher Bi-polar transformer current.
2.6 Rectifier circuits in the isolated DC to DC converters Power Electronics VD1 L + VD1 VD3 L + VD4 VD2 VD2 Full-wave rectifier Full-bridge rectifier V1 L + V2 Synchronous rectifier 19 .8.
8.2.7 Configuration of switching power supply Linear power supply Line Line frequency frequency AC input DC Regulated DC output Transformer Isolation Rectifier Filter Series Pass Regulator • Switching power supply Line frequency AC input High frequency AC High frequency AC Regulated DC output Rectifier DC Filter Inverter Transformer Isolation Rectifier Filter Indirect DC to DC converter 20 .