THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES

LUN-HENG.

"

LUN-HENG
PART
II

MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS OF

WANG CHEUNG

TRANSLATED FROM THE CHINESE AND ANNOTATED
BY

ALFRED FORKE,
PROFESSOR OF CfflNESE AT THE SEMINAR FUR ORIENTALISCHE SPRACHEN. BERLIN

SUPPLEMENTARY VOLUME
TO THE "MITTEILUNGEN DES SEMINARS FUR ORIENTALISCHE SPRACHEN, JAHRGANG XIV

SECOND EDITION

PARAGON BOOK GALLERY
New York
1962

This

is

an unaltered and unabridged reprint
of the
last

(1911) edition

Reprinted 1962 by

PARAGON BOOK GALLERY
Booksellers and Publishers

New York

22.

N. Y.

Printed in U.S.A. by

NOBLE OFFSET PRINTERS, NFW YOKK 3, N. Y.

INC.

-^^jL

CONTENTS.
A. Metaphysial I.
1.

p
I

Coincidences (Ou-lmi).

Bk.

III.

Chap.

I

2.

Periods of Government (Chili-dii).

Bk. XYII.

Cl.a|). Ill

9
16

3.

Sympathetic Emotions (Kan-lei).
B.

Bk.XVIII.Chap.il
Ethical.
I.

4.

Success and Luck (Feng-yii).

Bk.

Chap.

I

30
37
Ill

^'^

5. 6.

Annoyances and Vexations (Lei-hai). Bk. I. Chap. 11 On the Cunning and Artful (Ta-ning). Bk. XI, Chap.
W^eighing of Talents (Ch'eng-ts'ai).
Bk. XII. Chap.
I

'^

43
r)6
''

7.
8.
9.

The Valuation

of Knowledge (Liang-chih).

Bk. XII. Cliap.
Ill

II

67

Admitting Shortcomings (Hsieh-tuan).

Bk. XII. Chap.

75
86
108 ^

10. 11.

12.
13.
14.

The Display of Energy (Hsiao-li). Bk. XIII, Chap. I On Intelligence (Pieh-t'ung). Bk. XIII, Chap. II Apparent Backwardness (Chuang-liu). Bk. XIV, Chap. The Real Nature of Knowledge
(Shih-chih).

96

-i-.

I

Bk.

XXVI,

Chap.
I

I

...

114

A

Definition of

Worthies (Ting-hsien).
C.

Bk.

XXVII. Chap.

129'^^

Criti(jue.

15. Fictitious

Phenomena

(Pien-hsu).

Bk. IV, Chap.
I

II

152
161

16. Fictitious Prodigies (Yi-hsu). 17. Fictitious Influences (Kan-hsu). 18. Praise of the 19.

Bk. V, Chap.

Bk. V. Chaj). Bk.

II

171

Han Dynasty (Hsuan Han). Further Remarks on the State (Hui-kuo).
Ominous Signs Investigated (Yen-fu).

20. 21. 22.

XIX. Cliap. I Bk. XIX. Chap. II Bk. XIX. Chap. Ill
Bk.

192

201

213 220

The Necessity of Eulogies

(Hsu-sung).

XX.
I

Chap.
II

I

On

Literary

Work

(Shu-chieh).

Bk. XXVIII. Chap.
Bk. IV, Cliap. Bk. VIII. Chap.
II

229 240
262 272
II

23. Falsehoods in

Books (Shu-hsu).
Bk.

24. Literary Exaggerations (Y'i-tseng). 25. Lost

II

Texts (Yi-wen).

XX.

Chap.

26.
27.

The Knowledge of Tiuth (Chih-shih). Bk. XXVI. Chap. On Preeminence (Ch'ao-chi). Bk. XIII, Chap. Ill
D.
Folklore and Eeligion.

281

295

28.

Thoughts on Omens

(Chih-jui).

Bk XVII. Chap.
Bk. XVII. Chap. Bk.

I

306 315 327

29. Auguries Verified (Shih-ying).

K
Ill

C^
(^,

On

the Rain Sacrifice (Ming-yu).

XV,

Chap.

Gentle Drums (Shun-ku).

Bk.

XV,

Chap. IV

,339

1211240

:

VI

^
32.

Page

A

Last

Word

on Dragons (Luan-luug).
(Tsao-hu).
(Sliang-ch'ung).

Bk.

XVI, Chap.
II

I

349
357 363 369 376 387 393

33.
34.
,

The Tiger Trouble Remarks on Insects
Four Things
to be

Bk. XVI, Chap.

Bk. XVI, Chap.

Ill

35. Shnplicity of Funerals (Po-tsang).

Bk. XXIII, Chap.II

r36.

Avoided

(Sse-hui).

Bk. XXIII, Chap.

Ill

37. False Charges against 38. Slandering of

Time

(Lan-shih).

Bk. XXIII, Chap.

IV

....
. . .

Days

(Chi-jih).

Bk.

XXIV,

Chap.
Bk.

I

39. Questions about the

Year Star

(Nan-sui).

XXIV,

Chap. IV
Chap.
I

40. Criticisms on Certain Theories (Ch'i-shn).

Bk.

XXV.

....

402 410

Postscript

419
421

Comparative Table of Contents
Quotations

426
431

Appendix I. The Theory of the Five Elements and the Classifications Based thereon Appendix II. The- Cycle of the Twelve Ain'mals Appendix III. On Some Implements Mentioned by W^ang Ch'ung
I.

479

Fans
Chopsticks

II.

III.

Burning Glasses und

Moon

Mirrors

490 495 496 499
514

Index of Subjects
Index of Proper Names
Errata and Addenda to Vol.
I

585

^

CHAPTER

1.

Coincidences {Ou-hui).

£ ate

holds sway over happiness and misfortune, being a spontaneous

principle

alien force,

and a decree to meet with certain incidents. There is no and nothing else exercises an overwhelming influence or
of Tse Hsii
Tse
^

affects the final result.

The world speaks
Qiil

falling

upon
Tsai

his sword,

and of

Yuan^ drowning himself.

Lan and

Pi had

slandered

them to the princes of Wu and C/lu, and they died innocently. It just so happened that the lives of the two were to end, that Tse Lan and Tsai Pi defamed them, and that King Huai^ and Fu CKai* put faith in their trumped up charges. It so happened that these princes were short-sighted, so that their officers could be slandered. The lives of the two unfortunate men chanced to be naturally of short duration. It would seem as if there were two chances and three coincidences,^ but, as a matter of fact, there is but fate and
nothing
else.

When

the Hsia and Yin dynasties were just on the verge of

ruin, the crimes of Chieh

and Chou happened to be

rife,

and when

the stars of the Shang and- Chou^ were just in the ascent, the virtues

and Wu'' happened to be flourishing. Kuan Lung Feng^ met with a violent death, and Chi Tse^ and Pi Kan^^ both expired in jail. At that time the corruption of Chieh and Chou was at its height, and the spans of the two men were to were listened to, and the advice of terminate. The words of Yi Yin
of
^
'

T ang

Wu
^
3

Tse

Hm
Tae

or

Wu

Yuan.
I,

On

Wu

Hm

and CKil Yuan see Vol.

p. 140,

Note

2.

King Huai of CKu, 327-294 b.c. Fu Ch'ai, king of Wu, 495-473 b.c.
I

*

presume that the two chances are good and bad chances, and the three
ancient dynasties.

coincidences, the meeting of a king, a virtuous minister, and a slanderer.
^
"^

Two

The founders
Cf. p. 31,

of the last

named

dynasties.

**

Minister to the tyrant Chieh.

»

Note

2.

^° '»

A

nobleman put

to death

by the emperor Chou.

Cf. p.3l,

Notel.

. Biogr. 1862). Classics Vol.2 Lun-Heng: ' A. nor did Pao Sse beguile King Yu. Not that WSn Wang and Kao Tsung were born for their two subjects." These were expressions of the grief of Confucitis and not in accord with the true principle.** and at the death of Tse Lu he exclaimed. That was the period. 1. was not the same. they heard of each other's fame. p. The fate allotted to them viz. and the other gave metal spurs to fight increased the his. This cock- enmity of the two gentkmen about the dethronement of {Legge. The weird ditties of children turned out true. and a virtuous or a vicious sovereign meets with him. (Giles. Duke Chao 25th year V.' The two dragons did not induce King Li to commit crimes. Cf. * The The story told in full Vol. p. more generally known by the name of T'ai Kung. and when Pao Sse had to destroy the Chou State. Duke Chao of Lu. when the two statesmen were employed. When Yen Yuan^ died. 321 and on in cocka of two nobles of Lu were the habit of fighting. ' * ^ Yiieh. 317. p. I. became minister of the emperor Kao Tsung. but their lots coincided. be glorious. " Heaven has cursed me. just when King lA of Chou happened to open the box. The wonder of the two dragons had to appear. Metaphysical. 8. No. Everything being adjusted above. All these were merely chances and coincidences.^ and the prophecy by ^ The counsellor of his surname being Lit Shang ' Kao Tsung Fu = King Wu. Note 2. a See Vol. and the lives of his two disciples were not to be long. p. Diet. originally a Sovereign and minister both doing their duty. 1. it so happened that the nature which King Yu had obtained proved to be wicked. to rise. 151. p. The one noble sheathed the head of his cock. when the extra- ordinary cockfight took place by hazard. 163. The sovereign being wise. and just happened to be connected. which came together of themselves.* their lots came to be linked together. "Heaven is destroying me. and Fu Yileh's^ virtue to chime in with it. and it was Lit Wang's fate to Wen Wang's time become exalted. an emperor of the Shang dynasty. not to become an emperor and not to live long. disciple of Confuciv^. Wu Ting. poor man. The was Kao to destiny of a subject may be lucky or unlucky. and the minister Tsung's^ reign virtuous. Vol. 710). Yen Yuan = is Yen Hui. and well ordered below. or that Lil Wang and Fu Yileh were created for their two sovereigns. ' ' Quotation from Analects XI. when Vang and and the time.". Ul Wang was Wu were going to be accepted. the Master said. who were instrumental in bringing See Tso-chuan. was to be peaceful. Confucius was not predestinated to become an emperor.

e. When stellation the first moon rests in the cyclical sign yin. the 25th year of Duke Chao of Lu it ^ Shuns territory Yil I® Yii. The was seen building its nest in a tree. when the calamity happened to befall Chao ditties did not cause the fighting. not the establishment of yin which causes the ejection of shen. Classics Vol. 18..E. As regards the rising and setting of Mars and the Pleiades. ^^HiE>^:itB--4'^1^fe^%? The Yiieh-Ung here quoted is {T'ai-p'ing yil-lan chap. is exactly opposite The expression seems to refer to the supposed antagonism of the attributes. Par. 105 and chap. who in the same year was compelled to leave his State and flee to Ch'i. the "handle" of the Dipper the Tail of the Great Bear. 162. p. and when the to the Hsia dynasty. but by chance their times are not the same.^ Goodness and badness. the Ancient Chinese by Chalmers in legomena I have translated to yin = E. p. when the Pleiades are down. Pro- See also: Astronomy of p. ^ ICuei the constellation . not that of the Liki).W. Legge' s Shuking. ^ The mainah or mino bird Legge calls it the mino-grackle — is a kind of fact that thrush in or starling which uses to breed in holes of walls and banks. 3).N. is the conIt is K^tiei^ of Ursa major opposed to the sign shen. in order to procure the empire to Shun and Yil.E.S. ' was Those itself. 709. nor did the mainah bring about the misfortune of the prince: the date of these events came of It and human activity coincided by chance. the other three i. stars: ^. /. the beginning of the first Tail as the hand it Chinese moon points to the cyclical sign yin viz. Shang Chun's power over conduct had had to pass over to be flagitious. ^ The emperor Mars fei e. ^ Star" * is called the "Fire is j/^^a. Iv. The two sons were not induced to wickedness. Note 3. For more details see Tso-chuan. ^ by " opposed to. fulfilled." Shen ^ W. p. cyclical signs and their Cf Vol.N. 3 the mainah of Lu. and Tan Chus. It is not the nature of fire"* that it should counteract the Pleiades. . being called Shao.Coincidences. Yil^ was Yaos fate to yield the empire to Shun. E. regarding of a natural clock. was interpreted as a bad augury for the duke.jv{] I of Ursa major. to be unprincipled. V. but the revolutions of the two constellations happen to be thus balanced. See also p. Duke Chao 25th year {Legge. when the Pleiades are visible. 93. XXXIX. and their courses are different. and hides. y. I. From In time immemorial the Chinese have determined the seasons its and the month by the revolution of the Great Bear. Mars comes out. right and wrong came together by hazard.

wlien the ^ mother-in-law expires. 942. but some perceive them without dying. — know this? Some exhausted. ghosts appear. Those who are crushed by a falling building.^ the same sort and permeated by a similar fluid. being bright. the Yin is the source of it is Yin. cold when man air supervenes. Huai Nan of Tse III. says that when it Yin. Iv. however. but it happens also that they encounter cold and yet do not wither. When the father dies. when she succeeds to her position. Cf. Note 2. Men see ghosts before their end. The moon appears in the sky. 2 Again the usual symbolism supposing a mysterious sympathy between the the liquid moon representing element and the animals living the moon. sea. and exuberant. the daughter-in-law takes her place. that autumn's breath blights grain and grass. Unfortunate men happened to be on the spot just at the moment expires. the ruler of the in the water. daughter-in-law creatures ' As long as her mother-in-law is alive. when in dark oysters are empty. fades.4 Lun-Heiig: A.-^ The wind follows the and the clouds accompany the dragon. oysters are says the full. This idea is wrong: Plants grow in summer. and shells shrink in the tiger. 279. 2r. when the down-fall took place. Whence do we germinate in spring. or buried under a collapsing bank.) I. and ripen in autumn. The Yin fluid then happens to be in abundance and falls in with them. last. and the Yin creatures undergo their transformations the deep. what kind of fluid does man when him. and does not become her own mistress before the death of the mother-in-law. and plants encounter ghosts plants kill one year before they his life If. the brains fish decrease. all The moon. hut the years of old and young people follow each other of themselves. When. are not killed by the essence of the house or the fluid of the bank. Plants meet cold when they die. the son succeeds him and. Then they just wither and die spontaneously. If people aver that at death the Yin fluid destroys them. They say cannot stand it. The succession of son and daughter are not the causes of the decease of father and mother. p. Lu-shi ch'un-ch'iu. They and fade away and die. the who lives in the same family with her husband has to obey her commands like her own daughter. this die. and all all Yin shrinks together. and the bank in decay. The house was old. Vol. The moon Belonging to fades in heaven. p. 3 {T'ai-p'ing yii Ian chap. their vitality not yet being Man live lives a hundred years ere he breathes his die. and when is dies shells all and oysters It shrivel. their natures can mutually affect one another. Metaphysical. ceases? Some perhaps all may return that and when would be mere accident. . plants do not die in autumn.

and repose at night. where it said crows weeded the land is — ^ J^ ^ PP it . in This tradition mentioned the '^ ^ : -j^^ ^^ How Ti-wang shi-chi is quoted tliat by the T'ai-p'ing-yu-lan chap. and man's forces are likewise exhausted. Heaven does not make him work out of jail. The punishment of the murderer must be heavy. those and things fall in together. In during the day. the wife he marries must soon become a widow. The worst penalty which can be inflicted on a murderer. and the prisoner by chance escaped death. must be cut ofi". in the prefecture of Yung-p'ing. the spring rains then just set in. first aims at the life of the criminal. and rising in the morning. and what does mean? . returning again to Chieh-shih. still if a kind edict be issued the palace. down from above. and rest corresponds to the night. 2 A A moiuitain on the north shore of the gulf of Pech'di. Then they leave the hot climes for the north.Coincidences. and that Yil was interred at Kitei-c/d. did those animals the burial ground of the old emperors. they feed on grass and corn. however.^ on record that Shun was buried in Tsang-nni.^ This is an untruth and an absurd statement. No further till explanation of these rather obscure passages given. a holy emperor displays his virtue. When the morning sun shines brightly. The wild of Chieh-shih. and the food been used up. When a husband has the physiognomy of a short-lived man. in place In Hunan is the Ning-yuan district. ' having left the cold region When they arrive they find the fields of the people Walking about them. And has then. Therefore the destruction coming. having good luck in first enjoy case it. he awakes from his slumbers. below the grave of Yii 81. and chap. When. 82. 2r. WTien the corn has been eaten. Working goes along with the day. geese assemble at Kuei-chi. p. p. it is impossible to work. is capital punishment. and had crows as tenants. so that he desires rest. It is like man's sleeping at night.* and that elephants became his labourers. the culprit that who long years to live comes Heaven has not prompted the holy emperor to issue such an edict for the sake of the culprit whose time of death has not yet come. At night the light of the moon fades. and his power is restored as well.^ just ready. The holy emperor happened to promulgate an act of grace. and when The It is ^ In Chekiang province. 2v. elephants tilling the tumulus acted in the same manner. 5 and good or bad luck happen simultaneously. and the life of him who has to die. there is no influence exercised by one fluid upon another. ' * * The tilling was accidental.

but how can this be called injury? happens that somebody dies abroad. There is a common belief that. on a journey. Metaphysical. the husband injures There can be his wife. » Cf. falls in such a woman who is soon to be widowed marries. thereHuang Tie Kung's house. All the three editions of the Lun-heng have It f^. There cannot have been a collision of fluids: how could any harm have been produced? The aunt of Wang Mang^ Tady C/ieng. who both died. ching =r comes near a variant the Shan-hai- . Huang Tie Kung minister. she with a husband who dies young. As a matter of fact. I. Before her fluid could have reached them. she destroyed three persons from afar. the elder are on the same roof. after a soothsayer had pronounced her mien to be Therefore Huang Tie Kung rose to the rank of a prime noble. which works spontaneously. what a pity Huang Tse Kung married the daugther of a sorcerer in the neighbourhood. Provided that a flame be quenched by water. They become weak and and pine away they give up their ghost. goes out of its own accord. when. and water happens to pour down on it spontaneously. this was not so. and as agriPredestinated no grain. was bespoken in marriage to two gentlemen.^ mentioned in the TF~5~'iM' . Vol. 307. we must say that both have destroyed themselves and did not injure one another. and when she was on her way to Chao. The son same sickly injuring his father and the younger brother ruining line. Luckless people culturists reap dise. grain. a character not found in in any dictionary. it is all the outcome of fate. and '^ they met at the proper time. by sword or fire. ^ Their nature does not spoil the merchan- but their fate prevents the grain from growing.6 Lun-Heng: A. more than a thousand Li away. its prince also passed away. make no profit as merchants. instead of '-^ =. I. but may be compared to the two elements extinguishing and pouring down of themselves. It was a coincidence. Now the untimely death of males and females is not analogous to the quenching of fire by water. p. fore she entered She was likewise to be exalted. crushed or drowned. was predetermined to become a nobleman. then we are But when fire just justified in speaking of water injuring fire. told in full in Vol. is 306. in case males and females die prematurely. and the wife does harm to the husband. * ' This story p. their fluids Since they are living under the come until into contact. he It also ' I encountered the woman. no question of mutual injury.

The time of peace and revolution.' This is not a correct statement of facts. the talk of mahcious people prevails. one meets with backbiters. and did not cherish enmity against Kung-Po Liao. reasoning holds good concerning the promotion and same The translation of officials.Coincidences. 422. Vol. The ways of Heaven are difficult to know. 38 and p. the sperity will be ruined. p. and before Heaven lends its help. Therefore Confucius spoke of fate. This is They true of the success of a ruler introducing reforms as is well. house of Lu. ten anything against shattered and they all odd members all perish. . and when they change their residence. they simply will site of ill omen. and Menmis remarked that is was Heaven. some excellent man recommends them. and when it is time that they should advance. special attention should be paid to the year and the month. and when he "^It is soingr to be dismissed. and Mencius referring is to Heaven did not bear a grudge against Tsang Tsang. 7 for poverty. families of Lu. his proreverses. select a disaster. Tsang Tsang ^ of Lu slandered Mencius in the presence fate. aud when to be a time of rebellion. 10.^ As long as the time for a new doctrine has not yet come. some superior man assists virtue. and that in moving. which are encountered by chance. bad luck. Duke Ping of Lu. clearly saw that time and fate must be spontaneous. ' ' A A A relative of the ducal * * member of one of the three powerful See Analects XIV. If he to become there illustrious. is there happens to be a time of peace. so that its it.' * of Duke Ping. * of wise and sage men at various A pious emperor soars up like a dragon These subjects will be found thoroughly discussed in chap. 6 Cf. unable to do must be persons whose prosperity is whose fate put an end to them. The appearance under the same law. they just happen to choose a calamitous year or month which When an entire family thus rushes into should be avoided. they deal in unprofitable goods. and hampered with fruit. or a doomed family build a house. some villain has defamed talent. ^ Confucius said. Kung-Po Liao^ impeached Tse Lu to Chi Sun. Note 4. but provided that an unlucky fellow. XXXVII — XXXIX. victory aud defeat is like the progress and the good and bad times falls all fortune of an individual. When the time of their removal has come. they plant seed which does not bear The world says that dwellings are propitious or unpropitious. favourite of I. their sovereign lends an ear to slanderous reports. When a scholar is about to take office.

Noxious air always infects those people whose fates are short.^ * Regions in the province of Kiangsu. yet Heaven did not aid Kao Tsu through them. moreover his mind was muddled. Metaphysical. People imagine that because found out and instated in the Han Hsin and Chang Liang supported the king of Han. Wu Hsil happened to be intelligent. well The relations between Han An Kuo and 1 K'uan are related in Vol. a native of P'ei. the subject being much older and semi-historical. where the founder of the Han dynasty.^ High honours were in store for the Minister. 226 and 307. their guilt is made public when their income is highest.'' and in a year of dearth the indigent have to suffer starvation. p. began his career. Nobody shut his mouth or prevented him from giving a sound. . and sides met. Vol. For more ^ details see Vol. Chao Wu^ hidden in the pantaloons did not cry the whole day. Po Lu was doomed to baseness. and merchants of wealthy houses will snatch away the property of poor families. I. p. 177. They say that he owed this to / K'uan. but it was his lot to live. but that is not the case. 2 ' * Cf. known drama by Stanislas Julien. p. when Han Hsin and Chang Liang were to flourish by themselves. p. to power. CKin was wiped out and Han came insomuch as Kao Tsu won the crown. As regards those noblemen who are deprived of their land and degraded. I. 108) seems to intimate. The famous " Orphan of Chao " who later on became the hero of the translated v. there Viscount Chien of Chao deposed is only a casual coincidence. Whether fate and physiognomies be grand or mean. Thus both If they had sought each other on purpose. or officers and ministers who are dismissed. and he was predestined to become prince of Chao to boot. ^ Because they are doomed to die. I. and an able help-mate is very nick of time. Others remain uninjured. 309.^ among the young folks there many had physiognomies indicative of wealth Tsu's destiny to and honour. his heir-son Po Lu and raised Wu Hsil. Breslau 1887. which is not a mere copy of the "Mysterious Box. Thus marquises who have won laurels on the battle-field must needs cut the heads of those slain in battle.8 at once. for this reason Hon Kao Tsu rose in FSng and P'ei. and by hazard he fell in with I Kuan. therefore he chanced to escape by sleeping.^ People say that Po Lu was depraved and not equal to Wu Hsil. Lun-Heng: A." as Gottschall (Das Theater und Drama der Chinesen. It was Han Kao become emperor by himself at a time. The scholar Han An Kuo rose to be Minister of State. the son of a concubine.

Thus they hold that the tranquillity of the people. they soon are cashiered. a system not quite abolished even at present. truth and virtue were practised. when in ancient times the was wise. and penalties govern the people. and the peace of the State are Dialecticians use this ' Wang is Cfiunff'x view that fate viz. CHAPTER 11. for they notice that the wisdom of Yao and Shun brought about universal peace. but whether these instructions have any efiect. Much consideration was shown for in- and a great partiality to fortune. 2 In former times Chinese officials were paid in grain of money. and and whether the people are well governed or in revolution. Rewards were bestowed on the successful. a very important one which cannot be neglected. method of inquiring into the achievements.^ while in office. exercise their authority. and that virtue has no The world is convinced that. inflicted fate. influence upon it. all success was lost and government thrown into confusion. instruct. but neither were talents vestigated nor capacities much appreciated. those with an income of more than a hundred piculs as well as those living on less than a pint.Periods of Government. truth and virtue declined.^ All officials. depends on fate. When the ruler of men was degenerate. if we thoroughly go into the question we find that fate has its proper time. Human but energy but one of the many circumstances co-operating what we instead call fate. . whereas others with very little knowledge and a scandalous conduct govern the people and remain in office. monarch and that when they were practised success was achieved and the government well ordered. In remote antiquity promotion and degradation of able and incompetent men was merely based on success. Some persons may have great talents and lead a pure life. which comes spontaneously. whereas the lawlessness of But Chieh and Cliou resulted in rebellion and in their destruction. and. All thinkers of ancient and modern times hold this view. on the unsuccessful. in consequence of this decline. and determine people's virtue by their success. is not affected by human in activity is as one-sided as that which he impugns that virtue can do everything. but when called to office. They admonish. Periods of Government {Chih-chH).

10 Lun-Heng: A. Both cases are subject to destiny and time. It is mentioned in the Shiking^ that King Hsilan met with a great drought. for there no cutting in Chinese medicine. these critics bring them home to the sovereign. and cannot be forced at all cost. Vol. These ideas are being transmitted and universally accepted. Metaphysical. but was affected by this time.^ A worn-out life and a fatal disease are incurable as a people in rebellion cannot be pacified. upon A wise ruler may govern a people who are to live in peace. Ill.^ acquiesces and takes the guilt himself. but the difficulties are not removed thereby. ' Needles for acupuncture. and disperse them. The virtue of a wise ruler is unfit to cope with. it is so ordered. there will not be half a man left. 3 {Legge. and overwhelm an enlightened monarch with undeserved reproaches. The prince Sorrow and pain shake his body. Note 2 and Giles. when revolutions and other calamities unexpectedly break out. Classics Vol. not for sewing. if he happens to find a patient whose end has not yet arrived. and comes across a disease which is not mortal. IV. Fu Cking Po informed Confucius of it [The Kung-po Liao. Cf. I. Diet. p. Ode IV."]* Consequently. Bk. Analects Shiking XIV. citizens. 223. III. 38. The action of the drugs cures a disease as admonitions serve to pacify the people.c. to due a wise ruler. p. A physician clever he but in using his needles ^ and medicines. the advance of the doctrine no less than the peace of the people depend on fate and and not on human force. cannot reform an age destined to revolt. . ' 1 Up to the present day. is successful with his methods. On tlie other side. Without reason they harass the mind of the ruler. b. he can do nothing even though he be a second Hen Ch'io. Revolutions. 530). having slandered Tse Lu to Chi Sun. * '> No. If they are to fall to the ground. Therefore. Tse it Confucius said. the of his State and looks upon an unlucky inflicted upon him by Heaven for Emperor feels himself responsible for the happiness war or other misfortunes as punishments his sins. and that rebellions and other dangers of a country are the upshot of his depravity. 8 A celebrated physician of the 5th cent. charging him with misrule. '[Of the remnant of Chou. he and the manes of is his ancestors get the credit for all success. The words are. liiogr. Part II. If the man's life is ended and his sickness fatal. so ordered. "If my is principles are to advance. 396.] means that not a single person was left. among That the black-haired people. the opposition of the and the danger of the State are commonly caused by calamities which come down from Heaven above.

But Yao met with the Great Flood. Since the two Sages were visited with them. and conthe State prospers. worthies and sages cannot make it thrive. 827-781 Cf. and when an age is to be well governed. Consequently good government is not the work of worthies and sages. virtuous. no wdcked people can throw it into disorder. neither an enlightened nor an unenlightened government ' (tan be beneficial or deleterious. decline and decay cannot be due Prosperity and progress. attended by a decline. peace. and not on government: the tranquillity and the troubles of a State are determined by its destiny. and issues his commands. tentment are consequences of a happy destiny.c. When a State is doomed to fall to pieces. decay and decline are to virtue either. nor are its members cheerful unless there be sufficient Affluence is the wealth. not the result of viciousness. p. A family is not at peace. The latter gives his instructions to equally grandsons dutiful and virtuous. This is the real nature of goodness and badness. King Hsuan was a wise man who regretted the ' insufficiency of his virtue. 1 disaster. b. King Hsilan of the Chou dynasty. all dependent on Heaven and time. That being the case. is A all wise ruler's government of his State like a kind father's administration of his family. Everybody knows that affluence. and T^ang fell in with a great drought. and ample means to supply its wants. but we have not yet spoken of the manifestations of joy and sorrow. and progress. From the inundation and the drought of Yao und T'ang we draw the conclusion that the calamities of other kings are not caused by their virtue.^ Inundations and droughts are the worst calamities. and not by its culture. were they brought about by their administration? No. There has never been anybody more benevolent and kindhearted than Yao and T^avg. Neither a wise nor an unwise ruler. and decay and disorder. the family flourishes. a . their happiness and felicity cannot be the result of their virtue either. the fixed periods of Heaven and Earth made it so. but ignores that the tranquillity of a State.Periods of Government. and the success of its institutions are but lucky circumstances. thus making his sons and His descendants being dutiful and When all the citizens live in peace. outcome of a generous fate and not to be obtained through wisdom and benevolence. But prosperity is always succeeded by a decay. Order and disorder depend on time. As prosperity and progress are not brought about by virtue. 16.

there are few but violate the laws. there were never worse rulers than Chieh and Chou. the Five Grains do not grow. moral conduct is conditioned by the grain supply. When conspicuous by floods or droughts. and the grain produce depends on the year. dearth and affluence. On mature consideration will be admitted that the Great T'ajig Flood of Yao and the Great Drought of were both accidents ' Wanff Ch'unff here anticipates the theory of many modern historians who ascribe great pohtical changes not to the preponderating influence of some individuals. From a year is this point of view. When hunger and cold combine. In their time there ought to have been constant floods and droughts. fighting. It may be that this was not the case and merely an exaggeration of the time.12 Luii-Heng: A. people had provisions for ten years. the great men of history. people are sensible of honour and disgrace. There being abundance of grain and plenty of food. and when they enjoy both warmth and food. not even relatives are fed. Thus. there are few but behave properly. the foundations of peace and happiness are laid. whereas in the autumn of a year of plenty. bu^ time and dryness be held to be the result of government. Metaphysical. the disregard of the moral obligations by the people. Altruism grows from opulence. just fall in the reigns of it wise sovereigns. and every one behaved like a man of honour. and by paying due consideration to propriety and justice. in the spring of a year of dearth. even neighbours are invited to take Not to feed one's own relations is wicked. and to their share. ruler? in so far as people are unable to bear hunger and cold. Good and bad actions are not the upshot of its human character. contrariwise. know the rules of propriety. when the whole empire was enjoying peace. people when the granaries and store-houses are full. and strife springs from indigence. and their rebellion against their All these difficulties arise from a want of grain and food. but to the economical conditions of tlie people. or it was really the effect of the then government. Not the government is responsible for this. ^ It has been said that. The world praises the era of the Five Rulers. and bloodshed. but how can we know? What are the causes of disorder? Are they not the predo- minance of robbery. Calamities such as these have their periods which someIf inundations and circumstances. invite even one's neighbours. times. . a great kindness. but of the state of the year. but their reigns were not visited with famines or dearth. moral feelings emanate. and when clothes and food suffice.

Would test of those who maintain that phenomenal changes are a if worthies catch the plague and have that lugubrious look. A and C have it. and unless it be cured they die. Floods. it Consequently. and the final catastrophe of a State show similar symptoms. in their features beforehand. the ruin of a State have nothing to do with the goodness or the badness of old. boding ill. Extraordinary changes appear in Heaven and on Earth just as in the case of persons dying from ' a clearer conception of happiness and misfortune. Bad characters are strong and become and iniquitous governments enjoy peace and remain unharmed. Looking upon them as natural calamities. they do not do it through their administration. Human diseases and death are not a retribution for evil doing. is plain that misfortunes sufficient indications of depravity. and wicked people may be strong and robust and become very old. One case gives us a key to a hundred. Yao and Tang may serve us as guides vis-d-vis of other rulers. however. can worthies. the disasters it the other kings be taken for echoes of their wickedness. and so the disorder and evil. 13 and not occasioned by of all l)ad government. and disasters are not and happiness and lucky auguries are inadequate proofs of virtue. their span thus coming to an end. but when worthies die of sickness. they conduce to the ruin of is visible and other disasters are like the the State as the disease not cured leads to the death of the individual. heaviest possible punishment inflicted must this be considered the upon them? Worthies are taken ill and die early. would be an exaltation of the excellence of Yao and depreciation Tang and 'a of the other princes. . attacked by a disease. admit that. ^ Edition B erroneously writes JrM ^fi which must be )j^ ^ as Ed. If. miasms engendering sickness.Periods of Government. and plague the mark of death on their faces. The get extraordinary calamities of the latter cannot be caused by their administration. Their disease arises from contagion by miasms. People about to die from plague show a lugubrious expression. its government. droughts. it we becomes evident that. it is all caused by their dealings? If floods and droughts be looked upon as sequences of lawlessness. The convulsions. and the knowledge of wickedness enlightens us upon virtue. if the Five Rulers bring about universal peace. and unless these calamities be removed. be said to have contracted it through their disorderly conduct? Death is regarded as the greatest government.

The of grain does not depend on the state of the harvest. and his descendants ' In Vol. falls. and Cheng. stirred up. an eclipse of the sun occurs every 41 or 42 months and of the '" moon every 180 days. the of Li-yang must not have been deceitful and perverse. Wei. The prices. Ere man sets to work the heavenly fluid is already apparent. I. Neither of these two statements to a great extent. when a featherlike air put in an appearance. Cf. Vol.14 Lun-Hcng: A. 136. The grain sold in the market. and every eclipses months. 270 Wang CKung says that.' These occur at fixed intervals and have no connexion with the government. Success and discomfiture emanate from Heaven.^ At that time. and bliss and felicity never cease.^ If a wise ruler happens to rise in an era pre-ordained for order. Metaphysical. 118. at this juncture. the grain price rises." Chou and ClUi and a disaster was sent down on Sung. the age revolt. one of the moon. and was high officers a lake. will be unreservedly admitted depend on the harvest. The age is tranquil. the policy of these six States was mistaken. and the people behave well below. virtue of itself shines above. When it there is to be dearness and abundance simultaneously. sometimes dear and sometimes cheap. the tail of the "Bird. p. necessity attended Rich harvests are not of by low prices. lead to a rising of the prices. If an unprincipled sovereign happens is to be born during a period fraught with disturbances. 8 * I. p. Amongst the celestial phenomena there are partial eclipses' of is the sun and the moon. and good and bad luck are governed by time. See Vol. and in insufficient quantities. sometimes in abundance. I. Every forty-two months there fifty-six an eclipse of the sun. their time. nor does a scarcity of production Abundance and scarcity have their dearness and cheapness. The world then imagines all this to be the work of the wise ruler. The hundred phenomena and the thousand disasters manifest themselves in a similar way. although tliere may be still other causes at work. . and are not brought about by the ruler of men or any administrative measures. the citizens and there is is no end of calamities. and price when there is to be cheapness and scarcity. no more than the conditions of a State turn on moral qualities. When Cli'in suffered misfortune. The turned into city of Li-yang sank during one night.^ It Jupiter injured does not follow that. on the moral : — qualities of its citizens. what is else is it? The Five Grains grow on sometimes earth. p. on an average. the people at ease. the sovereign destroyed. years. if this is not time. and the welfare of a State. In consequence whereof the State ruined.

15 The world invariably sees in this the ellect of wickedness. and calamities may happen. Happiness and misfortune do not hinge on goodness or badness. have not yet been active. prosperity and decay. has not been changed. What is the reason of this? destined to high honours. extinguished. and thus are degraded and cashiered.Periods of Government. but are ignorant of the intrinsic nature of happiness and misfortune. or the administration. having taken over a new office. whereas those doomed to baseness and loss of office. and thus discourse on safety and danger. following old precedents. Sometimes high functionaries. and goodness or badness cannot be called to witness in case of happiness and misfortune. They understand the outward appearances of goodness and badness. peace as a stepping stone for their advancement. Yet robbery is either rampant or not. use a time of general Great officers. or may not happen. . begin their career in times of troubles. From our actual high officers we may draw an inference on the ancient monarchs.

16 Lun-Heng: A. Originally T'ang was innocent. Metaphysical. my person. Therefore Heaven being agitated. 2r. as the and Heaven responded with rain. or. "After Tang Rivers. sins. think out for themselves the reason some wickedness. man ought 'If a man to is be to sacrificed. Mountains and the people? my desires been dissolute? Have I caused pain to Has there been bribery? Have calumniators been predominant? Has there been too much building of palaces ? Has the society of women been sought too much? What is the cause of this absolute want of rain?' The historiographer of i'ln divined and said that a for i-ain. either .' he fastod. altar offer in Then At an to if a mulberry grove he prayed.. the Yin and the Yang are at variance. calamitous changes Either they arise from the unexpiated guilt of former it generations.d. * No such passage is to be found in our text of the Shuking. CHAPTER III. five faults? But. 1 This is not in accordance with Wang CKung's system advocating spontaneity possibilities. a.: had destroyed Chieh there was a great drought for seven years. Sympathetic Emotions [Kan-lei). but he brought tlie five charges against himself. here declare before august Heaven and Earth. a sage is perfect. we read. ^ Wang CKung goes on to prove that all these apprehensions and self- reproaches are baseless. have come and dare fall upon myself as a black victim. and must be taken merely hypothetically as one of two 2 Sages have many affinities with Heaven which manifests itself by them. Tang being visited by a drought. having happened. in their agitation.. the young man. and if I have May not the imprudence ol life one single man induce God and the Spirits to injure the of the people.^ as the following reflection will prove: faults. so that the Lo dried up. cut his hair.* Why then did Heaven send the rain? Shuking has Tang inculpated himself.^ or is the spontaneous action of the for the fluids. impeached himself of five Now. and from fear that they themselves are culpable take every precaution.. p. but in the Ti-wang-shi-chi of the 3d cent. may it not involve the ten thousand regions. they are agitated too. When supervene.^ and.' He had .' —'Have He ordered tripods to be brought and thus prayed to the replied T'ang. then why must he accuse himself of it. and his dealings without blemish. I ' I. ' It is I for the people that I pray be immolated wish to be the one. quoted in the T'ai-p'ing-yu-lan chap. and pared his nails to take the place of the victim. Worthies implying and sages feel an emotion by sympathy. It does not follow that this apprehension is based on facts. They incriminate themselves. 83. calamity. the ten thousand regions have any may tfiey any guilt.

before the big crop was harvested Heaven hurled down tremendous thunders and lightnings. not with Only the words Italics occur in is the Shuking.Sympathetic Emotions. above quotation Concluding Note. but not with the Shuking. Thunder and rain overtaking King Cfieng of the Chou dynasty fall under the same head. is p. full of sympathy for T'ang having met with a drought lasting seven years. but alive. on falling in with the drought.' All are agreed that this refers but to a limited space of time. Classics Vol. [in autumn. several thousand Here I"ang impeaches himself with in six. Vol. * This IV. 2 ^ ^ ^^ p. miles. but the previous drought and the subsequent rain were the effect of the spontaneous fluid. Note 1). Mem. and the rain was not a response to his self-indictment. all the grain lay down. nor does show any afi'ection for the people. or did he but do had lasted seven years? If we say that he did so at once. much about this passage of the Shuking. rain having fallen for awhile. Ill. is obvious that rain cannot be obtained by self-accusation. p. XXXII. so that all inhabitants were exceedingly frightened. owing to the storm. Chinese Part p. T'ang-kao. From this point of view. Hist. Book VI. Cf. where the Duke of Chou still supposed to be banished. The gist of the I. the distress of the people. therefore we cannot believe the words of the Shuking. 6r." when a mighty rain poured down over five faults. Ill. made the offering. 359). and it rained but seven years later. We learn from the chapter "Theilieto/Bound Coffer''^ that. out of fear they — No imploring the Yin and praying for happiness. {Chavannes. With the object of attracting rain. {Legge. Classics Vol. But other difficulties arise: At the great rain sacrifice of the Spring and Autumn period. is in accordance with the Shi-chi chap. l7 it If the drought was caused by innocence. 16 Part II. accused himself of t^'ie five faults.]^ At this time the duke of Chou died. 33. also with some variations. 190. 100. Part V. and huge trees were up-rooted. Which time was this? Did he impeach himself at once. So the drought did not happen for T'ang's sake. . why did Heaven responding to his sincerity. Book VI of the Shuking. and that. put him off so long at first? so after the drought And was if we hold that he impeached himself after seven years.* The Literati contend that King not yet finished these words. lung Chung Shu put up a clay dragon. why story it his compassion with his people so much delayed? The neither tallies with the ceremony of the rain sacrifice. Quotation from Shuking Part V. ^ given by Legge. chap.

Shi-chi p. I. During the tempest King CKeng took alarm. when duke Duke of Chou had become regent. due to the king's misgivings about the burial or to his The two schools could not make accept the statement about the funeral If we we find that in autumn and summer the Yang fluid is at its cynosure. Cf. the Yang fluid pours out. is the thunder in the first month a maninever a cessation of tempests and rain. evil reports were spread about him in Kuan and Tsai. Heaven sent a tempest with rain to Thus. the deserts of the duke being equal to those of an emperor. and there is any amount of rain and thunder-storms. likewise. in order to illustrate the achievements of the sage. the calumnies had no eflect. ^ modern Honan which were given as fiefs to the two younger Wang.^ undeceive King CHeng. cit. See Shuking Book VI. While he was thus wavering with regard to the funeral of the duke. and there is crashing of thunder. and the the fled to CHu. out. 245. the duke being but a minister. as regards the up-rooting of trees and the lying down of the corn. Vol. Thereupon. the phenomenon of thunder and rain was it either belief in those slanderous reports. . In summer and autumn. 4. 18. Holding the book in his hands. Heaven sent a big thunder-storm with rain. Note 2). of frequent occurrence.^ The king mistrusted him. Hist. loc.18 Lun-Heng: A. festation of its minor irritation? ' brothers of chap. {Chavannes. he bewailed his error and reproached himself most severely. whether he should bury him with imperial honours. Mdm. The scholiasts of the Shuking then fancied that Heaven was indignant on account of the Duke of is Chou. During a thousand autumns. manifesting its anger by this phenomenon. The archaeologists maintain that at the decease of Wu Wang. Teiritories in Wu According » to the Shi-chi loc. Provided that the thunder of summer and autumn be deemed an expression of Heaven's great wrath. or whether he should follow the rites prescribed for a minister. who spread the reports about the Duke of Chou. The Shuking only says that for two years Chou Kung resided in the East. Heaven sent a contrary wind. and. 15v. and learned the merits of Chou Kung. p. is august Heaven irate year after year? In the first month. and the sound of thunder is first heard. cit. Metaphysical. He opened the book in the metal-bound coiFer. CHeng was in doubt about the duke of Chou. they are.^ This self-impeachment took place when. accidentally. the Yang reaches its climax. and ten thousand summers there If both be regarded as manifestations of Heaven's anger.

was Heaven pleased and angry at the same time? Confucius did not cry and sing on the same day. Uv. In case this method of the CIiun-cKiu epoch 1 Analects VH. II.^ when millet and vegetable soup were eaten. which must be conceived as the storm-god. 32). a tempest and rain darkened the sky. Now flying into a passion on account of the Duke of Chou^ Heaven ought to have thundered. 17. 334.^ If Heaven responded to the rain dragon. sorrow and joy were not uttered simultaneously. p. '^ The Liki. put up a clay-dragon to attract the fluid by sympathy. 3 {Legge. because the rain of summer and autumn always comes accompained by thunderstorms. p. 9. would rank with the former sages.^ Yao and Shun were the exalted rulers of their age: how have they sinned against Heaven.' and according to the Rites of the Chou^ on the tse mao days. 439) and Vol. 4. Book I. it must have produced a tempest with rain. 28.^ When Shun entered a big mountain forest. ^ * Days designated by Cf. ' Quoted from Shaking Part p. in spite of his villainy. dignation of Heaven. Classics Vol. Hist. Yao's assistant Ti bound the storm. chap. rain must be Thunder being expressive of Heaven's accounted a blessing. she dreamed that she met with a spirit. 19 anger. I. 6v. and rain. 177. (Chavannes. thunder. p. » Note I. Why was Heaven so furious at the birth of a sage. in the CKun-ch'iu epoch. but not to have rained. Ill. Shi-chi these cyclical signs in the calendar. See Vol. . At that time she begot Kao Tsu. Tung Chung Shu. there was a fearful wind. that it sent thunder and rain? In Yao's time a storm caused great havoc.YoXAYL. that it caused wind and rain? At a time of great dryness. ^ Quoted from Huai Nan Tse VIII. and cheerfulness and anger should be combined? When Ch'in Shih Huang Ti sacrificed in the east on Mount fai^ a tempest with rain broke loose. Sorrow and joy were not uttered simultaneously. the rain-sacrifice was performed. and looked upon his own outrageous reign It may be that this roused the inas a time of universal peace. moreover. chap. When dame Liu reposed near the big pond. Feng-po. Part I.Sympathetic Emotions. Mhn. Since rain fell simultaneously.^ Cfiin Shih Huang Ti. p.* and when dame Liu reposed on the banks of a big pond. * See above p. and Yao had this big storm fettered in the wilds of CK ing-cJi iu.

I. raiu-sacrifice attract does the dragon at the great Heaven's anger? When Snow. why did it dis- major so much as to resent the musicliKe This is a difficulty about thunder and rain. all the details are given. The king "White Snow" and A — took the hint. by Chou Kung. for the duke was possessed of the virtue of a sage. and the lying grain rose up again. See Vol. Cf. p. Now. of Tung Chung Shu be followed. curbed down the corn. Objection: — When Ming Pen^ pushed a man he when he took hold of him. 276. . The Classic says. p. and He took a man. Wherefore did it not stop the storm at once and thereby uplift the big trees again. Heaven sent thunder and storm. I. of Meng Pin. deplored his fault. Vol. a violent storm with rain broke loose. is I. when Heaven sent a contrary wind. p. cit. 380. are there things which Heaven is unable Question: — — to do? Reply: —Yes. and holding the book. and up-rooted trees. master's playing them? Another question may be asked: Because King Ch'eng would not grant Chou Kung imperial funeral honours. and why were the inhabitants expected to raise them up and replace them?^ Reply: Heaven could not do it.' Provided that a tempest and rain be indicative of Heaven's wrath. ven's instrumentality. he rose again. If Heaven could merely but not uplift them again. ' * * As related in the Shuking A man celebrated for his strength. is not what we should expect from its strength. K'uang played the song "White and when he thrummed a tune A major. Then. and fell pull out trees." a in the music-master flash of lightning was seen. For this story see Vol. made him stand upright. If the three mountains are beheved not to have vanished by Heaalso. does Reply: — Heaven Duke of Chou in it produce but thunder and rain? wished to induce King Ui ing to bury the accordance with imperial rites. Note 4. and was incapable of raising big trees. how can the weight of trees be compared with that of three mountains? That Heaven could transfer the three mountains. [Then the king found the words spoken about his meritorious deed of taking 222 where loc.* They. its down. ^ at his death. and he had the deserts of an emperor.20 Lun-Heng: A. strength would be inferior to that During the Cliin time three mountains disappeared. say that they were transferred by Heaven. Metaphysical..

or after he had opened it? Thunder ceased before he had opened the trunk. 448. {Objection): —A great mist for three days is an abnormal. p. Book XVI. ^ he retired. cit. Classics Vol."^ when Yi Yin died there was a great mist for three days.) the three editions write. " Yi Yin followed the example of august Heaven.. 19. and all the grain had risen up again. After T'ang's he again became minister to Be- cause the latter was lazy and dissolute. 6r. ^7^%^ ^^^ \>}. Ill. I" the Shuking ^ 3 ^P is replaced by fifr . deplored it and resolved to bury the duke with imperial honours. Book VI. Part II.%^Ill. (Chavannes. place said to have been situated in P'u-chou-fu (Sharwi). When he went out into the suburbs and saw the phenomenal changes. Shuking Part V. It Reply: trunk that he found the book wherefrom he learned in the was Having become aware of his mistake.'' — I Shuking Part V. p. 7 {Legge. he the merits of the duke. Hist. Did the thunder cease before the king had opened the metal-bound trunk. 359. p. Vol. • ^mmA scholar of the 1st cent. p. p. 21 its the place of King Wu . Cliang Pa Although his and not a phenomenon expressive of Heaven's is of Tung-hai^ the author of this "Rain Book." statement be not trustworthy.fluid anger. off distress. Part I. Part II. and that now Heaven had moved terrors to display the virtue of the Objection: — Yi Duke of Cliou\^ Yin as prime minister to T'ang defeated the Hsia dynasty. 16 and All 18. Shaking Part IV. {Legge. Heaven had already stopped the rain and blown a conConsequently. Book V. ^ ' Vid.— According to the "Hundred Chapters on Rain. Vol. Then Chou Kung said. 477). Classics Vol. I. * Mem. 189). . . and conducted the government for three years. p. I. where we have a different reading: the ^73^PM Heaven sent down which latter rain " instead of is ^ jj~" pjf "Heaven stopped rain. he banished him into the T'ung^ palace. loc. trary wind.c. See Shuking " Book VI. after having restored the king to his dignity. 9 {Legge. 203) and Shi-chi chap." of our text. preferable. Why did Heaven not cause thunder and rain at Yi Yin's death? i?«p/y." * Heaven should have made it public. . b. T'ai Chia. the welfare of the people and kept so that universal peace reigned all over the world.Sympathetic Emotions. A Cf. 3. Classics Vol. He promoted death. yet we shall use it as the basis of our inquiry: Heaven produced thunder and rain for the purpose of rousing King Cliing. Ill.

I. » ' See Vol. Mem. That these calamities should not he removed before its admonitions had been taken noNow Heaven in its anger tice of. when the two trees faded away. and p. Mars occupied the place of the "Heart" constellation. (Chavannes. thunder and rain had sensible of his fault. for Wang CKung holds that Heaven never acts on purpose. Metaphysical. to be in accordance with imperial honours? Beply:— King is the title of the highest nobility to which a minister has no right. which after seven days showed T'ai a circumference of a span. for it was by means of these calamitous changes that Heaven made its admonitions. p. . nor would Afars have shifted its place. Mou reigned from 1637-1563 b. why did not Heaven send thunder and rain for three days. 3. The duke uttered three excellent maxims." All of them live on fiefs. 190) this prodigy happened under T'ai Mou. and had not the king to become enlightened first before they ceased? Under the regime of T'ai Mou a mulberry and a paper-mulberry grew together in the court. not Kao Tsnng.' In the time of Duke Ching of Sung. Why then did it not command the king to call Chou Kung King Chou. was wisely ordained by Heaven. The sons as well as the grandsons of lords are nearly related to the chief of the house and noble. 1324-1266 b. I. and there is conformity of essence and outward appearance. 1. and live on their domains. ces: — "Son Another objection: — It of a Lord" — * Cf. 7r. Vol. Objection: already stopped before King Clieng was — If for Yi Yin's sake there were three foggy days. and Duke Cliing not made the three utterances. 328. p. the mulberry and the paper-mulberry would not have vanished. p.22 Lun-Heng: A. p.'^ Had T^ai Mou not reflected on government. 153. 328.c. What is the reason of this haste? is customary to style the sons of prinand their grandsons: "Grandson of a Lord. Heaven exhibited the virtue of Chou Kung. Note 5 and p. and ordered King CHeng to bury him in imperial style.^ caused thunder and rain to reprove King CKeng.c. They are called lords with full right. According to the Shi-chi chap. An argument merely used rhetorically to combat the view that thunder and rain stopped before King CKeng had repented. Vol. and distinguish themselves from common folk. Mou meditated on government. but thunder and rain stopped before the king had caught the intimation. Hist. where the same story is told of the it Shang emperor Kao is Taung to = Wu Ting. Their title agrees with the real state of affairs. 161 Note 4 where T'ai likewise ascribed Kao-Tsung. whereupon Mars passed through several mansions.

The three persons raised to royal dignity after their death are the father and the ancestors of the founder of the Chou dynasty. Liki Vol. and King Wen. when Chou Kung was not interred with imperial rites. but the title of king was conferred upon them. feel at ease? 1 46 ^p . Objection: 23 title — But do not ministers.^ Now. the rulers of of the three kings. When Iseng Tse fell sick he slept upon it. the three kings ^ or the Duke of CAom?* The merits and the virtue of the duke of Chou eclipsed those title was not bestowed upon him. I. and Wen Wang. being buried like an emperor. the reigning 2 ^ * Manchu dynasty included. but not for If Heaven intended to make the Duke illuthe Duke of Choii? strious. however. This episode is found in the Liki Book Sect. according to custom. A similar practice has been followed by later dynasties. 401). yet the of king those of CEi and CUin became At that time Heaven did not prevent it nor cause any change displaying its anger. The Ancestral King. Was Heaven displeased with the inconsiderate use men made of this title? At the decline of the Chou dynasty. I. 18 (Legge. :>0b. also. p." Tseng Tse felt ashamed and bade Yuan change the mat. Chou Kung. — it still possessed consciousness. royal merits were also achieved by Chou Kung. His attendant observed. a minister. for. would his soul. The Yangtse rises from the Min^ mountains. King Chi. how could it manifest it? Did these three men bear the marks of royalty? However. I. Part I. Classics Vol. A range of mountains in the north of Ssechuan. I. of Chou by the Yiieh-shang and the Japanese. Vol. White pheasants and aromatic plants were presented as tribute to the Duke Cf. expression quoted from the Chung-yung XVUI. 128). ^ p. " How beautifully figured and lustrous is this mat! It is the mat of a great officer. But can these currents and rapids be placed on a par with the source from which it flows? For whom did the aromatic liquor arrive. Why was there such a lack of uniformity concerning the pleasure and displeasure of Heaven? Another objection: Chi Sun of Lu had presented Tseng Tse with a fine mat. a scholar should not sleep on a mat of a great officer. it sent thunder and rain to reprimand King Cfiing. and in its course forms currents and rapids. even emperors. and who was presented with the white pheasants. this only be done in the case of these three personages. provided six States styled themselves kings. 3 {Legge.Sympathetic Emotions. mentioned above. obtain the of king? When King Wu had dition defeated Chou^ and returned from his expe- he carried back the title of king ' to T'ai Wang^ Wang Chi. all three of them feudal lords and ministers to Why could boot. p. II. .

I. whom should I impose upon? Should I impose upon Heaven?"]^ Confucius blamed Tse Lu for calling upon the disciples to act as officers to him.24 Reply: Lun-Heng: A. It was improper for a nobleman to offer a sacrifice reserved for the king. 6. Metaphysical. Chou Kung could not feel at ease. for Chou Kung.^ If Chou Kung it was should Heaven would have been dissatisfied too. If we credit him with the same feelings as Confucius. he certainly cannot have felt at ease. man equals Heaven and Earth in virtue. Quoted from Analects YX. it Heaven took 1 several years from Win Wang which added to Wu Tseng Tse was not directly responsible for the mat. he said. — Why should it not acquiesce in what King Clieng did. Chmi Kung was not a son of Heaven either. Tse Lu sent the disciples to act as officers to him. See Vol.'^ How could dissatisfied. the soi-disant too great honour was conferred upon him by the chief of the Chi family. p. why then have caused thunder and rain to reprove King Clieng? Another question may be asked: — 'Life and death depend on destiny. To do something recklessly and contrary to the wish of Heaven is imposing upon Heaven. Chou Kung was a sage of first order. . how could he have acquiesced in an imperial burial? Should the Duke of Chou be held to be less critical than Tseng Tse? A great From this point of view. p. 136. 128. « ^ that of Confucius' disciple Tseng Tse. There is a great discrepancy in Legge's translation. although he was not a sovereign. of Lu who once asked Confucius about ceremonies. and Heaven admitted? Objection: — Was the mat of a great officer presented by Cki ^ Sun woven by TsSng Tse himself? at ease? Why did he alone not feel [The Master being very ill. just as the excessive funeral rites * 3 were performed by King Ch'enp 11. there be a substitution for Reply: — When Wu Wang's Wu Wang dreamed life? of the nine twelve-months. Cf. During a remission of his illness. ^ Quotation from Analects III. wealth and honour proceed from Heaven. Vol. "Does Tseng say that the T^ai mountain discerning as Lin Fang ? *] ^ so mountain is not He was of opinion that even Tseng Tse with his small abilities would repudiate such an idea as improper. who takes ^®' for a particle. [The chief of the Chi family was about to sacrifice to the Tai ^ Confucius said. " Long has the conduct of Yu been deceitful! By pretending to have officers when I have them not. I. whereas Wang Ch'ung explains it as a * A man name viz.

and take his place? somebody to a high post.^ is The acquisition of nine twelve-months like a man's dream of promotion. Wu Wang was suffering. the Duke of Chou had to pray for him before he definitely obtained them. is ^ * Only the dream of W« Wang mentioned also taken in the lAki. and. did the Duke of Chou still need pray. 316. and concealed stored away. Reply: a sovereign raises it — When {Objection): — Fate the regulating the length of life is a very subtle essence. for that It could not be rereason. Objection: — \)\di Wu Wang obtain the years of Wen Wang al- ready during the dream on the nine twelve-months. preserved in the metal-bound trunk. Consequently. and. This explanation is from the lAki . for a presage cessarily followed seen in advance and ne- by its realisation. ^^ liny. Reply: — By dream of the nine twelve-months it could be obtained. If the 1 See Vol. As a rule. for the clerks must first have made the necessary entries into the archives. that God granted him nine twelve-months. and Wu Wang obtained them. I. before the monarch can give his formal sanction. Although Heaven had taken away the years from Wen Wang to add them to those of Wu Wang. cit. therefore Chou Kung prayed for him. was peated. Note 3.^ In the second year after the destruction of the Yin dynasty. — Objection: his life ought year after had already received the years of Win Wang. in to — If he spite of his sickness. he was not going to die. The ancients called a year a twelve-month. p. then. have been prolonged of itself. or not yet? Reply: He did obtain them. Win Wang dreamed that he gave nine twelve-months to Wu Wang^"^ Wu Wang. and not to be obtained in a dream. what need was there for a further prayer? and A in person going to be called to office receives his beforehand. Objection: — As regards this dream of the nine twelve-months. Wen Wang. not that of loc. and afterwards is is appointed without further recommendation. new dignity a dream. man's life cannot be prayed for. the term of these nine twelve-months was not yet up. him though it be already resolved he does not forthwith give upon.Sympathetic Emotions. in the second the overthrow of the Yin. Heaven had already granted. 25 Wang's span. only in the case of Wu But it was an unusual device. Why. and therefore Wang it was possible.

according to the ritual of the son of Heaven. no doubt. ["But for Kuan Chung. and the and did not take him for Such stands. Objection: Under these circumstances. and in this capacity not entitled to such honours. and King illness. C/ieng Liang magnifying the accomplishments of Kuan Chung. Confucius said.26 Lun-Heng: A.. if it had not been for Ku^n Chung. is a royal prerogative. * 6 The name of an extravagant tower Cf. Analects III. and Ku£in Chung not as a wise man? Ku^n Chung possessed San-kuei tower. and the princes in open revolt. irrespective of the greatness of his achievements or the number of his perfections. invoked Heaven. 18. the life of King Wu was of no advantage. Heaven ought to have been angry as in the case of the Duke of Chou. Uuke of Chou relying on the dream that was bound to be reaHsed. and subsequently had died of his disease. and rectified the empire. When the Chou dynasty was on the dechne. ' ^ e. and the San-kuei tower were privileges a stand for Confucius censured him. b. minister of Duke Huan of Ch'i. Kuan Chung united them. have been qualified to bring about universal peace all over the empire? Reply: Indeed. following their customs. no great loss. and his death. Chou Kung supporting King Clieng. and send down a little rain at least? Did it regard Chou Kung as ^ — — a sage.^ inverted cups. there would have been no troubles in the empire. Both were ministers. 22. built by Kuan Chung.c. and the lappets of our coats buttoned on the left side'^]. we should now be wearing our hair unbound. not become the substitute of King Wu. of princes as a burial. Metaphysical. the / and the Ti would have continued their incursions into China until they had extinguished it. 7th cent. since to achieve success the Duke of Chou was required. Chou Kung.* a wise man. * Famous i. Quotation from Analects XIV. why did it not produce a faint sound of thunder. we would be savages. When Kuan Chung expired. If Wu Wang had not found a substitute. This disgrace threatened. conjointly with King Clleng. how could his merit be reputed very great? Another question: — People they admire him to whom they must look Chou Kung died of his up to and in whom trust. would have been able to secure a general peace. . placed him on a level with the Duke of Chou. Had Wu would Chou Kung. Duke Huan did not bury him with the ceremonies customary for a prince.^ If it had not been for Kuan Chung who united the princes.

upon the royal of its Heaven desired Chou Kung to encroach this would not prove the conformity virtue with that of Confucius. who took his precautions. p. 87. to this in the In B. and said to them. nor do the encyclopedias know a man of the name of 3/i Me. Heaven did not convey its com- mands to Tsang Hsieh ^ by the foot-prints of birds nor impress Hsi Chung ^ with the flying creepers. 87. CHin. "The old man has committed no attached to his family. ^ 3 * ^ The The inventor of writing. 27 ' A is great man agrees with Heaven and Earth in virtue. The two was historical works Fan proposed leaving his nephew. Confucius such a great man. Master of the Left. but reconciled. Vol. The Master of the Left was afraid. Nothing is said about his climbing over a wall.^ ' See above p. cf. The steward of Hua Ch'en's nephew. therefore. Duke Wen. 473). having Mi Me uncle Fan. Note 4. The gist of this account is contained in Clas-yic-s {Legge. Note 6. despising the weakness of his clan. we take Me be the surname of the person. I. cannot be correct.Sympathetic Emotions. under attack the delusion that the Master of the Left was coming to him.C. I S^ ^^ could not find any reference Tso-ckuan or the are to Shi-chi. but these creepers deeply affected Hsi Chung. tators of the Shuking. Note 5. Tso-chuan. p. Part II. and the aspect of creeping plants flying about led to the construction of carts. A minister in Sung. cf. the Master of the Left bore a grudge to Hua dog. and Mi is also an old State in Hupei and Hunan. does not menace Hua Chen and even intercedes the Tso-chuan. The latter. but Fan felt did not intend to expel his abashed. 24. of Sung. likening himself to Mi MS. only inform us that Mi might be his country. inventor of carriages. He If criticised Kuan Chung for claiming rites not belonging to him. that he quitted his post and returned home. chmbed over the wall and made his escape. Duke Hsi 21th ^ ' "^ year. When Duke Wen of Chin returned to his country* he gave orders for the removal of Mi Me{?)^ This made such an impression dismissed. employed Hua Wu'' in Sung They had been ordered to do the deed behind the house of Ho. The statement of the commeninstitutions. p. Vol. Hua CHen^ six ruffians. I. In Vol. 636 • after nineteen years of exile. but the two versions for him with the duke. The people pursued a mad which entered the premises of Hua CJien." Subsequently. to murder with a long spear. crime. upon his uncle Fan. . the Classic the Master of the Left Duke Hsiang 17th year differ in some details. and Tsang Hsieh was struck at the foot-prints. The observation of the foot-prints of birds gave rise to the invention of writing. V. Both words If family names.

and his alarm. and Hua CHen. When A sage is a superior is man with agitated. and with a vehement outburst of the elements. and when he met with thunder and rain his fears knew no bounds. of himself. both reputed great sages. and vent its anger against mankind. pursued the mad King Clleng was of this kind.28 Lun-Heng: A. why were they not exterminated with thunder and rain? Why had sages to be called upon to raise troops and move armies^. of themselves. . one sees in affinity. then. then it might. and to take the trouble of blunting their swords in killing their adversaries. in addition. and the Master of the tlie Left became afraid. Heaven intimated its disapproval to the king. but when they came King CKeng took alarm and impeached himself. Metapliysical. though it be night thunder and in awe of the elements. I. people. there were a great many wicked people. p. falling it in Harbouring thoughts of distrust and discomfort. Rites a superior man. one affected even in and solitude. and yet. and the fright of King CKing. the proof of some fact. and Heaven's wrath becomes a well established is Noticing such an affinity of events. Hua dog. must sit up in full dress out of respect for the and with his hat on. kill the vicious by thunder and rain. whereas it would have been so easy to destroy ' Vid. How. as well. the Ilsia * liliainj Like T'ang who overthrew and Wen Wang who destroyed the dynasty. being already afraid and. His emotion is like the feeling of Jsang Hsieh and Hsi Chung. In ancient times. Confucius '. It is by no means evident that by way of thunder and rain. and how could King CKSng be expected to have remained free of terror. CKen. killed Htia \Vu. If Heaven by thunder and rain did scold at. conforming to Heaven. to result from the influence of similar objects upon his mind. Vol. The fright of the Left and of Hua CKen. He had misgivings about his not burying the duke with imperial honours. 295 seq. untarnished virtue. hearing the noise of thunder and rain shaking the roof of his silence carriage ? storm was According to the would change countenance. there were incessant thunderclaps and the raging. ran away. he fear. like the agitation of the Master of of himself. hearing thunder. should King CKing already troubled with doubts about Chou Kung^ not tremble with upon hearing the sudden outburst of thunder and rain? Thunder and rain would seem to be produced by the heavenly fluid. The principle of Heaven is inaction.

is {Chavannes. the territories of Cliieh and Chou. 20 {Leffffe. lOr. Heaven caused a big tempest.Sympathetic Emotions. how could the wickedness of Ti Yi be compared with that of Chieh and Chou? Tsou Po CHi'" discoursing on the depravity of Chieh and Chou^ says that it fell short of doomed Ch'in. ni. 1 when Heaven reprimanded him by This cannot have been the intention of august Heaven. say. Two rivers in Shensi. yet Heaven does not is and flogging the Earth. p. declared that he was shooting ' Heaven. to * The passage seems I. why should the phenomenal change be so excessive? According to the ''•Examination of Doubts'' in the ''Great Plan''^ it owing to the weakness of their intellect that people often do not understand the meaning of calamities. Confucius wrote the CHun-cHiu in such a way. 198) where. author of the Han cf. Part ^^ ^ II. of CKin and Wang Mang were spared by thunder and hghtning. However. 1 1191-1155 at B. 3. a chapter of the Shukitiff Part V. Vol. and doomed Cfiin's fell short of Wang Mang's. If he had made up his mind to bury the duke like an official. Nevertheless. and the Wei. Book IV. be culled from the Shi-chi chap. filled ^ Ft hung up a sack with blood and shooting at it. I. The doubts of King CHSng were the big tempest.' the difficulty of crushing the enemies force of arms? Some he was narrate of the emperor Ti the father of C/iou. A man like him would never have made great reproaches for a small offence. he did not magnify its wickedness. the flogging of the Earth not mentioned. 87.^ he was struck Thus Heaven destroys depraved characters reprove them for their doubts. that in the habit of shooting at Heaven. 29 not have shunned them with one flash of lightning? Would Heaven by Yi. however. not yet settled. and in blaming evil. In view of the slight doubts of King C/Ung. Vol.C. An ^^ Vol. . he did not exaggerate its excellence.334) where different methods of solving doubts are given. . and blamed the smallest evil. by a thunderbolt. time. should and I am afraid that the writers on the Shuking have missed the truth. Mem. Classics p.'^ Citing On an excursion between the by lightning and killed*. p. ^ 6 p. Hist. that he recommended the slightest good thing. but in recommending goodness.

but success depends upon time.. and another of poor talents and base conduct is not therefore doomed to wretchedness and meanness. whereas the narrow-minded and the vicious rise above the heads of all others. we should Hist. IV. and those of the other filthy. the last emperor of the Hsia dynasty. 495-473 b. and those whose position but unlucky. p.80 Lun-Hcng: B. but the ways of one party are pure. read -Si J. and the unlucky may be ever so pure and disinterested. The lucky may eventually behave most disgracefully. or great talents are coupled with small ones. that is by no means a guarantee that he will become noble and exalted. and lead a pure life. It happens that men of genius and purity are unsuccessful and sink back into the vile vulgus. Yao a synonym 140. ' Chieh. but pleases by his beauty. or has no skill. By one's conduct one may always prove oneself a worthy man. I. and scholars use different methods for obtaining advancement. Shi-chi the name: — 4n ii^. CHAPTER IV. First minister of /m Ch'ai.SL.'^ the palace of This good or bad luck may occur in diflferent ways. king of Wu. Mem. they will be slighted in Yao. Some one may have remarkable talents. but ingratiates himself by his ability. Those who are high spheres are not necessarily is illustrious. Success and Luck {Feng-yii).^ but promotion is good luck and rejection bad one. but we are informed by writes a note that in lieu of ^. The text has S p. yet they will find favour at the court of Chieh. they are merely lucky. Vol. as usual the representative for an excellent ruler. of bad government. Sometimes a worthy person assists a wicked man. See Chavannes. Every age has its own way of promoting scholars. and the scholars likewise have their methods of advancement. The 523. or a person is devoid of virtue. Note 2. mean and low are not necessarily stupid. and Wu Yuan was put to death.c. Ethical. . and live in clever. Wu Yuan^ and Po P i'^ both served Fu CJiai Po P'i rose to the highest honours. Their conduct ' At different times different qualities are appreciated. and 3 * Cf. but one can never be sure of success in one's official career. Vol. Worthiness is the outcome of natural gifts. . or there are great talents on both sides.

^ Minister of CKeng T'ang. impossible task. a is there is not the proper time. the latter with was different. life. Provided that a good sovereign is served with goodness. Such was the case of Yi Yin possessed the same talents. 354. principles are so conflicting. ^ A horse running a thousand Li a day. a sovereign does not talents employ able men. but their ideals are too high. To drive one must be a Wang Liang.^ Both of them luck. or because their advice is disliked. an relays. * The two States where the philosopher peissed a great deal of his ^ i^k 5 J^) ^wo of the eight famous steeds of King Mu. that '^ When wisdom a Yu.Success and Luck. The former met with CKeng T'ang. That was the case of Confuciits and Mencius. p. Note 2. and should a prince be able to appreciate the talents of ordinary use the officials. but the master different. not because they are hated. He was thrown into prison for having remonstrated against the excesses of his master Chou Hsin. but Yi Yin became prime minister and Chi Tse. 130. and luck is the But if a bad prince is served with goodness. 3 Cf. If a man whose hands are able to manage a hundred Li horse endeavours to master a courser making a thousand Li^. ^ On Viscount p. p. and that a minister helps him with virtue and talents. 31 Sometimes the conduct is the same. and those whose a Bayardo or a Green Ear Chi'^ ^ ard 'small and whose shallow cannot make use of men of genius. his heart will prove obdurate to reason. the quickest couriers making but 5-600 Li with many . and their advice is hard to follow. Thus excellent advice is repudiated. breaking the yoke and rending the halter. Sometimes a wise and sage minister may come across a prince willing to practice his theories. Vol. his minister he declines then may assist him in the most loyal manner. he is sure to have a disaster. ^ and to use and a Kao Yao as ministers a Yao or a Shun is required. Cf. wisdom of a great and his mind impervious minister. Vol. that he wishes to govern accordingly. and worthies and sages are rejected. Chi see Vol. I. that is also good and bad and Chi Tse. but their ways and necessary consequence. ^ ^ A famous charioteer. to adopt this mode of government. bad luck is the inevitable result. ' Chou of Shang. but their master the same. Confucius was short of provisions in Cfi^ and Tsai. but fails at the end. then their conduct agrees. I. the founder of the Shang dynasty. the last emperor of the Shang dynasty. I.^ and Mencius distressed in C/ii and Liang. Note 3. 155. a slave.

Making virtue their main principle. if Yu and Po Yi. they did not care but for what was pure. living at the time of T^ang^ Both fell under the notice of Yao. compared to whom even Yao and Shun appear coarse and vulgar. 168. and more or less pure. But we must refer it to what has been said above on the which may be more or less pure and more or less refined. king. and their doings in harmony. Shun and Hsii Yu were both sages. p. there will be either good or bad luck. but he was born under a ruler. y^. and Po Yi was starved to death. Both saw Wu Wang. whereas Hsil Yu absconded in a mountain cannot grasp forest. Yao. and practised benevolence and justice. When a minister of great talents meets with a very talented prince. Shun and Hsil Yu. ^ This statement in the mouth of a Chinese is little short of blasphemy. discrepancies. Thus when Shun was king of the world. Observe the gradation:— ^ .^ {Tai Kung's) luck. Yu was a helpmate for an emperor. . p.^ T'ai Kung and Po Yi are instances. Vol. for principles may be refined or coarse. Shun continued the imperial sway. Even still the principles are the same. there are spite of this agreement. and Po Yi would have assisted a ruler. * » * Viz. and did not appear and even if Kung were fitting. I. but the actions of Shun and and the conduct of born in Hsii the proper age. I. They were not T'ai at the proper time. see Vol. Note 2. 439. the latter aud bad luck must be the result. for ur men thus described are universally held to be China's greatest sages. and their aims agree. there are differences in the intentions agree. ruler. -p- rendered by emperor. prince of T'anff.* ^ A hermit. mal a propos. Ethical. different degrees of virtue. Cf. That was the cause of their bad luck. talent falls in with a small one. The highest degree is ascribed to Hsii Yu and Po Yi only. and insisting upon benevolence and justice. whereas Pel Jen Wu Tse concealed himself under the reign of a king. Wang tht r Ch'ung wishes to express by these terms three different degrees of sagehood. Yao was filthy and Shun impure. They were all equally squalid and equally That was the cause of coarse. even 80 verier to Confucius. but rose intentions Hsii Both walked the path of virtue. Kung and Po Yi^ were both worthies who rose together T'ai Kung became in the kingdom of Chou. When a gfeat it. they felt at ease in the highest spheres only. Kao Yao assisted him in his administration. Wu Wang bloodthirsty and Tai Kung a cruel tyrant. The principles of T'ai worthies and sages are the same. Note 1.32 Lun-Heng: li. a feudal lord. their intentions similar.

but when they were made to suit an usurper. it. he who performs something excellent who does not care for good things. first and kings only. (Cf. The actions of those retired retired the conduct of those who The circumstances under which they were were Notwithstanding their humble condition. first Shang Yang^ spoke three times to Duke Hsiao of CHin. I. I. Some do not ' Chuang Tse makes Pei Jen Wu Tse a friend of Shun who wished to resign the empire to him. Chuang Tse p. wish to advance. their refuge into obscurity. p. a propos. nor did Po Yi outshine Po CJiing Tse Kao. they were spurned in spite of their elegance. The words of the groom ^ were platitudes. coarseness was what he liked. but the two former were promoted.) On Shang Yang see Vol. The groom of Confucius who spoke to the Cf. Note 2. and Tse Kung's address was full of meaning. does not find favour in spite of his excellence.' When Yil was whereas Po CJieng Tse Kao declined to take office and tilled the ground. not pleasing.Success and Luck. Po Yi acted as his helpmate. 171. 3B in the remotest hiding place and was seen no more. Pleasing means good luck. The were fit for emperors appropriate for an usurper. 142. nor must faculties be rare. 382. not whether a speech be good. 19r. p. country people who had taken away his master's horse. they did not different. does not incur his displeasure notwithstanding his badness. for a prince he fell into a vulgar tune at which the king was Consequently. Refinement was It matters lost upon Duke Hsiao. two latter took promoted were the reverse. p. 3 * {Giles eod. Po Ch'eng Tse Kao had been a vassal of Yao and Shun. but disliked Yii's system of government. bad luck. Since the king of Yueh did not like enraptured. they were accepted in spite of their coarseness. Giles. but whether he who is spoken to think it so. but the peasants would not listen to them. The two speeches were not listened to. whereas another who does something bad for a sovereign who wants bad manner minor things. provided only that he in whose service they are employed appreciates them. Vol. but the last was accepted. In this abilities may please the sovereign. but the former declined and drowned himself. while the king. but the countrypeople liked them. but there was no mutual sympathy.^ The talents of Kao Yao did not surpass those of Pei Jen Wu Tse. 69 and Huai Nan Tse XVIII.) 2 According to Chuang Tse. . the last an overture he addressed a leading prince with words fit for an emperor or a king. When A piper played a beautiful melody. The princes did not necessarily reject their proposals or dislike their ideas.

^ Mu Mu was it is chosen by the king of predetermined. Prince oi Meng Ch'ang. as were Wu Yen. astuteness and cunning. The Lieh-nil-ch'uan (quoted in the Pei-wen-yiin-fu) relates that she herself offered her services as a palace servant to the king. The story of the cock-crowing will be found on * p. stole the hair-pin. Vol. Her name ^m ffitt ^^ Chung-Li At the age of forty years. p.'^ Tse Fan liked the thieving official. who had a faible for army of Ch'u under Tse Fan's command was pressed Ch'i.^ and the latter won the good graces of Meng CKang. Biogr. 342-323 b. are represented to a ruler as very attractive. The former became intimate with Tse Fan. p. and the promotion of an official cannot be known who beforehand. a smooth skin. but so impressed King Hsiian of Ch'i. but they had a handsome body. 309. The soldiers of Ch'i became nervous. Note 3. and Ming Cliang the wily companion. There was a clever kinds of skill. but ingratiate themselves by their e. If anybody is useful to a prince who can rely upon him. No. the final downfall of this minion see Vol.c. consequently their luck was ensured.— 34 possess Luji-Heng: B. who afterwards married her. thief When the much esteemed by Tse Fan. or the slightest abihties. TSng T'ung. A wife of Huang Ti. Cf. the official who companion who caused the cocks to crow. and the g. 153 it was transcribed Chieh Ju from * ' ^g^sI. he Sometimes a man may not be of direct is sure to be successful. in the Shi-chi chap. p. but the ruler likes him. Wu Yen in is not the name of the lady in question is who was a native of a place Wu-yen Ch'un. 519. died in ^ A general Tse of Ch'u 15r. and dislikes of a prince are uncertain. she was still unmarried. The story here alluded is told in Hwii all Nan XU. Shantung. 575. and tlius become lucky. They were not endowed with the smallest talents. but Mu Mu^ and Huang Ti. Then the army of ChH went home. People are fond of beautiful looks. that he made her his wife in spite of her ugliness.* and Teng Tung^ of Hsiao Wen Ti. ° Properly speaking. Diet. and a hair-pin. I. b. . such wanton talents. Huai Nan Tse calls the general Tse * Fa -y"^&' T'ien Wen of Ch'i. ^H On imi ^^^ correct form found In Vol. 473. use. and said that unless they retreated the thief would steal their heads next night. I. See Giles. and a wonderful complexion. Ethical. 125. a pillow. and Wu Yen Therefore virtue and vice may be because the likes difficult to foresee success. the thief in three hard by the outnumbering forces of the consecutive nights entered camp of the enemies and stole a cap. by her intelligence. as was the case with Chi Ju^ and Chi Ju was a favourite of the emperor Hsiao Hut Ti. graceful bones. It may happen that even people with ugly faces and bad looks sent to the emperor Ch'i.c. 132.

or those wlio are not. and in give impracticable advice. for that. on the other hand. of course. They do is things which are not wanted. active and Wu Wang was not a friend A philosophical prince does not care for action. and say words which no one their misfortune Then. and an one does not like arguments. but actions and talents cannot be accomplished all at once. loses his opportunity. their bad luck and how could they thus become happy? Talents must be useful and advice profitable. means advancement. Would they not be lucky then? But now it is different. but very often the useless obtain happiness.— Success and Luck. un- Happening to fall intelligent. he He who. When. or a fan in winter to Other people can be imitated. They cultivate useless talents and In summer they offer a stove. How and then should such a offer his man be able to understand the prince remarks. like war. winter a fan. every body knows likes to hear. with him. and If a his expressions are mostly not correct. He who has not thoroughly mastered if a science. They rejoined: . time a stove fan tlie And in summer used to dry moisture. certain. had white hair. because they do not adapt themselves to their surroundings. regulate their mind and cultivate and be careful about and see how they can be useful to the ruler. there was a great number of unsuccessful scholars. or step forward and show his abilities? Of old during the Chou time. he does not find favour with the sovereign. and stood crying on the road-side. and names be given in a hurried way. Win Wang did not of peace. is the proper thing. 35 in with an employer. if is their own fault. advances. and fire. When the reigning sovereign is fond of learning. There is a wide-spread opinion that wise it men can be successful and that. but talents cannot be transmuted. await an opportunity to offer their services. that same person would not suit him. meeting with a prince. Others inquired what was the cause of their tears. cannot give the proper names. They should watch the sovereign to learn his views. their talents. may be somebody is a prince is literary man. Those who are and to harmonise promoted need not always be clever. one says that the faculties of the person in question are insufficient and not worth notice. or those who have benefited their master. the addicted to militarism. They were old. suffer punishment. he suits him. they are not. but it is impossible to meet a ruler's wishes. when who does not. pay attention to their words. finds favour. study be made in a hasty manner. their expressions. Literature and words can quickly be learned by study. Words may be changed.

that he took the protfge of Chin Ilsi into his service. . when we had mastered all its branches. p. or by persons with a strong nature and firm character who sought." replied the scholars. and doing things one completes them. the military prince likewise died. That which comes of itself without any seeking. They look to success and ask what has been accomplished. * The C'/iin T'ai-pinff-yu-lan chap. are cases of luck. "We 'How scholars liave had no chance. 488. 4r.^ But ordinary people cannot argue on good and bad luck. quotes this passage. or the assistance of ghosts and the succour of the secretly benefits. It is like picking up things lost on the road. and the young prince ascended the throne. Meanwhile we had become old. Ethical. That the spirit of a Ch in Hsi and the mind of a Pao Shu silently promotes a man. Then we turned to military science. because tears. and advice cannot be given in advance. luck cannot be predetermined.' said their interlocutors. or is completed of itself without any doing. Thus we never had the slightest chance. and after were young. To observe a prince's ways. like the fertility or taking something thrown of heaven and away the productiveness of earth. His death impressed the duke so much.36 Lun-Heng: B. is called luck. but we cannot call that luck. 502. Hence our possible. By accident. therefore they speak of luck. Of Fao Shu W3 know that he recommended his friend Kuan Chung to Duke when liis advice Huan of ('h'i.." we are old and have is it lost the right time."' For officials there exists a propitious time which cannot be and his successor only know a man with the highest principles and loftiest aims who is not influenced by profit. I. Seeking things one obtains them. one may meet with success and fall in with a sovereign's view. may be called calculation. but the sovereign liked to use old men. for prince's it is impossible to imitate other people. but cannot appreciate conduct or value powers and talents. 2 Hsi recommended a friend to Duke Mu of Ch'in and committed suicide was not accepted. but not luck. p. but. in the country. In spring the seed sown grows. Tiiis story is told in Vol. 'that you scliolars never had any chance?' "When we literature. wanted warriors. in autumn it is cut and harvested. They extol the lucky and decry the unlucky. and to choose one's words with a view to acquiring honour. we wished to This prince take died. and still less can this be done by a do not care for a prince. "we studied we had completed our studies. Moreover. We are so sad. spirits. or to character. He wished to employ young men only. office.

those people who inconsiderately lay them to the charge of the sufferers." ^ Fatalism pure and simple. and that which happens not through * my own doing is called misfortune. and are hardly dealt with. 37 CHAPTER V. The arrival of happiness and misfortune is good or bad chance. Then their growth is impeded. This All living They have met with misfortune from is abroad. show a narrow mind and a regrettable want of judgment. it is spoiled and not fit for eating.Annoyances and Vexations. Since they as all from without. not from within. or that their minds are unenlightened. and their stalks cut down with knives and sickles. and moving things have to suffer annoyances and vexations. When rice has been touched by rats. vexations. not only true of men. it is thrown away and not used. {Lei-hai). their characters may be slandered and pulled to pieces. we can warrant. they are to be looked upon annoyances it come and im- By purifying oneself and regulating one's conduct is possible to attract happiness. Annoyances and Vexations Officials in their career may be hampered and names be sullied checked. "That which is obtained not by one's own force is called happiness. The taste of this spoiled rice is the same as that of unsullied rice. or the rice which not used. Plants not ripening have suffered some injury and thus do not develop. but owing to the trespass of the rats. whether they will bear fruit in autumn. Since their source is not to be sought there. Therefore they say. nobody can predict. These annoyances come from without. and by trembling fear and precautions one cannot eschew misfortune. . or their iniquitous. but of all other things as well. conduct their ideas That does not prove that their talents are is inferior. but. their offences be mercilessly magnified. Their roots may suddenly be trampled upon by oxen and horses. and they do not ripen in autumn. That plants grow in spring. and muddled. and their and bespattered. The annoyances and is vexations of a noble character are similar in nature to those of the plants which did not develop.

there is the greatest kindness. sending in coloured reports. the well gifted become The That Cheerto is out of shame and anger then slander their betters. posts. they defame one are few. their intercourse cannot the second annoyance Men animosity.? 38 But. and their doings pure or foul. and the vexations in the administration. * Here again our author forgets his own theory that honour and happiness are not * ** won by excellent qualities. In ancient and modern times remarkable men and excellent characters have experienced this. their former friend. in always be pleased. but are the free gift of fate. Strife through roughness of character. There is no great difference with the life. whence does it come? From my native place and from the administration. Which are the so-called three annoyances and which the three vexations? People are not always careful enough in selecting their friends. second annoyance which. As long as they agree. spicacious sinuations. anger to alienation. Calling upon the governor. Lun-Heng: B. however.' The governors and listen are not perto their in- enough to detect the deceit The second vexation is this: — Governors and clerks have different are is propensities. but when they disagree.^ Now many. The two Chinese terms are synonymous and might be interchanged like their ^ English equivalents. That Offices the third annoyance. Quarrel of friends. and candidates and when admitted.'* career at the same time. when it is not my doing. fight for the first vexation. less able is When persons begin their illustrious. Ethical. fulness leads to friendliness.. ^ Unfair competition among officials. and never * ^y. another. Env}' of less successful rivals. refers more to private . The for the scholars compete for admission. Then they the Jirst slander the conduct of That is annoyance. and this estrangement engenders envy and hatred. The generous clerks are enthusiasts for all that noble and beautiful. an estrangement takes place.^ The accomplishments of men are of a higher or a lower order several and cannot be quite equal. In this and alienation frame of mind people slander others. In one's native place there are three annoyances^ and in the administration three vexations? The annoyances originate in one's native place.

or thousand meritorious deeds soever they might accomplish. is fortunate and praised. Honest officials daring to offer resistance and to propound different views. and those who are dismissed from prickles office. since in all the six cases . Those who remain uninjured they call undefiled. and men like Yen Hui and Tseng T^san would not be free of them. the three vexations. but the most conspicuous. All metaphors denoting the insidious attacks of backbiters. and the officials. although their deeds be pure and virtuous. we must admit that there are the three annoyances and the three vexations.* the world however does not perceive them. what they say. slandering thera for the which punishment is inflicted Or the governors against all are biassed in favour of upon the latter. and bespatter silk and whiteness dirt.^ Those who have not yet taken office have to suffer the three annoyances. lose their sympathy and are by them more than can be imagined. degraded. with black. A man who Since those speaking about these matters ignore that people may be affected by these grievances. in danger. Those fallen white silk. continues unharmed and advances.' some of their subwill. How many hundred hatred and are decried to the governors. Favouritism. It does not see that owing to their doings the scholars have to suffer the three annoyances.^ These six troubles aro not the only ones. like sully ' Natural antipathy of the vicious against honest men. attract their That is the third vexation. and wasps and scorpions would sting the highly-principled. Those functionaries who advance in their career they regard as good. they mix mud with is clay. of the Chinese character. and another who is slandered and dismissed. for The corrupt clerks resent this. and by degrees try to find fault with their rivals. recommend their These subordinates friends for extraordinary promotion. as tudes of envious persons would rise around them. 39 use other but pure words. Those slandered who oppose them. But covered with who knows Flies is that? Purity to polluted. smallest wTong. and those who are in office. Even a Confucius and a Me Ti could not avoid them. ordinates and believe in propriety. He who is and those living in prosperity down usually were in precipitous places.Annoyances and Vexations. is unlucky and blamed. and those who have been calumniated. 2 ^ * Calumniation must be a very frequent those dissatisfied resort to trait it. the three vexations. But going thoroughly into the matter. multi- Thorns and would prick them and stick to their bodies and faces. standing on a height suffer losses. bad.

Those who in ancient times excelled by virtue could not safeguard themselves. 4th ^'^^ cent. Thus the cut her nose ^ girl off. ^ Why? Because they were all craving for the fame of exceptional skill. A A famous lute-player of old who played so p. |Hr /^ \lj^ omits the finals /^ and writes :— fi/j* S Cf.). his The unhappy girl followed this advice. it and that she had better cover with a kerchief. When could the king expressed astonishment the queen informed him that the girl not endure the smell of the king's breath. . such as * ' and water. See Note 6. but disliked her nose. and calumnies the real character of those men shone How fain should the traces of pure and noble deeds not be cov- ered with the dust of envious slander? The guitar players would have broken the fingers of Po Fa.I)* The king of Wei had sent the king of in Cfi'u a beautiful girl whom rival.3v. 367. where it spoken by Ch'it Yuan before his death . b. are those goody persons.^ of Wei was a great beauty. p. His consort Cheng Hsiu. that he Tse {'rai-p'ing-yu-lan chap. 6r.^ and the charioteers have crushed the hand of Wang Liang. Ethical. and hated those who surpassed them. Should then average people be taken as a model to preserve one's reputation and avoid slander? Those who agree with ordinary people and preserve their reputation.40 Lun-Heng: B. CK il barked at was unblemished. that a friend of his actually hills could see the scenes which he put into music. but all the dogs of the city him. Through the most injurious slanders forth. who the dogs to bark. ' ffl- S.c. but Wu A is verse quoted in somewhat altered form from the Shi-chi chap. the latter liked very much. ^ A causes remarkable all man endowed with all the virtues of a genius Such being the case. is it necessary still to persuade the low class people and to harmonise with the worthless? Those base and worthless people cannot be convinced.^ Thus even was found guilty. really virtuous Therefore those who following their nature to come. but Ching Hsiu^ and Chao Wu'^ was loyal and honest.|^^^^^/^g|^'^.J^. 2 ^ Our text '1^ -^ ^. p. girl to have her nose cut off. 147. ordered the ' This enraged the king so much. in all their doings are irreproachable. quietly awaited the annoyances and vexations were the and honest. 31. 84. p. so that they are not open to reprimands. well. HanFei An officer of T'sai. and Mencius culpable. Dogs bark at what appears strange to them. order to destroy her told her that the king loved her. To conP'ing's purity is demn the noble-minded and suspect the genius a sign of a poor head. and that to Confucius criticise them is useless. queen of Ch'u.

nor do they throw water on a hundred bushels of fire is burnt out embers. the jumping into the Yellow River must be said of the violent death of Ting Hsi.c. and Mencius was full attract of sorrow. do not meet with JFor halls. on whom see my article Sophists" 8 p. is The defamation of Tsang T'sang has not yet died out.Annoyances and Vexations. 31. 1. ' 3 * #* ^1^1^^. 7. and big-belHed persons^ often deceitful. Note 1. Cf. [J^people are not exposed to the dust of envious slander or to i® hurricanes caused by their rivals. he is always slandered and envied by ordinary In case a some one outshines lustre over a whole people. Note 4. XXXIV. 244. 1901-02). which should be written Common Cf. and stands towering over the. p. CKm against which the water dashes do not remain high. p. for life is its gone. 5 ^ Note into 3. or strive to preserve their reputation before the governors. for the all extinct. and T'sai^ may serve as an example. and banks Yu-li. . 10 Cf. Asiat. or if all by his intelligence. died b. If others age. whose merely Chinese body was thrown or the Yangtse. a hard task indeed. b. of whom we " The know that he ' was put to death. and sheds his he surpasses all by his energy. Chi^ expelled him.^ it chance. man attempts to neutralise the common attacks with It his honest^ heart. Since the drowning in the Yangtse seems to refer to the CKien-t'ang river Wu Tse Hsii. the profit for this was which he seeks turns into loss. this very reason one does not sprinkle the dust in wet and one does not shelter low cottages against the wind. Ant-hills are A prince of Wef. and the drowning in the If those who vie Yangtse or the jumping into the Yellow River. 11 (Journal of China Branch.c. Society Vol.* Plants to much shaken by the wind do not grow. People do not assault the dead body of Meng Pen. 41 Hunchbacks^ are full of envy. R. calumnies and are ap- To avert these censures with peasing words and to try to get rid of these dangerous grievances. A sophist of the 6th cent.^ in virtue to win fame in the eyes of the common people. but not how. and is the opposition of Kung-Po Liao^^ ^ not yet broken. reason that Confucius felt sad. the disgrace of Ting is Hsi^'^ or incur the penalty of Tse Hsu. p. Those possessed of great virtue carped at by other scholars.crowd.

From dukes and marquises down. gems and termixed. made smallest If mountains/ and good is distasteful dirt. some small defect. of polluting. purity may be sullied. good and bad ones are mingled. here and elsewhere has the peculiar sign J]^ for Kanghi.*' covered with is man the slightest fault could be detected. As regards punishment. and those have to suffer the three who have already been employed. One of the nine circuits of YU comprising parts of Chili and Shantung. and Yen Hui and TsSng T'san could not remain unscathed. the best and noblest and the greatest talent sneered at. A place in Honan. The wicked people. . I. Therefore those who merely annoy and Which way should be taken to vex others sin against society. Vol. p. counteract them? ^ found in ^ 8 * Ed. For all love those only who enjoy the general applause. the most loyal words cause misfortune. Cf. even a gem may have a flaw. the administration character. so those who select the scholars reject the bad and keep the good.^ we speak envied. A. 179. and not over all Yen-chou. are visited Even Confucius and Me Ti could not with the three vexations. As the lapidary breaks the stones to take out the gem. and the noblest deeds bring about shame and disgrace. Ethical. and whiteness and if we speak of slander. the governor^ blackened his that he was disgraced and not employed. and a pearl. so When the time of entering sterling had come. Note 6. but slight pebbles are in- the truly wise. rivulets into rivers to and streams. escape them. 6 Figuratively said of men. The elder brother of the lord of C/iSn-liu^ was renowned He had left the most brilliant traces. J^ not to be The smallest defects are thus magnified.^ and as regards the actions of the wise and the scholars.42 Lun-Heng: into B. and as for imperfections. in office Those who are not yet annoyances.

on the other hand.o the same qualities as the virtuous. Thus walking the right path. transgressing the rules of propriety and failing against the laws of righteousness. If they must steal them all the same. On the Cunning and Artful The properly. they behave and honour by cunning? The position reason is this. People know that vigorously tilling the ground. by Question: qualities. and the friends of justice in the minor- former are concupiscent. in case why then must people acquire wealth If the cunning. p. . but become guilty by their cupidity. and that a brisk trade will provide them with valuable goods. But a superior man combats his feelings by propriety. albeit yet the unrighteous are many. The cunning have i. Cf. (Ta-ning). and their will and intellect confused and weak. are held ity. 43 CHAPTER VI. That leads to waywardness and cunning. Those who always do their duty. yields to his greed and avarice. they are unable to overcome their natural propensities.On the Cunning and Artful. nevertheless seek a and money by deceit. it is because they cannot withstand their inclinations. —The qualities — ^ Their original nature 390. A vile man. cunning and the virtuous having the same and conduct ought to agree. they can expect a harvest. following question may be raised: — The virtuous obtain honourable appointments and high wages. he eschews calamities. I. Why must the cunning alone succumb to their passions? Reply: Wealth and honour is what every one desires. is essentially the same. The robbers are no less intelligent than farmers and merchants.^ but succumb their passions. but develops differently. and dispels his desires by righteousness. is subject to the feelings of hunger and thirst. the hearts of the in esteem by every one. Vol. though well aware that proper conduct leads to wealth and honour. Even he who by his conduct proves himself to be a perfect gentleman.

it know the mind of the latter? Reply: The cunning can be known. the latter prefer the crooked one. but incapable of is drawing a distinction between the virtuous and the cunning. speaking these Nine Virtues Classics are eighteen. and disguise their plans. but a sovereign is not An ordinary sovereign does qualified to acquire this knowledge. whereas the cunning endanger them by their actions. sincerity. the cunning are In their doings and dealings the differ. superior men and the vile widely their likes and dis- likes are dissimilar. docility combined boldness. the cunning have is all kinds of devices. Vol. aptness for government combined with reverence. not know the virtuous. which he becomes Hable rior to punishment. to the Shuking Part " Affability Book III. The virtuous and the cunning proceed the Nine Virtues and verify their words ' Properly II. vile. but their qualities. impossible to — by by the outcome of their deeds. Ethical. and a conception of the virtuous is a key to understanding the character of the cunning and artful. different. ' and valour combiued . straightforwardness combined with gentleness. the persons in question are not virtuous. but cunning. bluntness comwith bined with respectfulness. aud by knowing the virtuous one knows the cunning. slanderers Therefore the sovereign can avoid the company of and seek that of the kind-hearted. The knowledge of the cunning at the same time displays the nature of the virtuous and wise. their principles are the same. manifest and reveal themselves in a different way. mildness combined with firmness. The former take the direct road. The slanderers do not intrigue. By knowing the cunning one knows the virtuous. but he a unable to distinguish the cunning from the virtuous. If those actions do not harmonise with the Nine Virtues. vigour combined with with righteousness. Slanderers hurt others by their tongues. and for that very reason cannot know the Only wise and sage men examine their actions cunning either. which. According p. Question: — Have is the cunning and the slanderers the same principles.— 44 Lun-Heng: B. Ill. 3 {Legge. Parti. easiness combined with discrimination.^ and if their words are not proved true by their doings. Envy is the Reply: — The mainspring of their characters. 71) they are: combined with dignity. however. or there any difference? cunning and the slanderers are both vile. Exception: — Since sovereign can always keep aloof from is slanderers and consort with the kind-hearted. The and virtuous are supe- men.

knows their weight. cope together in knowledge. or on beholding scales. the virtuous and the cunning do not act in the to be good. Then such persons though promoted. can men like of trivial talents and superficial knowledge to who cannot come up the virtuous. — Virtues. but that there is no grain to be measured. their same Both declare good in their enjoy real fame. their talents same. A. since they have not their merits. and that from the results of his actions the sentiments of Question: — established. nor act them. they are cunning. correctly writes ffij^^c. How is it that a ruler and lord of the land is ever surrounded by false and cunning ministers and always humbugged and hoodwinked?^ {Reply) One must not complain that the measures are wrong. When the actons do not agree with the Nine an investigation into the achievements does not disclose any deserts. ])ut one look reveals their real nature. is If nevertheless they are blindfolded and see nothing. knows their capacity. way. C. and bad. but that there is nothing to be weighed. nor that there are no scales. but destroy. nor a competition of merits.^ and both works the former build up. look. but any action may be and men cannot always go into a question. The system of tlie Nine Virtues has long been and there is no student but on seeing measures. ^ but their likes and dislikes ought to be the However vv^ay. the latter distinction of right and wrong. According to their ' Ed. have m^t^- . but their sentiments may always be learned. ed. Now. It is evident that they did not take the trouble to scrutinised. not always possible to act. but the same investigation shows us wliat they their aspirations are not tlie same. there can be If people cannot no rivalry of actions. Those on the throne do not ignore that by means of the Nine Virtues they can investigate actions. bad.On in a different the Cunning and Artful. do not turn out Question-. 45 are. and not being virtuous. and B. be called cunning? Reply: —The talents not being equally matched. virtuous. may be in a proportion of ten to a hundred. : — the agent may it be inferred.

Ethical. Among the wicked those who kick against the pricks. iu their words. 2 All editions to have ^^ pU ~hc'\^i which should be ^5 po . When goodness and the sages The badness are well determined. and search for the cunning among the wicked. GKung wishes ^ designate those impostors who have sneaked among but that would be somewhat forced. — Now tliey agree doings must likewise be true or false. ^ great. but the doings of the cunning are depraved. Now. then those whose actions are not. those who are right. the intellect may be beclouded and arguments erroneous. but their proceedings are different. Whence they say that one must look for the virtuous among the good. ^ All the three editions here write: ^rSf K.*] and A crimes none must be considered too condoning carelessness none should be deemed too wise sovereign scrutinises the heart. The passage Part I. are looked this upon as virtuous. and in rewards and exhortations the virtuous are among the good. . and in arguing one may be mistaken. On the other hand. If those whose dealings are in" accordance with the Nine Virtues are virtuous. and those who are wrong. Must then all the ordinary people be held to be cunning owing to their actions? Question: ^ — Reply: — All who are not right are wicked. are among the virtuous. both have an excellent name. [In is to be regretted. I would be a misconception of the real nature of virtue. are called unprincipled. virtuous of perfect purity and the best among the good. holy emperors the cunning are ranked among the wicked. p. 59). are considered cunning. unless Wotj^ the virtuous. the great impostors among the wicked. the saying: —That much in. Too Too small to be punished. Therefore we have punishing premeditated small. and examines the In case mind.— 46 Lun-Heng: B. Reply: should say. ^ 0- I think that 'fe A^ is superfluous and should be dropped. 12 {Legge. Classics Vol. the virtuous and the cunning become manifest. as cunning.^ are the worst of the bad. Question: —The intelligent may be if beclouded. * great to be pardoned. and then he punishes malice. Ill. are cunning. and those In the penal laws of the who their are artful. and pardons mistakes. Book U. is quoted from the Shuking Part II.

^ they formed far reaching plans. p. 2 See Vol. « "> See Vol. devotes special chapters to Su CJiin^ and Chang Yi^'' nor is there any allusion to their having been envious or depraved. Their deserts were the same. Chao. and CKu. I. Even worthies could not have outvied them. based on the difference of dolus and culpa. Note 3. and the Six States were powerful: the Three Cliin^ having spread discord. 480. ^S. 130. p. and their fame not inferior to that of worthies. the Six States did not risk a joint attack within the gates. Chang Yi and Su CKin were men who could arrange difficulties. Cliin became powerful and the empire weak. »c [^ . 318. Wei. this distinction. b. the three kingdoms into which the State oi CKin was divided by here Htiang Yu 206. and their success was obvious. 304. thus enabling CKin ^^ to come to the front. into which the once powerful State of Chin split in b. 70.1. Vol. Vid. They have been recorded on bamboo and silks. ^^^ in p. Shi-chi chap. ^ Ten. and since their creation CKin did not become more powerful. when the Three CKin did not yet exist.^ : cunning whose words and deeds —May those be any success? —When Su CKin brought about a confederation of Six called ^ the gates. beginning in b. Note 8.— On the Cunning and Artful. for mistakes is diminished. Sai. Ch'i. Merits which fall short of those of the worthies are like fame which is not real. 47 of premeditated attacks the penalty errors it is increased. ^^ ^^ ^^ by Yung. and Chao. mighty CKin did not venture to review its troops outside and when Chang Yi^ sowed distrust. I suppose that Three Chin States: ^^^^ here is ^^ ^?. the Han. Note 2. The Grand Annalist speaking of all the worthies. I. the time of Su CKin and Chang Yi. Wei.San Chin. Question: are not attended with {Reply) States. Shi-chi chap. 115. * CHin was A fundamental principle of all penal law.' Every judge can make falls in he will harbour no doubt.c. p. b. and Yil and Kao Yao would not have been afraid. The Six States being allied. a misprint for but broke up.c. At that time Chi ^ and Hsieh '° could not have vied with them in scheming. * ^ See Vol. The merits of these men were conspicuous. Han. 69.c. Living in a time of great disorder and confusion. when he and and with a virtuous man. . Since Wang CKung speaks of the 4th cent. viz. « 7 4o3. and Ti. ^ The time of the contending States I.c.

^ but every Chinese detests him. salary. P''o'''^'^'y 'M! r^' t^i6 title of a lost chapter of the Lun-heng. have been carefully gone through. idea that politics The Chinese cling to the and have not yet accepted the phantom of call morality. their speech is refined. is of poor gifts and a limited intelligence. politicians Chang Ti and Su still Ch'in cunning schemers. talents In order to acquire merit they must be possessed of high and a keen intellect. Wlien the Yin and the Yang in are in harmony.^ and that those who have no who win success cannot be cunning. honour. Appointments. pointing out the lines on tlie palm.^ and not the upshot of morality and virtue. Chang Yi and Su Chain's exploits being so famous have also been included in this narrative. Lun-Heng: B. and when he delights in literature. . Ethical. and robbers and thieves doings. and of families displaying and virtue. been a great statesman who did his misdeeds for the welfare of Thus most Europeans admire ChUn SMh Huang Ti. and unharnassing a horse in ' Elsewhere Wang Ch'ung says that all these things are tlie outcome of fate aloue. Their thoughts must be far-reaching and pay regard to justice and benevolence. Whence it is said in the chapter on recognising the cunning:^ When the ruler of men has — a taste for disputations. put on record. discrimination is as easy for him as beholding dried meat on a dish. they ingratiate themselves with the ruler. who does not perceive the falsity of their words. Exception: —Those among the wicked merit are called cunning. wind and rain set at the proper time. this is desist from their iniquitous morality the merit of some persons exhibiting disinterestedness and self-denial. the Kao-lai-sse-chi-lu was written. ^ Wanff Ch'unff apparently sees moral laws hold good for political in the two also. and all the most excellent. and takes a knave for a virtuous man. who easily overreached. Sympathising with his feelings and falling in with his views. How could he learn their duplicity and detect their deceitfulness ? Reply: —This remark only refers to an ordinary sovereign. the Five Grains grow in abundance. They all a liar a liar. but not worthies or virtuous men. another name for the right of the strongest. When a prince is a good observer. that they may be confounded with the great worthies. From deeds this it follows that the cunning may also distinguish themselves by their gift of speech. even though he has his country. counting the figures on a chessboard. the words of the cunning are sharp. The Grand Annalist recording Illustrious merits. and then does not see anything.48 as successful. and glory are the results of plans and schemes.

but fishermen resorts. The books of the Literati give many and such changes under speftial circumstances are not . and the faithful nature. that there is a discrepancy between the outside and that the name and the thing do not tally. sterling characters and truly good people found out. appear. sometimes people say one sometimes another. Their present actions disagree with the former. they will imitate their lord with a agree with him. partial to literature. Reply. the — The sovereign being fond of discussions. when their falsehood leaks out. they avoid all His Majesty being extravagant. — Wen Wang —A a says of the method how officials are to be treated: consideration of their former actions actions. and. When. and who deceivers be dis- tinguished. and hearing their makes us present words Beholding the we may form the inside abiding judgment of their former to outward appearance we learn we infer the outside. Comparing their conduct in their native village with their manners their in the palace. and contrasting the way in which they treat own people with the style in which they serve their prince. by view to the cunning do not like discussions. is attended with special effect. At certain moments this becomes visible. faithful become times. how can they be discovered? style of the cunning refined. upon learning that their sovereign is they will endeavour to equal him. observe the laws. Their words and deeds thus being modelled upon those of the prince. The and unchangeable. and only ordinary sovereigns abilities and men of mediocre Exception: will cannot see the diiference. the Cunning and Artful. changes brought about by circumstances.On the shafts. we become aware and the inside. traitors. know their birds aad beasts hide in the mountains. ferent from that of The conduct of the cunning is dif- most other people. 49 Fish and turtles abscond in the depths. understand their present words. and the straight turn crooked. know what is hidden. but hunters perceive their tracks. Question: — Human actions are not constant Special circumstances often determine the issue. literature. and in case His Majesty is thrifty. instances. and from Thus the hypocrites posing as lawheartless people may be known. and when originally their mind has no addicted to literary turn. are Conversely. special The its actions differ at different each event thing. the cunning wear costly dresses. pomp. and their behaviour at court is other than at home. the cunning when he is is use sharp words. but the sovereign has a fancy for them.

but they in their presence.}. When the virtuous are thus favoured. If some one is useful to them. Observing how they react on such an incentive. When they intrigue against somebody. slandering would be of no avail. Now. so that he has no suspicions. A and C. those who do. if we take normal conditions as a basis? Reply: so — The The virtuous may be favoured by circumstances. Ethical.. they act accordingly. we may call depraved and whom virtuous. On the contrary. when the cunning are. they even give themselves the air of exerting themselves for others. while the cunning use it Such an opportunity helps us to discriminate between the virtuous and the cunning. so him whom they In this manner the cunning plot. How could they fill their place in the world then. nay ruin a man. Lun-Heng: B. Question: — Does it happen that the cunning like to defame others? cunning do not defame others. without incurring any hatred. and all restraint may the cunning. and win the good graces of their lord? Qtiestion: — If the cunning do not slander others in society. that he does not become aware of them. virtuous avail themselves of such an opportunity for a noble aim and for their country. and cajole are going to strike. must we not fall into error. Nobody would have any sympathy for them. and the scholars would not consort with them. we learn whom for their personal profit and that of their family. whereas.^^^. they do not defame him. why should they slander him.:—.^^. while laying their traps for him.50 unusual.' do not slander others ' Ed. and by their plots to make profit. they intrigue against them. without fearing his vengeance. and this profit they acquire in a convenient manner. they do not treat him badly. Reply: are slanderers. By their scheming they seek advantage. For the cunning have no occasion to slander. these If they slandered others. do they slander them to the governors? Reply: — The cunning deceive the governors with men. . B. One ^ suffices as in Ed. — The In case they grudge others a share of it. because they merely seek profit. and they injure. and if he is not. would again slander them. they praise a man. Hiding their feelings and concealing their intentions. they lose and do evil. and injuring some one.

lest the sovereign summon the man to hear his advice. or he lies down sick. in order to acquire great talents and extensive knowledge. derogate his reputation. is not advisable to employ him. plot against them.: On Question: the Cunning and Artful. but approaching a ruler he must have special qualities to impress him. Those special abilities are uniting and disuniting. and both sides are not equally benefitted. how do tlie cunning proceed? they praise them. But those who constantly extol and belaud the man and introduce him to his notice. just as a person in an exalted position overawes his subjects by his boldness. — Then. Consequently he trusts in the suggestions of his cunning adviser and dispenses with the services of the worthy. and being in a circuit. or that he dismisses him. and a poor appointment would injure his virtue or hurt his dignity. he fears his resent- ment. . they lull and. and Kuei Ku Tse may be the teacher. g. and if his hopes be far-reaching. and put more reliance in him than in himself. he it may but if he considers to be unable to do so. he does not care for what is near. This one does not reply that X is a worthy and deserving to be called to office. let them into security. that he for. or must they learn from a teacher? Reply Every one possesses himself the knowledge to deceive others. seeks a pretence to pass him over in silence. study the ancients alone. The governor mentions that he desires to employ him and asks sombody's opinion about him. Question: — Can the cunning. other people. 51 Reply: — When the cunning calumniate others. Wherein consists their slandering and plotting? a man have great accomplishments and a wonderful knowledge. when they E. When it comes to fighting he must be conversant with the military art. he hoped to be transIf his aims be lofty. he does not act like ferred to a department. — * So says the one who seeks to frustrate the promotion of X by raising all kinds of fictitious difficulties.' Being given a small office. to go to a prefecture. to Therefore the sovereign will prefer choose ordinary to officials. to provided that he can bear the thought of deferring the worthy. A governor afraid. his ambition is not satisfied. he formerly heard him say so. are many. In case he makes use of him. that his fame spreads far and wide. and both do not suffer. may not lose his name or use him. for X would not like to be retained in a He declared that he hoped district.

for he was considered the first hero of his time. 2r. for profit and justice are antagonistic. The cunning strive for great profits and notoriety. Their exalted positions have many dangers. hence the high honour in which he was held and his great renown. so that and said. will be able to divide the territories of rulers. In these things I cannot compete with him. p. and gave him the food of the servants and handmaids. but not esteemed by superior men. "He that shall speak down come out crying. "This was planned by him. he roused his anger with the object of inducing him to become a minister of CKin. Chang Yi. and straightforwardness and crookedness are opposites. — ' "lAfc i^ political intriguing. he did his hit at the right moment. The superior man not staying in low spheres exposes? himself to dangers. fell back upon Su CJiin. ^ ' * An ascetic philosopher of the 4th cent. Ethical. and the clear-headed cannot possess the same knowledge as the blunt-witted. and he exclaimed. forming and breaking alliances.^ into the earth I The teacher Kuei Ku Tse^ dug a cavern to me. Su CIlin." Su CKin spoke down to him. . 70. It is justice that moves the superior man. and Kuei Ku Tse was so moved. Question: — Is it possible that the cunning care for their good names and accomplish great things? Reply: The cunning live on profit and exclusively set store on power. Su CJiin sent some of his men Subsequently it dawned upon to escort him with rich presents. Chang Yi. who made him sit down at the lower end of the hall."^ Such schemes proceeded from Su CKins profound knowledge. and they easily come to fall.52 Lun-Heng: B. In high dudgeon Chang Yi betook himself westward to CKin.* and the cunning of the whole world meet with so many calamities. who was chief minister of Chao and of the Six States at the same time. Several times calling out for him. They are admired by the base. poor and wretched. They do not care for their good names nor accomplish great things. and profit the base one. By affecting power and sticking to what is vulgar they win a great notoriety of themselves.c. In deep laid plans and brilliant devices the profound and the superficial cannot be equally successful. but I did not understand it. There is a tradition that Su CIlin and Chang Yi botli studied uniting and disuniting. Abridged from Shi-chi chap. Watching his opportunity. b. that C/iang Yi did not equal his tears fell and moistened his coat.

when became emperor.^ have resigned their dignities. 427. misfortunes. appellative of Cf. So-Lu to Fang was appointed governor of Lo-yang health. Cf. 53 still that they cannot take care of their persons and less of their good names. Note 2. lived in the time of ^P ^. a. They may be said to have been mindful of their repute. According to Liu Hsiang he wrote a work 12 chapters still ~H ZH ^^ extant (Pei-wen-yiin-fu chap. At all was a rather extravagant Liang. and how Wu Ling Tse"^ gave up his position In recent times. Twice he resigned owing The second time in a. Rethought of their names. Those who do not proceed on the path of righteousness. hankering after profit. On bamboo and silks it has been written how Po CK eng Tse Kao left his country and tilled the ground. they only • and Hsi-Lu Chiln Yang^ in Tung-tu. mentioned by Mencius.On the Cunning and Artful. An I. but think much of their own persons. cannot win a reputation by their justice. contained S^|l f§] the -^p 3^ Q in ^^ Tse-shu po-chia Vol. and fields. a scholar of Chi. He declined and the high offices conferred upon him owing to sickness. ^ A territory in Honan. 33. * A place in fffl Yen-chou-fu. how should they care for their name. learn that he From the last paragraph of the work we 3 abandoned events he his post as minister of C/iu to water other recluse. Yii took to agriculture. make light of They suddenly perish and are disgraced. ' A vassal of Too who resigned his fief. . and after a prolonged sickness did not respond to the call of their sovereign. Shantung.d. (Giles. 51. p. Vol. Wang Chung Tse or Wang excellent character. "^ 4v. and that he again writes was a native of The Shang-yu-lu ^n bad ^M ^^'-^^^ name both biographical dictionaries give in "w Fang. 30. his style. 25-57 a. Yu is reported to have visited and questioned him on his See Chuanff Tse V.d. who then sent a sedan-chair for him. 142). . cannot advance on this road. and after the audience made him a grant of 2000 bushels of rice. Many abandoned nouncing all records of former ages give examples cf men who own persons. Wang Chung Tse^ of Lan-ling^ to water a garden. and those who are never checked in their progress by the rules of justice. famous for his learning Kuang Wu Ti. 25). -Jp Wu Ling Tse is reputed the author of a short in philosophical treatise 12 paragraphs. people's garden.d. p. ^ Q^ S" ^r ^B ^K ^^ ^'8 The Li-tai ming-hsien lieh-nil shih-hsing p'u calls the man : — ^& fm So-Lu and informs us that Chiln Yang was Tang-chiin. The cunning. not of Tung-tu. Chuang Tse p. 55 he did not obey the summons of the emperor Kuang Wu Ti. ^ [^ in CKen Chung Tse. their families to take care of their gain.

but have difficulties to find annoyance. Provided that the impostors be very clever and his then they make such a use of their talents. and more difficult minor ones. . amongst their countrymen. whereas the big ones are easily found. » Cf. robbed and pillaged. and their whereabouts are easily traced. steal. ^ Part II. 39). When. at times they are thrown of their guard. for how could it be easy. Note 3. his intelligence he does not perceive The talents of small impostors are of a lower order. stealthily sneaking into a compound. whereas the people easily know great impostors. — It is easier to recognise great impostors. 147. and that only for an emperor it is hard work. know great impostors. subsequently punished by Shun (Shuking I. Reply. known by people in general. Then the sovereign is Thus great deceivers cause startled.— 54 Lun-Heng: B. and there can be no question of great accomplishments. but easy to know small ones. their proceedings must entail dishonour. it was difficult to know the great deceiver. wherefore does the ruler find avers that it it such an arduous task? — The Shuking requires intelligence to know men. for the great impostors have conspicuous The small imabilities. fine speakers. nobody knows them. and their doings harder to detect. Legge. Question: — Great if impostors create disorder by their extreme great robbers are easily wickedness. and with anything. Therefore a distinction out small ones. besieged a town. postors are less shrewd. Now. Question : — Is it easier to recognise great impostors or small im- postors? Reply. Ethical. that the prince with all power cannot well all call them to account for mere thoughts. Classics Vol. 12. Ill. and Huan Tou ^ a great impostor. and all the wayfarers know the robbers. subsequently. since the great deceiver did not give the great sage any is made between the knowledge The sovereign finds it difficult to of the people and of their lord. their real character leaks out. which to recognise the wiU become After clearer from the following consideration: it a robbery is difficult to detect small robbers. The Book minister of works under I'ao.^ Shun was a For the great sage great sage. When they have attacked a city. But when they pierce a wall and. much more trouble than small ones. Devoid of justice and destitute of virtue. when he gets wind of it. the thing transpires as soon as it has been done. p. Part I. p.

those " below notice quite clearly. Yung is benevolent. men with smartness of speech for the most part procure themselves By their ill-advised schemes they interfere with agrihatred. [The head of the Chi family was richer than the duke of Chou. " Why should he use cunning. comdemned him. Analects XI. those it who perceive it it. if the roof of a house leaks. The disciples might have beaten the drum and assailed him. ^ 3 * Only socialists would agree to this.^ On the Cunning and Artful. are In case is leaks much. but collectors of taxes never have been popular. those ^ sovereign and irritate the people to please their lord. Testament they are all decried as sinners. In the New somewhat radical view. the suggestions of the cunning are detrimental to the subjects and advantageous to the ruler. and that 1 all the people 4. 16.]^ Collecting for Chi." [Some one said. 55 When below. ChHu is pronounced to have been cunning owing to his having taken care of the interests of a nobleman instead of working for the people. They who encounter Confucius said. The a disciple of Confucius.] commerce. but not cunning. The advice of loyal officers is detrimental to the ruler. they annoy the citizens to benefit the and culture the leak small. . below see it but indistinctly. and yet Ch'iu collected his imposts for him and increased his wealth. but advantageous to his subjects.* Analects V. be did not know how wicked it was.

The public usually looks down upon scholars. and give talents all the credit to the functionai-ies. whom they regard as their models. but the assumption that officials are ingenious and proficient. CHAPTER Weighing of Talents VII. The bureaucrats relieve them of their troubles. and these themselves have no very high opinion of their worth. and it is not true that the parts of officers Officers do and students have no practice. Ethical. and the scholars un- employed. .. and scholars shallow and incompetent. By their decisions they distinguish themselves. business. e. but in other countries as well view every- thing from the practical side. because they notice that the authorities^ do not like to employ them. Seeing that the officials are of practical use. However. they are as ignorant of scholars as of talents That shows that for both have their and abilities. but the faults of officers they dare not criticise. We may well say that officers are business men.^ fall The the of the Literati do not short of those of official work. for they would hkewise be only too glad to serve their country and imitate are superior to the accomplishments of literary men. {Ch'eng-fsai). Respecting their qualities and talents they hope that their many abilities may be of use to them. They lay all the blame on the students. the officials. and think very of learning. the public slights them. ' The masses not only in China. officials. and their officials. exhibits a want of judgment. and that students have no practice. and are obhged to leave to the care of officers. how much does he earn.56 Lun-Heng: B. Whatever may be their shortcomings. working hard in their offices. but they lack routine and have not done chiefs highly appreciate their skill. They admire and affect wealth and power. the public will sneer at them. and praise the former as very ingenious and proficient. a dislike caused by the mass of aflfairs which they cannot all settle alone. they stigmatise the latter as shallow and incompetent. little man worth i. is What is a the usual question of an American. Among those who have discussed the question many are of opinion that scholars cannot be placed on a level with officials.

who up upon all tlie to three times offered their remonstrances. is It is and and admiration of the former. no post is conferred upon them. Both have their special merits and de- between which those in power may choose. whereas scholars are excellent on principles. prefer students.Weighing of Talents. those in authority are very able and extremely the people. they cannot help them. 57 The scholars are timid and unqualified to overcome difficulties. but not in . they are not afraid to remonstrate with them. At learned present. bow their heads and remain are mostly officials. They who cost. for public opinion merely inquires for this reason that the public to esteem the officials latter. despising crookedness. but and possibly rescuing their superiors. When the governors are troubled with doubts. Their services being of no benefit under existing conditions. men who thoroughly know They take things up in the proper way and ever bring them to a good end. they take a sufficient number to assist them Should these designs aim at the in carrying out their designs. lealty. to but scholars like pearls and jewels. break resistance and smooth over preserving their but they know nothing about Scholars own selves pure and undefiled. it amour-propre owing the to his inability to advance officialdom in Han time must ha\e been ditferent from what in is now. They who on earth were able to establish stringent rules. for at present the business. Those who are such as uphold virtue and carry out reforms. This contempt of the into their usefulness. is based on the inability of the students to meet the bureaucratic requirements. have for the most part been scholars. majority are scholars well \ersed literature. and are unable to exert themselves. merely silent. but weak in merits. When ^ governors and ministers are going wrong. Wang CKung ^ If these indictments of are just and not dictated by his oflfended in the official career. When they appoint officials. assent to everything and try to remain in favour at all when their governor indulges his desires. They are strong in business. and warn them. The governors judge talents by official efficiency and expect them to become manifest in the discharge of official duties.' in excel guiding have no experience of business. and enjoined governors to examine and purify themselves. and therefore cannot be of any great help to their governor. and. but bad business men. then officers are only hke tiles and stones. dif- Officers are merely able ficulties. cultivation of virtue or at the introduction of reforms. wont despise the scholars.

owing to their weakness and limited knowledge. at are made. and no carts and horses used. and a functionary engages an able man. no need for lamps and Yil oppose the enemy. because his own force is inadequate. and wanting help. In case of sickness we call in a physician. ' A remark very characteristic for Wang CKung's time. the sun illuminates the dark. The others who have made themselves uous by their admirable qualities. following not yet in the wane of the conspic- officials. no Provided that the knowledge and there is the power of governors and ministers be like the sun shining upon darkness or the irresistible Meng Pen and Hsia of officials are Yii. Since their appointment never attended with any inconvenience. think very much of their talents. People estimate those things of the world most.' we could ourselves make out the prescriptions and mix the medicines. nor do they study the qualities of the officials. there would be no bridges built. then the talents of no use. they are when new appointments intellect. and carts and horses used. candles. and when Meng Pen and Hsia further helpmates are requisite. If the feet were able to jump over ditches. Wherefore they is fill all posts with ordinary men. he wants help. to which they must look to supply their deficiencies. he expects strength. and with left their abilities are incapable out. observing the rules of propriety and cultivating virtue. or if one could walk a long way. and If when misfortune happens. officials and declare them is to be excellent functionaries. whereas the scholars have nothing to distinguish themselves.58 those Lun-Heng: B. . because his own talents do not come up to the mark. or enter into the house and expel the evil influences. An officer takes an assistant. we employ a sorcerer. because the feet cannot cross ditches. When If a person's gifts are insufficient. who rather take officials. Those among them who have a quick and set once change about studying official work. Ethical. and in default of these there nobody to save them from their vexations. Bridges are built. because one cannot walk long distances. but disdain the students for want of practice. attach the greatest importance to business and the suppression of disorder. we should not have to pay for the doctor. nor are their services desired at court. of filling difficult posts. nor to invite the sorcerer. but finding them useful. cling to antiquity and pursue their ideas. The high authorities of our age do not accuse their their own inability. Without they cannot get rid of their troubles.

Strongly maintaining studies. somewhat excentric. disregard the fixed rules. enthusiasts and remarkable characters disdain to sacrifice their convictions. decline to take up those poor Sometimes it may also happen that scholars do not quite Their thoughts being wandering and understand their business. and the bureaucrats mock them. they depart Their style is unusual. their They they strongly disapprove of talented students entering into the ranks of office-holders. they do not know the art of genuflexion. commence to learn official work. saying awkward age things in the proper way. In their reports on various matters. They denounce the selfish desires of their superiors things which they by their prejudices. the official class despises them. provided that they make their mark and master the official correspondence. 59 but governors and ministers do not entrust them with any duty. * This sort of young firebrands and utopists would reform everything.^ Conversely. Men possessed of common gifts and not burdened with lofty ideals. they ' give up further efibrts and resolve to resign. taries light of them. adducing the opinions of the ancients. but do not get on in life. Obstinate. load-star.* ^ ^ These are the opportunists among the scholars. and soon are crushed under the inert masses they are attempting to stop. or to demolish the objects of their ven- eration for the purpose of pushing on by sycophancy. and in coming forward and retiring. they comStudying pletely change their former ideas and their occupation. . and do not man- with a terrible outspokenness. and are soon merged in Taking the knowledge of the high authorities as their and conforming to the exigencies of the times. These uncompromising characters stick to their principles. being from the ordinary standard. officialdom. When asked. Not being called to office. not concentrated enough.Weighing of Talents. had better leave unsaid. The scorn fills them Since in the discharge of their duties they do not with disgust. and Therefore people make do not do things as they should be done. day and night.^ high aims. they give wrong answers. they are not fit for the office of which they may be in charge. meet with encouragement. their treatment of afi'airs lacks thoroughThen they are supposed to be inefficient and pushed aside. and bound they follow their own rules in all their writings. ness. but it they do with inadequate means. they are not ashamed of anything. and the high digni- hold them in disrespect. young students will disclose faults.

whil.^ the people weave brocades. and the inferior. Literati lead a poor life in their lonely officials are houses. Clever and whereas persons moral obligations. the eye has not yet spied an even Confucius and ^ According to our modern view. are beset with so that they hide and steal away. ' * In Shantung. An ancient name of Kvtei-te-fu in Honan. In the region of CKi. hence their bias in favour of the present.^ The talents of scholars are not knowledge insufficient. our girls know the art.' They learn institutions. The success is owing to cunning awkwardness. does not suffice. and what they have learned formerly. kneel down and and how to their superiors. they are well off. pay no The Classics are neglected. they all rush to Reciting ordinances and study historical works and read law. and even common women possess this skill. the can- Literature alone. is not This requires practical knowledge and experience.^ the inhabitants make embroidery from generation to generation. and estabhshing their family. or if clever women have not yet done something. . Ethical. and their disregard of the past.e the bustling about in the halls of the palace. Ancient literature is no more cultivated. In the city of Hsiang. 2 This governed. nor is their but they lack expe- rience and practice. and the handicraft extraordinary. hands become accustomed to. they write reports on various subjects.60 It is Lun-Heng: for this reason that B. which up to very recent times didates. of which the typical are destitute. and study is an heed to propriety. the work seems strange to them. Yao and Yu and when Mi Ti would ask about its shape. soon forgotten. this is just what a future official should do. and even stupid That which we daily see and daily do. rise. they give up their former ideas. Eager to collect one master's dicta and to get a smattering of theory. Once called to office. able officials fulfilling all later on. how to fawn upon kotow. exploded idea. and which they disdain to acquire. the foot has never walked a road. or make a acquainted with ancient and modern times. In the keen competition with their rivals. and come to the front. When must inquire object. literati With virtue and literature alone a country cannot be true. common students disUke to go through thorough study in order to become well the Classics. was the only study of all A literary education can be nothing more than a basis for future special studies. even at its turns. and struggling to get to the front. all with a view to laying the foundation of their house. If talented scholars have not yet seen a thing. failure to many difficulties.

they do but that their not say that they have not yet done anything. yet he will are the first come class. not be able to distinguish things as well as they do.' Now the public noticing that they have no experience. and the students in the point of view of the government. The governors and of our time sons are. From an agricultural point of view. They resemble the sons of a house who.aj)parently very easy gives them the greatest a trouble. 61 it. yet believ* officials to be excepofficials tionally clever. the scholars. As sons the ministers know much more than know how practice. are like these guests.Weighing of Talents. agri- and from a commercial standpoint. but there are the high spheres many students so unpractical and only at home ' of pure thought. A man ' to be assistant in a district. The mental power of the literati is not too weak. and the culturists below. scientific principles. p. As regards government. knives^ and pencils being their ploughs. ascribe this to their dullness. want of and they are fill unable to reason by analogies. but doubt their intellectual do not speak of faculties. 73. 2. and government is their field of action. and yet see is ef- in helplessness after a short stay a sign of foohshness. see for business. When a guest arrives only for a short while. quite forgetting that the incompetence of the scholars exercice. In their youth already they learn official work. regard them as incapable. though they have it. critics Respecting scholars. and seeing them in- not taken an active part in active. at present their want of practice. But in to their usefulness classification on first. Ranked according to their efficiency. the rear. Note . officials Scholars and officials represent the sons. that just their great learning and iinfit idealism makes them absolutely Erasing knives. and there is no profession which they might not comprehend. and despatches. which is a misrepresentation. having grown up in it. their labour. ficiency unaware that the by have acquired their They likewise know guests. and for tlie time behold even something. know all its nooks and comers much better than any foreigner does. When tirst tliey are suddenly called upon to perform it. might also the post of a secretary in a prefecture. merchants officers are its men. knowledge does not reach so far. the scholars are above. owing is to their The fit vision of these dignitaries blurred. for the latter are much less au courant than the former. and he who could reform an entire As in a rule perhaps. a That officials is and classed according the officials are in front. he may be a second Co7ifucius or Me Ti.

Secretaries ^ of course have their rules and reguregisters there exist certain precedents. saying that edicts are the Canons of the Han dynasty. whereas the officials are chiefly interested in affairs. and The Catalogue Yen by. great virtue. and Han Fei Tse. Note 1. then the jurisconsults^ ought to the first place. po-chia gives six works. Cf Vol. . work In students are placed in the second rank by most Judges give their verdicts according to edicts and laws. chap. bungling in business not injurious to a man's Albeit yet owing their inexperience in office critics. Loyalty learned is not exhibited in study. and do not look to book-keeping. 65. aims. in the Han-shu mentions only ten works of this class. and several times mentioned Ch'ung. It would be no harm. summon The Five lations. a special dislike for the criminalists Shang Strictures on Yang and Han Fei Tse. ^ and nothing edicts. are not jurists in the modern acceptation of the word. regardless of their being experienced in discussing official matters.c. However and the province will not have the' reformer. their Httle knowledge of official correspondence would be compensated by their the prefecture does not the assistant. on which the officials base the decisions which See Vol. would be qualified for service in a provin(. if they used their talents to acquire the necessary practice. Wang who has I. Business may be by the rules of etiquette one becomes familiar by practice. that he becomes a clever official. is of greater importance in a district magistrate's office than If his competence be taken as a criterion of the worthiness of take an official. loyalty and is however are not and scholars have both the management of little to be acquired in this manner. Officials their special Loyalty and faith the goal of the scholars. their administration the officials are obliged to consult jurists. a reputation. These writers economy. for that reason select be thought more of than others? Wise governors officials according to their talents. Ethical. 1 I. • The writers on law form one of the Nine Schools into which Liu Hsin 7 divided the then existing philosophical literature.e. Perhaps people will admit this. and with registers. The most celebrated so-called jurists are Shang Yang. Lun-Heng: B. As long to as loyalty is and honesty is maintained. government. ' ' -Am'^F '^ /* ^^ b. The Tse-shu Kuan Chung. and so for books and How can a man who diligently studies and easily learns all these things. p. rewards and punishments. Tse. but rather authors philosophising political on the nature of law.62 prefecture. Good books and justice officials are called loyal. XXXV Han Fei Tse. They set the highest store on character. all well known to.

" seems spoils the ^^ .^ For washing dirty things one uses water. but handed down to the Han. I should say that the Five Canons are also standard works for the Han dynasty. a composed cKiu is Canon of the Han. Business officials. the Five Canons would not be universally read. and C. is business. and in comparing Therefore the CKunit with the laws did not find any divergence. YoD by his brilliant virtue succeeded in conciliating the blackhaired people. 122. Ed. who like our philosopher had a strong inclination towards Taoism . be a gloss which ought to be expunged. since meaning: — oflBcials being of equal talents with scholars.^ Tung Chung Shu explained the meaning of the CK un-cK iu. everything is clear indeed. write ^ last clause it from "if they wish. and in default of principles nothing can be done. by Confucius. and that which officers learn. and all that the literati conversant with the theory of government. 179-157. and yet the Grand Annalist places them among the oppressors. have derived their wisdom therefrom. and business.. fire. Confucius said that filial piety and brotherly love in highest degree could even touch spirits. the empire broke down. is posterior to principles. what is subsequent. they should study principles if they wish to rank with officials. the dissolution having gone on up to Erh the Shih Huang Ti. * A. B.Weighing of Talents. The purport of this work and the other four Canons unless is intertwined. The Five Canons deal with principles. Chang Shih Chih^ remarked that the CKin dynasty relied on petty officers with pencils and knives. and that. hence Sse- Ma Ch'ien's aversion.* How can those 1 -^ yj The ^ pb . are narrow-minded. There being principles. which is last. business is regulated. * Shi-chi chap. 63 they propose. Both officers together enacted several laws. Now that which scholars study.. Water and fire are the principles. Chang Tang and Chao Yil were both honest officials of the Han period. If we compare students with the latter care for principles. In case they are of equal talents. Those critics who merely appreciate jurisprudence and slight the CKun-cKiu.C. it is true. and their use is business. and that a case having been settled by law. -4. the former adjust what is antecedent. which to is less good. ought to study general principles. we may determine the superiority and greater dignity of either. From the contrast between which are first. and for roasting raw and tainted meat. instead of devoting themselves to business. and the CKun-cKiu were a great production. are principles. and business counts less than principles. high officer of strong character at the court of the Han emperor Wen Ti.

but it is difficult to slaughter an ox with a poultry knife. in spite of their want of practice. possess excellent qualities. With may carve a fowl. In case a scholar able to interpret one Canon is called upon to do the work of one office. and officials move their pencils to take note of public affairs. be compared with This should fill them whose piety affects the spirits? people's minds. and the Duke of Chou in building Lo-yi^ did not hold battering-rams or poles in his hands. he can master it in ten months. because them that those students of a butcher's knife one classical literature are in the administration less efficient than functionaries. cherish more than a hundred thousand sentences and paragraphs in their minds. Why? Because official work is easy to learn. but a would be unqualified the business of the scholars can do do not find their way through the science of scholars.64 responsible for the Lun-Heng: B. To expect a man of vast ideas and high principles to carry them out personally. 57 of the Tao- ti-king H^ <^ yg^ ^^ ^t &^ ^ ^ -^ " The more laws and in edicts. and never flag in what they take in hand. whereas classical studies offer great difficulties. or to understand the affairs of the small people? and in his introduction to the above chapter approvingly quotes chap. but do not honour the students." The new capital of the Chou dynasty Honan. For an office-holder. to Sages. What comprehend the thoughts of the great These men who by their genius overcome all difficulties. . Thus the but officials twisting thread no experience. on the other side. The knowledge of officials is really bad and not up to the mark. rams and poles. would be like bidding a general fight himself. to A naaster in embroidery can sew a curtain or a garment. or an engineer ^ cut wood. Ethical. Their profound studies embrace antiquity as well as the present time. breakdown of the empire. Students thumb the Classics^ to fathom the meaning of the Sages. Yii regulating streams and rivers did not handle the hoe or the spade. The strikes high dignitaries are cognisant of the great principles of it the classical studies. Pencils and ink. registers and books are like hoes and spades. only they have officials. and from the rich is more difficult. the scholars however. the more robbers and thieves. to study the contents of one Canon a whole year would not suffice. workman weave brocade.

What means the possession of ten or a hundred coins com- pared with the wealth of a thousand pieces of gold.^ all The wisdom registers. they abuse their All their proceedings power of writing and are dictated by and influence and profit are their only aims. they chant and In their hum them over day and night. called to office.^ and thus take the habits of the Sages. the people with whom they are brought in contact. it is . become straight without sup- and white evil silk gauze placed amidst coloured one. This means that the good and the we practice transforms our character. they allow themselves to be bribed. the greater capacity. mounds of earth? A The bigger hidden in the the vessel. which they learn to use become by constant They never read a page of a book. among hemp. the sovereign. The treasures bosoms of the scholars can be pronounced greater than those of the officials. The nature of scholars cannot always be good. and. for they were then just emerging from feudalism. childhood already do the future officers familiar with pencil practice.Weighing of Talents. Even in the best Chinese authors. the disgrace Once in power. but their HH ^g -p' J£ let A/" . should they find favour with governors. Creepers growing port. takes a dark colour without having been dyed. officials greatly exaggerated. and a level with heaps of grain not higher than how could the granaries of the capital towering like mountains be placed on man famous for his talents its is like a famous vessel. alone ordinary scholars.* they contrive and fleece Having an of the honourable position. but revering the holy doctrines. they will wear elegant hats and sharp swords.^ When they have grown up and are their experience selfish motives. ^ ^ The This recital of the is Chinese Classics more a chanting than a reading. Wanff CKung is bragging somewhat here. they crave for power. or ever hear the words benevolence and in business. When they have to make an all investigation. of of the bureaucrats consists merely in their books and which they understand the intricacies.^ and after one year's service their estate and their mansion are well provided. and ink. justice. ^ The military spirit of the Chinese in the Han time was greater than now. They have not all a wicked character. 65 spring in their bosom pour out ingenious thoughts by thousands. we do is not discover ingenious thoughts by thousands. * Bribery and corruption seem to have been the canker of Chinese at all time.

and could judge of the capacities of the candidates. Ethical. calls 2 The Shih-hsivg-pu of our text is him ^ j^ Tsiing Chun (T. Among the officials of a prefecture nine out of ten were scholars.d. and therefore ^ employed scholars. A place in Honan. These two governors knew the respective value of principles and business. was the minister of Tung-hai. They were given all the posts of secretaries and clerks.G6 Luu-Heng: B. and the bureaucrats were only employed in the ratio of one or two among ten. The prefect of C/ien-liu. Those who follow the method of the literati. In a regular order he nominated them to vacant posts. saw this. practices are in opposition to the holy doctrines. . Tsung Shu Hsi. 76. ' A place in Kiangsu. In spring and autumn he would assemble them to a feast and divide them into three classes. reform and learn to love justice. He died in a. and many of their doings have been recorded in books and memoirs.^ He used to invite obscure scholars on a large scale.^ Chen Tse Yil likewise opened the ways to the literati. ^^ Shu Hsiang). so that their ideas as well as their dealings An enlightened governor who clearly change and improve. Therefore the age has praised their names. The ^p ^ probably a misprint.

^ the mourners. consider that they are both functionaries. {Liang-chih). The learned thus suppress their evil desires and rectify their natures. but the great superiority of learning has not Scholars surpass the officials by their learning. the who have plenty. (Cf. 140 seq. The custom of sending presents to the relations of the deceased is as a contribution to the funeral expenses. on which they spend a long time. we speak of a garden and a park. * ^W jjjS. Sacred Books Vol. the same. It is the nature of the earth to produce plants. if cash for funeral expenses. the fortunes of the rich and the poor are Scholars and officers are in a similar position. Both being employed as clerks or acting as secretaries. yet been set forth. in ^^ In ancient times these presents usually were present they are mostly money. but that the students have many hidden treasures bosoms besides. in the Liki A. . since in both cases sum is a hundred. is their virtue complete.D. » Chap. purifying their characters and In our essay on the weighing of talents talents refining their talents. ^M at as l^ ^^ Hit ^B -f^. The unintelligent infer that. which can no more be placed on of mountains to earth.VU. however. The Yii-pim 523 defines in natura. very old and already mentioned p. The simple-minded. I did not find any allusion to this custom in De Gtroofs great work. as their writing concerned. If mallows and leeks be sown in the and jujubes and chestnuts planted upon the mountains.The Valuation of Knowledge.). When telligent. provided they are in- know they likewise have contributed a hundred. XXVUI. the wise their among as far chiefs are aware that is officials and scholars are alike. ^ The Valuation of Knowledge we have spoken on and conduct. 67 CHAPTER VIII. until their talents are fully developed. and that. Legge. the Religious System of China. and At that juncture a comparison shows that the capacities of tliose thus refined are much greater than those of the officials. and the nature grow trees. rich. their acquirements are in their the same. poor and rich men both send a present of a hundred that the poor have no means and that. possess the much more. a great mistake. as to the thoroughness and extent of their knowledge.

in addition to this. shares the mistake of most Chinese philosophers believing that virtue is and of many westerners Virtue a necessary correlate of learning. Should endowed with extraordinary skill. the students are the guardians of the doctrine of former emperors. nor can they regulate administration. the rich are not abashed. for they are devoid of morality and virtue. whence the expression: — dining They do not know any method or art. The students them with virtue and wisdom. They are sitting silent in the court. it to discourse Therefore they offi- are called personators of the dead. they are. and merely live on their income. unable on any subject. as the spinning girls still possess the special gift of weaving brocade and embroidering. scholars are without it. the by others for nothing. incapable of showing their gratitude. These personators of the dead were relatives of the deceased who had to represent the departed soul when sacrifice was oflfered to it.68 a par with Lun-Heng: li. Poor fellows are prone opulence.'^ Gratis means for nothing: — without virtue they live on a salary paid gratis. . — officials both look upon the high officers as their hosts. the former have still a surplus in their knowledge of classical and other writings. Ethical. and receive a present from the host. they have not acquired humanity and equity. whereas the rich live in Thus scholars do not do evil. common land or ordinary mountains. jujubes and chestnuts. to them. An ordinary woman spins and weaves with her hands. and is thus that the ^ Wang CKung too. to excesses.^ When poor and rich men together are guests. when the faculties of the scholars are contrasted with those of the officials. Tlie case of officials and students is analogous. while rich people observe the rules. Now. she will weave brocade be she and make embroidery. and be accounted exceptional so as not to come in the same class with the common run. exactly like corpses. This custom. may be " acquired without study. which doctrine means more than mallows and leeks. but officials indulge in malpractices. repay the personators of the dead. and scholars have abundance of benevolence and righteousness. several times mentioned was abolished after tiie Chou dynasty. because the poor are hard up. but the poor always the former are in a position to make acknowledgfeel ashamed: Students and ments. but. the hearts of the officials are empty. in and refreshments were presented the Shiking and the Liki. They were treated with great respect. the latter have nothing to give in return. and many Z"' 'ftV ^^" J'^ ) phrase quoted from the Han-shu (Pei-tven-yun-fu). as it were. and both use pencil and ink. Both have their faculties. dining gratis like receiving their salary from them.

' They who oppose the views of governors and ministers. 'Human nature is fond of beauty. and then they selves cannot are apprehensive of punishment and dare not speak their minds.The Valuation cials of Knowledge. They have backbone. and when such inferior officers approach them to make remonstrances. dining gratis like personators of the dead. The right feelings. But by their rank they are far always empty and short of men. The Liki says. and serve their chiefs virtue. Once instated. Occupying places of honour and living in luxury. 69 the are.' Those who can speak with vigour are not appreciated owing to their bad style. they themsuperiors or administer admonitions? distinguish between right and wrong. and of investigating and settling all kinds of affairs. how would they dare to utter clear the slightest reproof? Under these circumstances they cannot themselves from the charge of dining gratis like the personators of corpses. The officials struggle for rank and money. which they can expend at discretion. They might they see wrongs as high as the T^ai-shan. and are not portly enough. district magistrates are Somebody may suggest they yet exert their strength and their skill. To extort money they would even risk their lives. they desire substantial profit. When it is useless. are sure to incur their displeasure. but ^ I did not succeed in tracing this passage in the Liki. how would venture to take notice of any wicked inclinations of their In the first place.^ Therefore the residences of prefects and proper course according to the canon. they do their best to establish a just and They do dare to speak.^ that officials have the faculty of drawing up documents. the Liki calls it flattery. would not earn any fame. fail to see how a remonstrance can be construed as a ^ Of men who might offer their advice. Their aims being those of great ministers. so to speak. which they dare not for fear that they might be suspected of flattery. but no flesh. of keeping books and registers. below the high authorities. Therefore he who covets rank and emoluments must not remonstrate with his superiors. it is true. and therefore are not held in esteem. 7a. Though ignorant of moral science. and even if they should fight for their country. . and flattery. ' W K ^ '" ^''« Pei-wen-yun-fu chap. they desist. The with scholars study the great principles. and exhaust it in the >£ V^°^^^ ^0 1^ *M* ffi meaning is that such passionate speakers are imbued with the want elegance. and could not explain the right principles to their covetous superiors.

styles. ' An unjust reproach. To become rich is the desire of every villager.^ First they give much smoke. or the If the composition of official papers is held taking of styles? be a manifestation of the indebtedness to one's superiors.70 Bervice of the State. the officials however possess nothing to trade with. each party obtains what Students take their science to barter wages. Lun-Heng: B. have more glory than rich people in their luxury. and lighted in a hall. * Ordinary officials without classical learning do not rank higher than menials and artisans. Owing to poverty. they desire. Ethical. and for walls. which must also be deemed a manifestation of their indebtedness to those above them. in this respect. Now the doctrine of the ancient kings is not merely like the produce of peasants and merchants.^ One takes cloth to barter silk. hatchets. the masons building houses or walls are likewise showing their to gratefulness to those above them. their intellect what still more remarkable. more they cannot do. What difference is there between carrying hatchets and axes. they shed theij" splendour The trees > They are indebted to the high officers for the emoluments they receive from them. beetles and spades. and spades all being the sarae. similarity of twigs of hemp* with the trunks of the on the mountains is that they serve as torches. is called a rich man. after the fire has come through. and grasping beetles and spades. gain honour and bring about great reforms. but. axes. they again resemble poor men have been burdened with a heavy official duty. and the holding of knives. produces in abundance. and their products cannot be the same.^ Peasants and merchants have different professions. Moreover the work of the scholars is more He who. This discharge of their duty is like house or wall building.^ I who their reply that. They is perfect themselves. their radiance is most lustrous. Those who become high officers. * * M' Still now-a-days torches are often made of hemp-hard. shines brightly and. for experience in business is not to be disdained. it exchanging that which it possesses against that which has not. they correctly distinguish right and wrong. in regard to quality than abundant produce. knives. For houses they use hatchets and axes. and quantity. beetles. and all are performing official duties. . personally discharging their they have no other means of compensation than official duty.

'^ The savants have likewise compositions. knowledge and skill are developed in the same manner as bone. In ancient times they were partly depicted and partly embroidered on official robes. the sun and the moon. jade. All these are emblematic figures mentioned in the Shuking Part I.c. ' 'OJ J^ B^ ^^ . By carving. of jade and jewels. viz. p. mountains and dragons. . but. are worthy I. p. and have much more brilliancy than the fire on the hearth. A king of Wu of the 6th cent. and grinding^ precious objects are produced. and the leader defeated for not knowing the art of war. Note 1. and jewels are cut. Even in case such a polished scholar should prefer not to be employed. must needs win a battle. which still to-day are so very characteristic for China. which they study. 380. are called specious. in black and white. the working of bone and ivory. perhaps 2000 years b. when they have amassed learning.' Before a piece of silk is embroidered. Classics Vol. Book IV. or ground. sculpturing. 71 round about to a great distance. Nuts which have no kernels. 91). Vol. polished. ivory is sculptured. a wise ruler would not give him up. These different manufactures. his army led on by force would be routed. " whereas officials are no more than trunks of trees. resembling the multicoloured chefs-d'auvres of silk embroidery. shedding a brilliant light by their intelligence. . so that painted silk and silk embroideries must already have been known before the Chou djiiasty. II. polishing. He who knows. they are termed solid. How could the faculties of the specious and the solid be compared together? Bone is carved. ivory. the needle distributing the is thread in an way. of note. IV. It goes without saying that scholars are likened to the twigs of hemp. 80). By the skilful use of variegated artistic silk. Part . Ill. ® Officials are compared with such ignorant leaders. and if they cannot be opened with knives or axes. Classics Vol. As regards human learning. a brilliant composition created. on whom cf. or black and blue: pheasants.® ^ The fire on the hearth produced by ordinary fire-wood. or brocade woven.c. b. carved. they leave them far behind. jade polished. a celebrated is general in the service of Ho La. But should he ignore the art of marshalling his troops by tens and by hundreds.The Valuation of Knowledge. By their original endowments they do not exceed others.^S jjr commonly a called Sun-tse. and jewels are ground. I. or not understand fencing and swordsmanship. Sun Wu'^ and Ho Lil^ were the best experts of their age in enlisting soldiers. * The four words are from the Shiking [Legge. they do not distinguish themselves from common silk or ordinary fabrics. 4 {Leyge. Part p. or has learned the rules of war. Officials who have not acquired the learning of the age have no kernel. to ^ whom well-known work on the art of war ascribed.

and the necessary softness. and copper. Mining and. and we have a treatise on these two metals the ^m ^^f^ 7 tlie 1st cent.c. The variety of quality names for rice in its different stages it — there are still others referring to ^ its — show the great importance has for China. dipped into lacquer to write on the wooden or bamboo tablets then .^ Pounded in a mortar and separated from chaflf by sifting. excellence.- * ^tJ^. "While ore. Picked or dug out by miners. Before paddy has been transformed and hulled rice into food. 'HI. their future use is still uncertain. melted in a furnace. His mind is as unprepared as raw rice. they call it paddy.c. which means that it has got the proper taste of food.^ Ore is the same as tiles found by the roadside. b. Now. records. which are split bamboo is 1 m 70. steamed in a pot. A student is improved by his studies and educated by his teacher. the styles ' and ink form characters. the smelting process they are called ore. they are wrought into tools. or small stones on mountains. and the food becoming soft.c. metallurgy were practised long before the Han dynasty. and polished. The style originally was a bamboo in use. Bamboo is broken into tubes. Wood is cut into blocks.* Before copper and tin are found. and cooked with fire. smaller ones.&J The same character later on served to designate a pencil or a brush in made of pencil hair and invented the 3d cent. Ethical. and the result is as remarkable as the transformation of rice into food. copper not yet molten and men resembling bamboo and wood. blockheads growing on mountains and wood in forests. heated with Previous to bellows. it becomes well done food. without instruction. they are among other minerals. When rice ^ is ripe.^ The traces made on these with Big tablets become Classics. its raw flavour has not yet been removed. whose consumption is prejudicial to our health. Thus rice unhusked and not steamed is termed paddy.72 Lun-Heng: B. and its consumption would be injurious. From tax was levied on and iron. a man without learning is like rice not yet turned into paddy. a The of Chou-li informs us that tin salt was mined. b. which are split into tablets.^ Then it is sweet and eatable. b. silver. and unpolished. the last being the metal par the 7th cent. or hulled rice not yet cooked. into hulled rice. The Skuking {Yii-kung) speaks of gold.

for mourners dress When illiterate people are in the government service. Chavannes. which is unpropitious. not losing an atom. and the wood of the to mountain wilds. the colour of undyed stuffs. are who understand how to carve and polish to scribes. those called diggers.^ When they cut not yet it the grass in the wilds of the mountains is luxuriant. Those knowing how by the name of carpenters. whereas red ^ " " the colour of joy and good augury. documents. do not make any mistake it. go who dig holes and ditches. Les Livres 3 * ^ chinoi. level how then could they be placed on a with scholars? Censors drawing up their documents give the exact weight of money. tablets for official memorials. What about man.' and those charged with placing the baskets and vessels at sacrifices. On ancient Chinese books before the nivention of paper. Dyed cloth and silk are called coloured stuffs. make a are They Previous to the dying. carving and paring are wrought into useful objects. Janvier-Fevrier 1905).^ called Now the science of the officials consists in preparing official papers. but people think nothing of «-^ ^ ^&)rpiinife. avant V invention du papier {Journal Asiatique.The Valuation of Knowledge. into boards/ 73 which by dint of carving and planing become writing Bamboo and wood are coarse things.^ they must be ranked with carpenters and diggers. tablets whicli are carved officials.^ appreciated as dresses of lucky augury. Documents written on wooden Wanff Cli'uiif/ and jjolished. All this practice they have for acquired by previous learning. but by cutting and polishing. their vicious inclinations have been eradicated like the weeds. . he stands in the imperial court stiff like a lath or a tablet. official and those are hew and shape beams and pillars. whose nature encompasses heaven and earth? Unless he goes to school to study the Classics and other works. confounds scribes and In auditing accounts. in arranging them in the proper rows. but uncultured mind is imbued with propriety and righteousness.* silk. down with sickles to make a road. and unless his honest. Before scholars have taken the road to knowledge. they cannot bring about any happy results just as mourners dressed in coarse cloth do not attract happiness. before they have been mowed down road.t The is colour of mourning is a greyish white. the noblest creature of all. the erasing and the style or pencil see the remarkable paper of Ed. one speaks of coarse in it. and is of no use.

then he would have to own that he had no money. wished to employ Yin Ho in the administration. and the proprietor would doubtlessly not give him the ware. but their usefulness in the State Tse P^ i^ of Cheng not equal.74 it Lun-Heng: B. If he his own judgment. or should the ruler of men appoint and use him? offer to Let somebody without money in his hands something. Tse Ch an^ compared him with a man who had not yet held a Tse Lu got Tse knife in his hand and was called upon to cut. yet the taste is one becomes satiated. I. where his purchase money was. although they may speak of their great learning. 209. Note 1. Asked by what they were going to That would be like govern. is Ethical. How could the people put faith in such a man. and dining on bran. the physician curing sickness without any method. then replied that he followed distrust him. one Though in both cases we speak of eating. ^^ ^^ • ^@ '^Ic B^ Cf. and.* Kao appointed governor of PL Confucius said. but the knowledge of secretaries. Eating millet. according to his own how fancy. appeases one's hunger. p. " You are injuring a man's son. 407."^ Both had not yet studied and were ignorant of the great principles. say that he could cure diseases. they would reply. Without a as the basis. trivial skill ^ classical erudition and not any valuable knowledge. where Tse Ch'an dissuades from making I'm Ho commandant of a city owing to his being too young Allusion to the Tso-chuan.^p. Celebrated statesman. ^'l^''''' ^(J ii^ jEt ^ol. how he performed his cures. Vol. Tse P'i Duke Hsiang 31st year. by their talents. said to have learning. (^^. and the seller ask him. An empty head is like empty hands. . Should a physician who has no method. In great principles insufficient. 562). and the wisdom of stewards. His words are: • ^ TJ W] 5 — -4^ ^^ ~j ffiS'J -tfc I. Cf. they are familiar with style and ink. Scholars as well as officials are is not the same. Vol. and unexperienced. he would be asked. and the people to have confidence in him? ^ 3 * Chief minister of Cheng. p. How could such a person expect the sovereign to employ.V' P^"'* n. sick persons would classical training Now officials without a pretend to be able to govern the people. they possess too many small it is abilities.W^.

and C. Scholars able to explain one Canon. * The doctrine of Confuciua of course. Either class has is it its defects. and these well acquainted with their books and registers. where they are going. whence must be admitted that the hterati outshine the functionaries by far. 75 CHAPTER IX. officials The of the students are not limited to their inexpe- rience in keeping registers. internally. which have not yet been openly avowed." . but not conscious of them. books and it selves. They are. they both have their shortcomings. But this is an estimate and a valuation of their professions viewed externally. ^. Theory ranks higher than practice. =||[. moreover.' presume to understand the great doctrine. In the chapters on the Weighing of Talents of Knowledge. with themselves.Admitting Shortcomings. Admitting Shortcomings {Hsieh-tuan). nor does the weakness of the merely consist in their ignorance of the great doctrine. the former cultivating the great principles. have B: |. they find fault with their adverown shortcomings and unaware of their proper The Lun-heng informs them ^ with a view to making them open their eyes faults and see. narrow-minded. is and are not up mark.^ ' and the Valuation we have pointed out that concerning their talents. Shakespeare and Dante critics. ignoring their deficiencies.* and therefore look down upon the officials. think their learning above all criticism./|| "to answer. scholars and officials have no reason to impeach one another. 2 ^ Chap. 1 Chap. satisfied saries. 5 Ed. It is a curious fact that in the studying only one book or one author just as Han time already there were specialists we have our Goctlie. How that even the writers of our time are unable to instruct^ them? Vn. and themselves entitled to laugh at the They all rely on their wealth and keep it for themscholars. and do not care for ancient and modern times: they do not understand their to the own business. and the latter studying their registers. VIU.

founders of the Hsia. and they understand the meaning perfectly. Having established their years. Their years Yin = to the Chou nien"^ = down as far as the Ch'in dynasty. Since they only can explain the Classics. it is true. the expression for a year '' now in use. Compared with remote antiquity the Five Canons are quite modern. were omitted in the Classics.76 Lun-Heng: B. which begins with W4n Wang. emperors and rulers have come to the throne. * Yin or Shang dynasty. and Chou destroyed the Yin. The reach sse^ go on commence with T'ang. Their years dynasty. and their events so obliterated. under the CKin and Han dynasties. They are familiar with every sentence. is 8 The downfall of the Hsia and Shang dynasties said to have been brought about by the wickedness of the last emperors Chieh and Chou. The students might object that primitive times are so remote. Shang. the Classics ought to know them. Ethical. The Hsia begin their reign with Yil. unity would require it. but are in the dark as to remote antiquity. and the scholars be able thoroughly to discourse upon them. and Chou dynasties. but weak. In the Five Classics they are all right. ' M:^E. but do not know antiquity. the scholars that Anterior to the Five Classics. when heaven and earth were settled. . called tsa%'^ they lasted down to the Yin ^ dynasty.^ well deserve this designation.^ who are comparatively modern. time. the scholars do Those who are conversant with the present not know either. The scholar's sphere of activity is found in the Five ^ Classics. but asty to fall?^ who was that caused the Chou dyn- ' 8 Pitt The emperors Yii. that the Canons do not mention. Those who know It is but ignore the present are called dryasdusts. the scholars are to be called benighted. Chieh ruined it the Hsia. are called benighted. but which were the names of these sovereigns. a knowledge of which is indispensable. T'ang. often mentioned in the Classics. up to the time. but they fail in regard to all events which took place after the time of the Classics. which as professors in their schoolrooms they explain and teach day and night. the The house last rulers of fell Chou dynasty were not depraved. antiquity. and so their an easy prey to the attacks of powerful Ch'in. and Wen Wang. and teachers not consider them. Even though the history of the Three Rulers.

* ^ ful rival Han Kao Ttsu The Lun-heng was written about 80 a. XVIII — XXI. I.Admitting Shortcomings. Note 3. Chin were and the sovereign of the Yin was T^ang. the Ha7i are the dynasty literati themselves. 449 and 490 seq. thereof 1-^ ^g . years they have been living in their house. and then are asked by somebody.d. bamboo and wooden tablets forming books measured Chou measure in case of the Classics. but why call man who knows neither ancient nor modern times? Should anybody inquire viz. The too distant a period. which were the omens they found. It was only by chance that he not the strong point of Chinese scholars. Vid. therefore ancestor. and not the ® latter ascended the throne of the Ch'in. Chavannes. Hist. who nearly defeated him. ^ reigned from 206-195 b. Vol. fit antique lore. Kao Tsu had to fight many battles against rival generals. The collections two feet four inches or three feet of the less Other works of fore called Cf. about the books of two feet four inches in the utterances of the sages. p. the emperor Shao Hao. is doubtful. But even the Analects originally did not exceed one foot. Sse-Ma Ch'ien makes the emperor Chuan their Sse-Ma Cheng. How many generations are there from Kao Tsu till to the present day. how many were their youngsters. II. and take an interest everything included in their sphere of thought.* and did they win the imperial sway easily or with difficulties ? ^ How is their position compared to the Yin and the Chou dynasties up to in this respect? Let us suppose that the sons of a house have pursued their studies a certain age. The ancestor of the Chou was Hou Chi. his most powerbeing Hsiang Yii. . Vol. Mim. and which feeling prompted him to kill the scholars?^ The of the Ch'in are the former dynasty. who silly If they do not know it. but who was the progenitor of the house of CA'm?' That Ch'in burned the Five Canons and threw the scholars into pits is well known to devotees of the Five Classics. are the silly people of their age. This Hm 2 These questions are answered Chronology is in Vol. they are Now the scholars who are ignorant of the afi'airs of the Han are time. and familiar with our a teacher a to be teachers. pp. The things of the Han ' time however are not mentioned in the Classics. and ancestors. only about one foot long. importance were much smaller. p. 1." they study these day and night. 456. 77 defeated first The Choii may be of by the Han. in Those well versed time. but the first ruler of the Hsia was Yil. but for what reason did Ch'in Shih Huang Ti consign the Classics to the flames. I.c. Wang CKung speaks of these omens in chap. and how many years have elapsed now?^ How were the Han first invested by Heaven.

p.^ and who was the that man Liki: was first initiated into it?" is The following question intended for the students of the the — Already before the time of Confucius Chou had estabYin and the Hsia. the Chou Yiking. lished their Rites. the second. . From which of the two did the 29 chapters proceed? Who is the author of the 102 chapters? Where were all the chapters of the Shuking. after the rise of the Han dynasty. works. First I would ask the expositors of the Yiking. how it originated. I. how did the Yiking escape?* Some years after the accession of the Han it was restored. the I would ask again: first is called Lien-shan. Kuei-tsang and the third. and one of 100 chapters. discovered one chapter of the Yiking. works in wliich they are treated. 447 seq. Vol. See Legge. Cf. in their eyes. each on his own favourite Classic. or the Kuei-tsang. 454. to these questions are to be found in Vol. small arts. and severally to question the literati. By the joint efforts of these three Sages the Yiking was completed. Was that Yiking composed by Fu Hsi. p. had the Shuking first transcribed. cf. there is an edition of 102 chapters. divination the Yiking As a book on The answers was preserved from destruction. which Wen Wang developed into sixty-four. receive? What name Was the Yiking complete at that time or not? Shuking which they are To the students of the Shuking I beg to address the following questions: — The now explaining day and night. p. and who was its author. Note 4. and the ignorance of these matters not deemed a deficiency. illustrations.which they compare with minor A knowledge of these works is not appreciated by the literati. But in addition to this. Ethical. are. I should like again singly. and written by — Wen Wang the Lien-shan. 2. which he interprets day and night. ' XVI. Vol. embraces 29 chapters. Sacred Books Vol. and annexes. There are three editions of the Yiking.. • Chao T'so.' and trivial books. They will most likely reply that Fu Hsi composed the Eight Diagrams. I. 450. and there were those of the The Three Emperors would increase or decrease the Rites according R 8 * m' I. when Ch'in burned all the books? Which emperor. When In the time of Hsilan Ti a woman in Ho-nei demolishing an old did it house. and that Confucius wrote the definitions. all Introduction p.78 all Lun-Heng: B. or the Chou Yiking?^ the CKin burned the Five Canons.

Which chapter was it among the sixty? different Kao Tsu charged Shu Sun T'ung^ with the edition of the Where were the sixteen chapters parts of the Yi Li. 1122-1116.C. When were the rites of the son of Heaven abolished.. Introduction p. question is indicated by the two 455. succeeded WuWang.® appear then? ' But the grandeur of Win venerated under CKing^ and K^ang^ why did the Shiking '° The double This problem Loc."^ and six multiplied. Ltgge. to wit in the time of The virtue of the king being wanting in the houses of his subjects. the early reigns of the kings of Chou. tlie chapters were added to or diminished. The seq.. Vol.. Note 5. and the great officers being remiss in their remonstrances. a woman in Ho-nei demolishing an old house. ^ Note I. <* The Catalogue in the Honshu mentions seventeen chapters. previous to their chapters. the youngest go down to the 6th cent.. ' XXVU.. Kotes p. finals .'' They are sure to reply that the Shiking was com- posed at the decline of the Chou dynasty. Cf. p.C. or the Hsia. and do not know. How many chapters were there Let after the Ch'in period?^ me ask the students of the Shiking under which ruler it was composed. -m . 1115— 1079 B.^ Institutions. "^ is ventilated in Vol. or of the Fm. I Now that of the Chou. (Legge. they will no doubt urge that it But in their Rites there were the "Six is the Liki of the C/iou. Both were wise and virtuous Legge holds that the Shiking rulers. is Chou. According to Wylie. whence the three hundred and sixty left out. six times six. Wang and Wu Wang was still and the latter's age was not yet degenerate. 8 ' ••^ 1078-1053 B. a mode of expression not seldom used in the Lun-heng. IV.) oldest pieces were comb. Prolegomena pp. * * Cf. 3. gave the numbers the text ampHfied or curtailed. whether the Bepresent Liki is cause the Han succeeded the Chou.. is a fragment of various collections of odes made during Classics Vol. found one chapter of the lost Liki. posed during the Shang dynasty.. 380.c. ^^ . perhaps at the downfall of the Cliin dynasty? Under the reign of Hsilan Ti. Classics Vol. 27 and 82 . 79 to circumstances. 4. Ch'engWang. ' thirty-six and three hundred and officers of the sixty. the Shiking w^as produced. cit. In our Liki the Six Institutions are there are no three hundred and sixty officers. new edition?'' fire The Yi Li appears in sixteen which escaped the of Ch'in. and no mention made of the son of Heaven. Part I. I. p. 5 they were concealed in the house of Confucius. King K'ang.Admitting Shoitcoiiiings.

but how do we know whether at the burning of the Five Canons by Ch'in no special regard was shown for the Shiking alone ?^ There is a question for the students of the CJiun-cKiw. when he left Wei. Part Prolegomena ."^' Part I. that the Shiking existed already at ' Shuns time very in Something seems to be wrong in the text here. how do we know that it must just have been K'ang Wang? The two dynasties have both degenerated towards their close. Wang CJiung's rendering gi by Shiking is very doubtful. and his surmise precarious. Classics Vol. The Odes were nearly all recovered in memory of the scholars more than the * the Han Lu time. Classics Vol. before Confucius edited p. writing.'^ which were committed to To-day we have no book of Odes. yl^ is written iu lieu ^^. [The Shiking is the expression of earnest thoughts. that origin goes back to that it They its came down from the Chou.c. ^ Cf. who was its ruler ^ and in what manner did he treat Confucius. for Wang Ch'ung's time there were several editions. Ethical. 83.80 Lun-Hcng: B.C. when the ruin of the Ilsia and Yin dynasties was drawing near? The Shuking says. p. "Poetry expression of earnest the prolonged utterance of that expression. " '' ^ pB It *^® chronicle of Lu. Duke Ch'u. perhaps we should read "we have a book of Odes". 457 and Legge. p. See Vol. 48) where. The Chou dynasty had more tlian one king. having been preserved In the other Classics.^ But. Confucius returned to office. and songs are the chanting of these expressions]. singing is translates. 8. I. in 493-466 B. however.^ conse- quently at that time there must already have been a Shiking. — ' p# W ^'fe ' ^ W 57^ '^'^"'^'"^ ^^""^ ' "' ^°°^ of is ^' ^^ ^^^^^*' ^^"**'"°* ^°'. ' 492-481 b. the chronicle was the name of of Lu I. he edited the music and wrote the Ch'un-cKiu. His return from Wd to Lu falls in the reign of Duke Ai. and that time." The =jrj^ of our text seems a better reading than ' yl^. five to six years in Wei without taking What I. that he returned to Lu and composed the CKun-cKiu? Confucius copied the chronicle" and made of it the CIlun-cKiu. Prolegomena p. In the time of which king of the Chou dynasty did Confucius vmte the "Spring and Autumn"? After his return from Wei to Zm. it. the Legge takes =i to mean "poetry" and accordingly thought. V. Legge. however.^ or did it Of old they collected the Odes. why then was not the Shiking composed. Was CKun-cKiu the original name of the chronicle. he did during and how he was treated by the reigning duke we do not know. maintain. There is a blank in his history just at this time. 484 after having passed this time.

They might perhaps say Hsiao Ho. and three ^^ Of penalties there were likewise Cf. p. 702. II. cit.^ Now in our Nine Statutes we have still in symbolical. the nose. Diet.^ which. its "/j^ fflj the five of Yu and in —banishproviding fining. "^ His daughter. [there thousand rules of demeanour. superintendent of the public granary in Ch'i. . the basis of the Penal Code of the Ch'in dynasty drew up the Nine Statutes question. but the others will object that Kao Yao lived under Yil. Wdn Ti lived later than Hsiao Ho. the officer ^ 10 Mem. castration. T'i Jung. p. Died b. 2 "Nine Statutes" forming the Penal Code of the Han dynasty. ChHen Han dynasty. These punish- ments proving 11 Ho on in 3.^ but not corporal punishments. and then form part of the The Nine jurists ^ might likewise ask the literati. the Note 3. but ^^"' five oflF daughters. and the Han-shu chap. XXVU. and Hsiao talion for bodily injury and theft. 10. and that the CKin dynasty was conspicuous by first cruelty.c. 3 ^_ fl^J Hsiao : Branding. 'A^i:^"flj^a^.^ Under the regime oi Hsiao WSn Ti^ a. Kao Yao. 12v. 23. in his struggle for the throne.gad in the Han-shu p. 62. after suffering corporal punishment there was no redress. only to be met with the rejoinder that Hsiao Ho was a contemporary oi Kao Tsu. that under the were nine kinds of punishments ment. 179-157. cutting off the nose. is Hist. pointing out that. and we know that then corporal punishments were that the Nine Statutes are vogue.C.nd called Shun Cf. Yii Yi l[S~f^^B loc. He 6 also drew up a Penal Code No. hoped to get on with three statutes ^^^ ^ ^^ capital punishment for murder.^ sent a petition to the emperor in behalf of her father..] ' were three hundred rules of ceremony. and cutting off the feet. Chung Yung chap. Wen 71s was touched by her words and abolished corporal punishments. details in in 8 IaI ^'J This episode branding. are not contained in our law. Cf. B. who made the Statutes. 1 Ir. 474). 193. 12v {Chavannes. and flogging. )/^~x" ^• Chou dynasty there addition : ^B -^Q ^ij • Chavannes j. . p.'^ They having heard of the legislation of Kao Yao. Shun Yn Te had committed will certainly reply a fault and was summoned to appear in CKang-an. where ^. the later Ha7i for the Kao Tsu. are we entitled then to assume the work of Hsiao Ho?^^ Of old. Giks. * Ho assisted Liu Pang. Han Kao Tsu insufficient. Vol. cutting is told with all the the Shi-chi chap. Hsiao Ho in his legis- lation restored corporal punishments. and execution. whipping. p. loc. cit.Admitting Shortcomings. however. and that Yu's punishments were five. Bihl. Yii ^ ^ Shun Te had no sons. 81 become a Classic by the revision. cutting off the feet.

82 three hundred. An inquirer would ask In short. On what is based the monthly turn?'^ la2 3 Ed.* to the What is the reason of this? if we inquire of the scholars the meaning of old and modern institutions. how latter. in order to understand In this all these matters. people's turn to serve. 5. This refers to the obligatory military service during the epoch. Our Ritual has sixteen sections. The officials pretend that they know official business and understand their books and registers. with the administration of special magistrates are appointed. now prefects and What In ancient times there does that mean?^ was the joined field system. does this discrepancy come in? All the chapters of the Five Canons have headings referring subjects treated for the sake of distinction. ® The joined field system fell into desuetude in the Chou time already. and the laws o£ Hsiao Ho have nine sections. Such rules as were separated from the ceremonies were added to tlie penalties. they are at pains how to distinguish between the names. and completely comrespect the officials would prove Let me ask : In olden days the feudal barons were entrusted territories. What does that signify?" People are expected continually to exercise the same profession. it was not requisite thoroughly to grasp their principles prehend their meaning. After one month of service it was other . which lasted one month every year. when Chou land taxes were introduced. Lun-Heng: B. Only the RituaP and the Penal Code^ are without such headings.: "©ijli^. people the community.^ and a Code spurious. they are no less ignorant. and what was excluded from the former was incorporated into the Therefore both were of equal number. having to cultivate one are levied in grain field for Now land taxes and grass. Ethical. A' and C: ^jjjs which gives no sense. and the feudal lords replaced by functionaries. A Ritual with headings is considered disfigured. How can their indolence be held to be the proper method of teaching? Their horizon is rather limited. this we must reproach them with. ^ Bp — • H . and if we question them on things concerning their Classics. ^ Feudality was abolished by the ChHn dynasty. and three tliousand minor paragraphs. whether. quite incompetent.

243.' is What style that? In what manner are the eight degrees of nobility' conferred upon the people? What is the meaning of the titles: tsan-niao and shang-tsao? * ^° '^&- I suppose that 1^ ^^ should be written. p. 83 "Whith the twenty-third year year the land tax is corvees ' begin. who is to quell fire? To what do If there is the six feet of a pace. Cf. practised to the present day. ^^ W. A designation for the minister of revenue and the minister of works together. -^ ^. HI. Sprachen Vol. The meaning of this very concise sentence ® ^ very doubtful. De Groot. to the 56th The in corvees. whereas corresponding with the minister of works he uses the expression 'to report. my paper Das chinesische Finanz. I.f. Vol. Cf. especially military service. d. ^ which rule then obtains? Two prefects corresponding together use the phrase: Your servant ventures to state. a * 5 ° Cf. frighten away demons p. See Vol. I. and a chancellor. Tsan-niao literally means n . ' 608. and for up a human figure of peach wood at what purpose do they suspend cords of reeds over the entrance. I. p. is The custom of painting tigers on the door-screens to Vid. See Vol. but no assisting under-secretary of State. and the six inches of a bonnet correspond? a commanding officer. I. titles is The Chinese are: — En* |^. p. p. to They seem have been granted for military achievements during the Han time {Pien-tse-lei-pien). How is this to be explained? When a prefect has to address the two/w. p. Orient. Vol. 534. 520. from the fifteenth to be paid. the Well. the Door. ^ Shin Nung. and from the seventh the poll-tax. Sem. and the Hearth? And wherefore are the Spirits of the Land and Grain.^ he says that he ventures to say. Fetes annuelles d'Emoui Vol. two district magistrates do not say so. and the Ling Star sacrificed to?* Why Why does it is sickness expelled at the close of the year ? ^ What mean that they set the door. for jm gives no sense. was the twenty-third year chosen? Under which ruler was introduced the sacrifice before the winter solstice?^ Wherefore have been estabhshed the ofi"erings to the Gate. and paint tigers on the door-screens?^ the idea of those What is who on the walls of the porches paint a hero. 187.— Admitting Shortcomings. U. 1900. 510. lasted from the 23rd year under the the Han dynasty.und Steuerwesen" Mitt. '° ^^ -^ officials in vogue during the {Chavannes writes ^^)y h jj^ are two of the twenty ranks of Ch'in and Han dynasties.

Wang CKung says that day has 60 divisions. -4.^ How is did this custom arise? What with a pigeon. pigeon considered auspicious. — Extraordinary merits of does the expression: chi-mo^ officials are termed fa-yueh. one hundred and twenty divisions were introduced for day and night. 529). . {Pei-wen-yun-fu chap. the blade for fighting. with a hundred divisions. pp. Ethical. and a special officer had charge of the For day and night a stalk was marked p. p. to 5 a. No. he had pigeon staves man was hidden there. Laufer's paper. When is the water in the cl«psydra has sunk so to five times. and not a staff at one end? If the do they not give a pigeon. Vol. adorned with a pigeon at one end. were called * 3Ex3C " imperial staves " {Le Tscheou-li par £'d. On the right side one carries the sword of honour in the girdle. The by Feng-su-t'ung assigns another reason for this old custom: Han Kao-Tsu. 2267 to the effect that the figure of a pigeon the is staflF. In the Han time dififerent stalks. It use in clepsydra {Le Tscheou-li Vol." one foot long. * 3 ttMmmEd. 201). and on the left. 419. wear Wherefore this nice distinction? Dresses are tightened round the waist. were used. The officers of this is rank were entitled to ride The original meaning of shang-tsao not clear (Cf Chavannes. concealed himself in the rushes. 52). Chou epoch. with another bird?* far. 528. and from ancient times the hours are determined by the waterclock. his pursuers did not think that a his accession. 394). five The drum was in beaten to mark the night-watches every two hours from 7 p. n. reprinted from the Boas Anniversary Volume. him. The Bird Chariot in China and Europe.. 11. The staves which in the Chou dynasty were presented to old men by order of the emperor. implying the wish that they might eat their food with the same ease as pigeons do. A picture of the handle of such a "pigeon-staflf. pursued Pigeons cooing above his adversary Hsiang Yu. After made in remembrance of this adventure to support the old. corresponding to the varying lengths of day and night. According to the Hou Honshu mid-autumn all the old men of seventy years received a "jade staff.^ What mean? are presented with a jade sort of sticks are those At the age of seventy. will be found in B. The ^ entry in Giles Diet. red single garments. but not with another bird.m. of which about 58 would have to be allotted to day-time the II. why but a pigeon-staff. Hist. and C: -ft ^jT? -^- has: ^ in fj'- Both readings are possible. is the drum sounded up The day For what reason?^ divided into sixty parts. of which 60 would be allotted to each at the e<juinoxes.— 84 Lun-Heng: B. p." taken from the Hsi ch'ing ku chien. old people staff. M^m. and he escaped. Who established this custom? Officers dress in black. and 42 48 to night. but within the palace gates they horse adorned with a silken harnass.C. -Bio^ Vol.m. 1906. such horses. In 5 B. was engraved on should be rectified.

and whence that Hsi Chung constructed the Hsi Chung got the impulse to build a cart. write letters. 85 tlie Shoes are curved the head like?' like a hook. and first carriage. ' crests.' The officials ignore what they ought to know. who first erected suburbs. they peruse the same paragraphs over and over again. and are blamed for not extending their learning. All know nothing They are one-sided. explaining complicated expressions and elucidating in crucial points. for to our question it is too far away. ride in a carriage. and where horses were bred. They merely go by and take notes. In the presence of a minister they give their opinion with great volubility. they again do not to be know it.Admitting Shortcomings. people will reply by saying that T'sang Hsieh invented writing. The inventors of carriages and writing are easy to be known and. In later ages the Sages noticed that birds and beasts had horns. home their own sphere. they invented bonnets and caps with ribbons.: |p. . p. But if we go on to inquire what prompted T' sang Hsieh to make his invention. in imitation whereof {KangMa Ed. dressing in furs and covering their heads with skins. » Cf. ' The Hou Han-shu says that in primitive times men lived in caverns and wild places.: ^Jlp. and what are bonnets on Officials live in the suburbs. to be sure. The officials again are not at decisions.C'. but well. Aand5.). investigate matters. of writing? It is difficult to know. 27. Diet. Which And which artisan invented carriages? Which first built suburbs? was the place for breeding horses? Which ruler invented the art emperor. and beards. have their short- comings. and lack thoroughness. The scholars do not study ancient and modern times. unsteady. All their devices are superficial and inadequate. who was in the habit of drawing up documents. and no reason whatever to cavil at one another. how can they understand what is distant in time? Trusting in the text of the Classics.'^ and going out.

whereas in raising heavy loads and tearing off" hard objects lies the force of strong men." That means that the wise are likewise powerful in propriety and righteousness. . whether a scholar who can explain one Classic may be regarded as a man full of energy." was the reply. Somebody might ask. p. I would reply that he may not. the Cf. and students in their studies. VU. Note 1. or hold a decorative flag. inquired of Yang Tse Yiln. {Hsiao-h).86 Lun-Heng: B. CHAPTER X. Vol. * i^i^j" "The Timber of (|uofatioii is Tse Tree" a chapter of the Shuking. He leads and reforms the people. for knowledge and a athletes of great strength are capable of carrying a tripod or holding a flag. » ' The well known philosopher. Enlarged views and penetration are the force of students. We read in the chapter Tse-t'sai. Some one tripod. and therefore can open the path to wisdom. I. In our text tliis not to be found. Ethical.^ 1 Chap. Reforming requires propriety and recand propriety and rectitude necessitate literary abilities. Having still energy left after all exertions. VIII. The Chinese words are: — ^^ K ^Q ^ ^ One Classic does not suffice. Officials display it talent.^ whether also among the wise and virtuous there were men strong enough to carry a huge A "A hundred. 124. guiding titude. and this ability to study proves that one possesses energy. one may use it for study. hundred among the wise and virtuous were held to be fit to match those carrying a big tripod or lifting a decorative flag. just as scholars of great energy possess an extensive penetrating intellect. and we have not yet spoken of the energy of All the learned possess this energy. ^ The Display of Energy In the luation of chapters on the Weighing of Talents and the VaKnowledge^ the discussion has been limited to knowledge and learning. and reforming the people. in the administration. Chap.* "Powerful is the king who opens the path to wisdom.

* and What happened after the Han. the talents of learned scholars are equal to those of ten million people. therefore. P'ang Shao Tu would add that perhaps he had not So-and-So could nonsense. but Shao Tu rejoined. The remark of P'^ang Shao Tu is true. a blind faith in They have the methods of their teachers and.^ The Chou looked up to the the Chou and Ch'in times. . not equal to that of a million people?" The prefect could give no answer. typical conceit of a Chinese scholar.^ \Ts4ng Tse said.— is not heavy? Only with death does course stop. they may be called learned scholars. the Chou and CKin does not exist for the literati. 76. CliSn-liu. for the scholars may be able to repeat a million sentences. So-and-So'^ equalled those of a hundred men. the literati Many events which happened before the Yin and Chou epochs have been recorded in the Six Canons. — is it not long?"]^ ' A circuit in Honan. "Officials do not understand a single single You speak Pang word of a teacher.^ wlienever he recommended some was in the habit of saying that the talents of Mr. 3 Cf. Of the aff'airs of the Ch' in and Han time they no notice and thereby evince a lack to of zeal and energy." returned the prefect angrily. still it is not quite to the point. with a million men " my dear friend. though their topics be manifold. but of these know take nothir^. yet they pay no heed to ancient and modern history.The Display of Energy. ^ Quotation from Analects VIII. In case scholars are inclined to enlarge their views. and that Mr. p. 7. Two Dynasties. however. * ^ The Hsia and Shang The dynasties. Canon and cannot repeat one sentence spoken by a is Students. "The learned man may not be without breadth is of mind and vigorous endurance. Perfect virtue it is the burden which he considers is his to sustain. vie said enough. as P^ang Shao Tu puts it. are able to enounce a million paragraphs and phrases. their knowledge. the scholars have not this ambition. in talent. course it His burden heavy and his his is long. They have more energy than common ones and. The prefect being diffident of these abilities and not replying. after all they do not deserve the name of pro- found scholars. The Han wished to learn. 87 P'ang Shao Tu of scholar for an office.

88

Lun-Heng: B.

Ethical.

We
to

learn from this that the scholar has to carry the burden

of his conviction alone, and alone to walk the long
the goal for
to

way

leading

burden up
such
is

which he is striving. His body carries a heavy his last moments, never tired and never broken,
energy.

his

single

The burden of

TsSng Tse consists in

virtue,

that of the scholar in learning;
is

the loads are dissimilar,

but the weight

the same.^

hundred-weight may be lifted by one man, but two men are incapable of moving more than 10 cwt. In the world, there are many apt to lift a hundred-weight, but very few have the
force to raise 10 cwt.

A

What

the scholars carry
is

When
of
five acres

the productive power of the soil
of average quality.

and the crop of one acre is Farmers know that the exuberant growth of grain is owing to the natural fertility of the soil, but people ignore that abundant literary productions are the upshot of extraordinary talents, and thus do not understand the real state
trees pullulate,

above 10 cwt. and as much as the produce
is

great, plants

of

affairs.

Now,

the energy of learned scholars surpasses that of

common

and in a still higher degree that of functionaries. Those who promote the wise and recommend the learned,
students,
energetic.

are usually accounted very

In order to raise the wise

and recommend the learned, they draw up their daily reports to the throne. Those able to write them are learned scholars, who must not necessarily be professionals. It suffices that they have a keen intellect as well as a ready pen. The memorials of Ku Tse Yiln and T'ang Tse Kao ^ number more than a hundred, all written in a most vigorous style. They speak out what they think, conceal nothing, and are never at a loss how to express their ideas. Only men of genius can do that. Confucius was the strongest man in the Chnu epoch. He wrote the CHun-cHiu, revised the Five Classics, and fixed the doubtful
text of

many

an abstruse book.^

The higher

the mountains, the

more clouds gather around them. Before the morning is over, Mt. T'ai has produced so much rain, that it pours down on the whole empire.* The knowledge of the wise is like those clouds and rain.

^

I

do not see

why

a distinction

is

made between TsSng Tse and
p. 469.

other scholars.

Was

Tsenff Tse not learned,
*
*

and are the scholars not virtuous? and T'ang Lin Vol.
it

The same

as

Ku Yung

I,

This must refer to the Classics, for

is

not

known

that Confucius revised

other books besides.
*

See Vol.

I,

p.

277.

The Display

of Energy.

89
full

Consequently they put forth more than thousands of tablets
of
letters,

and must be admired

for their great energy.

In praising force, people use to extol

Wu

Huo.^

Tung Chung

Shu^ and Yang Tse Yiln are the Wtt Huos of letters. King Wu of C/iin attempted with MSng YUeh to lift a tripod, but he could not
lay
it, broke a blood-vessel, and died.^ When inferior scholars open their innermost thoughts to men like Tung Chung Shu, they are unable to carry the burden which they have taken, and

carry

break down, having sprung an artery.

When,

in

Wang Mang's

time,

the clauses of

all

the chapters

of the Five Canons were gone through, they amounted to two

hundred thousand.

A

gentlemen of vast learning, Kuo Lu, fixed

the old text, during the night, and expired under his candle.

His
his

mind could not bear the
life

strain,

his arteries

were broken, and

extinguished.

The son of Yen^ had already all but outrun Confucius in his course, when he flagged, completely shattered and exhausted. His hair turned white, and his teeth fell out. Even a person with almost perfect endowments may still break down. The strength
was wonderful. Yen Yuan could not bear the strain. Unless talents and energy are equally balanced, knowledge does not come up to the mark. Those who perforce will rise from the rank and file up to the highest grades,^ come to spitting blood, swooning, and losing their consciousness, until at last their
of Confucius
life

ends.

To

fill

boards with
is

five

rows of characters or

to write

me-

morials of ten tablets,

a hard task for people of small talents

and bad writers. How could they combine sentences to paragraphs, and write hundreds of chapters? That requires special energy. If the waters of streams and rivers come rushing, taking their course through the country, always flowing on and never drying up or stopping, they must have copious sources. People are aware that the long courses of rivers and streams require springs

'

2 3

A "Samson" of A great writer.
Cf.

the feudal age.
Cf. Vol.
I,

Giles,

Diet
1.

No. 2334.

p. 357,

Note

Shi-chi

chap. 5, p. 26v.

{Chavannes,

death of King
strong

Wu

took place

in b.c. 307.

Mem. He was very

Hist. Vol.

U,

p. 76).

The

strong himself and fond of
all

men
*

like

Menff YUeh.

After the king's death, the latter and

his relations

were executed.
Yen Yuan
ySl

= Yen Hui,
'ffl'

the disciple of Confucius.

^

@ TT

'^^^ ^^^^ character stands for

IQ.


90
Lun-Heng:
in
B. Ethical.

abounding

water

in the earth,

but they overlook that

men who
Looked

write thousands

of tablets have in their bosom an ever-flowing

spring of ideas, and thus they are far from the truth.
at,

the hoof of a racer does not distinguish itself from the hoof of

horse, but no sooner does it gallop through the plain, becomes visible that it can run a thousand Li. The hoof of a horse and a human hand are the same after all. If those who make much of the hoof of a steed, do not call attention to the hand of a man of letters, they do not understand analogies. A good judge of the strength of muscles, who has an eye

a

common
it

than

for analogous facts, will place a

the service of the State, for a

man of great scientific energy in man strong in letters, assisted by a
is

strong governor,

is

sure

of great success through his strength,

whereas,
one,
it

when

a strong

man

not assisted by another

strong

ends in disaster. This will become evident from the follow-

ing consideration:

A strong man may lift a big and ponderous thing, and a strong ox may draw a heavy cart. Such a cart ascending a hill, a strong ox must draw in front, and a strong man push behind, then it is possible to pull the vehicle over the height. If, however, the ox be feeble, and the man worn out, the heavy cart rolls back, tumbles into a ditch, upsets, and is smashed. Learned scholars, cherishing the principles of the former kings in their hearts and harbouring the dicta of the diverse schools of thought, are hard to be pushed or pulled, even more so than a heavy cart. Should those who recommend and push them be weak and without energy, then they retire and hide in rock caverns.' The Yellow River rises in the K'un-lun, and the Yongtse comes from the Min-shan.^ The force of their currents is very great. After a heavy rainfall still greater masses of water flow down,^ and unless their banks were so wide, and the land so low, they would never reach the eastern sea in their course. If the banks were narrow, and the land high, a breach in a canal would cause the entire hill land to be flooded. The knowledge of an able student bears some resemblance to this. When his learning pours out, and he does not fall in with a strong governor to introduce and recommend him, he is lost in
'

Scholars not finding the necessary support retire from public

life

to

become

recluses and hermits.
=•

Cf. p. 23,

Note

2.

«

Ed. 5.:

r^ll^Zi^'

Ed. A. and

C:

'^^rfi^*-

The Display of Energy.
his poor cottage, for
ruler

91

how
him
fire

could he rise to the palace of the holy

on government? it be raised. Now, here is a man whose knowledge rises as high as a peak, and whose virtue is like a mountain. In spite of his immense force, he cannot boast of it himself, and stands in need of somebody to introduce him. Should he not find such an assistant, he takes his wonderful energy and absconds in some small alley of a village for want of

and impart

to

his views

The

flame of a

does not shine, unless

an opportunity to
'

rise.

Ao and Hsia Yil ^ were two men of great strength in ancient times. They could carry a thousand chiin ^ on their bodies and with their hands tear ofi" a horn or twist a hook, but called upon to lift themselves from the ground, they would have been unable to
detach themselves from
it.

Men whose bosoms
to

are filled with

be in the king's palace.

of three inches and a pencil

wisdom and genius, deserve They require no more than a tongue of one foot to assert themselves. But
if

they cannot push themselves to the front, and,
stay there.

they could, not

They want

others to push them, and exp'ect others to

prepare a position for them.
a suitable post for
learning.

However it is rather difficult to find men imbued with great principles and extensive

A

small stone being attached to a mountain, the force of the
it

mountain can hold
the small stone
position.
is

in its gravel

and mounds of
that
it

earth.
itself

Besides,

so light and subtle,

can

keep

its

As regards a big stone, however, it is not embedded in sand or earth, and the mountain cannot hold it. Placed on a
precipitous
cliff,

it

is

sure to tumble

down
is

into the deep valley.

Provided that a scholar, heavy with knowledge, comes across
a superior of modest endowments, there

no sand nor earth right

and
his

left to

support him, and even

if

he

is

given an exalted position,

chief cannot

keep him there.

He

shares the fate of the big

stone tumbling down.*

Somebody

cuts firewood on a mountain.

The

light

brushwood

can easily be tied together, but the big trees of ten spans and more

^

A

strong

man
I,

in

the Shan<^ dynasty.
6.

»
^

See Vol.

p.

484, Note

^3.
The

Ed. A. has the misprint ^plcatties.
is

A

chibi

in

the Hair time

was equal

to

30 pounds or
*

chief

compared with a mountain unable

to

liold

a big stone,

tlie

scholar:

— Only

great

men

are

qualified to appreciate great

men and keep them

in

their service.

92
neither admit of being

Lun-Heng: B.

Ethical.

moved by pulling nor of being pushed behind. Therefore the fuel-gatherer leaves them in the forest and returns
home, collecting the small wood, which he binds together. Carrying on this argument, we must own that men of great abilities resemble
trees of over ten spans in circumference. Human force cannot raise nor recommend them, as the fuel-gatherer is incapable of pushing
*

or dragging a huge tree.
Confucius

resting-place, not because his

was wandering about, and nowhere did he find a sagehood was not enlightened enough,
difficult to

but his grand principles were too

be put into practice,
Confucius stood

and nobody could make use of him. Consequently there like an enormous tree on a mountain.

That Duke Huan succeeded
energy.
raise

in bringing

about a confederation

of the princes and re-adjusting the empire, was due to Kuan Chung's

Kuan Chung had

this energy,

and since Duke Huan could

him, he
itself

may
of

well be called a mighty monarch,
Tse Hsii,^

Wu

could

and Ch'u had no employment for Ch'il Yuan.^ The energies of these two persons were very great, but their sovereigns were unable to raise them.
not avail
After some unsuccessful efforts to raise a thing, people eventually
leave
it

Wu

on the spot and depart, but
it

it

also

anger, they cut

down with an
Tse Hsii

axe and destroy

happens that, out of it. This hardship

was

suffered

by Wu

and CKn Yuan.^

Fish in a pond mutually devour each other.

Those which
Similarly

passing their mouths find room in them, are swallowed, but those

which
SJiang

their

mouths cannot hold, are not gulped down.

Yang thrice addressed Duke Hsiao, but solely his

last proposal

was

accepted.
fit

The two former proved
to

impracticable,

and the

last

only was

be carried out.

We

notice that the enhghtened

laws of Kiuzn Chung, and the agricultural and military system of Shang Yang^ were measures not to be taken by weak rulers.

'

Others

may recommend them,
long,

but

then their promotion

is

not of long

duration.

Ere

they will get into conflict with their employers and abandon

their posts.
2

Cf. p.

1,

Note

1.

3

See

p. 1,

Note
I, I,

2.

*
5

See Vol.
Vid. Vol.

p. 140, p.

Note

2.

463, Notes 5 and 6.

The Display

of Energy.

93
CA't/,

lu the era of the Six States very clever officers went to

and the CKu State became powerful;' they abandoned CKi, and power declined. They succoured Cliao, and Chao was well its provided,'^ they turned their back upon Wei, and Wei had to suflfer.'

The Han
devices,^

State employed Shin
for fifteen years

and

Pu Hai^ carrying out his three no foe dared infest its territory.

Then it dispensed with his services •and did not read his books. The weapons were destroyed, the armour gone to pieces, and the State was annexed by C/iin.
In the Yin and Chou epochs there

was an uninterrupted

series

of revolutions, and one disaster followed the other.

Their intention

to do without government, but their power was too weak, and their knowledge too limited, so that the best advice was lost upon them. Thus a heavy mound of earth cannot be trampled down by one man's footsteps, nor a huge pile of stones" be subverted by one man's hand. Wise officers excel by their strong sinews, and narrow-minded rulers are no match for them. If they seek each other, they pass one another like fish and quadrupeds.''

was not

Unless a Kan-chiang blade ^ he thrust by a man, water-plants and gourds" receive no injury, and unless fine bamboo arrows be shot from a cross-bow, Lu tissues" cannot be pierced. Not that the blade and the fine bamboo are worthless, but without a person dealing a blow or shooting, the gourd and the silk are not cut
Such an

^

officer

was

.^t.

-^^

Wu

CKi of Wei, who as
all

chancellor organised

the administration of Ch'u, and vanquished
'

her

rivals.

The Chao
was

State flourished under

HP

^fe Fei Yi as minister, who was put

to death in b.c. 295.
*

It

for this reason that
his court.

King Hui of Wei

in b.c.

336 summoned Menciua

and other sages to
*

Han and
chi

Shen Pu Hai, a native of Loyang, became minister under Prince Chao of died in b.c. 337. He is known as Shin Tse and a Taoist author. The <SA»in

devotes some lines to him
Fei Tse.
*

chap. 63, which treats of

Lao

Tse,

Chuang

Tse,

and

Han
this

It is

not clear which these three devices were; the F'ien-tse leipien quotes

passage, the Pei-wen-yun-fu refers to Huai

Nan

Tse.

Shen

Pu Hai

reorganised

the administration,

sought the friendship of other States, strengthened the military

power of Han, and reformed the criminal law.
^
'

^^'
Living

Ed. A.
in
I.

:

;^^.

This meaning

is

wanting

in

the dictionaries.

diflferent

elements, they cannot unite or have any intercourse.

» ®

Cf. Vol.

p. 504,

Note

1.

Very

soft

things.

The

tissues

of

Lu

in

Shantung must have

been

exceptionally fine.

94
or
pierced.^

Lun-Heng:

B. Ethical.

How

could

tlie

feat

of cutting a flag or piercing

an armour be achieved?

With
powerful
stones,' but

strength sufficient to

ballista.
is

draw a bow one may not pull a Provided that the force of the ballista is of five pulled with three, then the sinews are rent, and the
result.

bones broken without any
spine.

The

strength not sufficing for

bending a strong bow, a catastrophe ensues such as breaking the Those who are not intelligent enough to employ wise men,
themselves injure their virtue and lose their good name.
critics

Yet most do not admit that talents may be too great and principles too high for a sovereign to use them, and hold that the unworthy only do not come to the front. He that knows how to push his way, does not make opposition, when his connection with the sovereign ceases, and he that recommends himself, does not resent the low price offered him.
All things used
their inherent value

by man require somebody

to use them,

when

comes to light. That which drives a chisel into the wood are the blows of the hammer, and a spade can dig up the earth, if pressed down by the plant of the foot. All sharp-edged tools can cut and carve, provided there is a hand to grasp, and a force to push and pull them. When Han Hsin^ left Chu and went to Han^ the peace of Hsiang Yii* was gone. Kao Tsu knew how to keep him and profit

by

his

excellence,

putting

him

in the right place.

He

could ap-

preciate his energy

and discern his merits. Fan Li^ earned fame by his assaults on cities and open battles, but when Kao Tsu made appointments, he gave the first to Hsiao Ho.^ He likened Hsiao Ho unto a hunter, and Fan Li unto a greyhound, for Hsiao Ho was quietly seated, while Fan Li was running to and fro. The first appointment was not bestowed on that bustling person, but on him that was quietly sitting down. Hsiao Ho's forte was his acuteness, whereas Fan Li won his laurels by his energy. Therefore Hsiao Ho could send him on a
mission to Ch'in to collect
official

documents.

All the other high

^

There must
See Vol.1,
Cf. Vol.
I,

be some force,
498, Note

in

default

of which

the

best

weapons are

useless.
2 8

p.

1.

p. 148,

Note

5.

*
^

Ilaiany Yii,

the

rival

of

Han Kao
the

Tsu,

was omnipotent

in

the
,

CKu

State.

^^ ME
See

b®*'*®'"

known under
10.

name of Fan K'uai

^^ pW

originally

a

dog-butcher,
«

who was
p. 81,

raised to high honours

by Han Kao Tsu.

Note

The Display of Energy.
officers

95

Sitting in his

were amassing gold, and Hsiao Ho alone collected books. chair, he learned to know the conditions of Ch'in,

and thus was enabled to lay his plans for its ruin. All the other dignitaries were hurrying about, and Hsiao Ho urged them on. In this way Shu Sun T^ung fixed the ceremonies, and Kao Tsu was honoured thereby. Hsiao Ho drafted the penal code, and the house of Han became pacified.^ By rites and laws greater fame is to be won than on the battle-field, and cutting the heads of the enemies off, is not as meritorious as honouring the sovereign. In ploughing the weeds, and sowing grain lies the force of peasants, in bold attacks and battles, that of soldiers, in scaffolding and hewing, that of artisans, in making books and stitching registers, that of official clerks, in propounding the doctrine and discoursing on government, that of learned scholars. Every living person possesses some faculty, but some of these abilities are highly estimable, some mean. Confucius could lift the bar of the northgate, but did not boast of this strength,^ being well aware that the force of muscles and bones in general esteem fails short of that of benevolence and rectitude.
*

»

2 '

Cf. Vol. I, p. 380, Note 5. See p. 81, Note 10. Both Lieh Tse "V'Jll, 6r. and Hitai

Nan

Tse XII, 4r. relate this same fact in

almost identical words, but they speak of the gate of the capital.
ch'iu also

The

Lii-shih

cKun-

has a reference to

it.


96
Lun-Heng: B.
Ethical.

CHAPTER
On

XI.

Intelligence {Pieh-t'ung).

In the houses of the wealthy, a space of ten feet serves as the
inner appartment, and in this

room

are boxes

and trunks
is

all filled

with lustres and other

silk

fabrics.^

The poor
it

likewise use a

space of ten feet as inner appartment, but

completely empty,

merely consisting of four bare walls, whence they are called poor.

The
poor.

intelligent

are

like

the wealthy,

the unintelligent like the
feet high,

Both

are provided with a

body seven
all

but whereas

the intelligent harbour the words of

the philosophers^ in their

bosoms, the hearts of the unintelligent are empty, for they have
never read a single tablet, like the interior of poor people, four
bare walls.
In the general appreciation, the poor and the rich are not

and thus the sharp and the blunt-witted cannot be placed However the world holds the rich in affectionate esteem, and does not honour the clear-headed, it feels ashamed of the poor, and does not despise the unwise; a treatment not warranted by the principles of analogy. As for the deference shown to rich people, they live in luxury because of their wealth, and But rich men are not like scholars, therefore are held in respect. and scholars fall short of strong-minded individuals. The latter have more then ten chests crammed full of letters: the words of the sages, the utterances of worthies, as far back as Huang Ti, and down to the CA m and Hari, methods of government, and for increasing the national wealth, criticisms on the age, and strictures on low class people, all is there. A man with a bright intellect, and large views has a better claim on our consideration, I should say, than lustres and silk stuffs. Hsiao Ho^ went to Ch'in to collect official papers, and it was by the force of these documents that the Han could sway the
equal,

on a

level.

*

Even to-day

the Chinese

do not use

tlieir

silks

and curios for decorating and boxes, whence

their poorly furnished rooms, but keep their treasures in trunks

they are seldom removed, to be shown to some good friend.

»

Cf. p. 94.

On

Intelligence.

9/

Nine Pioviuces.^

the entire empire, and

With documents they extended their rule over how much greater is the wealth of empires
is

than that of private persons? A man whose eyes cannot see green and yellow,
blind.

called

If his ears cannot hear the

first

and second

notes,^

he

is

deaf,

and

if his

nose has no perception of perfumes and stenches,

he

Any one without the sense of smell, man. Now a person without a vast deaf, or blind is not a perfect knowledge, ignorant of past and present, not conversant with categories, insensible of right and wrong, is like a blind or deaf man, Even scholars who do not or one without the olfactory senses.
is

without the sense of smell. ^

study must be considered beclouded, and fancy
the height of narrow-mindedness.

common

people

never reading a book and not knowing truth and untruth.
is

Theirs

They

are like

dummies made

of clay or wood, which have ears and eyes quite complete, and
yet are insensible.

Wading through shallow

water, people find crabs, in greater

depth they discover fish and turtles, and in the deepest recesses they fall in with water snakes and dragons. As the steps taken
are difierent, so the animals
to

met with vary.
stories

The same

rule applies

those

who make more
surface

or less progress in science.

Those

re-

maining on the
entering deeper
to

read

and pleasant books, those

come

to the school of the Sage,

where they learn

know works

of profound wisdom.

The

farther they penetrate

into the doctrine, the

more insight they acquire. On a journey, people always want to visit the capital, because it has so many sights worth seeing, and in the capital they desire to see the market, where so many rare things are exposed for sale. The dicta of all the thinkers of the divers schools and the history of ancient and modern times are likewise very wonderful, even more By a visit to the so than the capital with its big market place. capital, the traveller's intention is accomplished, and the sight of the big market satisfies his desires. How much more must this be true of a journey into the realms of thought and science? Big rivers do not dry up in times of drought owing to their many tributaries. Pools, on the other hand, show the mud already,
^

The Han took over

the bulk of the administration of the Ch'in dynasty,

for

which purpose Hsiao

Ho

collected their official papers.

^

^^

y^^ff'

^istn^Aj

quotes this passage and suggests that this character

may be

a variant of i^&

= W^

"carbuncles" or extuberances

viz. in

the nose.

98

Lun-Heng: B.
it

Ethical.

has not rained for several days, because they have no The big rivers are connected, and the small ones linked affluents. Hence the together, so they flow eastward into the ocean. ^

when

greatness of the ocean.
all

Unless the ocean were in connexion with

the rivers,

it

could not be termed immense.
the philosophers
is

A man

harbouring

the sayings of

all

like the

ocean receiving the

water of

all

the rivers.
to

must be declared
the ocean exceeds

If he is not deemed great, then the ocean be smaller than the rivers likewise. That

all

the rivers in

size

is

generally

known by

men, but they cannot comprehend that the intelligent are brighter
than the unintelligent.
Moisture trickling
water.

down becomes

salt,
is

a taste produced

by

The water

of the eastern ocean

briny and extends to a

great distance. In Hsi-chou^ there are salt- wells, which are very deep.

Can a person have the benefit of a salt-well that either wishes to consume salt without possessing a well, or bores a well, but does not find a spring? He who has no commerce with sages and wise men can hardly expect to win a name above all others.

The

jurists^ are in the habit of neglecting practical

life,

and,

when

called upon,

are unable to give

judgment

in

a case.

The

students of clauses and paragraphs do not study old and modern
literature,

and are
for

unfit

thoroughly to argue a point.
that to

Some people contend
right thing,*

comment upon one

Classic

is

the

what

is

the use of extensive knowledge?
all

The

school of Confucius takes up

the Five Canons, and no one but

has mastered them all is accounted almost perfect. Yen Yuan said that the master extensively filled his mind with learning.^ Only men of exceptional knowledge are worthy the name of well-read
scholars, for could the
to

term "extensively" used by Yen Yuan refer

one single Classic only?

^

In China of course.

*

Ed.

A

and

C:
is

^

yu-lan

chap. 165 Hsi-chou would

According to the Tai-ping j||, Ed. B.: g§ J'|»| be identical with Kao-cKang or Karakhodjo in

Turkestan.
to

Rock-salt

mentioned as a produce of

this country,

brought as tribute

China under the Liang dynasty (T'ai-p'ing-yu-lan chap. 865,
Ch'ung refers to a Hsi-chou
in

p. 6r.).
4°),

But perhaps

Wang

Ssechuan (Playfair No. 2619,

which province

was famous for its salt-wells already in the Han time. See p. Iv., where a passage from the Han-ehu is quoted.

T'ai-ping-yii-lan chap. 189,

*
^

See

p. 75,

Note

3.

Analects IX, 10.

V.^ everybody. but am so stupid. They who shut their hearts and close their like minds. we the walls make windows and sky-holes. In the time of the emperor Hsiao Wu Ti.'^ the king of Yen.C. are dead men. 99 caunot embrace all all the Five ("anons in my studies. ing Feng oi was a dullard. I sorts of things. To open hall. he did not understand them. Classics Vol. that I cherish my stupidity and do not wish to learn. am not clever enough to be well acquainted with antique lore or familiar with modern times. of the Chinese. but all the three hundred doors were tightly closed. The closing of the doors was a presage of the death of King Tan of Yen.^ ^ The Styx B. 2 ^ 140-87. * King Ling of CKu executed Ch'ing Feng. turned towards a pitch dark room. is This fact mentioned in the Tso-chuan. the records used to assist it. See CKun-ch'iu. Part U. According to the Tso-chuan King Ling reproached Ching Feng with having murdered his ruler. 4th year. or the door and let the light in. So his ignorance was not the direct cause of his death. 532 and 542). or to dig a mine and. Duke Chao. Duke Hsiang 27th and 28th year (Leyge. and thus add to the light penetrating The explanation of one Classic is like the light of the sun. enlighten the heart. all and since pierce this does not suffice to illuminate the dark places. are the windows and skyholes. We to open the door to let the sunlight in. . As sunshine lights the interior of a room. never viewing things from a higher standpoint. who had fled to Wu iu B. The words of the philosophers enlighten us even in a higher degree than windows and sky-holes afiford a passage to the sunshine. Reposing confidence I one do not like to enlarge my views.C.^ Later on a catastrophe was brought about by Ling of CK u. what people work like to do. Thus any one who is satisfied with one Classic only should speak. distasteful to in the vicinity of the yellow springs. When the high officers of six States a meeting recited the Odes. Tan. is lying on the back. To shut the door and sit in obscurity. Subsequently Tan became involved in an insurrection and committed suicide. He ordered twenty of his attendants to open them.On I Intelligence. hence staying in the Ming-kuang palace the closing CJi was at referred to Chi i it. so scientific researches through the door. Dying is a calamitous event. but they did not succeed. 537. and to sit in a raised even to ascend a balcony to have a look at the surrounding is buildings. pp. uor can in I trouble myself with doctrine. wished to go to his sleeping appartments.

Those able produce plenty of grain are called superior husbandmen. that of combined.^ The Chou took care lest in spring and autumn such altars should be treated with People should read classical and profane books in the same manner as the altars of the land must be in communication with the fluids of Heaven and Earth. The procreative treasures. Those who do not study are like persons disregarding the altars of the land.^ 100 Lun-Heng: B. because he understands the profound meaning of the Classics and knows so many words of teachers. Students with similar views and men of great learning all come to him. 425). extol the hand. and revile the foot. should be replaced by that is it ^ . all Sugar symbolises the learning of one school. Thus a great its vastness. taste of I take it to be sweet wine. XXVII. and C: ^f J. Peasants producing excellent grain in abundance are looked upon as superior husbandmen. if he has not purchased and merely used sugar. . Ed. and the others apt to collect a vast amount of knowledge. is not sufficient to sugar The meaning is somewhat common wine to have the obscure. and disrespect. who would think that reasonable? ^ This rule is set forth in the Liki. which a special quality. B.yl. Eatable things in the eastern sea are manifold^ on account of power of the water being exuberant.: ^^|^ which is better. even the strongest man dies. and is not merely a man man has many — of learning of a certain school. The communication with the air being checked. enshrined in his bosom: great talents and great knowledge. and there are no principles or methods but he embraces them. a heavy burden. Chiao-t'e-sheng {Legge. He who about. luxuriant plants wither. a great variety of very strange things is produced. and those whose crops are talents of as inferior. to To praise the ox for carrying and not to belaud the swiftness of the horse. The men of letters correspond to to the faculties of husbandmen. are superior scholars. to indicate that connexion with Heaven and Earth has been interrupted. small. its altar of the land its is roofed above and fenced in below. Things of the past and the present time and utterances of various philosophers he remembers a great many. Ethical. know the taste of sweet wine. sweet wine. 2 p. No one can it. does not let in the light of science is a corpse still walking When a State has ceased to exist. Sacred Books Vol.

* their haunts in rank grass. . clever. How could the numerous prescriptions of a Ken Ck io be put on a par with the single ability of a clever physician Tse ? one do not find the door and enter by it. a traveller on horseback or in a boat would not take it." full impossible to bring out the In Chinese the principal words pointed out is in meaning of this paragraph in English. and in the fortified and wild tracts.^ wicked thoughts grow Unprincipled means devoid of maxims and is A physician qualified to cure one disease considered clever. people were wearing wide state-robes and broad girdles. he cannot see the ancestral temple with its beauties. he is called excellent. a misfortune with the worst consequences. and if he can treat a hundred maladies. They are may be compared and so numerous. p. or a country road leads ^ to town. 347). Therefore a man of comprehensive information and so excellent. to communicate. deep erudition 5 is a follower of Confucius. 101 ^ Unless a district road communicates with the country. Cla-'^sics Vol. and heals the ailments of a hundred patients. Unless veins and arteries are in connexion. nor all the officers in their rich array. A genius imbued with the teachings of the divers schools of thought can settle the quarrels of a hundred clans. Over 10 000 Li fell under the dominion of the vast territory of the house of Han. Such an excellent physician gives prescriptions for a hundred diseases. I. 5 Analects XIX.— On Intelligence. ® Even the natives of the colonies had assumed Chinese dress and Ciiinese civilisation. in unprincipled hearts. literally " no road. Notes 1-3 have all a double meaning: intelligent. 23 (Legge. The laud of 000 Li. the Yin and Chou dynasties extended as far as and even the wild and fortified dependencies were governed care. a road on one side and on the other: that intelligence. [" If officers here serve to illustrate the teachings of Confucius. and in default of great talents one cannot with the utmost ' * fflE It is ^ .^ a man is contracts a dangerous disease. to connect. that they with the ancestral temple. The general purport and good principles cannot be dispensed with just as good roads and communications are necessary."] ^ The ancestral temple and all the Kung said. that they bear resemblance to the hosts of all the officers. principle.^ Without exceptional virtue nobody can be afi'ectionately solicitous for distant countries. As robbers have principles. for the cessation of this connexion a very bad thing.

102 enlarge one's views. 3 Was place she invited there too? in A Shantung. cannot explain ^hy a place in Shantun.vitli her name here. If an empty vessel in the kitchen be gilt or silvered and. Two adversaries meeting. Thus the hungry do not care for empty vessels without contents. The delicious and sweet words of old sages are more than food in vessels. Ti. ^ A virgin living in the Yiieh "southern forest. The benefit derived from study is not merely that of eating. When swordsmen fight together. be placed before a hungry person. People like to see paintings. and Me When intelligent the officers of the district cities are to summoned their before their superiors be questioned will on administrative reforms. Ethical. in swordplay and recommended instructor of the to the king of by Fan Li (5th I She became the is king's best soldiers. and provided that the high officers are impressed thereby. which means more than mere paintings on wails. perhaps of a similar kind as those recently unearthed in Turkestan.^ their shapes and figures are there. and those well versed in all the sciences are not charged with narrowness of mind. But would it not be better to be informed of the doings and sayings of these to men than contemplate their faces? Painted upon the bare wall. The sentiments left by the old sages shine forth from the bamboos and silks. one becomes exalted. the ' These must have been paintings in fresco.c). one cleverer than the other. the and well informed communicate experiences. b. By the art of swordplay one acquires the repute of being ever victorious. pictures are usually The subjects reproduced in these men of ancient times. is more than a mere device to win in a contest. where they are written. and to improve human transactions and increase human knowledge. and the one of Confucius possessing greater ability becomes victor. Therefore men of great experience and deep erudition are not taxed with obtuseness. having nothing in it. the reason incentives. he would But suppose that dainty food and not even cast a look at it. people would forthwith turn to it./ coupled . is why they do not act as words or deeds. Lim-Heng: B. he wo possesses the knowthat people do not perceive their ledge of the girl of Yiieh'^ in CJi ii-cli is eng^ gains the victory. savory viands be served in an earthen pot. and the government does not employ men with empty heads without thoughts. The systems and the books of worthies and sages are of greater value than the accomplishments of the girl of YUeh in Cfiu-cJieng." skilled cent. . and by virtue of the books of worthies and sages.

and without reading this book Tung Chung Shu and Liu Tse Cheng would not have been in a condition to verify the two doubtful questions. I. Tse CKan. Yu and Yi together regulated the Great Flood. leave a testament with admonitions. and never will dismiss it from their affectionate thoughts. are of much greater importance still than documents left by a father or a brother. 308.^ T'sai a dragon made its appearance in the suburbs Me^ knew how to account for it. * ^ Capital of the Chin State.^ Shu beheld the Chung-cK ang^ bird. 103 administration can be reformed and learning. they could not have edited the Shan-hai-king. Cf. When the doings and sayings of worthies and sages. dutiful sons and brothers are eager to read it. whereas Yi recorded all Yii took care of strange things. b. the result is more momentous than the replies of the district officers on tlie questions addressed to them. 6th cent. with his great it.^ If Yu and Yi had not Its travelled so the Shan-hai-king would not have been written. A fruit fell down and sank into the steps leading terrace(?). cultivated. Such is their solicitude in honouring a parent. and therefore could by them. p. b. and paying respect to an elder. handed down on bamboo and silk.c. others throw them away and do not copy them. left to posterity. and from what they had heard and seen they composed the "Mountain and Sea far.c. Note 7. . so that the elder brother on the point of death. Undutiful sons slight and disregard a testament. Tung Chung Liu Tse Cheng knew the body and utter themselves on these two things. The border mountains beyond the seas were not held to be too far to go there. Some read these writings and make abstracts of them. up to a knowledge of things.On Intelligence. could dis- course on When of Chiang. production the great multitude of things seen of Erh Fu. and do not care to examine its contents. Vol. When a father or an more than a thousand Li distant from home. Had Yii and Yi not reached those distant lands. Both had read the Shan-hai-king. testifies to Classic". necessary precautions could be taken. The scripts of old sages and former worthies. Even a man from the street could tell us. which of the two courses ^^'^ book has most ^ LLl'/fi*^critics likely not the age ascribed to it by Chinese and is not older than the 4th cent. Historian of the Chin State. transform the heart and enlighten the mind. the water.

Their bellies are larders. may also mean the Shuking here. 346. which are very voluminous.^ who were able to guess hidden objects. * ^. A. . Of yore. which distinguishes But now it is different. because His thoughts were in the Classics. wine-skins. or read the it and other works. it open to reason and prone to learning. generally I. who himself took pattern by the institutions of the ancients. Divination of Wen and Wu by diagrams. had commenced already 3 in the Han time. principles. fortune-telling are arts of the time there was Shang CKii who could interpret the diagrams. I. should not be to draw the ^ line? When his time will Confucius was taken it Shang CKii divined that at noon would cpme. his style being ^ ^. ^ j^ J^ styled Tse Mu ^J-- ^^ a disciple of Confucius. =^ 22. ^ Cf. and he did not renounce his he was near his end. and their bowels. which has often been overlooked. without applying their minds to anything From Confucius down for their talents good.104 is Lun-Heng: B. Ethical. to the Han there have been many persons and not solely such as 'stuff themselves famous with food the whole day. A^ 3" Yiin Yi. * * The y^ of Ed. that the peculiar use 2 KC ^^ ^^ • 1 his phrase shows of the auxiliary verb ^F^. and they are nothing better than inanimate things.' Human nature is endowed with the Five Virtues. Therefore it is not without is reason that he regarded as the Sage for a hundred generations. these arts are also derived from the sages. People all other creatures. preferable. known as ^-^ A/* 3* Li Shao Chun. 343 seq. it Confucius said.'^ Classics is Either did they explain the Five Canons. and those whose business fit ill. p. as The Chinese regard divination a science for which the Yiking is the standard work. and Wang. it is to distinguish between right and wrong. from that of themselves stufi" with food. Quoted from Analects XVH. Though of no great importance. p. that did not even cease at the point of death. generally believed to be a characteristic feature of the vernacular. so that difficult to master them all. " Bring is me a book. when noon?" So fervent was the Sage's love of study. and are given to drink. must be corrected into '^^• A magician on whom see Vol.'^ for what be the matter. and to escape their remorses they wish to sleep. and more recently* Tung Fang So^ and Yi Shao Chiin. Vol.

they are white-headed and toothless. 105 Among first the three hundred naked creatures. ' In Vol."^ their living as officials. for of all the productions issued is from the nature of Heaven and Earth he to his the noblest. that they should lay claim to superiority The people of China the sciences of ancient and are superior to the savages. 18: like jj@ |Sj ^^ y^ ^v is ^ J* "uL "T^hey are our high officer Ch'ui' i. I. They make Tse. without ever cidtivating their minds. they work out their selfish and deceitful schemes with the object of acquiring the amenities of wealth and long life. as bad. they rank lower than savages. care for knowledge. for they all are possessed of the necessary astuteness to find food and drink. for is their fate to be called Knowing upon neither the past nor the present time. are unqualified for this. p.— On Intelligence. " 3@ o" ~}K. still how can they discern them? it of time they distinguish themselves. paying no heed to the study of the past or the present. Now those addle-headed. Look at until the spiders. Governors.' man takes the place. and acquiring modern times. theirs ? How men superior to Using their brains. Creatures with blood in their veins are not liable to die of starvation. and even become In the course high dignitaries. either a misprint or another reading of the Analects. ministers. If they merely use their brains for procuring themselves food and raiment. and those in authority are like our high officer Kao to office.e. obese fellows do not How do their desires differ from those of the and precedence? other two-hundred and ninety-nine naked creatures. . for under- standing the words benevolence and righteousness.. They behave just like spiders. they are looked as very clever owing to their position. y^ ^i ~J "tSi ^^'^ might be an allusion to Analects V. How should the superior by their unscientific methods. how they knit their webs with a view to entrapping are the transactions of those flying insects. a superiority which he owes knowledge. be able to find out men of intellect and treat them with due consideration. irrespective of rank and precedence? Ministers and high dignitaries officers. 528 Wang CKung speaks of three hundred and sixty naked creatures. living on months and years. Even the unintelligent are able to support themselves.

the replies of men like Tung Chung Shu. as the result of their extensive reading and diligent study. he could discover his exceptional well that Mr. If they were to be questioned at some examination. whereas the unknowing do not even remark the brilliancy of gold and gems. at various times very clever men have been promoted.'' Receiving some- body. '" Tiie Han emperor. Ed. p. Ku Tse Yiin. The words in the institutions of T'sang Hsieh and in the books of elementary learning are universally known. The modern Feng-hsiang-fu In the province of Kuangsi. but when nobody ' is able to reply to the questions of His Imperial in Shensi. The expression the biograpiiy of Su Wu in the Ch'ien Ilan-shu (Couvreur). they would not be able to establish their fame in the palace of the holy emperor. When Hsiao Ming Ti^^ was reading the biography of Su Wu. but none of them knew it. . Thus he knew quite registered citizen was to be solemnly invested with the jade bdton and the jade disk. write ^ instead of ij^.* and everywhere reputed for his intelligence. Ch an of Chung-li. a district in Feng- yang-fn. should be written. named seem to be contemporaries of Wang Ch'ung. What sort of a character must have been Chao of Yen. or the prefect of Tung-lai^^ like Ts^ai Po Chieh. 86. Shantung. magistrate of Tung-di ing^ was held to be the chief of the scholars in knowledge.d. For the knowing. Ethical. In Lai-chou-fu.^ a simple. Li Chi Kung^ they are all endowed with an enlightened mind and Consequently they hold intelligent persons in the same respect as distinguished guests. commenting on the Classics. " ^^^)C' ' ^ suppose that ^^^^ Bid. ^^A Cf. men the prefect of Yu-lin. during the Han time. A. Anhui. conversant with the past as well as the present. and that they had not perused old as well as modern books. From Wu Ti down to our dynasty.^ Chang Ming C/iang. and C. Anhui. Couvreur's " '•' district likewise in Feng-yang-fu. every stone has its splendour.^ governor of Yu Fu-feng. In case these four could only use their pen.^ who plyed the broom for Tson Yen's sake! Tung Chung Shou. " occurs in y^pb^. rank. ^ * * '> The three persons Prince Chao of Yen. T'ang Tse Kao. who employed Tsou Yen and treated him with great consideration. Cf. he hit upon the name of a military officer called: yi chtmg chien (master of the horse "). He asked all his officers about the meaning. Note 2.— 106 If there be Lun-Heng: B. 58-76 a. but their compositions would also be most brilliant.^ and Ting Po Yil would not only be perfectly correct.

I beg to reply that this is not proceeding on the lines of the Chou period.hed to the Imperial Library and entru. the principles governing the whole State. men like Pan Ku. and fix the texts like the grand historiographer or the grand supplicant.sted with editorial work. they still render great services to the world. 387. Chia K\iei. and all the honours and distinctions of the age were bestowed upon them. "They remain offices. a.* Yang Chung. It would have been rather hard for them to explain the word ^'chung-cK avg. philoso[»her. I.^ On Holiness. whose business it is to revise books. Note 4. or on other business. eminent scholar. The heart is like a ball or an egg. Although Tung Chung Shu did not hold a premier's post. career. 107 nothing but bureaucrats becomes evident that the majority of the officials were owing their position to good luck only. With Pan Ku and K'liri ' he was atta(. p. Therefore such officers of the library. who together with the historian Pav Kn was ••• Cf.^ enjoy a great popularity. It might be urged that intelligent men are appointed chancellors of the imperial library. and are not entrusted with other does that mean that His Imperial Holiness has no con- fidence in them? Perhaps they had not yet completed their works or discharged their duties. it Intelligence. The Chou looked up to the two preceding dynasties.d. Vol. he was well known to rank higher than all the ministers. or to know the ^ word "-erh-fu'' like Liu Tse Cheng. p. as the academicians are recruited yet they secretly direct Learned men make this from the scholars. but it illumines the whole body. cf.^ they could not tell. ' * See above p. They are not employed to govern the people. Chia K'uei. In ' (. Though they remain at their posts.'/litj A scholar wlio left a collection of poetry 28 chapters. appointed historiographer: I. and the Han followed in the wake of the Chou and Ch'in. but it constitutes the most precious part in the body. From the officers of the library the government sees whether it prospers or not. 460. Thus the chancellors may be petty officials. What was signified by the character to combined with rmi.-' and Fu Yi. the pupil of the eye r sembles a pea. 103. and are not entrusted with other offices." at their posts. 30-101. ."" as Tting Chung Shu did. The Vol. whose office is likewise purely literary. when sharp-witted men like Tsou Yen and Sun Ch'ing"^ stood in high favour with their sovereigns. and their writings are much ad- mired.

2 has '/ p instead of •/'-F. CHAPTER XII. but implements were square. Able scholars on earth are like the spiritual milfoil and the divine tortoise. Since able scholars. Hence their advance in life is delayed. If a needle or an awl pierce something.108 Lun-Heng: B. they go through. At the age of three thousand. . any hackney might compete with it. it must be unShould it have to drag a cart. and at the Both are supernatural the of their growth. it would drop its head. When age of seven hundred has ten covet official honours. square and upright.1. . as we have officials asserted. As a matter of fact.^ which accounts for slowness These many years give them their wisdom and their knowledge of the truth. it has a green edge and it it measures one foot and two inches. milfoil is seventy years old. and it would be unable A courser runs a thousand Li a day. grows one stalk. things. is as big as a cash and walks on lotus leaves. they would not in case the points of these even penetrate one tenth of an inch deep. Ethical. and not like that of ambitious officials. and display what more or less dignity really means. they Able scholars like square do not possess the sharpness of a needle or an awl. Apparent Backwardness {Chuang-Uu). it When it a tortoise is three hundred years old. the perspiration^ would trickle down. ' Owing Ed. and that fill the posts and functions they have to are so inferior. their conduct is irreproachable. and. we need not be surprised that talented men should be outpaced by ordinary functionaries. to this supposed supernatural nature they are used for divining purposes. Used to pull a salt-waggon. for just this circumstance will show us the difierence between clever persons and unworthy ones. if called to office. and therefore have not the means of making their way and push themselves to the front. and their promotion fraught with difficulties. dealings. rank above all others. stalks. people are amazed that as they do not advance. They spend at least half the days of the year on Intensely bent upon their researches. but hampered. they do not their studies.

104. However. free of any burden. and when scholars officers in life meet with misfortune and come to who do not rank higher than their feet or ankles. and without harassed with their care for a decent and honest behaviour. By in sickness or death this order the belly. ^ ^ The This known charioteer. in the face. who are kept in subordinate positions. when the highest authorities are short-sighted. As long as a creature is alive and moving. it is a fact that all living creatures. learning. the belly and the back being in their respective for then is places. and carry the burden of propriety and righteousWithin they are troubled with all their ness on their shoulders. Note h. is reversed. their relation is similar: lightened governors. Note 1. true regard to for when fall. 239. . the back has a certain tendency towards heaven. see Vol. who rise upon their shoulders. and sciences neglected. walk the eyes were not fit over them. whereas on the belly it is thin and light. Tung Fang So^ made the remark that. the back is turned downwards and the belly uppermost. p. is * 5 no reason. happen the feet of others are above them also. unless they find a friendly Po Lo or a protector like Wang Liang? Furthermore.Apparent Backwardness. When they fall sick or die. ordinary officials have to carry the scholars. the proper order is observed. but. This creatures not only to fall. Consequently they are behind. Our students encompass the wisdom of the past and the present in their bosoms. How could they start on a bright morning and win the prize of a thousand Li race. Wang Liang ^ took it the reins and allowed chase along. and w^hen sciences flourish. the vital fluid. the belly usurps the place of the back above. they would not be I. towards earth. and the belly. would keep up its reputation of a thousand Li runner.^ The reason is that on the back the flesh is thick and heavy. then the officials rise above the scholars. if it Po Lo^ started to it. as long as they move about. to 109 or advance. Cf. if but in the feet. filled with have their downwards. to dispel dark- ^ A famous horse well trainer. They dare not recklessly advance or seek proleft motion at all cost.* When able scholars and orUnder endinary officials meet in life. That depends on circumstances. as with animals struck by a fatal blow the belly is uppermost and the back turned downwards. p. backs turned upwards and their belhes — Moreover.

. Ethical. the paper-mulberry.^ The maple and the varnish trees grow very rapidly. purifying themselves and keeping the moral laws. For the purpose of acquiring and storing up as much knowledge as possible they do all that is in their power. gravel turns round. 94. Observing the rules of propriety and walking the right path. it is is For. Note 3. for Luii-Heng: B. therefore the progress of able scholars is of common officials. p. The paper-mulberry of the Yin dynasty measured sudden growth it Big vessels require a considerable time for their completion. Tiiat Wu Ti. it. are things like fruit and vegetables. but after its completely dried up. and their progress is checked. is Why? Because big stones are heavy.no ness. In the current of rapids. while big stones remain unmoved. "Your Majesty which comes last is placed on the top. but its timber very hard. The See Vol. while he keeps it high offices. hard to perceive his unworthiness." The dictum of Tung Fang So and the remark of Chi Yen did how could tliey see then? not merely disapprove of ordinary officers obtaining positions and able post. fruit and vegetables. 161. and they do mean things. and precious merchandise is difficult to be sold. ^ 3 This seems to have been the vice of Chinese officials from time immemorial. when an officer has lost his difficult to discover his virtue. they do not take heed of what is mean and below them. but clear and get do to them from pushing themselves to the front. big the latter or precious merchandise. so that it ^ can be used for axle-trees. this impediment prevents save themselves. whereas. their covetousness tree gets its leaves but in the fifth trees month. 1 I. gravel whirling round deposited on the big stones.* span after seven days. * slower than vessels. They advance very quickly. Common officers have advanced. When they is aroused. That which does not need a whole day and forthwith fetches a price. Thus they happen to They have enough to stick fast. much later than those is blooming a in spring. but the stuff they are made of is not very valuable. tiiat good things require time. and gravel is light. Fame always attends and aspersions are cast on low positions in which able scholars usually find themselves. See All p. and therefore was regarded as a miracle. therefore The hard-wood their bark and their wood cannot be very solid. do not think of self-education. The former are like the hard-wood trees. scholars being dismissed. making unlawful gain by oppression and extortion. correspond to the maple and varnish trees. Chi Yen^ said to the emperor employs officers as one heaps up fuel.

The simile is /. The principles cherished by the scholars are like the heavy stones in the water. when falling in When we in with a wayward governor.^ therefore hard to be moved. fair and honest. ' ' They are heavier and of greater moment. or a soft sea breeze moves An unprincipled governor who.. their rivals to pass over them. * Strong men. and they cannot well commend themselves. In order to shift them. acting upon un- controllable impulses. Able scholars are always square. gale. Their advance is not as swift as that of ordinary and the high officers are too weak to use them. may roll one of the four directions. Able scholars meeting with ordinary Blunt-witted officials are in a similar condition. Knocked with a Square things stick. but without influence. south. Ill invisible. where unprincipled governors are likened ^ to a wild current and a strong gale. it. Things that can be taken in hand are utensils. The principles of able scholars are not merely as heavy as vessels. Gold and iron placed on the ground are not moved by a whereas a hair or straw amongst them are carried away a thousand Li.' north-easter. He that finds his strength inadequate to lift them. e. One breath suffices to blow away a hair or a straw from among gold and iron. When gravel is rolled about by a current. The text is not very clear. without any careful inquiry.short while. or gold and iron on the ground. and no north-easter is required. or a north- easter wafting aloft a hair or a straw. and to advance them men* are required. it comes to rest after a . north. Those authority merit. . illustrated by the next clause. and common it advance. and a mote carried away by that a north-easter. Ordinary officials are as easily shifted as a hair or chaff are blown away. to lead a hermit life it. in a grotto or a cavern.^ it is not a mere swelling. are responsible for for they are unfit to discern real These able men are proficient students. (and thus recklessly confers posts and honours). east. superiors push the ordinary officials and make them suffer retire in jump over the heads of the scholars. which are completely hidden and become in life. throw a round thing on the ground. thrown on the ground remain motionless immediately after their fall. functionaries. So it who must lie low and may happen that they altogether. is like a wild current turning gravel about. does not dare to move them. men must push or lift them.Apparent Backwardness. gravel rolls to They fly about in a strongofficials and fro in a wild current. or west. promotes Avhomever he just chances to like.

is Flesh suddenly grown. is Note 1. and minced meat.^ From these considerations we may infer that the slow advance of able scholars has its analogies and its causes. p. learning and ^ momentous thoughts weigh heavily upon the whole in being. called a tumor. Famous character of the 7th cent. The four sacred animals are outrun by many ordinary ones. and a spring violently Wine suddenly heated. suddenly made sour. The working is a very slow process. thus acquires its sharpness. Vol. and it is only taken out of the fire after a long heating. Which are they? Great rushing forth. 504. Ethical. A frog jumps better than a spiritual tortoise. I. and wisdom of Po lA Hsi^ shines even among persons with yellow hair. ^ ^ The sacred unicorn It is not as quick as the worthless locusts. amongst the is creatures fly ten of Heaven and Earth Li. Therefore they say that he who advances with impetuosity is prompt to retire. To sharpen the blade and make it pointed. They were weighty personages and not easy to be promoted. and forming a mountain by heaping up earth is a work not to be completed in a short time. and the reach the thousand a unicorn. b. Very old people whose white hair has already become yellowish. I.^ how then should are man make his way with legs? Thus swallows divine dragon * Men like Lil Shang^ are conspicuous among grey-heads. 502. and a snake leaps with greater agility than a arrive of itself. one day's frost is not sufficient. is easily spoiled. man the noblest. cannot cope with them. Yet locusts are a plague.^ It has four legs. 8 " See Vol. is is not a sign of superiority. it not always an advantage. . 238. it must be smelted and hammered under intense heat. still it cannot his two more light-winged than phoenixes. Futile and frivolous things are quickly done. The surname of T'ai Kung.1.^ By their excellent political advice they became the helpmates of their princes.112 Birds Luii-Heng: B. and does not arrive of its own accord. p. but it till they arrive. Vol. * ^ ^ ^ sent as a tribute. our case a quick promotion.c. who. The warmth of the Yang^ and the cold of the Yin take months the A calamitous change is a disaster completed in For the ice of a river to close. calamities and disasters happen quite suddenly. A Kan-chiang ^ sword must be long on the coal in the furnace. Swiftness alone. for may spoil everything. Great haste p. Note 1. one day. and hares more nimble-footed than unicorns.to a distant place. felicitous presage. in hurrying. have more agility than man. to court of the emperor.' Locusts can and the unicorn must be sent as a tribute. In spite of that. a fountain. easily becomes sour.

men of learning. The weight of is the doctrines of former emperors. heavier than the burden of ships or the loading of carts. A man of the world may very soon a high post which spreads a lustre about him. they are dry: — While and easy to lift. those heavy and full of cargo proceed slowly. at the same on foot to the effect that he is nothing on his salary and doing nothing. If the latter are not put in irons and their realised. and being sappy. not in those withered.^ The higher officers are envious of able men. and for those carrying so heavy a burden. whereas the empty and light ones move swiftly. Like peasants with their bags of grain. dry. not be able to arrive in time and make the gains they expected. are not their own. or expect that their doctrines soon be realised? ' Ordinary functionaries. That able scholars do not get on in their career is owing to the lack of insight on the part of the higher authorities and superior officers. they are light they are heavy. a quick promotion becomes difficult. of course. Now the original fluid resides in living organisms. living Peasants bring their grain to the capital. time. Being much lighter than those easily full of sap viz. and merchants convey goods to distant places. both expecting to see their hopes But should the gates and the suburbs be closed to traffic. treated as mean criminals. in spite of all their efforts. obtain but the things. How can they hope to will rise in the service. Thieves stealing other people's property obtain their it soon enough. Dead.^ When carts drive on land.Apparent Backwardness. carried in the bosom. evil reports will be set but a dummy. wliile alive. but. they are heavy and difficult to move. but the high officers do not care to admit them. students with their learning betake of no practical use to them. and ships sail through a canal. 113 Plants and trees. and will have nothing to do with them. and all their speed. they would. they may congratulate themselves. so that their learning is . are full of sap. themselves to town. being sappy. nor acquired by own industry. are compared to withered organisms. or fords and bridges have been made impracticable. they are much more moved - about. thus obtained.

wherefore the term Sage is equivalent with supernatural. The Real Nature of Knowledge and ten thousand future generations. ' are of opinion that they nature. having swallowed the empire. * '> In the Yang-chou prefecture. CHAPTER XIII. assumed the title of First Emperor. and the subtlety of their hearing. Merely by the keenness of their sight. The talents of Worthies ^ do not reach this standard. 319. Another entry this. equal. Note 1. comes my haU. . they are able to give the proper names to new They know spontaneously. 466. After arriving at he will die." Subsequently. whence they are This difference of name implies a difference of called Worthies. which know lucky and unlucky auguries. their intelligence is weaker and not so comprehensive. the minister of Chiang-tu. On a tour of inspection. he came to Lu and visited the home of Confucius. whence the milfoil plant is regarded as supernatural. it is known that Sages are something extraordinary and different from Worthies. See Vol. squats on my bed. and the tortoise as a divine creature. They are like milfoil and the tortoise. without inquiring. The Literati. and underthings. {Shih-chih). p. and turns my clothes topsy-turvy. styling himself the First know not what sort of fellow.* Tung Chung Shu made special researches into the Ch'un-ch'iu and wrote comments and is and expired. " notes on it. When Confucius was about "I to die. Then he proceeded to Sha-chUu.114 Lun-Heng: B. for the substance being the same. ''Chin will be 8 See Vol. Emperor of C/iin. but on the road he was taken ill Sha-ch'iu Tung Chung Shu carries confusion into my book. Ethical.^ The book of prophecies further says. Kiangeu. I. stand of themselves. without learning. past. he left behind a book of to prophecies^ wherein he says. I. p. discoursing on know thousands of years of the Sages." In course of time the king of Ch in. the name uses to be As for the name Sage.

p. Pi* along with seven other States plotted a rebellion against the Han. his playing the flute to and his genius alone revealed of years of the past. 2 ' 284seq. 294.^ knew that he was a scion He did not consult books ask anybody. Sacred Books Vol.V. p. 115 by /if«. p. and. I him his generation. I. Hist. See Shi-chi chap. or the stories were fabricated in later times to furnish evidence. later on.c. 139) V0I. In the Liki {Legge. Mrm. " Within fifty years hereafter. Will that not be you?" In the time of Clung Ti. 2r. or of the text of the Plan of the The plain illustrations of Confucius have been magnified with a view to prove wonders and miracles. Note The Plan of see Vol. XXVII. was made prince of Cf. These three instances are used Confucius to bear out the statement that Sages foreknow ten thousand future generations. "I am a man 4. clansman of the is emperor of the Yin dynasty. Confucius says himself.^ of Hu destroying many books." Later on. his father and mother having concealed it from him. and seeing him off. This great rebellion broke out in b."^ This would appear to be a proof of the faculty of Sages to say that told in this fallacy. the Second Emperor /?w Hai in fact lost the empire. p. Kao Tsu having observed the valour of Pi.The Real Nature ruined of Knowledge. M^. somebody visiting home and his deranging his book. Wei Tse. a nephew of Han Kao Tsu. p. the viscount of Wei. people. whence they surmised that a rebellion would come. Vol. may be his time merely spoke house. patted him on his shoulder saying. the flute and then of himself a great officer of Swig of Yin." Cf Vol. Chavannes. * * Note 1. Huang Ti. Kao Tsu having enfeoffed the king of Wu. I. He believed to have been the ancestor of Confucius. 498). ignored his descent. He blew of or Tse. some one will revolt from the Han in the south-east. remarking that Ch'in Shih Huang Ti entered his and that Tung Chung Shu studied ^ -?a Tse was the family last name of the Yin dynasty. but they ignored the name of the leader. then correctly hinted at him. Hist. If from he this point of view of we consider Confucius'' it cognisance that at of Cliin Shih Huang Ti and the of Tung Chung Shu. the Yellow River containing the eight diagrams revealed to p.^ Those who first made this statement had perhaps noticed the dispositions and the signs of the time. II. King of Wu. 11. of Yin. Sung. 154. {Chavannes. River. all know thousands stories are all is Such miraculous in the style recorded in prophecy books and the C/iin. 324. .

district ' Note 3 justly regards as corrupt. then he ought to have at once been aware of his being a descendant of the Yin and a scion of Tse likewise. 184). have both a full stop after Chieh-ko. Hist. ^ CKin Shih Huang Ti started on a journey to Yilnmeng. * Ed. 3. from which the following narrative is abridged. on the kuei-cKou day of the tenth month. he went back. p. Note 7. Then turning to the southern Sea. A. 185. Prophecies derive ^ its wherefrom does the Book of knowledge that Shih Huang Ti came to Lu as 6. Note 2). so that he could see the First Emperor and Tung Chung Shu ere they existed. As given in the Shi-chi chap. cf. and turned his clothes topsy-turvy? In the thirty-seventh year of his reign. 26v. Mem. « p. Vol. Vol. to Tan-yang^ arrived at CKien-t'^ang. Note . the Shi-chi has ^d^. I. ^ The 1st of November 211 b.^ he did not go Xw. He passed away on the P'ing Terrace went over Che river. (^. p. work. and B. II. squatted how then down on should he have entered the hall of Confucius.c. p. evidently the correct reading for the j^ ^^ Mei-chu of the Shi-chi. Passing Chiang-cKeng. which lies Chavannes he. Ethical. and have no need of blowing it.^ and went up to Kuei-chi. The waves being very boisterous.116 Lun-Heng: B. and erected a stone with an encomiastic inscription. For ^^^Pj the Shi-chi has * i^ ^" cit. whence still further north he arrived at the Lao and CK eng"' Mountains. From afar he sacrificed to Shun in Chiu-yi. where he made an oblation to Great Yil. Vol. 282.^ and approached the went 120 Li westward. 231. crossed the stream at a narrow passage. (Chavannes. Hist. Confucius was unable to ascertain his name without playing the flute. Conftic'ms and wrote down the names If Confucius was endowed with supernatural powers. I. he in Sha-cfiiu} Since he did not go to iw. the flute to determine family According to the narrative of Shih Huang to Ti. but his seeing the First Emperor and beholding Tung Chung Shu is like blowing the flute. he sailed along the seashore northward as far as Lang-yeh. his bed. reached the P'ingyuan Ford. he visited Chieh-ko.^ crossed the stream at Mei-chu.^ Floating down the Yangtse. II. exaggerated the dicta of of the principal persons. '' ^jj^\[\ See Vol. which is conterminous with Tan-yang-hsien in Kiangsu. p. where he fell sick. thus agreeing with Cha- vannes' punctuation {Mem. Then he proceeded to Chef00^ and always keeping near the sea-shore. in the Chien-pHng of Anhui.

Although ineloquent persons may not be qualified for it it.^ T'ai Kung and Chou Kung were both cognisant of what had not yet come to pass. is still a void and wrapt in darkness. Reverting to the beginning. and perceived the signs of" adversity and rebellion." his and this utterance being unreliable. When was to Chou Kiing was governing Lu. for the time being. utilise these sources. Those without experience. Chou T ai Kung knew that his when T'ai Kung Kung saw that his scions would fall victims By their methods they foreknew the ultimate end. they are aware of what is going to happen in future. 117 says? This journey to Lu not being a fact that might be known. meditate and reason by analogies. whereas the other saw in the dummies the danger that living persons might be interred along with the dead. . Vol. of course. From the ivory chop-sticks the one inferred the misery attending the search for dragon-liver.The Real Nature it of Knowledge. robbery and murder. I. Prophecy books and other mystic writings see from afar what has not yet come to pass.and Confucius sighed because dummies were buried in Lu. which. ^ The dummies had Burying them taken the place of alive li\iiig persons who were thus buried symbolically. or to predetermine future are not alone events by going back their sources and examining the past.' and Sages fit to do it.wri. the words ascribed to Confucius "I &c. there being reliable evidence. i7. 354. Chi Tse administered reproof. Worthies have this faculty as well. Their knowledge is instantaneous. In case records of famous deeds seem rather queer. they are work of common people. the know the end. All books. are not trustworthy either. unless they be directly written by Heaven and Earth. Ed. and ruling in CKi. XXXV. descendants would be reduced to impotence. supernatural. from their villages they argue on the palace. and shed their light into the darkest corners. and passing all they understanding. Cf. know not what sort of a fellow. cannot All Sages foreseeing happiness and misfortune. the remark about Tung Chung Shu deranging book becomes doubtful also. Chou having ivory chop-sticks made. would have been a relapse into the primitive custom. chap.es: JitjgjjX •^ p. still is possible to predict calamities by observing to analogies. as Chi Tse and Confucius were aware of what ' -fiMftStWiS*-***!!Cf. go back on former events..

" queen. ' In B. The arsenal was just on his tomb.^ east of the Chang "A hundred years ^ ence. then the knowledge of Tse was a Sage.. ^ misprint ior Mj- ' 8 * * JSi ^^ /. Tse^ died and was interred in Wei-nan. ''The is queen Hua Yang together with Shou-ling. there is no diversity between Sages and Worthies.^ the queen-dowager of King Hsiao Wen ^ Hsia. Hsiang.C.c. his daughter by a second wife leaned against a pillar.c. 'I see my son^ in the east and my husband in the west. r.c. out as predicted.dowager Hsia. was originally a concubine. 249—246 b.c.. 5 adduces the 7th year the royal house. In the 10th year of King Chao of Ch'in. had not yet taken place. exactly as he had said. After the rise of the his — He said. The marquis of Lu being old. reason the tomb of the queen-dowager Hsia ling. hem in my was built at east the future does not suffice to make a man a Sage. the S/ii'c/ii = b. ^£ Chuang Hsiang. then the daughter of the second wife and the queen-dowager Hsia were Sages. and the crown-prince weak. This is a proof of his prescience and of his foreseeing future events. then CKu Li If he was not a Sage. As regards the source from which they drew the knowledge of the future." will Han dynasty. * King tlie is. her husband Wen Wang* buried dowager Hsia and King Yen Hsiang are buried in Fan-ling. heaving a Old age and weakness were to her presages of future dissigh. the CKang-h palace and the Wei-yang palace at his west side.'' CKu Li terrace. "297. an emperor's palaces tomb.^ is transferred to 7m- so that I can say. 'Phis king of Ch'in reigned only three days in 250.118 Lun-Heng: B. East of Hsi-an-fu. saw in in a dream the consort and the queenFor this who said. Ch'in. Hsiao Wen Wang. 300. chap. )'(ii who had been adopted by Queen Hua Yang. rise After a hundred years a city of ten thousand families " will by my ^omb. Even a woman was clever enough to orders and revolutions. Shensi. king of b. .. more should this be the case with Sages and superior men of exceptional parts and great intelligence? In the 10th year of Ch'in Shih Huang Ti^ the mother of King Yen Hsiang. His real mother. If such an evidence constitutes a claim to sagehood. ** I^Jfl Hp> a member of '•• Near Hsi-an-fu. 237.' — In course of time everything turned If those foreknowing the future from analogies be regarded as Sages. Ethical. How much reason by analogies and thus discover the future.

they had an eye for all abnormal proceedings and an ear for strange utterances. Abridged from the Tso-chuan. traces followed up. these cases * In the Sung district of Honan province. * * In Kua-chou. said. if they were bad they saw in them unlucky auguries. Yi-ch'uan the rules of ceremony were already is Wearing long Note or dishevelled hair a sign of barbaritj'. I. 148.^ From the omen of the long hair he inferred the expansion of the Jung. and. Duke Hsi 22nd year. Vol. in The Tso-chtuin adds that Hsin Yu foresaw the event from the fact that lost. in all omens are taken into account. Kansu.The Real Nature of Knowledge. « " The friend of Han Kao Tsu. whence we learn that Yi-ch'uan in 638 b. were aware of what had not yet come to pass. ^ ' Non-Chinese tribes in the west. in fact ten thousand families settled near his tomb. long before. transferred his capital from Chang-an to Lo-yi in 770 b. Consequently the hundred years of Hin Yu number. place Han Hsin. foresaw territory of the Jung. ns' and ^^ CKin combined invited the Jung to change their residence. "Within a hundred years this land will most likely belong to the Jung. to avoid the incursions of the Jung. 1 19 CEu Li was like Tse seeing the emperor's palaces close Hsin Yu. .' If these were good they took them for indications of felicitous events. They were as superstitious as the old Romans. It was no divine or supernatural knowledge. Hsin the Jung emigrated to Yu predicted it. Subsequently. wearing their hair long down on their back. just as Oiu Li Tse. likewise side close to his tomb. would become the Yu passing through Yi-ch'uan that the Son of Heaven would move quite his mother. 5." A hundred years hence Chin^ transferred the Jung of Lu-hun* to Yi-ch^uan. performing sacrifices.c. when King P'ing are only a round of Chou.c. perceiving The fore- knowing of things to to come is not a knowledge requiring the faculty fine look through obstacles or an exceptionally hearing. and inferences drawn from analogous circumstances. and what Hsiu Yu knew before became a reality. Chu Li Tses comprehending the presages indicative of s the imperial buildings in the vast plain was like Ilan Ilsin the edifices of ten thousand families on the plateau.- by his grave. therefore barbarians might well occupy the land. p.^ burying built. but all derived from signs and analogies. When in the Ch^un-cKiu epoch ministers and high officers held a meeting. that by its had a vast and elevated there might be room for ten thousand families. Cf. Thus they knew how to ascertain happiness and misfortune. on beholding the vast plain near his tomb. who knew that Yi-cK uan^ In ancient days Ilsin and noticing the inhabitants.

it was well versed Shun Yil Tsang. 9 v. Huai Nan Tse XIX. are not Consequently great savants apt to bring about anything without study or to know at anything in default of inquiry. the modern ICai- feng-fu. and yet he acted as have an elementary not yet entered teacher to Confucius. whereas things unknowable.120 Lun-Heng: B. Verily. The Ski-chi chap. is Cf. 696. remain incomprehensible without rethings unknowable search or inquiry. He had neither had a teacher nor a friend. so that he the governor of Yin Fang. he could school. 9. ^ WL^^' is ^ suppose that the capital of Wei =i Ta-liang. who had not studied. thus designated.^ When Wei-tu. An objection may be urged on the score that Hsiang T'^o. charioteering." on excellent essay. Ethical. writing. 8 AnalecU XVI. mathematics. In the time of Wang Mang. In Shantung. under Heaven called he was endowed with him a Sage. Confucius says that [those who are born with the possession of knowledge are the highest class of men.'' had written tations a memorial. and so get possession of knowledge. 13v. writes the second character ^^« See also Giles. where we read that Hsiang T'o was merely qualified to be the teacher of the Sage. Biogr. the Six Arts. 2 jg Jg. on seeing purport.]^ Speaking of those bom with knowledge. Neither ancient nor modern history affords any instances of men knowing spontaneously without study or being enlightened without inquiry. then even big subjects are not difficult of apprehension. Ceremonial. the document. . how small soever.^ At the age of seven. Confucius has in view men like Hsiang To. without referring to their studies. taught Confucius. 9—22 ^ •"' A.D. not altogether. 71. At present all things knowable may be grasped by reflection. No. p. Diet. but his inner light in was fully developed. A man ' at first sight. For things knowable merely require but all ^ earnest thought. and Unknowable all "The flying insects. Those who learn. Therefore he must have been self-knowing seven years of age. are the next. archery. music. could read and argue on its The quo- the subject to the gratification of from the Five Classics he could elucidate and discourse on The emperor all persons present. where the same thing told of this precocious lad. do not become easy through mental efforts or research. by nature. a theme summoned him and gave him which he wrote an great erudition.* Yin Fang oi' Po-hai'^ was twentyone years old.

Could a Sage know this?^ confined to his neither beholding signs If a subject assassinated his sovereign. counted twenty-one years. or that from a peach-tree plums maj* grow. he must himself have plied pen and ink. the two latter were disciples of Confuciii'^. Without study he possesses knowledge spontaneously. he has probably learnt a great When parts is a man of great natural intelligence and remarkable own thoughts and has no experience. elsewhere he remarks. 22. is a Sage. thought Even a Sage could not know the erroneousness of such suppositions. 23. or a son killed his as kind-hearted father and Yil on the other dutiful side. and an ox to a donkey. he may imagine that after many generations a horse will give birth to an ox. as Yen Ytcan. but he asks how the future of a youth could be known. possess the nature of a Sage. . if. Pure not provide true knowledge. although he has not studied books formerly. its is be apt to find this out? Confticius says that [some other dynasty may follow the but though afiairs it should be at the distance of a hundred ages. and it its eyes first open.The Real Nature of Knowledge. and without instruction he is If this is not divine. and able to read a document placed before him. ' alone does ^ 3 The two former and Analects II. already he must have listened to other men's speeches. When an infant is born. ["A youth may be known]. 121 conversant with the Six Arts. The future of a youth is hard to be pre-ordained. somebody were Tse. as a son as Tseng as brave as and Hsia and as critical as Tse Kung and Tse Wo. or cherries from a plum-tree. At the age of three and four Yin Fang At fourteen and fifteen years of age deal. even though Hsiang T^o was seven years old.. what is it? enlightened of himself. ^ and do we know that his future will not be equal to our present?"]* In regard of abrogations and innovations he believes that they may be known. How easy to detect. whereas abrogations and innovations are to be regarded with respect. it has no knowledge. My answer to this objection is this: Although Yin Fang had — no teacher or friend. without having had a teacher or a friend. and though he did not study books. there must be experience besides and reasoning by analogy. and omens nor observing the working of various sorts of beings. yet he must himself have learned many things. * AnalectslS.^ Meng Pen would a Sage 6'Aow.

The pupil said. of which Ko Lu was the chief. affectionate care is bestowed on human Provided that the face and the hair of such skeletons excavated. all this is very far away. point. but being questioned and cross-examined. and for what purpose its hoofs had been made white? With this manner of devices one barely finds out one whole truth. would he know whether he was of a dark or a pale complexion." Clian Ho concurred saying. should a Sage with his superior insight not be — ^ qualified to I know this? beg leave to put a counter-question: \i Chan Ho knew the cow to be black and to have white hoofs. it is a black cow. hoofs wrapped some its was still in a position to distinguish the sound of the cow and to know its colour. and the flesh decomposed and gone. his surname. but this to suffer death? cannot be known through his knowledge. Sages and Worthies equally fail. or eventually the crime he had committed and for which he had Not that a Sage is devoid of knowledge. . a skeleton be deformed and partially destroyed. "Yes. a cow was heard lowing outside the gate. he to court and stopped above Chang-yen. whether he was tall or short. * A small State by wild south of Kiao-chou. "This is a black cow. and he In fact. it was a black cow with sent somebody to look at it. and which was his native place. Chan Ho being merely a Worthy. However. young or old. they show that they do not possess the entire knowledge. in stuff. Kn Lu of Chieh^ came Hearing a cow lowing. In the 29th year of Duke Hsi of Lu. be apt to tell whether the deceased was a peasant or a merchant. upon inquiry. People thus may learn one thing. but cannot exhaust the ' A native of tiie Ch'u State held in the C/iou epoch. and his origin? When a ditch is dug out and filled with water. but is has white hoofs. An opponent might retort with the following story: When Chan Ho was sitting in his room with a pupil in attendance upon him. but with white hoofs". Ethical. and that a Sage hears him from the west side. may be perfectly known. his designation. Something unknowable by knowledge may only be learned by inquiry. would a Sage. Being thus unable to know.— 122 Lun-Heng: B. for only what has been seen with the eyes and asked with the mouth. Let us suppose that somebody standing at the east side of a wall raises his voice. tribes. did he also know to whom it belonged. and nothing that may be heard or investigated.

"It abuses this horse in the shafts for being lame. ." Somebody asking how he knew this. although it be blind. * Here and elsewhere V^ang CKung uses I ^J many simply for use seems to be quite conmion as found it in ^|J other authors. when he was driving a lame horse in the open country. but when it arrived he* could give it its name. they would have looked upon both as divine beings who were prescient. The Pei-wen-yun-fu i. the eyes wandering about. and the eyes of the other horse were really blind. could not find any farther information on the man. Yang Weng Chung replied. The They used are a is method and relied on a certain device. and for discerning colours there is a device. Using these methods is like foreseeing. Duke Hsi 29th but calls the I year. Yang Weng Chung said to his charioteer. and our horse. However Confucius could name the rhinopithecus. "That loose horse knows this one. "then". Confucius had never before seen a rhinopithecus. Wnig-chung of Han-yang." The charioteer inquiring how it could know that. but they have all away from her. and under these circumstances speaks of a Sage with supernatural gifts. in turn. charioteer did not believe it. because he had heard the songs of the people of Chao. person *^fi ^r ^r ^pb Han-yang Weng-chuvg e." it is he went to look at it. Once. ^ Yang Weng Chung understood the voices of horses as Chan Ho and Ko Lu of Chieh could distinguish the lowing of cows. and the Grand Annalist knew Chang Liang from a picture * This story is told in the Tso-chuan. another blind horse was grazing at some distance. and it was really as Ko Lu had said. This Our dictionaries omit it. reviles the other because blind. For hearing sounds there is a method. and the Grand Annalist had the idea that Chang Liang looked like a woman. cites this passage. ^ ^ Region in the province of Ssechuan.. 123 "This cow has already had three calves. at large If the people had heard of this. of Knowledge. If both combined it not necessary to look or hear through. The public does not understand this.The Real Nature said. Yang WSng Chung o^ Kuang-han'^ understood the voices of birds and brutes. Confucius seeing an animal named it rhinopithecus. The Grand Annalist belonged to another see at a distance age than Chang Liang.' This been taken again is an instance of the use of some scheme and not knowable by knowledge alone. that her voice disclosed it. The man applied to the replied he owner of the cow. but his eyes beheld his shape. or to and make distinctions. Both horses took notice of each other by neighing.

those being of no avail. 84. or those cave-dwellers which foresee rain. 14r. that sacrifice and pray to his ancestors for happiness.. Couvreur by "chancery". I. Was not this a proof of their superhuman faculties and had an intuitive an instance of their innate knowledge? his if Huang Ti could talk after his birth." which to the is much too vague. Against this it may be urged that Huang Ti. Ethical. The present diviners look to their methods and calculations and. By combining these circumstances with their theory. and did not disclose their hidden thoughts. they take them for supernatural beings. Shi-chi chap. p. which he had seen in the emperor's memorial hall. some creatures their proper names. was endowed with supernatural faculties. then they were like those animals living in nests which foresee a storm. who knew a cow to be black with white hoofs. time. From this point of view Chan Ho as well. and that he could already speak as a babe. Unless he was in possession of a peculiar method or device of his own. The emperor K'u could tell his name after he was born. Chan Ho and the like are the diviners of the present day. he must have got his information about the animal from without beforehand. quoting two passages referring Originally it must have been a hall where the emperor used to biography of Chia Yi. : principal room front of the The two more passages from the Han-shu J^ "^ ^^ Cf. contemplate the circumstances of the case. Vol. concealed their knowledge. at his birth. ^i Jj remarks that the M 4^ l: S ± ra >® ^ W ^^ was the Pei-wi'n-yiin-/u ijuotes ' P«1 SW 2 * ^ ^^' •commentator Wei-yang palace. They had not yet gained any experience from without and immediately after their births were able to talk and tell their names. If Chan Ho and others knowledge and needed no theory.124 Lun-Heng: B. 1 *^ Tang ^ . birth to she gave before months him twenty mother had carried I answer that. comes under this category. 1119- . in the there also. p. "We read But other business was transacted Chia Yi fgx was received there by the emperor Hsiao Wen Ifti Ti: W >^/ in ^j ^^ • yC. they appear to be in possession of supernatural powers. The great majority of people are Noticing Worthies or Sages giving thoughtless and know little.^ T^hey kept secret what they had seen.Their intellect was prematurely developed as was the case of Hsiang To and Yin Fang. Williams and Giles translate this word by " imperial palace.

Although he possessed this one Ku gift it did not reach very far.^ could speak his own name. and that he did not study. in their admiration exceed all bounds. and the twenty-one years which they ascribe to Yin Fang must have been about thirty. he ascended distance. 22. as a matter of fact. cannot be verified. Did his so-called divine and innate knowledge merely amount to his faculty to utter his name when he was born? The allegation that he knew it and did not learn Even if Huang Ti and Ti K'u it from any one. . the time has. Tse Kung asked.^ An time. these would only have been some prematurely developed talents. and that. how could he always find a teacher?"]^ And Confucius remarks that at the age of fifteen he had his mind bent ^ Wang CKung means tell to say that Huang Ti at his birth was as developed his ability to talk as a child of two years. There at the is a popular tradition about Yen Yuan to the effect that. 125 him. while in his mother's womb. age of eighteen. If they say that Hsiang T^o was seven years of age. according to this computation of the montlis. XXIU. whence. People upon remarking his precociousness and premature erudition. The credit given to Hsiang To the praise bestowed on Yin Fang are like the admiration of and which But. Analects XIX. was thirty years old. should really have been in possession of supernatural powers. he must have been about two years in his mother's womb. he has rather late. so that us would not be so marvellous. ["Why should the Master not study? on the other side. he in Mount T ai. he travelled about to gather information and worked at home. A man's talents may be precocious. he must have been ten. But the masses are extravagant in their commendations. and their assertion that he instructed shows only that Confucius put a question to him. no doubt. nor descry the Chang gate in Wu. and in condemning they magnify Confucius the faults. and did not ascend Mount T'ai. but he could The p]mperor not tell those of other people. after their birth. He only forgets to 2 3 how Huang Ti could learn speaking. in the far viewed a white horse fastened outside the Chang gate investigation reveals the fact that Yen Yuan^ at that Wu. been several months. or they may be completed Even in case he has been without a teacher. they were able to talk. If they say oi Huang Ti and Ti K'u that. See chap. If they contend that he had no teacher nor a friend.The Real Nature of Knowledge. at home acquired the learning of his family. Yen Yuan was the object.

The queer level ditties of boys are known without study. I. Worthies have many differs. The so-called spirits have knowledge without learning. and may on a be described as supernatural and prescient. principles. are akin to Worthies. p. See Vol. the repetition of the three systems of government. Sages are quick in embracing the right talents.126 Lun-Heng: B. has nothing in common with Sages. . all these things Analects U. Their objects of thought are the same. and Worthies. they would be uncanny like these songs.' teachers. 358. not supernatural. If Sages be put Or and with these songs. Should Sages resemble the rhinopithecus. Vol. be understood. are compelled to study we know that they are not Sages. the rhinopithecus knows the past and the magpie. ^ 3 * Their wisdom Cf. to become Sages. As to their difference. therefore the latter cannot be spiritual. and improvements upon the ' institutions 4. If like- Sages be regarded as sorcerers. in this capacity they would wise be preternatural. the concatenation of the abolitions from. are the divine Sages on earth held to be sorcerers? Ghosts speak to spirits men through That which is the mouths of sorcerers. Things are hard to and call the attention of both Worthies and Sages. and Sages. of the same stuff as prodigies Sorcerers differ from Sages. they and being akin to Worthies. their knowledge cannot be diverse. the alternation of culture and simplicity. p. Ethical. Notes 475. still the talents of Worthies and Sages are equal to it. are.* the succession of the first days of the first moon. and that and birds.^ Among the creatures between Heaven and Earth that are not provided with innate knowledge. Things may be difficult to be grasped without any alien assistance. 3-5. slow. Not being spiritual. and Since they the so-called Sages require learning. For example. only the amount They walk the same road. but in their progress one overruns the other. then they ought to belong to the same class viz. on learning. is of the various dynasties.^ The heavenly nature which pervades them thus acts spontaneously. mere cogitation might be rethere is no need for learning. great knowledge. the future. 1 The Five Emperors and Three Rulers this all had their believe that has been set up as an example for that mankind. 14 r. or easy of apprehension. I. of beasts Somebody may object commended as well.se XIII. and Huai Kan T.

even Sages with the highest intelligence cannot make anything out of them. and things that may not be known are explained after inquiry. and want their ears and eyes. 1 27 Worthies and Sages equally know. If Worthies and Sages both possess many abilities. it is not worth speaking of. Water and fire of ancient times are the water and fire of the present day. and sounds and colours of the present are the sounds and colours of later ages. Then Sages would not distinguish themselves from Worthies.— The Real Nature of Knowledge. but if his understanding does not reach to the remotest principles with all their details. but not with the second. In investigating remotest antiquity and in inquiring into future ages. they are uninteUigible. omens and noticing signs as well as in drawing schemes showing people's destiny. If things under Heaven or worldly affairs may be found out by reflexion. Worthies and Sages are equal. why do not Worthies come up to the standard of Sages? As a matter of fact. plants and trees. neither Worthies nor Sages are apt to know the nature of things. completely understanding the natures of all creatures. . Worthies no less than Sages. things that may be known are determined by reflexion. the goodness and wickedness of men. as Confucius and his equals are considered Sages. and from what is now infer what is to come. Worthies and Sages are equal. If somebody is familiar with one thing. in order to ascertain their real character. in such matters as civilization and primitive simplicity. Should he pass for a Sage it would be evident that a Sage has no superiority. Between a thousand years back and ten thousand generations hereafter there is no diversity. Ears and eyes being thus indispensable. and men like Chan Ho would be Sages. and things that may not be known. and not what we call a Sage. In observing or water and fire. Things that may be known Worthies and Sages equally know. if. however. or if he knows the left and ignores the right. Sages do not comprehend either. What we speak of is the gift of prescience. even the stupid can open their minds. or Worthies come short of Sages. crippled in mind and not accomplished. then his nature excells in one thing. Meeting with anomalies. and an intelligent mind. we learn to understand antiquity from the present. he is one-sided and imperfect. wherefore are Sages held in higher respect than Worthies? If they are both dependent on their schemes and devices. As regards beasts and birds. and fully apprehending thousands of important methods. I prove it thus: Suppose that a Sage by mental abstraction foresees a rainfall. they know their names and have no doubts about them.

Therefore things hard to grasp may be attained by learning. The better plan is to learn. however. and there In case they cannot be untied. if. ^ There are things plain and intelligible by reflexion. By instruction one learns how to untie them. things are unknowable. Not that instruction does not qualify to undo knots. . 30. neither by inquiry. 1 Analects XV. things must be knowable. Ethical. Those things under Heaven which are incomprehensible are like knots that cannot be undone. nor and the — ' by study. whole night without sleeping occupied with thinking. whereas unknowable things cannot be comprehended. baffling all our endeavours. but things may prove incomprehensible. neither the Sage can understand them.128 Confucius said Lun-Heng: R. Not that a Sage could not know them. others require instruction in spite to be understood. and the knowing faculty cannot be used. and the method of undoing them is of no use. and many remain incomprehensible of learning.^ The Sage knowing things."] It was of no use. are no knots but can be undone. but it may be impossible to untie them. even instruction does not bring about this result. ["I have been the whole day without eating.

Are those Worthies ment. are wealthy Are those Worthies who in serving their sovereign take care and never to give off*ence? These are those pliant courtiers. without considering its efi'ect upon their master. and whom the government chooses for employ- who thus come to honour? Of those who make a show of themselves and are known to many are promoted. Definition of Worthies {Ting-hsien). nor can those who by fate are poor and miserable be held to be depraved. very seldom are recommended. how then could they find out a Sage? Although they pretend to know Worthies. Should wealth and honour be made the criterion of virtue and vice. for they enjoy the imperial grace to the stately an extraordinary degree. difficult to know. and it is much easier to recognise Ordinary people are unable to recognise even a Worthy. But a Sage. and favourites who never say a word. and consequently never to gloss over everything run risk of being dismissed or cashiered. this is a random statement. which assures their good fortune. sycophants. Or they have a and handsome bodily frame and a pleasing appearance. whereas those living in obscurity and retirement and unknown to the world. They never show any backbone. Yao wishing to employ others. or dare to make opposition. a great . Worthy than from what signs may Worthies be known. are not Worthies. This was the case with Shun. so that the emperor does not look at them with disfavour.A Definition of Worthies. and by what method? Are officials holding high positions and being wealthy and honoured to be looked upon as Worthies? Wealth and honour are heavenly fate. and in all their doings are opportunists. then officials would have to rely solely on their abilities. Those who by fate and honoured. Still they cannot be called Worthies. 129 CHAPTER A Sages are a XIV. and not on fate.

inquires into the faults of all those introduced to him. 23). but no fame. . King Wei of CKi^ enfeoffed the great spite of his officer of Chi-mo*. good speak well of him. Moreover. and people dislike and slander him. wishing to employ good men. Kun and Kung Kung were two. Part p. 3 Note 1. and the wicked disparage him. Hist. He then asked again about a man hated by would not do all his fellow-villagers. he might employ. 378-343 B.^ Thus even the chiefs of the mountains^ were unquahfied.C. Hist. Ethical. Chavannes. whereas the latter had done nothing. the good ones among the villagers esteemed and him.'] the bad ones amongst them hated big and small. p. but was very celebrated. the other extols him. Therefore. near Kiao-chou.^ [Tse Kiing asked fellow-villagers. If the all declare to be a man of honour. 243). but not thought well qualified. notwithstanding his fame. The former had great merits. 7v. Vol.130 him. that he does not feel at home with his own kindred. Classics Vol. and whose lofty aspirations preclude any intimacy with low characters. ^ him. is generally liked and praised. Title of the chief ministers of which I. whereas a great few^ many intercede lor men of inferior talents. is a Worthy. In the T'ai-an pi'efecture of Shantung. a name is often won by the art of ingratiating one's self. so that one half defames. first Lun-Heng: B. 50. * * In Shantung. sufficient. and caused the great of 0^ to be boiled. Accordingly. whoever is so pure and upright. about Kun and Kung Kung. 10 {Legge. he who consorts with many people and tries to win the heart of the masses. ^ Mem. Analects XIII. in order to out whether they are really good or bad. See Shuking Part p. At Shun was I. it does not follow that a person praised and belauded by the majority. loses the general sympathy. Thus. he may be a Worthy. 24. p. inquired Sometimes men of superior virtue are recommended by very persons. the selection and promotion of a man does not inform us about his real character. Vol. First Kun and Kung last Kung were recommended mentioned to him. Tliis story is told in full in the Shi-chi chap. 46. Cf. An find enlightened ruler. whom ' Yao inquired in open court to whom I. UI. The master would all replied that that if all The best thing be. On the other side. how a person was who was liked by all his Confucius replied that that was not either. In addition to the governor of 0. and defamation often a consequence of the loss of sympathy. V. {Chavannes. all the sycophants about him were thrown ' into a cauldron and boiled. Mem. in officer having been slandered.

and CJi'un Shen entertained thousands of guests and were called worthy peers and great generals. It happens that those who praise are wicked. intercourse with ' Is he a Worthy who is in a position to govern others. provided that a man meet virtuous and be vihfied witli by the wicked. 131 the approval of tlie Then. 169. whose descendants. But we do not know whether he who praises somebody be virtuous. or whether another speaking ill of him. I. that they sing songs in his praise? gain the affections of the people does not differ from Propitiating the people favour with the warriors. Thus many guests and followers assemble in the palaces of kind and condescending princes and of Worthies who may be useful or dangerous. A noble ChH. I. be a bad man. Vol. People are thus led astray and May those be taken for Worthies to whom the masses turn who assemble hosts of guests and retainers? Those to whom the masses turn are oftentimes persons having many people. Meng C/i'ang. later on. We may adduce Tien Cheng Tse of Ch'i* and King Kou Chien of Yileh^ as examples. Vol. by empty favours. 2 3 * p. ^ He came to the throne in 496 b. Either are they noble and exalted. forgetting their dignity and waiting upon Worthies. one takes their fancy. The princes of Hsin Ling. and the warriors do not follow him. may we see a Worthy in him? Thus Worthies would be recognised conformably to tlie principle laid down by Confucius. or they are partial to warriors and condescending to guests. although the masses do not turn to him. Ping Yuan. Cf. p. p. 364. He died about 460 b. and that those disparaging are good.c. If somebody is not fond of soldiers he must not be held in low repute for that. and cannot draw a distinction. Note 2. and who wins To currying people's hearts to such an extent. nevertheless. and may be of use. in Note 5. but Wei CJiing^ and Ho C/i'il Ping^ had not a single guest in their houses and. I.A Definition of Worthies. and they are pleased and happy.c. were celebrated generals. became dukes of CKi. . T'ien CJieng Tse wishing to usurp the ' About these men see Vol. 501. The public likes and esteems them and turns to them in great numbers.

one may obtain fire. being neither Worthies nor Sages. « XXXII. If even those who in this and he had still some manner conform working of Heaven. take knives and swords or crooked blades of holding them up against they likewise get fire. K(yu Chien. and the gate men spirit are subject to such impostures. Both had their own selfish ends.^ so even ordinary men.132 Lun-Heng: B. cannot be termed Worthies. and blades one may obtain fire from the sun. how much have those a claim to this name who barely win people's hearts? May he be considered a Worthy who. when somebody had died. to attract the fire from the sky. 131. the height of summer. 75. The prince of Meng-CK ang'^ wished to pass through a gate of Ch^in during the night. In order to stir should be used. even Pleaven may be induced to respond. achieves merit and proves successful? 1 On Mount See above Kuei-chi he had been surrounded by the kuig of Wm. for which they needed the support of others. One of his inferior retainers. and a small one. See Vol. while lending out grain. by tricks. As by burning glasses. Cf. when taking it back. the employ burning glasses.^ insinuated himself with his people by condoling.^ to the less rain. 378. p. There was no sincerity in them. p. 4v. and merely humbugged their people. But now people merely common copper.* As cocks can be moved by false sounds. holding office. was thrown open. 2 ^ p. five By fifth melting in stones and moulding an instrument in the month. and. swords. authority in CKi^ would use a big bushel. I. so that people were enchanted. and as when all the cocks responded. and the gate was not yet open. . who occupied a low position. so that the prince could pass. but people will up the heavenly fluid. but the cocks had not yet crowed. by rubbing them and the sun. beat his arm^ and imitated the cock-crow. with a view to wiping out the disgrace of Kuei-chi. and inquiring after people's health. The noise thus * 6 Cf. chap. as Tung Chung Shu was convinced that by a clay dragon he could attract the clouds and reason for this belief. and had to sue for peace. so that all were charmed. crow. so men may be imposed upon by fictitious grace. the made probably served to produce the biography of Meng Ch'ang in the Shi-chi chap. knives. Ethical. can influence the fluid of Heaven. Note 1. yet people were contented.

The dog alone catches the beast. If merit and success be regarded as action. Sacred Books Vol.A DeCnition of Worthies. ^ Quotation from the lAki. ' STThe Five Notes The drum of the Chinese musical scale. The but the Five Sounds^ do not accord without a drum. but the hunter has the merit of it. 133 bearer? But what is to be accounted merit or success of an office That the populace turn to him? However.® but in default of water the latter do not shine. ^ The Taoists despise external mefrit. without a teacher. and merit So principles are If people the upshot of principles. plays an important part in Chinese music. even Sages are involved in catastrophes. Should the harmony of the Yin and the Yang determine the worthy or unworthy character of a man. .^ When Kao Tsu came to the throne he rewarded the merits of all his ministers. they would be the unworthy ones of the Taoists.^ The teacher has no place in the Five Degrees of Mourning. there is a time At such periods of harmony. whereas in times of unrest. That is chief part like the hunter. objection. but with slight alterations. even the depraved of pubhc peace. If those pass for achieved then Hsiao Ho had no merit. because the acknowledgement of merit by Kao Tsu was like a hunt. merit. then merit appears itself and manifests by the activity of the body. then Yao ought to have been degraded owing to the Great Flood. AVhen the Yin and the Yang are in harmony. Hsio-cki (Legge. 2 ^ ^ The teacher has to inculcate them. 90). but Hsiao Ho did the who have the first Worthies Consequently merit and reward cannot be proofs of worth. and Hsiaxt Ho got the highest prize.' the root of merit.* but they do not become practical of designs based on principles invisible drum does not belong to the Five Sounds. their be called Worthies because of merits. is But the success and not apparent.^ Water does not belong is to the Five Colours. the masses can be won by feigned favours. fall in with general tranquillity. All the ministers of the emperor took a personal part in the war like the dog. when the hunter lets loose his dog. and Tang should have been thrown into the background' in view of the Great Drought. p. XXVIII.

and when a person is doomed to die. is not necessarily worthier than another without such chance. By these reforms disorder is stopped. The success. Statesmen must be looked upon as being on a level with handicraftsmen. and an official qualified to govern a State ability. when they lose it. ' -^ l^* '^'"'^ expression is nowhere explained. who ignores them hke a physician curing a Possessing a prescription.134 Lun Heng: B. When there is to be a revolution. they fail. perhaps only an excoriatiort. Men possessing some method may achieve merit in accordance with time. Good to die. but are not apt to bring about peace in opposition to the right time. The prescription is used. he disease.^ J^ll we may Germans infer that call is some small disease. He who knows fails these principles obtains merit. A drug curing a disease must not of necessity be better than another without these medical properties. so that their success becomes visible. administration of a State requires a method to secure but there are also times of a natural disorder. and so a method is employed. even Yao and Shun cannot accomplish anything with all their methods. which the "wolf". when no methods are of any use to bring about anything. a disease like a disorder. may accomplish their ends. he may cure even a serious illness. and reforms carried out. handicraftsmen must likewise be Worthies. Sages and Worthies have their methods of governing the world. and a A prescription to may be obtained by man may happen know a certain method. when. even the medicaments of Pien CHio cannot cure his illness. . peace must prevail. and the physic administered. Thus statesmen hitting upon the proper time. but physicians may save the life of a man who is not yet about when his life-time is finished and his span terminated. no prescriptions are of any avail whatever. Ethical. ^^ means an ulcer on the legs. by nature. and there are other times. and his physics to reforms. then all if having merit be called Worthies. Archers and charioteers as well as other artisans and handimerit. craftsmen The achievement those of merit being like the doing of business. without it be cannot even remove small ulcers. and by the use of physics a disease is cured. by means of which they acquire and do business. and merit may be achieved even without any method.^ A prescription is like a method. but what it a "hare ulcer"? From the opposition to . the physician corresponds to the official. the Appendix to the Pei- wm-yun-fa merely is cites this passage. all have there methods.

tai-shou. * the text literally p. and the excitement of the people could not be stopped.^ and I imagined that you had not your equal in the world. or whether this province had just again to pass through a revolution.fg ^^ • of a military governor was of 2000 piculs and that of a civil one the same amount. Then to Shou Wang running thus. 'When you were in my presence.^The income So far ^^^^ Han-shu writes : ^0 ig. Albeit yet during his administration of Tung-chiin. . 64a. C: Shansi. Subsequently he became military governor of lung-chun. 13v.^ a native of Chao.^ The sovereign bade him His follow Tung Chung Shu and receive the CKun-cKiu from him. talents were of the highest order. the emperor did not appoint a civil governor. military governor and of a ~T\^ ^j4. and that the present time so little tallies with the past?' Shou Wang. the year was bad. and so profound his knowledge. so great were his talents. by way of excuse.' What is the reason that now robbers and thieves on boats attack my arsenals to seize their arms. that of a civil ^KMm^ fuller tu-urei. and your post was a double one of 4000 piculs. and the administration of Shou Wang just coincided with this time? Thus even a worthy Tung-chiin like Shou Wang in his administration of could not achieve merit. and that there were not two men like you within the Four Seas. said that there was nothing to be done. Ed. jSAow Wang both posts. " ' governor. you became the centre of all our deliberations.c. the year was bad. You were given the control of more than ten cities. I wonder whether Shou Wang did not know a method for governing Tung-chiin.A Definition of Worthies. He again was appointed commander of the Imperial All his Palace and constantly kept about His Majesty. He understood everything and had the greatest experience. in view of his excellence. robberies and thefts were rampant. Should Worthies be judged the first 1 ^ j^State in ^^Pb.^ But at one time military expeditions had to be organized. agrees with the biography of S/u)u Wang iu the CKien Han-shu chap.® judgments and proposals were sound and just. 135 Shou Wang of Wu-cHiu. The Han-shu has reading. Ti. and the emperor sent a letter robbers and thieves were rampant.^ was an expectant hanlin in the time of the emperor Wu Ti. and he thoroughly understood business.^ and. the people were in excitement. ' 3 * * Ban Wu 140-87 filled A circuit in northern Honan. ^^MM.

and the wonderful strength of the other. yi'^ The king of CKin rewarded Hsia. so that in Yen they could sow millet. then even a Shou Wang would be rejected and not be promoted. Their plan mountain-. Tsou Yen by blowing the flute by which the cold was changed into heat. Foi' a more detailed account see Vol. the surgeon Hsia Wti Chu hit him with his medicine bag. Wu Chil with two hundred of gold. either of ity and the would-be assassin with a medicine bag. yet the critics are unable to see the value of people in default of their merits. p. if they are in possession of some system. object. and grain and millet sprouted luxuriantly. his action and the king of had no con- > Cf. served to save the king's life.136 Lun-Heng: B. he was himself caught in CKin. In Yen there the Five Grains attracted a fluid was a valley where in consequence of cold air did not grow. the planned capture and conveyance of the king alive could not be accomplished by Ching iCo. is Therefore merit is no criterion of virtue. is not carried out though their energy would pierce a Cliin Such was the case of Ching K^o and of the physician Hsia Ching K^o entered Wu Chil. I. .'^ ance. Consequently. who ran round a pillar. Vol. and the millet grew in great abundUp till now the valley bears the name of 'millet valley. yet by Tsou Yens blowing the flute the cold valley became warm. I. with the intention to rob the king of CKin and convey him alive to Yen. When earnest. nevertheless Ching K^o won world-wide fame as a hero. but meeting with an unlucky accident. still people undertake something their will may be most they have no success. and many Worthies and Sages would be unfitted for government in case they have not the proper method. ' ' One 1^ yi of gold equal to 20 ounces. owing to the great sincerof the one. 114. all who have achieved merit have a method like Tsou Yen blowing the flute. When he was pursuing the king of CKin. Accordingly. I am afraid that in the world there are a great many persons of the type of Shou Wang. 503. Yet them was praised or rewarded. This the second point. The scholars of the world did not forbear extolling the honesty of Ching K'o though he did not accomplish his CKin rewarded Hsia Wu Chil although sequence. The harmonisation of the Yin and the Yang requires the most exquisite wisdom and virtue. by their achievements. even the wicked are successful.^ Being himself arrested in hitting a CKin. p. Ethical.

by mistake. 1. and the unwise. Vol. there be no father or elder brother. In case an idea is it matters not whether a result be achieved. punish. with him and therefore was put to death. p. 358. They had by the power. then the story of Yil Jang ^ could not accomplish their designs. then their filial become manifest. or their brotherly behaviour their filial piety towards towards their elder brothers? In that case a dutiful son and a good brother must have a father or an elder brother. and an idea being excellent. p.^ would have no interest. who remonstrated emperor of the 485. inveighed the prince of this State to an expedition against Ch'u. If. 2 Having thus revenged also Vol. If one always has the success in view. Pi Kan had a similar fate as Kitan Lung Feng. symbolically. would not be worth mentioning. and Chang Liang's dealing a blow at CHin Shih Huang Ti and. and the name of a dutiful son or a good brother cannot be acquired. the success. 1. but the success inadequate. the last Yin dynasty.1. no account being taken of the intention. which was vanquished. Cf. the wise will reward. and if only the outward result is insisted upon. Thus the filial piety could become apparent. 235. there is no occasion to show these virtues. Lung Feng* and Pi Kan^ shone forth ^ and Yin. but the result small. Vol.A Definition of Worthies. Therefore Worthies cannot be the third objection. His second attempt to assassinate the viscount Hsiang of Chao having he asked permission to pass his sword through the cloak of the viscount. their merits. The to be latter fled to Wu. All three had to sufier from unfavourable circumstances and motives. or if these be kind and good. without paying attention to the inward drawing his sword and cutting the cloak of Viscount Hsiang. p. ^ to object to tiie excesses of Chou. Shun had Ku Sou. 137 The purpose being good. which was granted him. his master. one does not think of the admirable. Earl Chih. or a purpose grand. As victor Wu Tse ll»u caused the grave of 3 * King Ping I. however. and Tseng Shen had Tseng Hsi as father. hitting the accompanying cart. Kuav Lung Feng For having dared ^3 HP i^» ^ minister of Chieh Kud. and their fame was established. suicide. but not they formed plans. Wu Tse HsU's flogging the corpse of King P'ing. gauged This is Then can people become Worthies by their father. who had put to death the father and elder brother of Wu Tse Hsii {Wu Yuan). . opened and his corpse to be publicly flogged. Cf. Note 6. but could not carry them out. piety or brotherly love These two being unkind. Loyalty to one's sovereign is similar to this: in Hsia — The loyalty of because Chieli failed. he committed See Note King P'ing of Ch'u. outcome.^ would not be worthy of note. so that everybody belauded them.

or share the disaster of his lord? Chan of Ch\ asked Yen Tse^ his master. nor does the calamity of a tottering State Then.' Hsieh. how can he be called loyal?" "How can. died 493 b. Allusion to Analects X. if such a one does not die for his prince." "If a man.138 Lun-Heng: B. The ruin of a perishing prince does afi'ect not involve him. so the name of a loyal official is overshadowed by the renown of his virtuous sovereign. of this world. his righteousness becomes known. in seeking the Worthies rejected. nor see him off. who .* his family. and if his remonstrances be repudiated. 2 Minister of Shun.c. whereas the fealty of C/«. but a loyal minister may share the happiness of cannot be engulphed with him in the same catastrophe. however. because their sovereign to loyalty. the territories of 18. those who die. Great and thereupon base their claim Worthies have few accomplishments that may be named. see the prince off. provided that his advice be followed? Or how can he efi*ective. ' The ancestor of the Chou dynasty. how a loyal minister had to serve The other replied. Ethical. provided is that his remonstrances be in his so that his sovereign never whole life compelled to quit the country? If his advice be and the minister die for his lord. for a prince in disgrace. passes through this life. and the minister see Thus off his sovereign going into exile. flying about and settling down and rising on To die him. do not count. this would be deception. he his prince. and Such faults small Worthies do many things worthy of praise. When an officer just happens to live at such a time and dies for his lord." said Yen Tse. A great Worthy. falls apprehending some danger. As the light of a glow-worm is eclipsed by the effulgence of the sun and the moon. since Yao and Shun themselves were virtuous." According to this reply of Yen Tse. "So that he does not die with him nor see him off. when the latter is ruined. and he earns great fame. when he leaves his — country. An officer 6th century b." rejoined Charts "who has been given plenty of land and been the recipient of many honours lavishly bestowed upon him by his sovereign.^ and Kao Yao^ remained concealed in T'ang and Fw^. when he leaves his country to go into exile. how should he meet with such a misfortune. and to sacrifice oneself for under the same head. * * ^ T'any and Yu were of Ch'i. this would be a reckless death. Yao and Shun. is ruined.c. and Chou were both wicked. "a minister die.

* Great virtue becomes visible by contrast and shines forth when there is ' 2 On wickedness * all around. navigating on a creek. See Vol.'^ These are not disasters brought about by one's own These sentiments savour a good deal of Taoism. * <> Classics Vol. remarkable deeds are not taken any notice of. A divine snake may be cut in two and again grow together. but it cannot hinder men from cutting it. 5. in speech nothing can be done. Nan to Jung. Analects V. though quite innocent. 1. are only small ones. a small sheet of water one knows exactly the course one has taken. so that they do not suffer any punishments hke Nan Jung who was afraid about the white sceptre-stone?* To avoid all injuries is chance and a propitious are not to be prevented by abilities fate.' Floating on the ocean. whereas Wen Wang was kept a prisoner in Yu-li and Confucius endangered in Cfien and Tsai. one knows the traces left by the oars of the boats on account of its smallness. Inferior actions are easily described. Ch'ang Co?ifucius gave his daughter to wife. to whom Confucius married the daughter of his elder brother.A for Definition of Worthies. was loaded with fetters^ Chil Po Yil^ could preserve his principles in a degenerate State. To Kung Yeh 2. The highest and noblest feelings are displayed under a regime at the verge of ruin. Analects XI. and unless the ruler be wayward and perverse. loyalty cannot be exhibited. one may be thrown to the east or the west owing to the vastness of the water. He used repeat the lines of the Shiking "A flaw in a white sceptre-stone may be ground away. of universal decay. when they their are easily recognised. and so may Sages and Worthies be pressed hard and again liberated. p. Cf. and the purest and finest acts done in an epoch disorder. 66. I. 238. ^ p.^ Are those Worthies who safeguard themselves from all injuries. and so For the greatest crimes all quantities that may be measured: the bamboo is not sufficient." See Legge. or to be averted by repressive measures. but not on the ocean where east and west become uncertain. but for a flaw 5. Vol. They and knowledge. I. I. 139 which people may be "bambooed. Nan Jung could free himself from capital punishment. p. but they cannot prevail upon others not to injure them. and fame heard of. . Note Cf.^ Small things are easy to see and. easily brought to light. and are — they usually occur in times of decay. is Thus virtuous acts are manifest. but Kung Yeh. Note 499. and for the greatest quantities pints and bushels will not do. Note 2. in times of As long as an age is not in jeopardy.

is similar to this. no Worthy of his The allotted own accord. nobody thinks of renouncing his dignity. for quitting one's country and giving up one's dignity one always has one's reasons. being no State or share to those be- But the if there really be no wealth. is what can be given away? to others? When mouth hungry. what can be yielded While the granaries are full. Ethical. and People may sometimes share strife is engendered by scarcity. Thus.^ their wealth with others. depends on purely economical conditions. a contemporary of genei-al. and when food and clothing are sufficient. to practise them. and when the time is perilous. no Sage apt to save himself. 89-105 a. one is sensible of honour and disgrace. but unavoidable calamities which he becomes implicated. one must be under compulsion. are luxuries. Unselfishness grows from abundance.140 Lun-Heng: B. was appointed . Note ' The grandfather Virtues. impracticable. when one's principles prove country. * I only found one Yuan Ch'ang his j=t ffiw" view. people must at least be life. This impossibility of avoiding is calamities like the inabihty to prolong one's can extend is it life. they may be abandoned and parted with. and his aims attained. The 2. span being terminated. only in case there is a State or a dignity. how can they be rejected? The spending of wealth and giving their low. were. to be termed unworthy? Moreover. If such persons be called Worthies. 168. and who reject wealth and honour. general Yuan* again divided his » See Vol. p. his people all quitted the One gives up one's dignity..d. to a great extent. during the reign of whom Wang Ch'ung may have in Ho Ti. who removed his capital * consequence of constant raids of barbarian tribes. but there any high dignity. When the Old King Tan Fu^ had fought several battles. as it of Wen tiie Wanr/. are those not affected by similar reasons. provided with the necessities of The state of morality. giving up their dignity. founder of tlie Chou dynasty. who yielded the State to his brother. people know rites and ceremonies. and one does not obtain one's ends. in I. preferring penury and misery? To quit one's own country. as Po Yi ^ was. lest he should be suspected of struggling with him for his share. As long as his principles are successful. Are those to be deemed Worthies who quit their country. doings and coming in down upon a man. wiio.

and on the banks of Lake P'Sng-li. At the foot of Mount K tin\ jade is as common as pebbles. Note 2 and Vol. p. Vol. took the greater part for himBeing very poor and destitute. I. is believed to have its Now capital of Kiangsi Province.A Definition of Worthies. The Yellow River Mount K'un. See also Vol. purifying one's self and one's actions? That would be much the same as abandoning Wealth and honour one's country and giving up one's dignity. To abandon them and retire can only be the consequence of a life full of disappointments and of the failure of one's plans. Is it possible to May and those be looked upon as Worthies who are unpassionate desireless. I. See Analects XVHI. 6. CKang Chii and Chieh Ni^ both left the world to live in retirePo Yi and the recluse of Wu Ling'' rejected honour and ment. ^ ^ Two hermits of Ch'u met by Confucius. were a cause of great agitation for ^ soui-ce in * ^ * = The same as the K'un-lun. this would not be sufficient. Cf. The sorrow for the world and the wish to help people in their difficulties. are generally coveted.^ in dividing and keeping aloof from become a Worthy by avoiding the world all that is common. 9. 141 in this a great family property with his nephew. Cf. 254. Allusion to Analects VI. of Mount K'un and the fish of Lake P'eng-lP again divide his family property. and big posts and high rank are a source of pleasure. ness. 133. . money. and many saw kindness and generosity. I. The Taoists belong to another than the Worthies. If Han Hsin sent food to the village elder in Nan-ch'ang. p. self. they feed dogs and pigs with Provided that a liberal man whose wealth is like the jade fish. But this was not their real desire. he did not possess disinterestedand his moral sense was weakened. p. 53. merely wishing to preserve their bodies and cultivate their natures? These are men hke class Lax) Tse. 427. who do not care to fill an office.^ did he part with his wealth? And does the fact that Yen Yuan contented himself with a bamboo dish of rice and a gourd dish of drink* constitute a renunciation of his property? Kuan Chung. put up with meanness. p. Old name of the Poyang Lake.

Lun-Heng: B. indifference and 2 ^ self-cultivation. Ethical. making friends. are strong men whose feats are admired even in distant countries. so and doubled up. the Taoism. and Kuan Kao with all his accomplices and degree. gifts are Yil Jang^ so disfigured himself. If we compare with them such officers as have proved important witnesses to their princes. M(hn. Their hands and feet are hardened. Vol.142 Confucius. 391 and 392). Tse. on other side. I. Then people belonging besides. the Confucian sense. their faces dark. not a single one of the fundamental rules is fulfilled. The weak are unable to carry on propriety. relations to the third 8. that his own wife did not recognise him. have strong and powerful muscles. by the number of whicli the military power of a State was gauged. whereas. would best meet these requirements.^ Those who do not tlie co-operate with Confucius and their dealings follow Me Tse and. who. and therefore would not come up to it. propounds altruism. made thoughtlessly to thousands of families. It is a very hard task to induce poor people who do not call a peck or a bumper their own to make friends and to spend much. unfit to travel very far. Families with heaps of gold do not lack friends even outside their country. p. Cf. in so far as no bodily pain could force a confession from their mouths. The strong can conceal something and uphold righteousness. never disregard propriety? to rich families and living in opulence. Hist. This plan {Chavannea. 358. ' Kuan Kao^ was Confucius. was discovered. were executed. in Huang Ti and Lao are not AVorthies.^ Are those to be considered Worthies who carry on righteousness a thousand Li and who as teachers. Vol. and States of a thousand chariots ^ never stand in need of allies. . 117 and Shi-chi chap. the weak speak ill of their time and defame morality. 32r. 1. and gave much trouble to Me Tse. they do not feel painful diseases. When there are few resources. 137 and Vol. for they have always enough to spend. Men who carry heavy burdens a thousand Li. to assassinate A minister of Chao who intended Han Kao Tsu. when there is plenty. their flesh and bones must likewise have been very strong. then even the covetous and avaricious would distribute it beyond the frontier of their country. U. p. and the feeble. If food were as common as water and fire. * ' p. and their skin and sinews must be difterent from those of other people. that not a single in The philosophy of Worthies See above in a still higher degree that of Me Ti. p. War chariots p.

by their wonderful inand cunning. so that no part of the letter is not tampered with. The Literati have studied. and students Literati. as in possession of all the writings left by their forefathers. and that orders are taken care of and down to the present day. will devote himself to study. they have done their duty. have become famous for their great learning and vast erudition. perusing and reciting them. are apt to command troops and lead the masses? Virtue and self-sacrifice are easier for persons with a strong constitution than for ^ weak ones. literate the Classics are the Literati.' Are those Worthies who know in tlie Classics. so that the old sayings of former teachers have been preserved lost. even of They have more courage and feel bodily pain much many of our philologists. and are unfit to argue the pros and cons of a question. same as the and learn the oral precepts of their professors. But they have no original ideas in their heads. and who possess a vast knowledge all remember sorts of secret records and chronicles? They rank but possesses great after the scholars above mentioned. they are on a level with postmen and door-keepers. Whoever talents and many interests. and one by study. to impart them to others. . and themselves have obtained the rank of professors and academicians. archivists do their papers."^ May of things those be called Worthies ancient and modern. have many pupils. Yet. like heirs specially provided with everything who. In this respect they resemble postmen conveying letters. whence tlieir proceedings were not like those of tlie majority either. Both must havo had bodies different from those of other people. less. They transmit the doctrines of former As long as the covers are intact. but true. They are like the Grand Annalist and Liu Tse Cheng who. being in charge of all the records. and never flag. The scholars transmit the teachings of the ancients. and door-keepers transmitting an order. are thus enabled to complete these works. May fluence ' those be deemed Worthies who. although they have followers a hundred and more. A hard word. 14!} on his body was left uninjured. without altering a single word. and attract the masses? Those well versed becomes are the teachers.A piece of flesh Definition of Worthies.

the good greyhound potent and wily officer is cooked.^^0 O O O O^ ^^ ^^ ^ is turned : TO^ ^ 3 * %i ^^ I. 119. In times of peace. Living in a time of peace. the ruler does not disdain such an officer. People very much appreciate an able speaker. 5th cent 310. when he was seized and arraigned b. and is after the cunning hare has been caught.144 Tliey would be Lun-Heiig: B. In the Shi-chi chap. 41. whereby he was deprived of his glory. Since Wen Ti gave his favour mostly to the guardian of the tiger cage. Had have acted the talent of like Han Hsin been so versatile. for high-treason. Chang Shih Chih^ little ^ One of the Three Heroes to whom the accession of the Han dynasty is due. but he cannot give that assistance to the sovereign which the time requires. See ^ p. 179-157. 380: Note 5. b. the phrase ^ ^ S ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^. Are those Worthies who are able debaters with sweet words and clever speech? Then they would resemble latter. ^ ^ i^* p. Vol. and ^ whole family exterminated b.^ wlio in contending States generals. old adage which was used by Fan Li. Vol. bow is stored away. lost his country. In peaceful times. Note 6. . 196. but did not see the benefits of a settled state. As a debater I'se Kung surpassed Yen Yuan. win laurels men like Han and become celebrated Hsin. minister of Yileh.^ he would never have planned an by execution. he was decapitated. Wang CKung here writes : Sj ^^ read: •^. there is no use for him. When the high-flying bird is dead. that he could Shu Sun T\mg. p. Hsin's plan to seize the Empress his Lii Hou and the heir-apparent having in been divulged. wherefore the or slight a hero. they store the good bow away.c. and also by Han Hsin.^ A like the bow used for the high-flying bird and the greyhound chasing the cunning hare. we ^ ^r1 ^rJ ^ i^ Han *"*^ '" '^^*"^^' '^*P. Cf.92.c. A high officer of Wen Ti. but had not the wisdom of preserving insurrection nor miserably perished peace. Tse Kung. p. nevertheless Confucius placed him below the because his real talents did not rank so very high. he knew all the devices to marshal troops. 3r. p.* He was endowed with strength and heroism. Ethical. and the dog. Cf. he plotted a rebellion. but in peaceful times they cannot exert themselves and plunge into disastrous adventures. 7r. An I. cooked.c. 16r. ^*'" 'i"Other variant is found in Han Fei Tse XVII. and did not obtain the name of a Worthy. and thought of the intendants of the imperial parks.

and utters the proceedings of the cruel are not those of Worthies. 145 P'o and Chang Ihiang-Ju. a character. a judgment is asked for. Among the office work nothing is more laborious than law-suits." Liki {Legge. ^[^ Tse Im.c. Oppressive government is more terrible than tigers. where Tse Rung takes the place of A distinguished scholar and poet of the 2nd cent. He sent Tse Lu to question her. The Grand Annalist in his introduction classes him with the cruel. b. and what the pencil writes. Then are Worthies those proficient in penmanship whose style and calligraphy are equally good? Penmanship is not much different from speech. then her husband. and their subjects grand. and the officers were not tyrannical. again devoured her son. Elsewhere more generously with him. 62.A commended Chou Definition of Worthies. their ' Both were raised See p. " Remember this my children. Note 3. (Vol. The talents of controversialists are not of a very high order. pp. writing a Sse-Ma Hsiang-Ju"^ name who are skilled in panegyrics pompous and highly polished style? and Yang Tse Yiln^ would be the right Their style was refined. The deals CKung philosopher Yang Hsiung. yet at the court of the Han he was not accoimted a Worthy. Confucius then said to his disciples.""^ In the forests of Lti a woman cried because a tiger had eaten her husband. and was told that formerly her husband's father had been devoured by a tiger. Able debaters are like the guardian of the tiger cage and can hardly pass for Worthies.^ The cruel are of the same type as the oppressive and tyrannical. I. 1 90) and the Family 2 Sayings of Confucius. and so the knowledge of clever writers is not very varied. without her leaving government was good and not oppressive. Sacred Books Vol. while proceeding to CkH. 4v. Furthermore in what must these penmen be w^ell versed? They must be familiar with office work.^ and the emperor became aware of his error. verse. p. There was no better judge in the world than Chang T ang whose writings were very profound. and it is impossible to take them it for the for Worthies. 81 and 88) Waiig . What the mouth becomes a word. ^ Confucius met this woman near the T'ai-shan. * ^ Hp ^^ §" IX. to the rank of marquis. A case being doubtful. and the place. and last her son. XXVII. Do those deserve this and irregular persons.

Master.^ and he cannot be held to be a Worthy." said Confucius. commends him and calls him a Worthy. world in such a way. Yielding unselfishness and receiving. Considering what is proper and what not." said Confucius^ "and I cannot compete with him. and as deep as the Yellow River and the Han. Covetousness profitable and unselfishness.^ human dealings cannot always be pure and without ideal. he upon that determines pure and impure actions. covetousness. is Note 6. the stranger went on to say. Confucius 12. between right and bring about reforms aiming at the the difference May those be called Worthies who live in perfect purity. why then do they serve you as their master?' — "I ill- am benevolent. Analogically blemish. Although their diction was as brilliant as brocade and embroiflejy. his doings being opposed is to those of a sage. See Analects VII. . * Perfect purity not required to be a Worthy. 141. * On the contrary. "and at the same time submit to 1 See above p. nor did they help furtherance of truth. 14 and XVI." — 'And Tse Lu?' — is man. debater. purifying their persons and not serving their sovereign. Po Yi cannot be considered an Confucius disapproves of him. like Cliang Chii and Ni ^ Although they did not shun the company of common people altogether. injurious. Tse Lu was one in spite of his covetousness. expressions exquisit. and their meaning deep. the people did not learn thereby to wrong. find out right but they could not and wrong. adhering to their principles and not troubling their fellow-citizens. [Some one inquired of Yen YuanT his not — "A benevolent equal. but his goodness was is limited." — 'And how I Confucius saying." replied Tse Kung?' Confucius^ is 'What kind of a man "and 1 am "He is a hero. Tse Kung was great lives in this A Worthy yielding. Ethical. and do not come — "He an excellent up to his standard. that when the time requires action he acts. never submitting to any defilement of their person? Such are people who is flee from the world and avoid Chieli all that vulgar. they lived as if they had left the world. and passed for a virtuous man. and when it demands inaction he remains passive. or discriminate between truth and falsehood." 'U'hese three gentlemen are all superior to you.— 146 Lun-Heiig: B. is Tse Lu liked to receive.

nothing to criticise. should a it Accordingly be difficult it is very easy to find out. ["If you If nothing to allege. and disinterestedness and purity. On this account those good people of the villages are the thieves Because they seem what they really are not.A treatment. am a clever disputant * Consequently. Classics Vol. It is impossible to interchange the accompHshments of the three gentlemen with my ways. There Hsin. and that a person are to Then. I Definition of Worthies. so that Confticius said that it is impossible to proceed with them to the principles of Yao and Shun. they think themselves right. 70). wherefore then a to know Worthy? The Shnking of his says. Another parallel passage fuller. Quoted from the Shuking Part Part I. 147 and a bad speaker. p. Confucius hated them. is 17r." Those who possess Confucius knew how to use his faculties. Their principles have a semblance and truth. but a Worthy in view great whence does the a reason ' difficulty arise for this difficulty. are really like imbeciles who do not act at all. 2. but transposed {Legge. but that is it wording somewhat different and the so questioner 2 ^ Tse may have been the archetype for Huai Kan Tse. 37. adding Tse Chang. ni. II. it "To know the emperor finds difficult. how which method is has achieved success. furnished by Lieh T^e IV."]'^ the real Worthies to be recognised. 4v. call him a Worthy. Their conduct has a semblance of right-heartedness of All men are pleased with them. Mencius Book VII.] high talents and lead a pure life. who inquires about four disciples. I am bold and timid. of virtue. then can the faultless be considered Worthies? They would be those good people of the villages of whom Mencius says. you would find you would criticise them. and be used to acquire this knowledge? People at large noticing great talents and brilliant gifts."^ abilities If a man one must man be called be wise. Book III. Part U. would blame them. . you would have agree with the current customs. but ignore how to employ their gifts. and extraordinary accomplishments. which is referred to? There is For the emperor SJmn it was not Nan its Quoted almost is literally from Huai Tse XVUI. all have their like faults. They They consent with an impure age.

Ethical. Knowing his criteria. But. and no In government not the result to be con- the important thing being whether the means employed are proper. under these circumstances. It is like artisans making a vessel. Good words being are accompanied right. actions. ing the State. are able to For those who understand their business. a person and miserable. his still he is a Worthy. relations are assigned their proper places. Those who find it an arduous task. and their institutions lack the right family. and with a bad heart he can never be good. and the excellence of the wretched.148 easy to Lun-Heng: B. erroneous. obtain the names of Worthies. Common scholars. troubled success be achieved. it is not difficult. Consequently with a good heart a man is always good. and make no difl'ereuce between good and bad. How those then can their hearts be known? From their speech: — who have a good heart speak good words. and though their intellectual power be not very great. may be poor and undertakings may fail. and by the marks of conspicuous favour which they may expect. for those who do not understand it. they do what is right. they are easy to be recognised. but it must . although they could not be convicted of any crime. when may they be recognised? Wishing to recognise them. poor and wretched they terminate their lives. by their eloquence and complaisance. one must look at their good hearts. The latter live in small alleys. the statement of ordinary people that they know a Worthy is. But in the world no difference is made. he is apt to distinguish between right and wrong. even persons of moderate abilities may recognise him. and true Worthies are mixed up with common scholars. Then are Worthies altogether unrecognisable? No. having suff'ered from defamation. The principles of right and wrong being established. and of actions the effect is not decisive. The abilities of Worthies must not of necessity be of a very high order. do not know how they may be recognised. therefore. Their administration causes disorder and confusion. A Sage is not easy to know. know men. but their hearts are bright. Worthies are more easily recognised than vessels produced. Having a good heart. high measure. is heart in evidence. sidered. and therefore put forward this difficulty. Those with bad hearts cannot distinguish between white and black. the distinction of the official positions they occupy. in by good Words and all proceedings governing the and in governand low have their proper ranks. They serve to investigate their dealings. it is not easy.

so those possessing intrinsic merit his who real cannot make a show of it. p. in the eyes of the public are un- A\'orthy.A Definition of Worthies. it be used to inquire into wickedness. Therefore it has been be examined. the all doubts become another result than that arrived at by the Avorld. 149 be hoped that what has been done is correct. and that he conformed to what was wicked. and all customs departing from the ordinary are criticised by the public. Vol. When man right government. 1 Cf. and not in their bosoms. it is not necessary that there be a flow of words or a great sai(J: must not be many. As those who are vicious inwardly. but specious. but outwardly are able to dissimulate it. This correctness and propriety being manifest. 362. If people are wicked inwardly. For this reason true and correct statements are rejected by the people. only a Sage knows and wrong are confounded and there is no it. discuss these questions Men like the discussion of the heart. the masses do not see it and take them for Worthies. principles settled. Note 1. although the words spoken be true and correct. To discriminate between such erroneous statements and to adjust such a confusion. quite all comes and if those be employed to weigh the doubts. but Sages and Worthies are a qualified. that they have not the force to retrace their steps and to follow truth. Much is said in this world in which right and wrong are interchanged. but their source should deeds ascertained. but their meaning must be must not be far-reaching. but overflowing. and many things are done in which truth and error are confounded. Mao said that words were bad. I. — "Words many actions. well-principled and never perplexed. although they be bad speakers and debaters. do not understand this? It is because they have been too long befooled by common prejudices. When words may the mouth is disis ^ cussing. and when the words and deeds of a are mostly like those of Sliao Cheng Mao." This signifies that those possessing a well-principled heart. . but there Confucius referring to the wickedness of Shao Cheng no result. that of If this enlightenment out. but was very smooth. but no injustice done. is The Worthy heart of a Sage bright and never beclouded. When the heart is is discussing. the be awkward. is What reason that the masses. there are beautiful phrases perhaps. that of the mouth. only a Worthy perceives it. are looked upon as W^orthies by the world.

769 seq. Note 6 and Tso-chuan. and when a speech is to the point. he would Note 3. 74. and Duke Ting having made an offering according to the rules. accoiding to the opinion of people. composed the CKun-cKiu. V. When Worthies can be known. yet it showed that Confucius possessed the virtues qualifying him for an emperor. five men rebelled. con- sequently the principle of Kuan Tse cannot be right. I.^ The traces of ink and pencil left on boards and tablets. that they fill Kuan In Txe. 73. True and correct words being uttered. upon investigation.). they afterwards will fill the hall. Worthies and Sages walk the same way. if Confucius.^ Those used to old customs are forward to believe that the rites are not proper. ^ I. Tse^ said that a superior in a man speaking in a I hall. then the effect produced on all hearers would be a criterion of truth. But how can they fill it. p. if their knowledge be not true and correct. p. Ethical. and find fault with what they hear? When songs are very beautiful. That is impossible. fills the room. had not discovered that the ways of the CJiou were corrupt. and a statement being true. fills the wonder how his can fill an words appartment. .150 Lun-Heng: B. though he have not the genius of Confucius. it is also possible to discourse on Sages. and if the productions of anybody be like those of Confucius. people are not all able to chime in. three men went away. not all believe it. and the people of the hall all possessing a true and correct knowledge. Vol. are unmistakable signs. Kuan hall. the words of a superior man the attract so tlie many rooms and halls. ^ If. those who approve of it are not many. Cf. Classics Vol. Tinff 8th year {Legge. not becoming an emperor. and then can the knowing the truth are but few. Therefore Confucius. Duke 1 See Vol. A song being beautiful. this is a sufficient proof of his being a Worthy. Although the CKun-cliiu was but a mere literary work. Falling in with a song and hearing a speech is about the same thing. Duke Wm of Lti sacrificing contrary to the custom. and speaking room. p. unless it were said of men that they fill the world. but bear different names. Confucius was a Sage. in order to make known his ideas. one could not see whether the words spoken are true. there are very few who can sing them in a chorus. However. the rites is The number of similarly those those who know very small. so that they feel surprised. How words of a superior man fill halls or rooms? Therefore. that case the utterances of people ought to fill the whole world to be trustworthy. Part n.

151 this the Ch'un-chiu. there be none. The production of work Had the principles of originated from the corruption of the Chou. if he had devoted himself to discussions. Note 2. that his qualification for the Between the cutting of post of a prime minister became apparent. Consequently. are to be found in his 1 "New time. there would be the words which he behind. Reflections. and we cannot be sure whether those whose productions are like those of Confucius are real I Worthies. and if we consider the utterances. being appointed by the village elders to distribute he might sacrificial meats at the local altar. In default of utterances. It suffices to examine the quality of the writings." See Vol. we examine into the writings.A not have written Definition of Worthies. Li so far he a Worthy of the Han time. may be are not determined. 467. meat and the cutting of words there is no great difference. . Confucius took occasion to write his work. 2 One of the Three Heroes of the Han Vol. p.305. but the work of a typical emperor was embodied in the Cltun-cKiu. p. Before Ch'^en P'ing^ became an officer he cut meat in a village. only he would not have had an occasion to write his book. the Chou dynasty not been so degenerate. literary Such words have been elicited by something just as works have their raison d etre. cf. And so the traces of Huan Chun Shan's fitness to become a typical chief minister. without troubling about their origin. Confucius would not have written the Cfiun-cKiu. and he divided the pieces so equally. that the elders wished manage the affairs of the empire in a similar manner. reply to this objection that. On one occasion. would not be a sufficient proof of his sagehood. .^ in his reflections. I. still Had Confucius left written nothing. CKen P ing. and where truth and falsehood Huan Chun Shan. Note 7. he performed this duty with such impartiality. would have had about the same result as the other. Confucius did not become an emperor. owing to the depravity of the principles of Chou. I. There are many works current in which no distinction is made between right and wrong. yet for that he would not have been without talents. with commending and denouncing right and wrong. the fact of Confucius having written the Cliunc/iiu. He used a right method and did not commit the fault of wrongly condemning or favouring. whence the virtue of Confucius becomes a view to evident. If Huan Chiln Shan might have governed the Han. said to have hit the truth. His discussions are an investigation is into the truth.

people starve. I. to a close. but has uttered "Your servant begs to congratulate Your Highness. To bring death upon him would be most unfortunate. Nevertheless. Ed. means a punishment of Heaven. 'When the people are dead.' Tse Wei suggested that it might be shifted upon the people. i?. '''Mars men contrive the death of his his own life. ^ three maxims worthy of a superior man. CHAPTER XV." this. whom have I to care for? It is better that I die alone. The duke. Upon the duke inquiring how he knew "Your Highness has three accomplishments." 'The prime minister. This phenomenon happened after 480 and before Duke Ching'a death in451 2 3 The Ed. the three favours. he bowed again and said. who would still of inevitable that people. amd the Shi-chi: * ^£ 3^ Huai Nan Tse repeats S" A ^ gg ^. Vol. This night the planet will pass through three solar mansions. therefore speak no more of it. .' said the duke. ^.' replied the duke. it can be shifted on the prime minister.— 152 Lun-Heng: C. 'is required for the administration of the State. Fictitious Phenomena {Pien-hsii). but the duke retorted by saying. Should a ruler Tse Wei replied. b. ^" ^£^ " three maxims of a superior man. that Mars summoned Tse Wei^ and asked him what it meant was in the Heart. There Sunff. Your Highness it hears what is below. and the life of Your Highness will increase confer upon you by 21 years. Heaven will is on high. astrologer of the court.: cf.' 'If the Tse Wei said that it might be shifted on the year. ^^. Sung A misis that part of the earth which corresponds to the Heart. fortune is menacing Your Highness. Huai : Nan Tse.c. Note 1. is a tradition that [during the time of Duke Ching of ^ the Planet Mars stood in the constellation of the Heart. 158. and C. alarmed." . 'they will perish. p.' Tse Wei took his but turned to the north. Critique.* hence • he replied. with a view to preserving consider me a sovereign? It is my life must come leave. Heaven surely three favours. .

this to act like the duke." 5. and it is but a superstition. [In the time of Duke Ching of C/ii there appeared a cornet. Quoted with some few alterations from HuaiNan T^e XII. planet Hist. — [This With entire intelligence served God.' times seven makes 21. prolongation being apparent. And so secured the great blessing. And iit. boots not. but three more condensed. By each it One star is equivalent to one year. and the end is omitted. not pass. In the year 516 b. A counselor of the duke of C'h'i. will move seven 2 3 ^^ -j-j J||^ " through each mansion ^"[T. 11 v. I. p. this prolongation took place. Yen Tse^ declared. . your servant is willing to die. and it? Why to then deprecate filth. passes ^ " 7 degrees: — The • e^ . IV. it of the Hearty owing to could not injure him. * The same through story is related in the Shi-chi chap. Moreover Heaven uses the Sweeping Star^ sweep away Your Highness' virtue is not filthy. HuaiNan 328. See also Vol.]^ just as Tse Wei had predicted. the prolongation of the duke's life by 21 years came into effect.^ avert it and the duke Heaven's enjoined upon the people to "It by prayer.^^=^ in consequence he received the allegiance of the HuaiNan Tse: Tse: — it ' ^^ ^ -^ ^ Li.Fictitious Phenomena. 38. it would not have been of any benefit to him. ^^ . Mem. Since the planet really passed. if some one be able he would be sure to obtain the same blessing. Should the planet steps of the palace"^ and to await the event. Heaven rewarded the duke for his goodness. 245). wherefore should you pray? Should however your virtue be tarnished. (Chavannes. In case Duke Ching was not the object of Heaven's wrath. in fact. Watchfully and reverently. Vol. absurd. His virtue w^as without deflection. its will must not be suspected. p. way is not hidden. Therefore 21 years will be added to the Your servant desires to fall down on the life of Your Highness.* Thus. All this its is wreaking if anger'. of Shiking says: what use would these deprecations be? The king Wen." The same night the planet Mars really passed through three solar mansions. Provided that almighty Heaven was and caused Mars to stay in the constellation Duke Ching's personal wickedness. 153 and the three motions which the planet must make. Note |J^~|^. 15v. then even he had listened to Tse Wei's advice. although he took no heed of Tse Wei's words. Three will pass seven stars. Consequently.c. p. and.

the people will be scattered and lost. 19v. 2 (Lepge. all Critique. 1 Shiking Part III. It was because of their away from them. Book I. 76). Thus the prince of Clii was like Tse Wei. That being the case. quarters. and all the incantator's and historiographer's prayers would be of no avail. what evil it can that: — befall 'I you through a comet? at. The Shiking likewise has have no beacon to look and Shang.154 States from generate. Why and was Heaven so biassed and unjust in requiting goodness? man does good. and bliss and happiness supervene.'^ If the virtue declines and degenerates. . as did not. Duke Chao 26th year {Legge. The same calamity was sent down on both sovereigns. Mars staying in the Heart was like the paper-mulberry tree growing in court. 161. vanncs. Vol. 718). {Cha- Quotation from the Tso-chuan. p. but in quite a different way. especially Yen Tse uses other arguments. under a perverted government dreadful prodigies must have appeared. something was amiss in the dealings of Duke Ching. Part II. is Part II. Classics Vol. 32. * Hist. They flow from a common source and are essentially the same. The duke of Sung would not listen to the advice which was given him. When Duke Ching of Sung worded the three excellent sentiments. p. also recorded in the Shi-chi chap. Mnn. Cf.] ' If Your Highness' virtue does not de- the States round about will submit to you. and under a good government propitious omens abound." The duke was pleased and had his orders countermanded. so that his administration became vitiated.* Kao Tsung removed this portent by his adan honest his When his heart. If. ' ^ A lost Ode. p. cause the comet to disperse nor prolong his life.]^ But the Sovereigns of Hsia disorders That the people fell The fortune prince of CKi wanted to avert the calamitous presage Tse Wei was endeavouring to remove the miswhich Mars was portending. but Heaven only recognised the virtue of the duke of Sung. his administration was likewise good. IV. on the other hand. for Yen Tse's sake. and of the comet. Then does the planet Mars not intrude upon the Heart. V. This event IV. 433). his conduct must have been good before he gave utterance to them. just as Yen Tse declined to comply with his master's order. p. by making Mars pass through three solar mansions and adding 21 years to his span. his goodness springs from good maxims issue from his mind. all Luu-Heng: C. p. and Yen Tse took the place of the duke of Sung. Classics Vol.

instead of changing his government and reforming. but hears what is low. it hearing words at the distance of several ten thousand Li. and separated. would. they must use interpreters.Fictitious Pheiiomeiia. would be unable to understand them. it is many ten thousand Li from us. if. could he have induced Mars to take its place in the conof the Heart thereby? Since three bad maxims would not have had this effect. and the proportion of the to Heaven. compared and man. the ears are joined to it the head. and that air. how should the three excellent sentiments stellation have caused the planet to revert three solar mansions? If by three good maxims 21 years were obtained. They say that there no such relation between to ants and man. differ from In all creatures possessed of a body. how could he hope to touch Heaven. In the same manner Duke Ching should have averted the extraordinary phenomenon of the planet Mars by ministration. he had merely propounded three excellent sentiments. If a man. of Now the altitude of Heaven quite a different thing to that of a tower. Heaven would confer three graces upon him. according man and Heaven as between and urge that Heayen hears what man says and. in case the ears be attached to Heaven. but done nothing? How can we substantiate our view? Let us suppose that Duke Ching had enounced three wicked maxims. Provided that Duke Ching's proceedings were blame- worthy. That is a misconception. The prince having spoken three maxims of a superior man. and that. sends good or bad luck. were to look out for the ants on the ground. distant does not happen that the ears and the body are As to Heaven's height. 155 by words. for this reason. he could not distinguish and how should he hear their sounds? The simple reason the is that the bodies of ants are so minute and not so big as their sounds cannot transcend the vast expanse is human. When the Savages from the four quarters come to China. or how would Heaven have responded. by the utterance of a hundred fine things. Even the Five Emperors and the Three Rulers could . sitting on a high tower. the span of human life be extended to a thousand years? The idea of a lieavenly reward of virtue is preposterous. and in this respect does not earth. not his actions. Mars was staying in the Heart. Heaven is high. According to what Tse Wei said. their speech is unintelligible. Now. not merely is like that of ants human body. to make themselves understood. their forms. in reality there is nothing but fortune. its quality. Heaven has a body. Although they are similar to the Chinese in body and mind.

the water is shaken and the air stirred up. and if it be air (air like clouds and fog). Worthies in their dealings do not come up with sages above. Now not fancy Heaven with a body quite other than the speech be different as well? is human must Man not cognisant of Heaven's proceeding. small foot of the Chou time. how should Heaven know what man is about? If Heaven has a body. have any influence upon august Heaven with its tremendous height? Furthermore. air it must be similar to that of the fish. A fish. A tiny corporeal frame of seven feet^ and in this frame a subtle breath^ would hardly be more powerful than the fire rising from a sacrificial vessel. yet they had not the efi"ect of moving the planet Mars. . just as fish beat and agitate the water. This is not true. the waves caused by it would not proceed farther than a hundred steps. its ears are too high and far away. to and the thus affected and responsive the impetus. years. a foot long. and Chieh and Chou ought to have died Yao early. owing to the would not reach up the water. nor do they pass the line of wickedness below. They are not bad. would be like the water. and should it. do without its interpreters.^ Of all the ages none were truer sages than Yao and 8hun^ and none greater criminals than Chieh and Chou. how could such hear human speech? The phenomenalists assert that man lives between heaven and By his actions he can aifect heaven and earth. because of Duke Ching's three excellent sentiments. moving in up the water by its side in a circumference of several feet. ascending from the earth. That was not so. but they overthrow the argument that Duke Ching escaped misfortune. The government of Chieh and Chou was very wicked. Critique. Beyond a Li. The proceedings of Y(W and Shun were full of excellence. * " * The Man. The fish moving.156 not Lun-Heng: C. ^ . they all completed their full span. but not very good. Should it really be so. Provided that. and understand the savages alone. the waters would remain tranquil and unruffled. If it were only as big as a man. would only to Heaven. Duke Ching was but a worthy. his life time was increased by 21 and Shun ought to have obtained a thousand years. If human activity affect the air far and near. then Yao ' Their wisdom and sageness did not enable them to understand foreign languages. human influence earth as fish in the water. stir distance. to hear what men say.

or the people? Heaven uses Mars as the king does the chief of the princes. 157 and Shun as well as Cldeh and Chou became nearly a hundred years Consequently Tse Wei's remarks are altogether without foundold.^ When sends a feudal lord has been guilty of a capital crime.Fictitious Phenomena. * ^ K 1^ jM" . but how could it be diverted upon the premier. following the counsel of a minister. hearing of his resolution. princes. Ed. and that misfortune was awaiting its sovereign. that Sung was the territory on earth corresponding to the Heart. then. Since he would not consent. evil :^1&2 lords either himself or ^ Chou epoch the king was much too weak by deputy. upon hearing of this. but not to the duke's listening to the counsel of Tse Wei. The exceptional phenomenon was either due to luck or In the later to punish feudal merit. in case a prince disregarded the advice of his minister and took all the guilt upon himself. erroneously writes -^ K^ . how could he have affected Heaven by so doing? Would. is erroneous. we know that it would not come into effect under heavenly law either. the year. try to turn upon one of own ministers or his subjects. be inclined to entertain such a proposal? Would he absolve the sovereign of all guilt and shift it upon his would not consent. ation. why then should Mars consent to pass subjects? chief The through three solar mansions? Listening and not listening have nothing to do with luck and merit. how should Mars agree to divert the calamity upon the people? Therefore Tse Wei's view is wrong. who knows that the guilt off upon the his prince. how- ever. A. the prince's guilt being too evident. instruct him to turn the guilt upon the State. If something is impossible by human law. and what he says about the lengthening of life. to is besiege his State and take possession of The it prince.* in which good and do not differ. Heaven and man have the same law.^ The alleged movement of the planet can therefore not be taken as a fact. because the guilt is the sovereign's and not the people's. Let us presume that Duke Ching had hstened to the counsel of Tse Wei. Should a prince.^ He may. the king the chief of the it. . the chief of the princes. Under these circumstances would have employed Mars to inflict calamity upon Duke Heaven Ching. Tse Wei also stated that Mars was Heaven's agent. acquit the culprit and dismiss him? He would not condone his crime. lies tried before the king's deputy. would the chief of the princes.

or wind and rain unseasonable. of which people sometimes say that certain death. According to Tse Wei's reply Duke Ching spoke of the calamity. That has no reference to heat and cold. it might be transBut would that look of * This great fire took place in b. Critique. and to say that the ojQf of three inane sentences averted the planet. and a peculiar look in the face. his ministers. is the mark of Nevertheless ferred on the neighbours or the slaves. when Mars takes its position within the Heart. and that good government and virtuous acts are apt to bring about the normal state again. asked Tse CJian Tse CKan had listened to Tse Shin? At the time when Yao met with the less clever it.' sky. 524. how can they be avoided. Heart had its corresponding place in Sung. If. or an individual to expire. A and Cheng were simultaneously afflicted with change in the air could be observed in the whether it might be averted. wind or rain. and this look of the face no righteous deeds can wipe off. great flood. turned life. Duke Chao ^ 18th year. a conflagration. Oi en. and the planet not be averted. great officer of Lu. and is described in tfie Tso chuan. Lun-Heng: C. which was threatening from Mars.'^ foreseeing the disaster. When a State is about to perish. and misfortune was the no doubt. Whenever heat and cold are anomalous.158 Sung. Wei. and procured the enjoyment of a long time of bliss. is a mistake. A . still they Yao had the same feeling as Tse CKan.c. According to Tse Wei's statement Mars was Heaven's agent. death and can ruin are sure to follow. how should the strange phenomenon on the sky be removed by government? the disaster. and human endeavour was powerless against Would the four States have got rid of the calamity in case it. increased the years of When expression it a sick man is at the point of death. Tse Shen. were no could not avert than Tse Shen or Tse Wei. The law of Heaven had to be fulfilled. the philosophers on government hold that some fault has been the cause. which thus becomes visible. If these were facts. for it is the sign of death. Since that expression on the face cannot be got rid of by words. threatening its sovereign. and how administrative and moral reforms avert and virtuous utterance acts them? Good government cannot ward them oflF. but Tse Clian took no notice. that peculiar is seen on his face. a strange air is perceived in the sky. but was an omen implying death and the end of life. the disaster could not be avoided.

Now Duke Ching put forward three precious arguments at one sitting.* just so happened. took it for an ill omen of death. the planet Mars be averted. Duke Ching had enunciated three bad ones. 159 who just cannot speak any more. this. What does that mean? Did the star three times transcend one mansion. we do not know what happened that Duke Ching did not die. computing the number of years from stars and mansions. would it then have remained quiet and motionless? Sometimes when Mars stands in the Heart. ignorant of the dying' man.Fictitious Phenomena. and he gave himself the air of knowing personally that this movement was the result of the prince's selflessness in regard to his subjects. Provided that he had uttered ten excellent thoughts. would Mars then have eclipsed the Heart? Good words made it revert. the star went through three solar mansions. three mansions. a drought. in case the speech of the duke had been neither good nor bad. how could life does not admit of any prolongation. and bad ones. and Tse Wei. reverted owing to the excellent sentiments. Or perhaps Tse Wei was aware that the planet in its course was just about to move. which comes to a close. and earnestness of purpose are supposed ' Sincerity to move Heaven and cause phenoipenal changes. Seeing that the number of stars was seven. or did it at once pass through three mansions? Tse Wei said that the prince had spoken three maxims worthy of a superior man. he then called seven stars a mansion and obtained 21 years. in fact. and. or his life. wherefore Heaven would certainly bestow three That very night the planet would transcend favours upon him. but not the death of the duke is imminent. be lengthened? That expression cannot be done away with. and how the years of Duke Ching be added to? Ergo. whereupon the planet moved through three mansions. its position of and that Duke Ching was not then imagined that Tse Wei's words were true and that The world Duke Ching touched Heaven by his sincerity. proceed. and his Therefore. if. be wiped off by some appropriate words. trusting like common people in the efficiency It of perfect sincerity. that Mars had to leave to die. itself. Then it is said that the planet passed through three solar mansions. conversely. . no doubt. when Mars stood in the Heart. would the star then have gone through ten mansions? Mars occupying the Heart.

"Formerly I have observed that. the Great Diviner went to see the duke. The planet is likewise steady and shifts position of it. what he could do with his wisdom. It really withdrew from one mansion. He went out. was no with knowledge." said he. 112. [Duke Ching of 67/?' asked the Great Diviner. p. an earthquake is imminent. met the Great Diviner and said. He then waited for this and. The other returned that he could shake the earth. 22r. and Mars was event. in fact. As they carelessly magnified the number of solar mansions. by exaggeration. can it be shaken?" Yen Tse remained silent and made no reply. accord. The earth is steady. » Quotation from Huai Nan IVe XII. In the chapter HsiX Ch'in^ of Tse Wei's Shu-lu. being moves of its own it. When Yen Tse called upon the duke. therefore this one utterance of 2>e Wei was afterwards held to be true. to move. When Yen Tse had left. but Tse Wei maintained that the prince could move If Yen Tse had not said that the Hook star was between officer the House and the Hearty the artful reply of the Great Diviner In Sung there would not have been Yen Tse's detected.160 Lun-Heng: C. he said to him. of which.^ we also have the notice that Tse Wei said. Critique."] — — ^ Tse Wei's allegation as to the progress of the planet is like the Great Diviner's remark on the earthquake. . The earth. and Tse it the solar mansion. I." Wei took it for a corroboration of his view. when the Hook star is between the House and the Heart. about three. and he replied that he could shake the earth. steady. His case is analogous to that of the Great Diviner of 6'A'i. See also Vol. It is steady and will move of its own accord. liable left "The prince spoke three excellent maxims. yet the Great Diviner contended that he could its move itself. "I have asked the Great Diviner what his art availed him." The Great Diviner assented. people made three mansions. Nothing is said Perchance the planet was bound to move. they likewise invented the 21 additional years. "cannot shake the earth. "Your servant.

the princes offered their allegiance. 28. plenty of lucky auguries and blessings came down upon him. ^ ^WiCf. This is a fiction.Fictitious Prodigies. 2r.^ After seven days. Tsu Chi declared that the down-fall of the dynasty was preters. Notes 1 and 2.c. p. •^°'" *^® '*** character. he the two trees. Then Tsu Chi was questioned. who consulted his minister '^ K^ in Yi Chih. Upon this the two trees died. p. At the time of the emperor Kao Tiung of the Yin dynasty a mulberry and a paper-mulberry tree' grew together in his court. 6). Three years the princes of six States appeared at his court with inter- and subsequently he enjoyed a hundred years of happiness. "The mulberry and the paper-mulberry are wild plants. I. and he reigned many years. Giles No. and in the Shi-chi chap. In the Shi-chi the two trees got a circumference of two spans one evening. States. 161 CHAPTER XVI. 3. that they would take two hands to span them. Alarmed at the growth of Following his counsel. The physiognomist replied that. 328. But in all these texts the phenomenon is said to have happened under the reign of T'ai Mou. regenerate extinguished re-establish obscure scholars. 2 * * p. to in the They were non-Chinese States The same legend is referred Part I. in the court denotes the down-fall terrified of the dynasty. p. personally changed his proceedings. 1637-1563 b. they were so thick already. Owing to the earnestness of his reforms. deface to the Shuking. who said. The ruin of a dynasty is like the death of an individual. he could not tell it. in the Bamboo Annals. raise later. their growing body. f^ {Giles 6228) = Broussonetia papyrifera should be written.* Kao Tsung was a wise sovereign. he interrogated Tsu Chi. 7r.^ impending. 6229. though he knew. requiring interpreters to offer their submission. and illustrate the principle of feeding the old. Classics Vol." Kao Tsung He began to practise virtue with stooping would ponder over the government of former kings. Ill. 22 {Legge. and chap. Vol. . the succession of extinct princely houses. Fictitious Prodigies {Yi-hsii). reformed his administration and The prodigy of the two trees then disappeared. Kao Tsung summoned his physiognomist and asked him about it.

how life can the six States have been attracted. 3. Critique. and seeing that now it really had come and built its nest.: jj^. How could Tsu Chi's reference to the government' have averted the ruin. his After his death he does not live again. after all. or how could Kao Tsung's reforms have helped to avoid the disaster? A private person. If Duke Chao. His dukedom in fact became empty and desolate. its nest. A man being about to die. nor does he continue to exist after his departure. When this sign of ruin had already appeared.^ Shi Chi traced up a queer ditty of boys of the time of Wen and CKing referring to the mainah. A. ruin. If a branch has leaves. be able to avert by changing his government? It being impossible to avert misfortune.162 Lun-Heng: C. and how the king's Human life and been prolonged up to a hundred years? death depend on the length o^the span. its why should it water. and so he explained it. which built capital deserted. its time is up. wjs in Sid Chi's opinion indicative of misfortune. he explained it as a bad omen. and C. What evidence can we adduce? Under Duke Chao of Lu a mainaJi appeared and built its nest. and water flowing from a spring swells and grows. on perceiving the prodigy. and so is the subsistence and decay of a State determined by the duration of its time. because the portent of the queer saying concerning the mainah had already appeared. and become reaUsed as naturally as leaves blossom. 2 3 Which See is fixed beforehand. . Tsu Chi explained the mulberry and paper-mulberry as an augury of decay. beholding horrid signs. following Kao Tsung's example. the misfortune how then should Kao Tsung. the discharge of fiUal duties was of no avail. had reformed and improved his administration. Subsequently Duke Chao was expelled by the Chi family and retreated to Ch^i. so to speak. ed.'^ not by the manage- ment or mismanagement of affairs. have: ^. and his The appearance of the wild bird. not have succeeded in breaking the spell. he would. * The queer ditty portending the duke's disaster had developed. why should • not blossom? it And if a 'spring pours out not grow?^ Ed. and the calamity of the duke's flight was already completed. not on good or bad actions. B. miracles appear. Note 1. for this portent of the mainah had become manifest during the time of Duke Wen and CK eng. upon hearing Shi Chi's interpretation. does not obtain luck by doing good. Wlien a dynasty is on the verge of fate is fulfilled. and when a man expires. p.

282). The saliva oozed out in the court and was transformed into a black lizard. King Li^ became stultified by her. all their endeavours to blot them out would have been in vain. The signs were there. Li. Shun. Hist. ' This seems to be a mistake. is like affirming that good auspices can be wiped away by bad government. That is not quite correct. until under king Yu it was opened and inspected. Yii. I.c. The Shi-chi writes king Li (Chavannes Mem. resulted in the birth of Pao Sse was introduced into the palace of Chou. .c. and when a lucky sign appears. To say that evil portents can be removed by good actions.^ This. and the State went to rack and The time from the age of Kings Yu and Li to the Hsia ruin. p. a State is sure to flourish. When epoch was more than a thousand years. and even if the Five Sages ^ and the Ten Worthies ^ had interceded to remove them. Pao Sse could not help being born. I. where it had ^ commerce with a woman. said that they two dragons. are mentioned in Chinese literature but for more in recent times. whose favourite Pao Sse became. and we do not know whom Wang CKung had view. King Li could not help being depraved. This must be king Yu. Note « The Five Sages Ten Worthies j^ -4-' '' ^ ^ 5. 2 ^ * 6 He reigned from 878-828 b. two dragons fought together in the court. See Vol. and she being born. and Pao Sse were not yet born. When good omens come forth. The dragons bearing the name of Pao. The Hsia dynasty came are:— Fao. were two princes of Pao. 1. Yu. 230. 321. which slipped into the seraglio.^ this was a proof of the future birth of Pao Sse. and Wen Wang.* when the two dragons struggled. king Yu from 781-771. p. 1766. p. the calamity cannot but be completed. felicity at the time is sure to arrive. and when evil ones become visible. They all did not open the casket. may not to bear out our When the downfall of the Usui dynasty was imminent. of their contest. Tang. The presage of the destruction of the Chou dynasty already appeared long before it came to pass. 163 But suffice this event is of comparatively recent date and tliesis. it in a casket. and the Yin were destroyed and succeeded by the Chou. Vol. When If the a bad augury comes forth. later on. Pao Sse. Vol. Cf. The king of Hsia preserved The Hsia were destroyed and succeeded by the Yin. to a close in b. They spat their saliva and vanished. the State could not avoid being ruined.Fictitious Prodigies. and he being depraved. a dynasty must needs perish. Good and evil are similar so far.

Accordingly. The springs of the YeUow River could not be stopped. and the two dragons not be removed. but they touched. Kao Tsunff. his body bent down. that human force cannot stop it. At the time of the Han emperor. they would have been utterly powerless to make them revert.164 Lun-Heng: C. It had two horns. one foresees the dried branches of winter. The gentlemanusher Chung Chun was called upon to give his opinion. then people said that. Hsiao Wu Ti. but did not estimate the distance of time correctly. for such is the nature Yellow River springs off into nine channels. it plain fruit. "its horns joined together as the land under heaven unites and forms one whole. 'Tt is a wild animal. how do was denoting the we know fall of King Chou'^ Perhaps Tsu Chi believed in the explanation of wild plants which he gave. reformed his own conduct. its close. Beholding the leaflets of spring. and then branches Should Yao and Yu have attempted to turn the waters back by their excellent administration. A king's life about to prosper is like the breath of spring becoming summer. however. declared them to be signs of an impending catastrophe. Tsu Chi. or perhaps they were lucky and not inauspicious. having questioned Tsu Chi. the growth of the mulberry and the paper-mulberry. and enjoyed a hundred years of happiness. and viewing the dropping in autumn. after the inquiry concerning the two trees. the last ruler of the Hsia dynasty. "^ ^^. and Kao Tsung's life lasted long. the presage of the growth of the two trees down-fall of the Chou dynasty but that • appeared already in the Hsia epoch. chap. a white unicorn was caught. trusting in his interpretation that they were wild plants. took to doing good. from the K'un-lun. and accidentally the princes of the six States arrived Kao Tsung's life was naturally long and not yet near at his court." he said. he changed his government. xxvm. A is propos of also quite that they must be like the vernal leaves and the autumnal How could they be removed by a thorough overhauling of the the government and personal reforms? Now. one knows that in summer fruit there will be stalked leaves. The of water. wherefore the Yin dynasty did not decline. Critique. and his death like the autumnal air becoming winter. cf. The mulberry and paper-mulberry grew most likely for Chou's sake. it was impossible to prevent the mulberry and the paper-mulberry trees from growing. .

on the tripod. of Ko Lu of Chieh^ at and the court must have been unlucky. XXVIII. They are not to be taken for bad omens.Fictitious Prodigies. I. The homage of chieftain to the Duke of Lu was. not auspicious. on the contrary. they are not held to be inauspicious. be treated like men. and the mulberry and papermulberry trees are wild plants. Pheasants cannot be looked upon as inauspicious because they hide among as ^ wild plants. can they be said to be auspicious. whether be in the capital or in the country. then the appearance of the "vermilion grass" and of the "monthly plant" were not auspicious. then the presage depends on goodness or badness.^ Why then cannot wild plants growing in a court be propitious? If living creatures Pheasants must. ' men do not become so. Vol. if they should grow in the country and. The vermilion grass and the monthly plant are both herbaceous. 1 See chap. Note 2. If the vermilion grass is treated and the monthly their quality is it plant are believed to be auspicious. When Kao a pheasant Ts^mg was sacrificing in the temple of CK eng T^ang. p. either as lucky or unlucky. Pheasants hide amidst wild plants. regard lands. / why then call it unlucky? If. Note 3. Wild tribes in the West and the North. plants and trees are believed to be unpropitious. arrival of men from distant of announcement the in it the Tsu Chi saw ^ The commentators of the Shuking. then the arrival of a tall Ti* would be so as well. believed to be a good augury. and not influenced by the site of their growth. Should the visit all that comes from the Ti" not be auspicious. . but Tsu be inauspicious. 486. this « Cf. by living in a cottage and in the country. alighted pheasants as inauspicious. it is Why then are they looked upon as lucky omens? it According as a wild growing thing comes or goes. According to Tsii Chi's statement the arrival of pheasants is propitious. but their cottage to be inauspicious? When such people go into the capital. 165 The unicorn is a wild animal. Both being wild. and screamed. Both views are conflicting. owing to their excellence. what difference Chung Chun pronounced is there between the animal and the plants? Chi held the wild plants to the animal to be auspicious. * » Cf. however. they grow in court. If people live in a straw hut. in this respect. p. which screen the bodies of wild birds. on the other hand.^ with blood in their veins are held to be auspicious. came flying along. 122.

when they are going to perish. appear visible in When If he trees. in Cliou period. two phonetics Wang Ch'ung presumably means to say that the 4P and -4--. During the the empire. chiin. universal peace reigned throughout The Yueh-cKang^ presented the one. This theory I. as lucky. is explained and combatted chapter "On Reprimands" in Vol. nor can we prove whether the meaning of a mulberry and a also a likeness paper-mulberry be good or bad. p. does not change. where this people is called ^^ ^^ instead of 2 * —|-- . who conquered Ssechuan and proclaimed in the himself emperor of Shu. If is what reason account considered to be a good omen? is on of a portion of the character cMh (pheasant)^ bearing a resemblance to sMh (a scholar). Critique. chiin.^ Kung-Sun Shu^ got a white stag. Note 2. hoih =^ shih^. are similar. *"' A Han general of the 1st cent. I.' on plants and 2^0 C/iiu Ming says that there which have not five harvests.* and a superior man. how then can they grow ripe? Their not ripening is a sign of impending ruin. calamities become he does not change then.g. . intimating that scholars from afar would walk into the temple of Kao Tsung.166 Lun-Heng: C. p. and should he not reform even then. they attain his own person. 505. There being no resemblance of shape. wherefore did he explain it Ergo we come to the conclusion that it as an unlucky augury? is impossible to know whether a pheasant be propitious or not. pheasants. which he enjoyed ever so long. Perhaps they were something good. and took ^ u-hite as his imperial colour. therefore the latter obtained luck and happiness.^ then there between a deer. When Heaven does not The "Spring and Autumn" of are few States 1 See Vol. to which the not ripening of the Five Grains corresponds. Calamities become visible on the Five Grains. if the emperor has faults. Duke of Chou with v/hich he regarded Kao Tsung likewise obtained A it pheasant for is also a creature living in the grass and is it the country. for ruin is likewise a feature of calamity. Those arguing on calamitous prodigies stand convinced that Heaven makes use of calamitous phenomena for the purpose of rebuking the emperor. e. they manifest themselves on the Five Grains. 1 19 seq. prodigies the State.

the spirits are called down. Then not ripening is a bad augury as well. it would have been lucky. pongees and cloth are like the ripe grain. when Heaven rains grain. To present a man with A present of pongees cannot be called bad. 5i-. § IB 244. at times of would have brought presents of this grass with them.] ^ This The theorists all write in their must be accounted a lugubrious prodigy. (^^. would it also have been deemed good? If "fragrant grass" universal peace people Fragrant grass can be used for the distillation of spirits. ought to be a lucky augury. very harmonious and also looked upon as something excellent.-^^ ^^"^'^ *^^" I. the not ripening of cereals grain. its perfume being very intensive. would not have ' Five harvests being foreboding the ruin of a State. the statement about the mulberry and the paper-mulberry must also remain doubtful. but should it have grown in the court of Chmi. and in various books and chronicles we read that. [when Tsang Hsieh invented writing. otherwise is by calamities in and disasters. upon what reason must following rain? it If And the grain produced came down we thoroughly go into the matter. made. Heaven rained grain. grew in the Chou epoch. the harvest grows. for ill be an omen? When it the Yin and the Yang spoiled harmonise. ^ IE See Vol. this heavenly gift. happiness and misfortune are tlierefore difficult to distinguish. books ^ and their notes that. so that is conversely. why did Heaven use something so harmonious to produce it? The production of grain is a kind gift from Heaven. By pouring out this perfumed wine at sacrifices. an impending calamity affects the its does not ripen. and the ghosts cried during the night. and of silk Raw cloth is silk is wrought into hempen threads and hemp is already conferring a valuable gift upon him. this is an ill omen. be considered unlucky? Since the good or bad presage of raining grain cannot be made out. Note 3.Fictitious Prodigies. The harmony of Yin and Yang resulting the production of grain. but how much more precious would be silken fabrics and woven cloth? Silk and hemp correspond to the Yin and the Yang. 167 • mature them. It also grows in the open country exactly like the mulberry and the paper-mulberry. this may be a calamity or a blessing. how can it be called inauspicious? pongees. Such contradictions should have shown ' ^ Wang Cliung the (^^is '''•)• futility of such researches. If the / and the Ti had presented it. Provided that this grass it had spontaneously grown in the court of Chou. . The passage quoted from HiuiiNan TseWW. why then should grain. and what is said about the mulberry and the paper-mulberry cannot be correct. p.

Critique. and he who acts contrary to the wishes of his sovereign. This silk is worked into pongees. and Duke Hsien should have expired at once. He does nothing which might impair If I the health of the sovereign. "Prince descend and pay your respects. To see only the crown and forget the welfare of the ruler is not what a son ought to do. he will soon be seated on the throne. I have heard say that. the fragrant grass. is undutiful. Now the duke did not die. vermilion grass. That I prostrate myself. placing confidence in the popular interAll these plants pass for auspicious portents. The charioteer called upon him. people enter the ancestral temple. his He does not cherish selfish desires and receives commands with reverence and awe. is into dresses.C. which make silk.^ If the curling of a snake round the left wheel really implied the speedy accession of the prince. and these pongees. ^ Furthermore. is not loyal. when a snake curls round the left cartSpirit Tower. lustre of the now come into possession of the State. . but in vain. using them as court-dresses. and the charioteer. And yet you desire me to do it? The dangers of my wishing to assume the reins of government are evident enough. in order to come to the dukedom. Clad in these robes. he ought not to have died. "I have heard say that a man's son accord with his master. He threw himself into his sword and gave up his ghost.168 Lun-Heng: C. would hardly be according to the sovereign's wishes." But the Prince did not descend and returned — to his residence. He who disobeys the duties of a son. or the monthly plant. the sovereign must lose his health. Perhaps the snake foreshadowed the imminent death of the prince. but the crown-prince fell into his sword. been different from auspicious grain. a snake wriggled round the wheel of the son of the chief of a State. and the prince lives in perfect said." Then he tried to commit suicide by jumping down from the palace. ^ » ^ 576-559 B. The evolution similar to that of why then are those trees held to be a bad augury? When the heir-son of Duke Hsien of Wei^ left arrived at the wheel of his chariot The charioteer said to him. His charioteer attempted to stop him. is This story referred to in the Hsin-hsu ^^ j^ of lAu Hsiang {T'ai- ping-yu-lan). Therefore the explanation of the charioteer was the idle talk of common people. mulberry trees feed the silk-worms.

and so the two trees were in fact auspicious. but the charioteer fancied it to be lucky. and the Yin dynasty did not perish. 352. I. failed to grasp the real meaning of the portent. but. a comet. It either in the prefecture of K'ai-feng-fu battle took place in b. Huai Tfn Nan Tse has the following conclusion ^§ "ffi yK ^^ ^M TjT ^5 -^ i^ the dragon dropped its ^ ^^ "He its did not change countenance. €." Then the dragon disappeared. The in site is not certain. As a matter of fact. Cf. or the stick the tail of the comet was turned towards the kingdom of Ch'u. The mulberry and the paper-mulberry may be compared with is still the dragon. ^ An officer of Chin. and sucked his brains. It being but a return. 169 pretation. Chiu Fan being fighting with Duke Wen dreamt ' Quoted from Huai Nan Tse VII.c. (Honan) or cKiu.Fictitious Prodigies. Yu alone declared a yellow dragon to be a bad presage. : See also Vol." was wrestling with King Ch'eng. Tsao-chou-fu {Shantung). The men in the boat turned pale as ashes.]^ In ancient and modern times the arrival of a dragon is commonly regarded as something very lucky. 2 and fled". a Wild being plants growing in court are held to be unlucky. though their auguries be reversed. wagged tail. year. there an extraordinary case like the yellow dragon carrying the boat. "I have received the decree of Heaven and harrass myself to succour the thousands of people. Then was ears. The matter was referred to Chiu Fan. 632. ^ when a "broom star"* proceeded from 6'Am. but Yil was amused and said laughing. Note 1. "In its of Chin was going to try issues with King CKing of Ch'u at CJieng-pu. The growth of the mulberry and paper-mulberry resembles the snake curling round the left wheel. crossed the Yangtse. the men in the boat took fright. who gained the upper hand. and death is a return. The CKun- Duke Hsi 28th S. there similarity. and when they saw it lifting ^ the boat. but Tsu Chi thought them of ill omen.^ who that he brooms he who turns them round wins. how can it upset my serenity? I look upon a dragon as a lizard. its arrival was unlucky. ^ /. for. a yellow dragon carried his boat on its back. Duke Wen which held replied. [When Yil. they became lucky. My life lasts awhile.^ stick. . 8v. on his journey south.. p.

guilt. The Yin could Tsung's long reign whence Kao not boast of a man with Chi.170 questioned. were deemed bad auguries. for a broom star is inauspicious. by virtue of his extreme wisdom. and the salvation of the Yin dynasty. 189. Had Duke Wen consulted an ordinary officer previously. Duke Wen had worsted iniquitous CKu. and the upper hand in wranghng not an adverse prognostic. and up to the present day the notion that misfortune can be transmuted into happiness has not yet been rectified. Note I Cf. the people would have urged "that. I. Chiu Fran's extraordinary knowledge. Lun-Heng: C. and happiness secured. p. the adverse presage and the unfavourable portent were wiped out and dispersed. as the trees the paper-mulberry were pronounced ill- fact of Chin being opposite to the besom and the duke's succumbing in the struggle. Vol. . like the curious phenomena of being over against the broom star and looking up to Heaven. Critique. if the latter had not been aware of the lucky augury. "Your Highness could look up while CKu was bending down under the weight of its battle will prove a great victory. having only their Tsu who shared the common prejudices." ^ to Heaven. and that. The The duke followed his advice and completely defeated the army of CKu. rejoined. These were significant of luck all the same. and if then a great victory had been won. If Duke Wen had not asked Chiu Fan. The mulberry and omened. 6. in spite of the prodigy appearing in the sky and of the horrible dream. he would certainly have denied the possibility of a victory. Accordingly the narrative of the two trees has been handed down without ceasing.

Now. would they extinguish it. Vol. but without damaging them. the distance from heaven to earth had not been upwards of a hundred steps. water and tinguished with arrows. even if they hit it? Earthly to fire is not to be extinguished by in this arrow-shots. ^KrqgM/- We are not told how this is possible. 272.Fictitious Lifluences. When the a man is shooting with arrows. China was inundated by the waters causing great damage to the people. the more than a hundred interstice arrows lose their force.^ began This is a myth. then the arrows of Yao might have just reached the sun. for touched by it. at a distance of no steps. Why did Yao not put forth his spiritual essence then. 275. and if the by-standers shot at it. p. crumbles to pieces. If fire could be exit ought to be possible to remove water by shooting at it likewise. of heaven and earth at the time of his shots might have and why should the suns have disappeared. how could he have hit the sun? Provided that. but they could not go farther course of the sun. In the books of the Literati which have come tliey down to us say that at the time of Yao ten suns rose simultaneously. I. how could heavenly fire be put out manner? This spiritual is meant imply that Yao shot at the suns with his is it essence. At the time of the Great Flood. Wang C'h'ung reciions the distance at 60000 Li. so that everything high. and a single one to rise regularly. If fire on earth is employed to kindle a torch. 171 CHAPTER XVII. Fictitious Influences {Kan-hsii). even metal and knows no hardness nor distance. have a similar nature. Note 2. . removing the waters by shooting? See Vol. The between heaven and man measures several ten thousand Li. than a hundred steps.^ Whatever fire stones. I. touched the suns. was scorched up.^ and if Yao had shot at it. if they had been damaged? The sun is fire. Yao shot at the ten suns on whereupon nine out of them were removed. Under the supposition of the short distance Fcro. As regards it moves upon heaven like a star. at Yao's time. p.

Vol. a Cf. crossed the preposterous. 257 and 509. and there was such a darkness.] It is on record that [when Chou. with flashing eyes waved it and exclaimed. although an arrow it.172 Lun-Heng: C. the hosts of his and merry. Huai Nan . It is derived from Hiiai Nan Tse VI. by his virtuous government. Iv. chap. to hinder the Since the water could not be removed by at the we know that the story about shooting at the suns is an invention and Some hold that the sun unreliable. could he also perforate Heaven. fire from doing Yellow River. preventing their injury. Upon this. If the essence of Yao extinguished the suns and destroyed metals and stones. whereupon This narrative is the storm abated. King Wu. may not reach is it. How could he have obtained a response from Heaven by his essence? Wu Wang. and his depravity could match that of Chieh and Chou. floods.* would be with metals and stones. it must be it similar to the sun and the moon. singing in front and gamboling in There being a certain sympathy between Heaven and cheerful Ch'wig conceives heaven as something solid. He was able to shoot at the suns. his virtue did not equal that of Kao Tsung. west of Huai-cKing-fu. grasping the yellow halberd with his left and holding the white standard in his right. Tse says that Yang-hou means the marquis territory of Yang of Ling-gang |ot ^^r whose was contiguous to the river and whose spirit ' could cause big waves. the spiritual essence can extinguish ofl". I. the marquis having been drowned in the river. while sending his arrows? As an example of the perversity of Chieh and Chou people relate that they shot at Heaven and lashed Earth. but he could not shoot its ravages of shooting. shot at them nevertheless. and the waves subsided. A storm was raging. is a fluid and that. to ' * In Honan. who dares thwart my plans?".^ and in praise of Kao Tsung they narrate that. that men and horses became invisible. XVI. Critique.' the waves of Yang-hou* rushed against him. he did away with the mulberry and the paper-mulberry. . Wang a firmament. The commentary viz. Now Heaven on a also far in case it is a it fluid. * crossing the MSng ford. and should level be corporeal. "While I am in the empire. pp. on his expedition against Ming ford.' When Wu Wang was army were the rear.^ Now if Yao^ incapable of extinguishing the ten suns by his virtue.

[when Duke Hsiang of Lu was at war with Han^ and the battle was hottest. accidentally the wind stopped of itself. how would the wind have stopped therefore? When parents are angry with their son for not mending his faults. The duke. "While I am in the empire. his destruction was not right. 173 would not have been the proper thing for Heaven to grumble. Whoever can afiect Heaven through his spiritual essence. Perhaps just at the moment. and some speculative minds see in it the commanding voice of Heaven and Earth. 89. There is a report that. If Wu Wang with flashing eyes had waved his standard to the rain. Discharging all other affairs from his thoughts and concentrating his mind. beckoned to for him. then. passing it.] This is an invention. if. with flashing eyes. p. with flashing eyes. the sun went down. Duke Hsiang' s interest was entirely absorbed by the battle. then Heaven should have kept quiet and rewarded him. by saying. and angry looks Wind is like rain. however. Iv. See also Vol. he could not stop the wind ei'iier. then the storm was expressive of Heaven's anger. it must be spontaneous as well as unconscious. provided that the punishment of Chou by Wu Wang was right. swinging his spear. must ^ be single-minded and engrossed with one idea. but it is not sure whether there was really singing in front and dancing in the rear. How could he induce it to revert? If a sage would beckon to the Quotation from Hxiai Nan Tse VI. he talked big? In case wind is the fluid of misfortune produced by Heaven. would it have ceased? Since Wu Wang could not stop the rain. and he beckoned to it. when he waved his flag. or waving flags would not cause it to stop. Had Wu Wang not received the command of Heaven and not inquired into his own guilt. though I do not admit even this. who ventures to thwart me?" he could not but double Heaven's anger and increase his own depravity.Fictitious Influences. when man was pleased. I. Wang could stop the wind. when the sun came back through three solar mansions. . extolling his excellence. it invention. when the sun sank. would they be willing to pardon him. then contended that Wti is Wind air. and the people. if. and Heaven may then exhibit some extraordinary phenomenon. Now. he may communicate with Heaven by means of his spiritual essence. and the stopping of the storm by waving a flag likewise looks like an man. Note 6.

and Duke Hsiang should have caused the sun to revert by his signal? ' A chapter of the Shuking. it to come back? The Hung-fan has it that [some stars are fond of wind and The course of the sun and moon brings about others of rain. the stars. a story which sober-minded critics still call an invention. I. winter and summer. these change again. How then should it be possible that the desire of Duke Hsiang was fulfilled? The stars on Heaven as are the mansions of the sun and the on earth the postal stations serve as residences of the moon. they do not yield to the likes and dislikes of that he could cause ' the stars. was most likely not his idea. When Duke Ching of Simg exhibited his sincerity and uttered three excellent maxims. one mansion measuring 10 degrees. the sun is fire. was displeased with the sun's setting.^ sun and the moon. their penchant for wind or which only manifests itself when the moon approaches them. who was Duke Ilsiang.® That the sun should revert for his sake. Like Duke Ching of Sung who is believed to have caused Mars to pass through three solar mansions. and at the moment. 277. there Now the stars are of the same stuff as the is wind and rain]. The allegation that the sun returned through three mansions would therefore denote 30 degrees. would not return by any means. rain. The sun proceeds one degree every it day. Vol.174 sun.^ nor did he say any excellent words. p. higher officials. accordingly he waved his spear. Viz. as long as the two luminaries keep their regular course. ^ ^ 152 seq.^ then three degrees would be a three days course." Diike Hsiang. These 28 solar mansions* are divided into degrees. When the latter follow the stars. Note 3. * Which according to the view of many scholars may work wonders. it Lun-Heng: C. not of solar mansion. but he had no earnest purpose. I. If we regard a she (station) as one degree. Moreover. A sage giving a signal to fire would in no wise be able to make it return. * ^ See Vol. -^ in the acceptation of degree. more or less. the planet Mars passed through three solar mansions. 2 3 Cf. .' and it is evident that. when the spear was waved. 257. Taking the character See above p. at would therefore have gone back the the moment of beckoning same distance which it had made during 30 days. during the fighting. Critique. and when the moon follows. the sun would have been made to revert three days. p.

a white halo encircled the sun. To say that a white halo surrounded the sun. This conjecture I. works that. Now. Hsiang's heart palpitated. that is impossible. The energy may be concentrated ever so much. Cf. [while the master from Wei was devising the plan of the CKang-ping affair for CJiin. and Vol. one cannot bring them to sound. point. and was under the impression that the sun was reverting. p. and with the spirit within these seven feet one hopes to bring about something. Notes 5 and . and It is related in historical that Venus eclipsed the Pleiades is allowable. when. these are and Heaven should be? Man's evil designs No. the sun was in the middle by the fighting. is erroneous.^ and.* The two men thus harbouring their designs.^ This means to say that spiritual affected the essence Heaven. when a calamitous change is at hand. 9v. 83. and when Kuan Kao was planning his rebellion against Han Kao Tsu. by should be able to operate on Heaven? ' * 3 * The east Whereas Vol. was going on. 117. is not very plausible. strange signs spontaneously appear about the persons threatened. but the implements employed to cause a motion are insufficient. the two lords became agitated. People naturally fond of the marvellous then spoke of the sun's reverting. so that it produced those phenomena. When Yu Jang was about to kill the viscount Hsiang of Chao.Fictitious Influences. p. C/iing K^o attempted to murder the king of Ch'in. Striking a bell with chopsticks and beating a drum with counting-slips. at the instance of the heir-prince of Yen. and are affected it. the design of Ching K'o The not intention to injure being directed against men. the human body does not measure more than seven feet. 175 While the sun was setting.1. 6. p. because the sticks used to beat them are too small. the duke fancied that the Waving his flag. bewildered describing a curve. 117. he turned round to the left. but the assertion that and the plan of the master from Wei exercised such an influence upon august Heaven. it is still like striking a bell with chopsticks or beating a drum with counting-slips. that a white halo encircled the sun and Venus eclipsed the Pleiades. Shi-chi chap. in fact it was rising. Venus eclipsed the Pleiades]. which cannot be upheld in earnest. the heart of the latter felt an emotion likewise. I reply that. and that. how can it move Heaven? The mind may be quite in earnest.^ battle of mao.

and the wooden elephants on the kitchen door get legs of flesh. how could he have carried If Heaven favoured him and produced all those wonders this out? with a view to his deliverance. that he could thus influence Heaven? Sages imprisoned have not been able to move Heaven. but. I. in order to remove all the prince's hardships. Going out. their bodies have already been conspicuous by miraculous signs. will receive a bad omen. which shows itself in the face. 2 p. 1 See also Vol. Above and below are in accord and spontaneously respond to one another.^ This narrative is fictitious. During the reverts to the meridian. and the legs of the wooden elephants on the kitchen door grew fleshy. It paid a again. before this. Critique. but He asked the king detained him and said with an oath.'^ and Confucius was in great straits between Ch'en and T'sai. Prince Tan was but a worthy. From this I infer that miracles are symptoms of calamitous changes and spontaneous disasters. "In case the sun Heaven rains grain. His forecasts point to dangers. Tan. crows get white heads and horses horns. Heaven rained grain. Notes and 2. then you may return. Phenomenal changes appear in heaven. as the white halo and Venus appear in heaven. without having the intention to injure their own bodies. own work. he sees inauspicious things. His captivity was one matter only and easy to deal with. Note 4. the heir-prince of Yen." At that time Heaven and Earth conferred upon him their special favour: the sun returned to the meridian. . Who was this prince of Yen.176 not their Lun-Heng: C. The king of CKin took him for a Sage and let him off". cites this passage. he was not allowed to go home of the king of CKin permission to return. it might as well have appeased the feelings of the king of CKin. the crows got white crowns and the horses horns. whereas prognostics become visible in man. My reason is tliis: — Sometimes we meet lunatics on the road who with a weapon hurt themselves. call at has been chronicled that. and not the result of suicidal designs. p. when Tan. Furthermore an unlucky man divining by shells. Why did Heaven omit the easy matter and do the five difficult things? Did it not fear the trouble? Tang was confined in Hsia-t'ai and Wen Wang in Yu-li. whereas the miracles were five rather difficult things. and he beholds a calamitous fluid. the court of CKin. he wiU fall in with an unpropitious diagram. 142. and appealing to straws. 115. — — — * The Pei-wen-yun-fu Vol I.

"People say of prince Tan that he induced Heaven to rain grain and make the horses grow horns." The Grand Annalist is a man ' who talk" writes the truth is about the Han time. CKi Liang not returning from a military cried in the direction of the his wife. 2 "^ ^W ~}c^\ "it is a great we read that Prince Tan was kept a hostage in 232 contrived I." In Shi-chi chap. Ch'in. distressed between Ch en and T^sai. is may be true. . learn from historical books that the wife of CKi Liang turned towards the city wall. but ^^^ simply in our text he does not say: ". reply that. and Confucius. turned towards the wall. 86. that T'ang and Wen Wang could to make their escape. 116 and 117./c ^^^ exaggeration. as one lends a utensil to somebody: unless captivity of the three Sages. but the subsequent collapse of the city-wall an invention. which tumbled down in consequence. heart-felt and so were her sorrow and her laments. was craving after food. This intimates that on expedition. their tormentors to see the blessings sent — he asks for I it. which collapsed in consequence. 9r.^ That the woman cried. and Wen Wang detained in Yu-li. p.c. when the heir-prince was desiring that Heaven might send an omen. city-wall. Wherefore did Heaven not let the locks of the gates in Hsia-t'ai and Yu-li be spoiled. Cf. Their hearts were desireless. to escape to Yen. or rain grain in CJi en and T'sai for Confucius. We cried. When T'ang was imprisoned in Hsia-t'ai. 34. their hearts were likewise yearning for a release. Vol. His expression "idle all but synonymous with untrue. p. Heaven helps man. There has never been a man whose tears and cries were more pathetic than those of Yung Men Tse. All this is most likely idle talk. and dismiss them with high honours. consequently there was no reason for the manifestation of omens of celestial protection. in her despair. appease his appetite? The Grand Annalist remarks. causing down upon them.Fictitidus Influences. that her feeling affected the wall. one does not give it. but in b. Some one may object that those three Sages bear no relation to the three oaths. 177 Heaven could not help them. understand their sagehood. no words were spoken. When he cried in the presence ^ Sse-Ma Ch'ien makes this remark at the "tfe > end of Shi-chi chap. it being merely the wish of his heart.

but not garments are insensible of pity and proof against city-wall is human feelings. the wife of CJii Liang happened to cry below. on being banished. Critique. water.178 Lun-Heng: C. and that in summer he sighed. See Vol.^ the latter choked with emotion. has. then complaints uttered among the trees of a forest. would tear the plants and break the trunks. The commentator remarks that man was famous as a guitar-player and for his weeping. looking up to Heaven. to obtain 1. The statement that he was kept in jail without any guilt. is true. when turned towards a water or a would the water boil up. but killed by his wicked father for some small inadvertence. b. K'ung-Tse chia-yu IV.^ This is on a level with the wife of CKi Liang's subverting a city-wall by her wails. Note * Tseng Tse having been played the 3r. p. sang. by which he touched Tse VI. the wife of C/ii Liang could not be answerable for the delabrement of the wall. it is plain therefore that fire. for moved to sympathy. of Meng CHang Chiin. the hearts of others. like cloth.'' sincerity By the of grief those present are Yung Men Tse could touch the heart affect his dress. Now. record that Tsmi Yen a mere invention. 3 He wished p. hummed. and fire do not differ from earth. when is Perhaps the wall was just going to tumble down of itself. but the assertion as to Heaven raining frost. how then could Tsou Yen. and earth.* and Po Cfii. by his passionate sighs over his ill-treatment call the hoar-frost down? His wrongs were worse than those of TsSng Tse and Po CKi. The of earth. Being devoid of a heart and sobs and tears and fall intestines. The world partial to fictions and does not investigate the true cause of consequently this story of the down-fall of the city-wall till things. The In'stories he was innocent. down ? how could it be moved by Should the sounds of genuine grief be apt to affect the earth of a wall. trees. one single individual. See Vol. heaving a sigh. . which seems to stand for S)(flS» the two words used by Huai Nan this where he speaks of Yunff Men Tse. or the fire go out? Plants. If somebody should weep. Ten thousand persons raising their voices and emitting their moans and sighs simultaneously still fail to touch Heaven. I. up now. whereupon Heaven sent down a shower of hoar-frost.c. 281. I. 161. Teng Tse being suspected. Suspicion nat 1 A general of Ch'i of the 3rd cent. guitar and sang when he had recovered consciousness. was confined in Yen^ though In the fifth month of summer he looked up to Heaven. Note 1 ^ ^^ ^ 2r. not faded from memory. all something from Menff CKang Chun. of Meng CKang ChUn.

Note . but it had not the same on full Provided you light a candle and try to heat a cauldron of water with it. ice does not melt. that small Now How the sighs of of ice. Vol.^ The one being exceedingly dutiful to his father. whereas it did not commiserate the blood-shed. Provided that. that he alone could make the frost fall? Banishment is perhaps not yet sufficiently painful to be taken into consideration. if a sigh to make Heaven warm in winter time. on receiving an unexpected in in kindness. and Wu Tse HsU had to cut his own throat. having been deposed and caliminiated by the I. but Sh^ Sheng^ fell upon his sword. it will not yet be hot. sort. he laughed to it? The phenomenalists contend autumn. When they were near their end. foot thick. Cf. they doubtless made complaints. by the expression of his sorrow. and unless warmth comes together with the proper days. b. in suicide. after a Or take after lump of ice. duke Hsien. being moved only by Tsou Yen. and place it into the kitchen: room will not yet have become cooled. when he punishes that. a a whole night the a is The reason ones. received a sword from his sovereign to kiU himself. the most loyal subject. cold.c. The innocent suffering: of effect Po CHi was of the same Heaven. and. p. the it when a ruler rewards weather becomes warm. 140. 2 Heir-apparent of Chin who committed 4. was Tsou Yen. Tsou Yen prompted Heaven to send frost down. easy is it whole day. and the grandeur with that of a water kettle or a kitchen. and tiny things cannot affect big and huge Tsou Yen were but like a candle or a lump of majestic Heaven is not merely on a par easily does hoar- — to move Heaven. 247. and the other.Fictitious Influences. would he be able frost descend. How easy would be the change of temperature and how facile a revolution of the turns 1 summer. had to suffer capital punishment. ^ Note of A faithful minister Wu who 485 2. his captivity must have given it great pain. intrigues of the wife of p. Few will be willing to admit this. then. and joy is the counterpart of anger. 179 and imprisonment are alike/ and humming and singing are similar Tsing Tse and Po CJii were unable to attract cold. I. was doomed to die. if. If Heaven felt no sympathy for these two men. who to sighing. frost does not descend. and how towards Heaven suffices to cause a fall of frost! Pain is to be compared with pleasure. He was not put to death as stated in Vol. and these complaints are nothing else than the sighs of Tsou Yen towards Heaven. But unless coldness is joined with the proper season.

and Duke P'ing pieces. wood y^ • which again is supposed to cause wind. But he who tests that it its authenticity." accordingly causes wind. took it for the effect did at once send frost. and the Chin State became parched up and barren. but do not produce it. Another version came. if. Duke F'ing began to pine away henceforward. for the misfortune and havoc wrought was both cases identical. when the music-master K'^uang played the air "White snow. ^ for the in "White snow" and A major are perhaps only different names same melody. rain comes along w^ith it. What manner result? of a tune is A major to bring about such a it A major if is the sound of "wood. that he fell down under the porches. a tempest accompanied by torrents of rain. the plates was soil so frightened. But the people remarking that frost just happened to fall. The guitar. a confusion of cause and for the branches of trees are agitated by wind. For was scorched up. when K'uang first clouds rose in the north-west. and at that very moment hoar-frost chanced to come down of itself. Lun-Heng: C. The tents were rent to and dishes smashed.180 seasoDS. perhaps the king of Yen enjoyed inflicting punishments. Historical works report that. 1 I. upon one man in his distress giving one sigh. and a storm with rain broke loose. consequently cold weather had to set in. have reposed confidence in this must become aware is illusive. is that. * According to the old Chinese symbolism the note . Heaven Heat and cold have their natural periods. The duke's body began three years the to away thereafter.^ How piece of wood three feet long^ and the sound of some chords possess the wonderful faculty of affecting Heaven and Earth? See Vol. which does not agree with the view of the phenomenalists. 222. A= -^k corresponds to effect. and ordinary people reading narrative. The guests fled in all directions. When played a tune in A major^ he played again. it. and the tiles of the verandah hurled down. The chroniclers have recorded it as genuine. p. Then Tsou Yen sighed in jail. Critique. of Tsou Yen's sighing. The pine Chin State was then visited with a great drought. . If we argue on their lines." wonderful creatures descended. when he sighed. and does a wood makes wind.

and alighted on the top of the exterior gate.^ and when the music- master K'^uang was touching the guitar. was studying A major^ wind and rain ought narrate that. the horses looked up. . and their ears are like the human. Seeing man desirous of eating something. Lieh Tse observes ^^^^^ Mj^^^' fish " ^^''^ -^^ ^" ^*« Iv. he practised night and day and not only once The or twice. quotation from Hsiln Tse who. when he played the third part. for birds and beasts are partial to sentimental music. then. looked up from their fodder. ^ 2 A A famous lute-player of primitive times.^ The Shuking says. Shuking Part U. and that the Chin State was visited with a great drought.^ When he played again. --^^ing Po Ta what our Vol. stretching their necks and dancing. says ^^^'ffi in lieu of Vtd -^ . Provided that what the chronicles relate be true. when to the music-master set in. Part p. the black cranes stretched their necks. 181 That would be the fall like the delabrement of the city wall by tears. they began crowing. ytj li ^a a" li ¥ H -S fp ft' I. and the various animals begin dancing together. they formed themselves into rows. I strike the stone. UI. p. and why should they not be jubilant. but that wind and rain set in. Note 2. two times eight black cranes came from the south. and all the guests were enchanted. and their sound rose to heaven. and the various animals began dancing.Fictitious Influences. on hearing him rejoicing? That the fish listened.]"* This we can believe in spite of its strangeness. Classics Vol. they likewise wish to have it. while have Some books Hu Pa was ^ playing the lute. and wings. however. the six kinds of horses According to another version about K'uangs performing in A major^ when he played the first part." Huai Nan Tse XVI. -"^« sii to 3 * B 3i li m y^ ^ I. I. or of frost through a sigh. are facts therefore. 49). 379. Bk. When been have he first studied it. that its soil was scorched up for three years. Duke P^ng was enraptured. author says of K'uang. ability of the music-master K^uang to thrum A major must acquired and cannot have been an innate faculty. the fish in the ponds came out to listen. playing the guitar. "[I smite the music-stone. and Duke P'ing pined away. 24 (Legge. flapping their The notes F and G were struck with the greatest precision. the birds danced and the jumped. is most likely fictitious.

offering himself as a victim. be able to set them in order. down in rain. impeaching himself with the Six Crimes. being very sick."]' ' God = Shang-ti. because of one man's God and the spirits' to injure people's may it fall on Heaven employed cut his hair Tang and bound his hands. as which we prove follows: is —When must also wind and with If great vehemence. at once. but the statement that the rainfall was owing to T'ang's self-impeachment and personal supplication — seems to be a [Confucius fallacy. that he cut his hair and bound his hands. 16. to obey its Heaven here commands. their conduct. there a confusion of the Yin and the Yang. all this is true. ' 8 A remarkable statement. . do the rulers rectify their persons. 'Prftyer has been made for thee to the spirits of the upper and lower worlds. For what reason. then. who was so pleased. and the guilt be theirs. and. as a matter rain set in of fact. Tse Lu asked leave to pray for Tse him." Since. In the Eulogies is said. accidentally was afflicted with marasmus. lives. Consequently the writers put faith in the story.182 Lun-Heng: C. happened to blow and to rain. and that he implored God. the Chin State met with a drought.^ and his self-indictment was as mentioned. "It may. improve and far and wide exhibit their righteous administration? Provided it suffices to play a song adjusting the Yin and the Yang^ then harmony comes of itself. "May such a thing be done?" it Lu replied. he prayed personally in a mulberry grove. may my folly. and the people Perchance. since I prayed. is treated as a being superior to See above Analects YU. after T'ang had been afflicted with a drought for seven years. it when A major was struck. "It is a The Master long time. after this shower. when Heaven sent The prayer was couched I alone am if guilty. 34. that rain fell That T'^ang personally prayed in the mulberry grove. Duke Ping being too fond of music and immoderately indulging in fun and frolic. who has p. and universal peace of its own accord. thus offering himself as a victim. guilt not afiect the ten thousand people. Some speak these terms: — "If of five years. the musical sounds cannot be productive of such a result. me alone. witnessing all these circumstances. Yet. In such a way he begged happiness of God. He said.' " said. believed in it. it music can confound them. Critique. It is being reported that.

Heaven taken as the empyrean? . how could immense Heaven do it. the one on the top hearing his words may. one cannot cure it. and so it is plain that floods and droughts are not to be removed by prayers and penitence. Should prayer be required to secure happiness. T^ang as well as Confucius were sages. this would not be the same. the sun and the moon in brightness. a man stands on the top of a high building of many and another below prostrates himself and asks for something on the building. like a flood or a drought. the latter never obtains his end 1 Quotation from the Yiking: ^^^^'^^ ed. the four seasons in regularity. grant his request.^ and unless he had caused the drought by his guilt. spite Confucius' regular prayers. 1880. chap. human A serious ailment cannot be expelled by self-indictment. Now fancy immense Heaven!^ If at the time of a natural calamity. how could he have obtained rain? When stories. and within this frame there reside the Five Virtues and eventually consumption. We read in the Yiking. Confuchts would not have Tse Lu pray to cure his disease. not to be found 2 ' in Legge^s translation. We cannot cure the diseases within the small compass of our body. 183 The Sage rectified liimself and regulated his conduct. ["The great man equals Heaven and Earth in virtue. He would not have been the sage he was. his self-accusation and craving for mercy was likewise of no use. however. Man's bodily frame measures but seven feet. T^ang with his body of seven feet and his earnest purpose residing in it had impeached himself and prayed for mercy. Inundations and droughts of Heaven and Earth are like maladies. and yet years of great drought ensued. and the ghosts and spirits in happiness and misfortune. Yet though fixing all the guilt upon one's self.' Fictitious Influences. I. p. In case. and the time when they were wont to pray had long passed. 7v. hence he could say that it was a long time since he prayed. — how of then could Tang obtain rain through prayer? seriously In ill. Heaven and Earth and the spirits knew him to be faultless."] That means to say that a sage displays his virtue in the same manner as Heaven and Earth or ghosts and spirits. he was taken T'^ang would likewise pray. and the days when he used to pray were long gone. he would not have equalled Heaven and Earth in virtue. he does not understand what the other says. Had T'ang caused the drought by his faults. out of compassion..

294. Heaven rained grain. 5r. a p. Perhaps the drought had been lasting for a long time. Now the distance from Heaven to man is How could Heaven. A drought is a exceptional state of the phenomenon of heat. observing the fall of rain just consequent upon Twang's self-indictment. become aware of it and send him the rain? not only like the height of a storied building. forth by the Yellow River and the Scroll emerging from the Lo' were lucky auguries for sage emperors and enlightened kings. when rain fell of itself. The flood was to be regulated by Shun and Yil. Note and p. Consequently encountered the prayers of T^ang could not bring down the rain. What wrong was there and what evil to cause such prodigies as the raining of grain and the weeping of ghosts? that of Heaven Heaven and Earth and Jhe spirits resented that man had written books. which were invented by T'sang Hsieh. Heaven and Earth produced the Plan and the ScroU. when writing was invented. while Tsang The Plan put Hsieh invented the written characters. may well be termed an inundation. 167. . Critique. by degrees Heaven broke out. p. Note 1. then their production of the Plan and the Scroll was unIf ' See above Vol. ^ relate that. Quotation from Huai J^an r«e VIII. [when T' sang Hsieh invented the art of writing. What they say about Heaven raining grain and the ghosts crying during the night is true. required regulation.184 Lun-Heng: C. as an inundation is an The Great Flood which Yao water. although T'ang took the responsibiHty upon himself. 295. and the ghosts crying. and his idea agreeing with that of ghosts and spirits. Still Yao did not impeach himself or personally oflFer prayers. His proceeding was like and Earth. The people of that period. I. 1. then considered that T^ang had obtained the rain by his invocations. but : — the affirmation that this was in response to T'sang Hsieh' s invention of writing. whence the supernatural apparitions disorder raining grain. and Tang likewise just happened to lay the long duration of the drought to his charge. is wrong. There is no difference between the signs of the Plan and the Scroll and those characters. in spite of the greatest sincerity of his feelings. and the ghosts cried during the This signifies that. and he knew that such a state of water An inundation is not removed by prayers. and a drought must be treated in the same way. Some books night].

to lead to what wrong was there in its invention such monstrosities? Perhaps Tsang Hsieh just happened to make his invention. Meeting with a strong gale. blown away and flying along with the wind. the wind subsiding. The Chinese becoming aware of it. My reasons are the following: 1 Cf. imagined that the writing had produced these revolutionary signs.* rain The from clouds originates When also rises it rains grain. then spoke of the raining of grain. it comes from cloudy vapours on hills and mountains. event. These tribes not eating corn. it had been hurriedly carried off. when Heaven rained grain. if. when Heaven is cold. On a summer day. Under all circumstances. In the province of Honan. this phenomenon cannot be deemed supernatural for the following reason on hills and mountains. until. spirits The raining of grain as well as the laments of the had their cause. ripe. when had perhaps fallen upon the ground. Upon examining the shape of the grain. people are under the impression that it is Heaven which rains water. 277. 185 justifiable. on the other hand. and the ghosts chanced to weep during the night. fell and that they were occasioned by the critics A propos of the raining of grain the claim that it down from Heaven as the product of an extraordinary phenomenon. it freezes and turns into snow. falls down again to the earth. * In the year 55 a.: Fictitious Influences. Vol. descent from heaven. it had alighted and descended in China. Heaven did not grudge mankind the possession of writing. these clouds become rain. p. to heaven. and it from the earth. people then speak of Heaven rained grain at CK4n-liu^^ In the 31st year of Chien-mu.^ it and the grain descending covered the ground.d. Perhaps this grain had grown in the country of the 1 and Ti. and it is evident that it cannot descend and gather on earth from heaven above. if our discussion starts from clouds and rain. they found it to be like tribulus. but people seeing them take place as if in response to the invention. Beholding it falling down from above. • . but. but black. its Having been carried away by a strong it wind and blown up Noticing raining grain. and it bore resemblance to the grains of panic grass. rain is water. the clouds likewise scatter it. this grain had grown in the country and. whereas in winter. Descending and spreading. I.

186 Lun-Heng: C. See Vol. but. which. as rain. [when Po Yi a black cloud. The tilled ground becomes a field. and the spirits alighted on the This means to say that the dragon was injured by which was the reason of the phenomenon of the dragon allegation and the spirits. 253. Now grain from heaven is the the like fall it the burned leaves of plants and trees. when wind relaxes. ^ made a well. p. and liole. The tutelary deity of agriculture. it which fly about and the authors look upon down. The Mount that the dragon mounted a black cloud is trustworthy. caused such extraordinary events. Then they first began eating grain. I. but people regard as a wonderful prodigy. ^ 1H ^m ^^'"01* Yi. grain fruit are a produce of Earth. when the soil is first tilled? Shen Nung^ shaped a crooked stick into a plough. but the remark concerning the spirits alighting on K^un-lun. and not made by Heaven. and a dug out From the well comes water to slake the thirst. miracles are bound to certain Provided that things growing from the earth could conspecies. on the field grows grain to appease the hunger. a dragon mounted the well. fields are Wells are made for the purpose of drinking. 2 ' Quoted from Huai Nan Tse VIII. why do such phenomena not appear. When plants a wild-fire burns the hills and marshes. whereas Earth of things. then should grain alone grow from Heaven? why Earth. which amounts to the same. and taught people how to till. the leaves of trees in and them are all reduced to ashes. a legendary emperor. and confines itself to emitting its fluid. and Yi. and ascribing the rise of the dragon and the flight is of the spirits to the building of a well. If Po by making a well. these leaves come down upon the roads. Heaven and Earth. Heaven Some books K'un-lun]. are blown aloft as high as heaven. versely descend from heaven. All plants with leaves and eatable growing governs the Now. . and grain was first sown. the forester of Shun and assistant of Yii. 5 r. unreliable.^ contain a notice that. Critique. is not produced by the fluid and requires earth for its development. carried away by a gale. Although they call it a miracle. could celestial things likewise issue from the earth? The productions of Earth are like the stars of The stars do not change their nature and grow from Heaven. a well. planted for the sake of food.

' but there is no purpose in this. with such a craving. When towards the end of the Hsia dynasty. my rest. and so it happened in did not only Yi dug his well. Under the reign of Yao and Shun. not have mounted a cloud on account of the digging of some well. and labour my field to eat. Even if Po Yi had not dug the well. in A An mountain officer the province of Shensi. the dragon would men.* For what reason should these hundred spirits resent so to much that men made wells? If the spirits are similar they must also have a desire to drink. 355. and the spirits alight on the The mounting of a dragon on a black cloud has olden as well as modern times. clouds and rain. dragon rides on dragons. dragons were reared and domesticated and always kept at court.^ and it was not only when Po Yi had dug his well. 2 8 The Pei-uen-yun-fu p. And who aie those spirits that are mentioned? It must be the hundred spirits. commence to do At present. to detest wells and run away would be self-contradictory.^ following the counsel of a 1 Vide Vol. "At sunI begin my work. midsummer. dragons frequently rise on clouds. Po Tsung. Vol. * of Chin. some writers and of their invention. 90 Li north-east of Han-ch'eng-hsien. and. Cf. 353 and 357. I. replied. "Grand indeed the virtue of playing with earth. quotes a similar passage from the Ti-wang shi-chi. pp. nor would the spirits This is a misconception of have alighted on the K\m-lun for that reason. * * The various kinds of existing spirits. was very much distressed. when thunder and rain appear There being a simultaneously.Fictitious Influences. wells must have been known. on a black cloud. the certain relation between clouds and Things of the same class attract one another. and at sunset take to drink. . the dragons concealed themselves. a the road. There is a report that Mount Liang^ collapsed and blocked The prince of Chin a river. man of fifty was beating clods of earth on is Yaol" rise I — An The man who was observer remarked. I. in Yao's time. 187 ghosts and spirits are the dragon rise K'un-lun? Wherefore then does all agreed on this. that they rose on clouds. What sort of I dig a well energy does Yao display?"^ Accordingly. when Po in In Yao's time . the government degenerated. which for three days did not flow.

but we have not heard that. and not by self- reproaches.c. driver order. 11 3 * 6 {Legge. if there be cold. the people were but their methods inconsistent. ^^^Z^^- ^d. Part p. in b. 322) informs Po Tsung was of opinion that this was reminiscence not to be looked upon as a prodigy.' The emperor Yao sighed and was anxious to find some clever helpmate. e. 280. whereas the were alike. p. This is preposterous. 24). but Yao and carriage- regulated the water by personal work. and Yao's sorrow deeper than that of Duke Ching. Ed. putting on white clothes and crying? In Yao's time the Great Flood was surging up to the sky. he could overcome the Had Yao no device of some able man like the carriagewater. White silk and tears are tantamount to repentance and self-indictment. 39. like a ing a river is driver?^ It it impossible to remove a cataclysm hke the Great Flood as sounds and dresses.^ attract and by punishments expel 1 In all these instances the The this Shi-chi chap. . Classics Vol. to put the blocked river in similar. The true system of the wise and the phenomenalists is According to their principles. were not difi'erent.* period. Lun-Heng: C. See Vol.188 carriage-driver. encircling mountains and overtopping hills. a of Shuhing (Yao-tien) Part I. bade Duke Ching dress in plain white silk and be- wail the extraordinary case. by dressing in white silk and giving vent to his grief. may rain. such categories must be called into play as can affect one another. g. I should say. (Chavannes. which prevents Could such a tumor be cured by the circulation of the blood. Upon this the water of the river came back. 31r. IV. p. as the rain from the faUing mountain blocking the river as weU heaven and the Yii of the water. Critique. A andC: I. us that mountain collapsed 586. had recourse to self-accusation. that Mount Liang was a mountain in was blocked was a river of the same rise Yao's time. and the river Both catastrophes.^-t #J^- It existed already at that early period. p. Ill. The waters were worse than the blocking of a river. other- different. and warmth wise. The catastrophes but the measures taken.^ A mountain tumbHng down and blocktumor caused by an abscess. Mem. again be dispelled by cold. Hist. 2 ^Mt -4^ vQ ^ *j^ ij^ ^^ l^j I. Thus with dragons they heat. Yao and Yil regulating by such means the waters did it by means of personal labour. Vol. the former state may be restored by warmth.

but As a matter of fact this how can we know? was something natural. Cf. 2 The common a pain version is that Tsenff Tse's mother bit her finger. "To-day a guest arrived and wanted to go away. I squeezed my arm. 2022. whereupon the water commenced running Upon is they contended that the extraordinary deviation of the river was adjusted by these measures. that a peculiar sympathy existed between him and his mother. His mother replied. . and the water was not strong enough to break through. Three days later. ' KangMs Dictionary quotes this passage.Fictitious Influences. the water had increased. No. so that the earth was dispersed. one In ^ A similar category is believed to attract a similar and to repel a dis similar one. Tseng Tse's mother told him to remain. Mayers' whereupon he felt b his finger too. 739 and Giles. and the obstruction Perhaps.^ Tseng Tse at once felt a pain in his left arm. After the removal of the obstruction. and asked of her the reason why his arm had pained him. first the earth destroyed. white were of no advantage. in order to call you. who and this hstened to the carriage-driver. \ATong. when the collapsed. Since great filial piety and brotherly love evidently make an impression upon the spirits. and forthwith he came back to his mother. I dare say. This is a mistake. Once. the current set in again and began flowing eastwards." ^ For extreme piety leads to a spiritual communication with father and mother. when Tseng Tse had gone out to gather fuel in the country. Diet. then the government and the administration ought to have been changed. and with her right hand she squeezed her left arm. 189 fluids of the Five Elements are set in motion. Were silk and tears. Manual No. a guest arrived and wanted to leave again. and a sickness of the body directly affects the spirit. Bibl. the duke dressed in white silk cried. and if it was a divine calamity in response to some acts. that they might remove a divine calamity? If the collapse of the mountain tears silk and piety of TsSng Tse some books we find the following narrative: The filial was such. also the Shang-yu-lu. since her son would soon be back. in any way connected with a change of government. At the suggestion of Po Tsung again.* What have white silk and crying over a blocked river to do with these principles? river was dammed and the mountain was heaped up. which either affect or overcome each other.

a distinguished scholar and in who by Kuang Wu ^ was ennobled as Marquis and died 28 a. That may be true. Critiqae. his mother was mother expired? We learn from history that. Diet. ShSn Hsi heard his mother sing. a certain Locusts belong to the class of mosquitoes and * The dictionaries do not know such a man. felt From common in people infer that extreme piety and love move the If the pain in the arm of TsSng Tses mother was likewise his arm. Consequently Shen Hsi cannot have lived later than the 2nd cent. and his mind roused. . See Giles. was Tsing Tse also sick. when taken ill. This shows that the spirit may be moved in a minor degree. when Tseng Tses mother died first. People say that. ^K Ti C^'Ao Mao. when his ^ People say that Cho^ of Nan-yang^ following Hous counsel. that he went out and recognised ^ in the street. the sound affected him.190 Lun-Heng: C. he had lost his mother. and it appeared that it was his mother. Owing to his extraordinary wisdom. but Huai Nan b.. * Under the reign of P'ing Ti.* itself felt This a fallacy. he did not follow her. Tse XVI. Hearing that as a dutiful son TsSng Tse had not his peer on earth. saying -^ fl^ fl^ Ch'u. twenty districts of locusts.d. so that he opened the door to inquire.c. A place in Honan. the calamitous insects did not also is infest his country. 1-5 a. His heart was agitated. while her son was in the country and could not hear her calls. His heart being touched. S. Now the mother of Tseng Tse was in the house. may make to upon creatures of a similar which are able understand the feel character of one of their kindred. and afterwards respect for him. he opened the door to inquire who was the singer. Honan province were infested by and only i^ I^ Mi-hsien where Cho was magistrate was spared. tary adds that Shen Hsi ^ ]?n J& ^ $ tw -^ ^' The excellent official The commen- was a native of In his youth. No. How could a little pinching of the arm on the part of his mother affect the son? Methinks people have embellished the facts. Hearing his mother's voice. during the night. says that the effects of virtue extend to Heaven and Earth. but that it cannot be affected to any great extent. refers to the story here related. Iv. this soul. the locusts did not enter his territory. or did he die at once. Bibl.d. Great wisdom kind. his mother. they invented the story of his mother squeezing her arm. voice impressed him so Once he heard a begging woman sing much. 411.

of Chinese Characters p. is it is not necessary that robber Che should dwell there. people conceived the idea that he could avert locusts. 7788. Structure Giles. why then should the locusts not enter the territory of CAo? not ravage his country. character must here mean an insect. and in others less. At their gatherings they If their are more numerous in some places. was merely by chance that the locusts did The fame of Cho's wisdom being in every mouth.^ They alight or pass in greater or smaller numbers. first ' R^ 4^.The the dictionaries. they are many or few. From their number no conclusion can be drawn is as to goodness or badness. wherefore then should the locusts keep aloof from CV/o's gadflies. nor inhabited the country which they by Po Yi. and do not completely cover everything. Hence it plain that. the Cheng-tse fung under pg and 2 No.Fictitious Influences. in case cold prevails throughout a circuit. As in down upon a place. when locusts pass of their own we have no right to say that they do not come into the territory of a wise man. could the area of this one district alone remain warm? Heat and cold do not Consequently it recoil from the district of a wise man. and what do they know to become Provided that a wise man lived in interior. A paragon of . so in passing a they either remain or leave again. and that in one of its districts there lives a wise man. say that the calamity of locusts has nothing in common they will admit at least that heat and cold can also prove calamities. how then should their appearance or non-appearance be a criterion of a man's wisdom? accord. integrity. Chalmers. 93. Now. they cannot go everywhere nor completely cover the ground. Cf. When locusts appear in the country. swarms are concentrated upon one spare place. a meaning not is found in raS stands for gg "a mosquito" which "mosquitoes declared to gadflies" is be equivalent to ^^. falling district. Diet. would mosquitoes and gadin the far away country. The combination ^^ ^K and common.^ What aware of Cho's proceedings? territory? If they with mosquitoes and gadflies. the They would not shun the hut of a flies not enter his cottage? sage. 191 do they hear.

and the allegation that the Han have not had such a peaceful time means to say that there were no sage emperors. they imply that the Five Emperors and Three Rulers were sages. 405. one's This view is preposterous. Wherefore they say that we are not living in a period of general peace. 45. it is at peace. The the real state of affairs. and that since the accession of the Han dynasty there has not yet been saying that the Five Emperors and Three Rulers brought about a time of uninterrupted tranquillity. Critique.— 192 Lun-Heng: C. and numerous are the omens that persist in not coining. I. we have no phoenix and no Plan of the River. 2 8 p. How about our empire? Is it at ease or in jeopardy? Being at ease. to bring Cf. about universal peace. because the influence of worthies is not sufficient. B better:— ^^. the Yin and the Yang are in harmony. . point. by being cheerful and at ease. The Literati contend that the Five Emperors and the Three Rulers brought the empire the blessings of universal peace. for only the virtue of sages can have such an effect. ^ and C have:— ^^. Universal peace manifests itself by the establishment of govern- when the people respond.^ Furthermore. Analects XIV. ' Sometimes* all may be Yiz. Vol. CHAPTER XVIII. By Han have not yet enjoyed such a state. and then even the absence of omens would not be hurtful to the peaceful state. such being the case. When these manifestations are not visible the true conditions cannot be ascertained. strange omens come forth. Note 1. the River sends forth no Plan:— it is all over with me!"^ At present. and when they harmonize all things grow and develop. they remember the words of Confucius saying: "The phoenix does not come. and that the general peace. Praise of the Han Dynasty {Hsiian Han). Confucms teaches that one renders the people happy by cultivating own self. ment. * Ed. The style of government becomes manifest from its institutions and appears from peace.^ The fact that Yao and Shun were toiling for the welfare of their people proves that at that time there was universal For governing others the individual must be the starting people being at ease.

must again have this kind of thing. 304. their fate and luck were by no means the same. they likewise ought to require of Yao again to possess joined teeth ^ and of Shun again to have eight eyebrows. cit. and it is erroneous to assert that we have no period of general peace. Mi . universal peace are like the features of sage Since the physiognomies of sage rulers must not of necessity be similar. * X^Ed. it is not requisite that they should all be manifest. 6 A. Praise of the Han Dynasty it. Do they imagine peace? If they that future monarchs. it A is wise ruler in his administration aims at universal peace. Shun a phoenix as well as a "brilliant star"* became and there were issued the Plan of the River and the Scroll of the Lo. The omens of the emperors and rulers were manifold and not only a single one. The present omens must not agree with the old ones. 323seq. Vol. The omens of sovereigns. either a phoenix and a unicorn. ^ for has the misprint ^^.. 2 * the emperor Ti K'u had. wherefore should those portents always be of the same type? The scholars know that in the time of Yao and visible. or the Plan of dew and wine harmonious blending of the Yin and the Yang. not that he had eight eyebrows. nor must the latter be conformable to the former. in order to bring about universal go so far. Confucius speaking of the phcBnix and the Plan merely rulers The holy features of emperors and used former prodigies for exemplification. but does not intend to say that every age must again have its phoenix and its Plan. We read loc. and this will become evident from the following: the Yellow River and the Scroll of the io. that the eyebrows of Yao had eight colours. because the present sovereigns have no phoenix and no Plan of the River. consequently there is no reason why the portents obtained of yore and at present should be identical. or sweet springs.^ have not been the same at various times. p. I. but there are no witnesses to prove as regards the principles of government. or the excellent order and the tranquillity of the people. ruling the empire. The Chmt encountered a crow^ and a When 1 :p"M' As cf. and not indispensable that there should be corresponding omens. provided that its be true and real. It is not necessary that there should be an unbroken chain of the portents met with. 193 Therefore^ institutions in perfect order. Ed. or the '* emperors and rulers arose. p.— U.

^ and Yil we may be sure that were in a similar position as those of Chou and Han.^:-pCiH:g. But unless there be sages. fancied this to be an easy down near Fetillon. e. 175.' Lun-Heng: C. has been told by Han Fei Tse XIX. » Ed. » * p. See Allusions p. nor are they able to distinguish a genuine phoenix 1 the sovereigns of T'^ang and Cf. upon arriving in a country where everybody eats millet. Some hoard up rice and grain. or that cattle and horses have a greater value than lots of land and houses. About the event see Vol. . 234.£andC7:-pg|H:g. the empire enjoys universal peace.. Vol. and that therefore there cannot be peace. I. on perceiving a phoenix. way Ed. why then should the presages of universal peace be identical? To infer future auguries from those omens which happened would be like watching the trunk of a tree in wait for a hare^ and hiding oneself. The events and circumstances of their rise and accession to the throne were not homogeneous. how can they be sure that there are no phoenixes now? They really ignore whether there are sages or not. and therefore settled crown. after having destroyed the nets.194 fish. Ed. and the cattle and horsebreeders do not appreciate land and buildings. who having seon the tree in a hare running against the trunk of a tree and breaking of catching hares. fabrics. Critique. and no rice is to be seen.* When peace reigns throughout the empire. others collect silks and others. Iv. the Plan of the River and the phcBnix did not appear. those who object that the old omens viz. 130. B it and C:—^. as when a man is wealthy his goods are not the same. Those partial to rice and grain do not care for silks and fabrics. The story here alluded to of a peasant of Sung its I. Therefore they will say that rice and grain are better than fabrics. others breed cattle and horses. has the misprint -jsT ^ which should be -^ |ltt. provided that the people live at peace and there are omens. A I. Now. recognise it as such? Since they do not know it. wait for one. Note 1. or they acquire landed property and houses. the Han destroyed a big snake. p. the omens and presages may be very different. how could this be effected? And how can the truth of this assertion be borne out in the absence of a phoenix ? If we ask the scholars of our age'' they do not know a sage. "^ Ed. would be foolish. As a matter of fact.Ed. A:—^. Note 1. declare millet not to be any grain. those who say so are like rice-eaters that. then how do they know whether there are no sages at present? How could our contemporaries.

one generation being already completed. Ju Tse Ting. perfectly peaceful already.'' Han dynasty was it extinguished. until under the it. ^ Wang Mang snatched the empire from him.D.d. ten emperors have become illustrious by their virtues. how then could he be credited with universal peace? following question Analects The » Xm.. there are ten emperors altogether. there was These more then twenty years agree with the dictum of Confucius after the rise of the Han would that a generation would be required before virtue prevailed.d.— Praise of the Han Dynasty.^ . dynasty up to W4n Ti there were upwards of twenty years. p.D. peace! Chia Yi was aware of and fancy now nearly is three hundred years later* to say that there not yet general A big mistake. the colour of dresses. p. and then virtue would prevail "] ^ after thirty From the beginning of the Han years.^ Then Chia Yi was the first to suggest that. following ages kept up the peace. was a child and reigned only nominally in 9 A. the world is at peace. the empress Lii ® till Hou excepted. When Ti ascended the throne he was ever yielding and accommodating. Confucius said.D. universal peace must have been established. Consequently they are unqualified to ascertain whether the present time may boast of universal peace or not.c. and several customs should be changed. The number of years making up it. ["If there is a true emperor it would still require a generation. 195 from a false one. and should not the time of universal peace have already come? P'^ing Ti The The former era of Wen Ti was. The official titles should be fixed. 8r. 84. in 82 or 83 a. and rites and music receive a new impetus. and his reign deserves to be termed a time of universal peace.^ Kuang Wu Ti restored and again arrived at universal peace. under whom Lun-heng was completed. to in 12. In 25 A. The generation alluded to by Confucius is thirty years. . 9. indeed. an abridged form from the biography of Chia Yi in the Shi-chi chap. 2 ' From 206 Quoted 179 b. to Chang Ti. in view of the harmony pervading the empire. might be put: WSn Ti had omens. the first day of the first moon. 6-8 a. p. 207 and the I. in the time of Wen already general peace. ^ The house of Han has reigned three hundred years. But Kuang Wu Ti had no such omens. Cf. Ti. W^ According to Chia Yis proposals. no doubt. * * The Lun-heng was written From Han Kao Tsu down In 5 A.

^ a phcenix and sweet dew descended on the capital. 206. B. notwithstanding these proofs afforded air. I. also. Critique. 370.C. a phoenix alighted on 'ping. and the air by no kinds. in the fourth year' a In the phoenix alighted in Tu-ling^ and in the Shang-lin park. however. because his government but peaceful. went up the mountain to sacrifice. Under Kuang Wu TVs reign the air was harmonious. to offer the hill-sacrifice so. omens and auguries of emperors and rulers Even though there should be no ominous things at all. about two hours and a half. ' 2 * * * See p. p. See Vol. and the Chiu-chen^ brought a unicorn as a present. and illuminated the feasting hall for at least when the emperor was sacriten days.C. answer is My that are dissimilar at different periods. . the modern Hsien-ning-hsien. « ' 8 « '" East of Hsi-an-fu B. tribe. 64 B. by the people and the those critics still cherish their doubts. responding. In the second year of Yuan-Uang^ of Hsiao Hsuan Tis time. CHin Shih Httang Ti also did but encountered was anymeans harmoniously mixed. Note 2. in Shensi.^ a phenomenon attending His government was peaceful and the air coruniversal peace. When announce thing emperors and rulers had pacified the empire they were in the habit of ascending tlje Mount and peace. in Shensi.^ Mount Tai and subsequently. the sky was bright and cloudless. When Kuang Wu Ti. The Hp^^ of our text should be changed into ~T^yi^ as in the Han- shu whence this passage seems to be cited. yet the peaceful gathering of the people and the harmonious blending of wind and air would likewise be ominous. the glamour appeared again in the same manner as when he went to the southern suburb.196 Lun-Heng: C. the people at peace.C. has "j" j-* ^|J instead of — R "ten odd quarters of an e. ficing to the manes of Hou Tu. Sweet or it rose in a valley ^' ^° In the following year. An Annamese 60 58 55 B. In the second year of Shen-chio. How can we show this to be the case? T'ai.. The modern Pin-chou 62 B. But. " The Han-shu hour" i. in Hsin- In the fourth year. and ominous creatures appeared of various a violent thunderstorm with rain.* spiritual birds perched on the Cliang-h palace and some in the Shang-lin park.C. third year of Wu-f^ng^ when the emperor was offering sacrifice in the southern suburb. a divine splendour appeared simultaneously.C.

seq. nay superabundant. Hsiian Ti. In the first year of Kan-lu.^ a yellow dragon arrived and was seen in Hsin feng^ and wine springs flowed abundantly. p. the luan bird.— Praise of the Han Dynasty. and HsUan.c. The unicorn. Gold was found. and either it was the same bird appearing several times.d. sweet dew. the spiritual birds. and auspicious grain. » A place in Shensi. Hsiao Hsiian Ti and Hsiao Ming Ti deserve to be called ages of in the Classics of Hsiao Ming Ti. rank below the Chou in this respect. 21v. JCang. universal peace. all these omens must Though be admitted to be very numerous. because I am personally living in the Han epoch. Note 2. the yellow dragon. * * « All these portents are mentioned in the Han-shu chap. purple boletus. the wine springs. also. yet it was distinguished by birds. the sweet dew. spiritual white pheasants. wine springs. 58-75 A. the divine splendour and supernatural light occurring at the sacrifices to Rem Tu and to Heaven and Earth. Yen-shou and the year. Hsiao Ming Ti and the reigning emperor^ surpass the Chou kings CKeng. the eras of the Five Emperors and Three Rulers. and WSn Ti. or each time it was a different bird coming independently. Kung all flourishing simultaneously. I. I am prone unduly to The C/iou had three Whi Wang. 8.D.^ Those phoenixes arrived five or six times. Vol. Why do the scholars of the present time contend that our age has no sages? Was the fluid derived from Heaven so copious during former gen- erations and is it so scanty in later times? sages: Wu Wang. the years of Hsiao Ming Ti must have been twice as peaceful as those of Accordingly. 364. . and why must the wise emperors of the Chou be more numerous than those of the Han'i The Han emperors Kao Tsu and Kuang Wu Ti would correspond to WSn Wang and W'u Wang of the Chou dynasty. Not that. together. p. and tripods turned up. In the third month of the same Wanand a phoenix alighted on a tree within the eastern gate of the CJiang-lo palace. the reign of Hsiao Ming Ti* could not boast of a phoenix. a liuin 197 dew and sui a spiritual bird descended on the palaces. Wu Ti. Separated trees again grew The presages of the Five Emperors and Three Rulers mentioned and the Records are not more numerous than those If universal peace be measured by presages. Those apt to bring about general peace are sages. and Chou must the Han^ being a dynasty as well. Cf. Chang Ti. 76-88 a. a unicorn. Why 1 53b.

and those roaming over Ch^i and Ch^u pay no heed to Sung and Lu. But leaving alone Yao and ' The States Ch'i and Lu are of about equal importance. of the Han Han-shu by Pan * Ku and that of the After Former Han dynasty was written in the Ch'ien Han in the Hou Han-shu by Fan Yeh. 2 ^ Apart from the Shi-chi of Sse-Ma Ch'ien who describes only the beginning period. government they regard the old kings as worthies. presented by Tu Fu and Pan Ku. . The Yin era is not so very far from the time of the Hsia dynasty. classics. the three dynasties are like remote narrow are worthless and not Han gorges with very deep waters. by adding it to the six old Classics. trying to coax and flatter. which they have not seen. 456. I. their works liave not been raised to the rank of Pan Ku wrote two poems descriptive of the eastern and western capitals of the Han. the history of the ^^ gU| tJ^ said of the length of the tablets. When keen interest hunters are chasing wild animals. and how is far the views held by scholars antiquity. are justified.^ Of Yao and Shun.^ From our most illustrious sovereign up to Kao Tsu all were sage emperors. they do not believe in it. The scholars would take it up and study it most carefully. and omens flowed forth as a mighty stream whose waters rushing on are immeasurable. but are indifferent to Lu. virtues. Thus those people look to Ch'i. Should Yao and Shun be re-born now. whereas they do not Han time. When we pass Yao and Shun and enter the sphere of the first emperors. lookers-on take a in the hunt. and. the Hsia. I am afraid that they would not be styled sages. p. his work would become a Shuking or a CKun-cKiu.^ their achievements. or they ramble through Ch'u and have no regard for Sung. If a great literary genius should arise and put on record the history of the Han time. According to the panegyrics on the Han. they would have seven. but do not care for fishing. saying that the productions up to those of the ancients. and the Yin dynasty there are records feet four on tablets of two inches. Cf.198 extol Lun-Heng: C. Just so the spectators of the hunt do not care for fishing. studying from morning look at the books of the of the night. Critique. my only aim being to explain how matters stand. and so are Ch'u and Sunff. and eulogize them. and as to Noticing something wonderful at the present time. Usually people incline to praise what distant and belaud In regard to omens they admire those of remote ages.^ till It is those that the Literati pore on. but though much esteemed.

and things near at hand not like the productions of distant countries. Cf. empire. or out-of-the-way places infested by bands of desperadoes. solely 199 Shwh the Hsia and the Yin and comparing the merits and C/iou. a people south of the Lobnor. the Han territory is so vast. in the present prefecture of Tung-cKang. . at present. When Seas ^ our present emperor came to power he took over the everything in abundance: settled. the State in perfect order with The Four were united. When the year is not prosperous and the crop yet we do not see the principles of morality trodden down in distant regions. and Hsiian Wang. K^ang. cattle The territory of the ancient Ju7ig and the Ti now forms part of China. in a people Yunnan.^ and the Ai-lao* bring to less than five and horses as tribute. p. that it extends beyond the uncultivated dependencies. accomplishments of the Han with those of the house of the nearest to us. . Under the Chou dynasty the in Yileh-cKang presented a white pheasant. The and black-haired people of the time of T'ang lived in harmony. and the omens of Hsiao Hsuan Ti and Hsiao Ming Ti are more conspicuous mand are than those of the Chou sovereigns Clieng. the former Naked People now use court dress. 2 ' MK ^£ J^ Zfc. and the bare-footed people wear the shoes of the Shang dynasty. 208. Barren and stony ground has been transformed into fertile soil. Cattle and horses are more valuable than white pheasants. The to portents of Hsiao Hsiian Ti and Hsiao Ming Ti finest since may be said have been the the days of Yao and Shun. said to be identical with the Lou-Ian 1 between Hami and * . the Shan-shan. The domain of the Chou was confined thousand Li. the bare- headed people put on the caps.Praise of the Han Dynasty.^ our time the Hsiung-nu. and truculent bandits have become law-abiding citizens. the Chou being we find that come short of the Han rulers of the Chou for the following reason: The dynasty who received Heaven's com- Wen Wang and Wu Wang. The roughness of the savages has been * Figuratively for the border lands of China with their people. the empire well omens were of the highest order. in the Han time there are Kao Tsu and Kuang Wu Ti. and mankind submitted to the glorious institutions. likewise. but the miracles happening at the investiture of Wen Wang and Wu Wang are inferior to the auguries attendant on the accession of Kao Isu and Kuang Wu Ti. by weighing the pros and cons. benevolence is practised throughout the fails. Turfan.

Critique. is If this not universal peace. a con- tinuation of which thus becomes an impossibility. however. equal to the Chou? They pretend of sages go that the Chou had more and that Literati their administration in speaking brought about universal peace. and rebels have become peaceful people. the Han surpass the Chou dynasty. The much too far. Chou do not outvie the Han^ in the matter of omens and If their presages. is respective territories be measured. that of the Chou limited than that of the Hau\ why then should the much more Han not be sages. that they leave no traces behind. smoothed down. likewise. what else is it? As the far as the transformations effected by virtue are concerned. They. placing high.200 Lun-Heng: C. . them so make too much of government. so that they cut off universal peace.

On Tan-shui and the ' Yu Miao see Vol. 1 AnalectslK.^ and Chou Kung had to undertake an expedition to the east. 494. In the chapter entitled " Praise of the flan Dynasty " ^ we have given the Han precedence over the Chou and endeavoured to show that the Han outrivaUed the Chou. All this happened under the former dynasties.Further Remarks on the State. . Ti had to fight at In Shuns time the Cho-lu. found the doctrine becoming deeper and deeper. and the deeper I penetrated into it. y^jj An allosion to the Tikvng. 201 CHAPTER XIX. we shall acquire a still clearer conception of the greatness of the Han dynasty. we expand them to the utmost limit. Further Remarks on the State (Hui-kuo). XVI. p. See p. in admiration of the Master's doctrine. Kax) Tsung invested the " Devil country " ^ and destroyed its people after three years. the harder it became. Under the regime of King Clieng of Chou there was an insurrection in Kuan and Tsai. I. capital of Huang Ti in Chili. beauties most thoroughly explained. 18. Notes 3 and 4. 205). but our investigations If were not yet exhaustive. 2 ' * * On The p. 63th hexagram (Legge. the higher it appeared to me. 10."]^ This means that Yen Yiuzn having studied with Confucius month after month and year after year. aU its remarkable So an exhaustive treatise on a State brings out all its admirable features. at the com- mencement of the Hsia dynasty the Hu rebelled. sighed and I said. The "devil country" or "demon region" means hords the north of China. [ Yen Yuan. a Classic is When become visible. From these additional remarks on the Han era it will become plain that it ranks above all other ages.^ and Yao led his troops to Yu Miao^ did not submit. "The more looked up to it. 192. Sacred Books the barbarous Vol. My reasons are the following: Huang Tan-shut. in 8 p.

collected troops and rose simultaneously with Kao Tsu. sign of submission. Tsu p. 393 seq. in Mem. that of two. and Ch'ao T'so was put loc.* but the emperor did not infest their naturally barren country with his soldiers. When Cfiou committed the greatest atrocities. for we do not know whether the power of Ch'in and Hsiang Yii was.— 202 Lun-Heng: C. *^ *^® name is written in the Shi-chi. and as a subject attacked his sovereign. in and was decapitated 218. At present they all tender their allegiance and oflfer oxen and horses as tribute. Hist. plot failed. and 399. because the power of the Han is so imposing. The acceptance of the Chinese calendar has always been regarded as a Hist. vanquishing the two houses at the same His strength therefore must have been double that of Tang and Wu. Yil. I. an arduous task. « ' Cf. Kao II. the strength of the Han surpassed that Hsiang of the Chou by far. iron is As to the strength of Hsiang the breaking much more Yii difficult than breaking wood. C/ien Hsi^ revolted and F'Sng Y'deh^ rebelled. p. Ch'ao T'so eked on five States to rebel against the Han.C. Chavannes 499 and 509. . Kao Tsu destroyed and broke his iron. Such was the has: ' §^lw 197 B. destroyed CHin and killed Hsiang time. ^ A fact mentioned is in the Shi-chi (Chavannes. but then peace was secured. is The Chou. of course. 5 i^. p. the emperor vented The Hsiung-nu were constantly making trouble and the calendar did not reach them. Kao Tsti. King Wu enlisted troops all anxious to fight forthwith. Consequently. to death The Cf.^ uninvited.^ Hsiang Yil displeased with the inferiority of his title. He 19G. Ed. each of them. Wu Wang in defeating Chou merely broke wood. During the reign of Kao Tsu.c. and eight hundred feudatory princes appeared his resentment against CHao Tso. ' This inference wrong. Vol. not yet been balanced. however. T'ang and Wu defeated Chieh and one enemy each. that they do not venture any opposition. the whole empire took up arms against him. When in the time of Hsiao Ching Ti. Note 5. 226). We do not hear of similar occurences during the Han time. Vol. Vol. Chavannes. Mem. Critique. He served Chou '' as a subject.^ Wu Wang was chief of the west to Yin. cit. I. annihilation of one foe comparatively easy. on the other hand. Wu and CHu levied troops against him. Ch'en Hsi was a counsellor to the king of Chao. p. Their power had Yil. * by order of the emperor in 154 b. caused an insurrection against Cf. equal to that of Chieh or Chou.

But hear them. he conquered the empire. Brandishing his sword three feet long. Note 2 and p.^ The rise of Monarchs and territorial lords had its good reasons and was easy because they had the necessary power. Lest they should eat the millet starvation at Shou-yang. historical works that when Wu Wang Tai Kung had devised a secret plan. and to Wan^ had Wu Wang was margrave of the west and heir Wen Wang's dignity in the metropolitan district. Couvreur Diet. A district in Shensi. followed Shun.^ Wu Wang of" Choii. Whose reigns were more remarkable. He gave a small boy cinnabar to eat. ^'** ' * 5flJ '^^ "three zones" round the capital. so that his body turned red. in this respect. p. .Further Remarks on the State. or like diving from a hill or a mountain. that. and. Kuang Wu Ti started from Po-shui^ and exerted his prowess within the four seas. on account of his merits. leading their liorses behind them. as minister of works. 2 Who "-• killed their rightful lieges. the moral standard of the two emperors their Chou predecessors. I. but immediatly received Heaven's decree and merely followed of events. estate. Kao Tsu began his career as a headborough. those of the Five Monarchs or those of these two sovlike rising This was ereigns? We was going learn from several to supersede Chou. Notes 1 and 2. declined to they died of was Kuang Wu call Kao Tsu was not a minister of CRin^ nor Ti an officer of Wang Mang. 168. Wen a hundred Li. Cf. but an arduous task to title rise from low and humble spheres without any stepping-stone.' It is may be declared higher than that of easy to rise high from hills it and mountains and easy is to dive deep in abysses and gullies. they made remonstrances. Vol. 203 disgust of Po Yi and Shu C/ii at this conduct. and Shun succeeded to Yao as minister of finance Yi! when the latter abdicated. He these Five did not call one foot of land his own. it Contrarito is very convenient to inherit a and succeed an noble ancestors having laid the foundation of one's fortune. T'ang was in possession of an estate of seventy Li. and when he had grown up he taught him to say: — "The Yin are ruined. Yao came to the throne as a marquis of Tang. ttie trend from an abyss or a gully. or hold any position. The punisliment of a depraved sovereign and the annihilation of a vicious ruler do not for the criticisms of Po Yi. 430." The people of Yin beholding the red body of the small 1 Cf. wise.

The Chou When the Han conit quered the empire. I. VII. •M_ * ^ ^^ H^ /. carried tallow-candles. 189). p. I. must be corrected. on beholding his bare This passage is quoted in the T'ai-p'ing-yii-lan chap. p. 484 where the corresponding passage. it conceal this. Chavannes.^ and. When they were fighting at K'un-yang^ it thundered and rained. the title I. see Vol. chapter of the Shuking. but the world calls imposture. c. Critique. Wang Mang who assumed the " New Emperor.. was not that quite something different from carrying tallow-candles and by human tricks? Some say that when Wu Wang had defeated Chou. but the There the boy does not eat the cinnabar. 4 (Legge. p. when he said that the Yin were ruined. Cf. * Quoted in the Pei-wen-yun-fu. Tan Chiao is not a name. because he saw it trembling. Hist. p. One man stood for ten. See also Vol. 235. so that the front and the rear-ranks could not see each other. boy.^ Kuang Wu Ti had five thousand men under his command. This being recorded in the aforesaid chapter. Classics Vol. chap. The soldiers of Han issued from the city of K^un-yang and attacked the armies of the two dukes. Wang Mang dispatched two dukes at the head of thirty thousand men. p.D. Wu Wang personally with a halberd cut off his head and hung it up on a great white standard. and all was wrapped in obscurity.^ These artful devices deceived the Wu Wang availed himself of Chous^ unpreparedness. they all believed that the Shang When and the soldiers arrived at would perish. the story about feeding a boy with cinnabar and lifting tallow-candles at dawn is probably true also. 985. 484.^ King Chuang of CKu taking in the Yin condoned the * guilt of the viscount of Cheng. n. Vol.^ King HsUan of CHi pitied an ox whose blood was to be smeared on a bell. pestles were swimming blood. the plain of Mu. text differs. the latter threw himself into a fire and died.^ Heaven helped the Han with thunder and rain to overpower their enemies. * ^ Mem. and the troops of the two dukes were routed.204 Lun-Heng: C. which owing to the conciseness of the text was mistranslated. . 3v." ^ 7 A district in the Ying-chou prefecture of Anhui. The story is related by Mencius Book Part I. When the jHan smote the doomed Hsin Huang Ti. In 23 A. at dawn they people. is War"* related that in when the Chou defeated Chou. they did not use such In the chapter "Completion of the false pretences. took him for a heavenly spirit. Notes 4 and 5. but smears his body with it. I.

319. Wu Wang. siege. Han 3. the capital of Cheng to took place. Which is greater. dynasty. was imprisoned by order of King Chou. 2 ^ * The found Tso- See Vol. see Vol. and in her dreams she met with a spirit. ^ last emperor of the Former I. Together with Lii Hou he often repaired to a fieldcottage and used to hide. a scaly dragon appeared above her. Walking at night.. and that doomed Cliin was not as bad as Wang Mang. Where was the greater generosity and where the greater narrow mindedness? When the mother of Kao Tsu was enceinte. flesh and his emaciated body. he drank till he was intoxicated and fell asleep. C/iin Shih Huang Ti per- ^ In the year 596 b. ^ a subject by his lord was not as blam- able as the dethronement of the Chou by the CHin dynasty or the by Wang Mang. p. At the arrival of Kuang Wu Ti in Cliang-an. Her son was very fond of wine and would drink it on credit in a wineshop. 12th year. The sight of the corpse of Chou in the flames must have been a dismal one. 205 hates the wicked. Generally known as Liu Hsuan. p. and in spite of the more serious nature of their crimes the Han dealt so leniently with Cliin and Wang Mang. How could Wu Wang bear to sever the head with a halberd and hang it up? When Kax) Tsu entered Hsien-yang. I. Yen Yiieh had executed Erh Shih Huang Ti.^ A superior man but not his body. * An author.Further Remarks on the State. so that Lii Hou knew his where-abouts. a cousin to The The place where Wen Wang. and Hsiang Yii had killed Tse Yiig? Kao Tsu entered CIlin with a placid look and did not mutilate the two corpses. the barbarity of in fire or the this him who cut off the head of a corpse burned already cut to pieces? Was Wu clemency of sparing a body Wang's revenge for Yu-li? * The imprisonment of poisoning of Ping Ti of Chieh and Chou.c. Forgetting to pay.. 469. Then a brilliant fluid would shine forth. is In regard to the depravity it Tsou Po Chi^ of opinion that was not as bad as that of doomed CKin. Then always some portent would appear above him. Liu Sheng Kung ^ had already killed Wang Mang. Duke Hsuan. Yet in spite of his minor guilt the Chou punished King Chou so cruelly. he killed a snake. the father of Kuang Wu Ti. he did not lift his sword against the dead body. and the mother of the snake cried most lamentably. much worse than the trembling of the ox or the emaciated person. Notes 4 to 7. was taken by Ch'u narrative is after a long in the Then the scene alluded chuan. Note . but although he had his soldiers in readiness to punish the guilty.

2 8 * A solar mansion corresponding I. and joined trees. passed an old cottage. The mother of Hou Chi stepped into the When Wen Wang came to the front he foot-prints of a giant. under HsiXan I'i a phcenix came five times. a phoenix was seen once. a yellow dragon. but no miraculous signs are reported attending his accession.) must be corrected into Ch'un-ling. his deceased mother appeared floating in the air in a stream of light. See Vol.^ of C/iin looked out for the When the people all army of Han the clouds showed sorts of tints. The mother of Yii swallowed pearl-barley. Critique. 181. « 7 Cf.* and when Kuang Wu Ti. 177 seq. a white and a black pheasant. Cf. (ed. Wri Wang got a fish and a crow. Ping Ti could boast of a white and black pheasant. loc. and a blade of auspicious grain grew in an apartment. p. on his progress. p. . sweet dew. besides there were a unicorn. At midnight. B. 318 seq. No such phenomena have been recorded in connexion with the birth and the rise of the Five Emperors and the Three Rulers.' and the Five Planets rose and assembled at the Eastern Well. a yellow dragon. to Gemini. spiritual birds. wine springs. and when T'ang put in an appearance. p. Han Wen Ti had a yellow dragon and a jade staff. and auspicious grain. a unicorn. p. sweet dew. I. he beheld a wavering fluid going up to the sky. and a supernatural glamour. At the birth of Kuang Wu Ti a phoenix ahghted on the city. but very few were those of the numerous portents which became visible twice. In the times of Huang Ti. ^ At first Su Po A observed that the air at CKun-Ung was condensed and concentrated. Hsiao Ming Ti had a unicorn. a white wolf carried a hook in its mouth. 196. when no candles were burning. Wu Ti.^ obtained a red bird. felicitous boletus. 311. 180. The mother of Hsieh consumed a swallow's egg. and before sh^ gave birth to her son obtained a black jade baton.^ but in no case could they compete with the prodigies indicative of universal peace under the Han emperors. where the reading CKuang-ling I. p.206 Lun-Herig: C. signs as wonderful as those of HsUan TiJ Then there was a supernatural tripod and gold found » See Vol. Yao and Shun. wine springs. cit. ^ On See these various miracles compare Vol. spiritual birds. joined trees. ceived the fluid of a son of heaven in the south-east. p. The mother of Yao was moved by a red dragon.

and of boletuses there grew as many as eleven. his reign.^ they were again restored. In the prefecture of Yung-chou. 207 in a miraculous manner. p. only the Han twice. 76-77 A. Chang Ti. and two boletuses never grew together.^ When former ages dragons had shown themselves. seq. once. As the scholars the Five Monarchs received the decree of Heaven but once each. ® All these portents are faithfully the Hou Honshu chap. . Having been cut off". If the statement of the Lun-heng be correct. fourth year. 213. only in the ' numbers and the years there are slight differences. these auspicious au- were so numerous. Which of the ancient emperors and rulers ever attained to this? The virtue. In the chapter " Heaven's Original Gift"^ of the Lun-heng are already it we have maintained fate at endowed with the heavenly their birth.^ to omens corresponding guries the emperor's accompHshments. but is difficult to In case know life. Sweet dew did not faU but in one place. altogether eight. and having died. big and small ones. five felicitous between the first and second year^ of were felt everywhere. * By the usurper Wang Mang who ousted the Former Han dynasty. and the spontaneous fluid be received at birth. the blessings of his virtue thii-d year. In his boletuses grew in Ling-ling \* in his five districts.. sweet boletuses dew fell in and in his fifth year grew again. after having developed their that rulers receive the decree of Heaven. then wine and food more abundant than given received it given twice are say. yellow dragons made in their appearance. Vol.^ The excellence of the Han was so abundant and conspicuous. 130. they revived again. are usually looked upon as ' 3 * ^ See p. In the sixth year. In the world. consequently the fate granted them must be richer than that of their predecessors. I. Literati urge that sovereigns. persons that after death 1 come to life again. In the time After the demise of Hsiao Ming Ti our present Lord^ ascended the throne. p.D. So numerous and unceasing were the In view of the illustrious virtue of the Han dynasty.Further Remarks on the State. eight dragons came forth simultaneously. At present. 6r. 216. Hunan. we assume two endowments. More details on these eight dragons are given on chronicled in p. they never came in pairs. then likewise the quantity received by the house of Han must be greater. and sweet dew poured down on five districts. that auguries happened in such numbers. 3.

c. in his fourth year. The fact reign of the Han had been cut off The that Kuang Wu Ti regained the lost and was renewed.208 genii. the Han even got possession of the stone house of Hsi Wang Mu. " The geographical part of the Sui-shu (quoted in the Pei-wen-yiin-fv) informs includes the old city of us that the circuit of the " Western Sea " 886 p-j- ^Q y^ ^K Fu- -^jr '^ i)f^ . Lun-Heng: C. Subsequently. and estab^^ offered their fish-ponds lished there the circuit of the "Western Sea. Bio- graphy of '** Wang Mang (Pei-win-yun-fu). 505 where the same statement is made Wang CKung writes the ' name ^^^^• The two Chou emperors reigning from 878-828 b.^ defeating Chou availed himself of the savages of In the time of who helped him in the battle of Mu-yeh. the Ylleh-cliang appeared with interpreters for two languages and offered one white pheasant and two black ones. Wu Wang (SAw. the Cliiang tribes. and desired to become subjects of the Han. Of these tribes only the Liang Yuan are mentioned in the Han-shu.® Liang CKiao. wherever that may be. . In the first year of Yuan-shih^ of the emperor Ping Ji. . the Yileh-cU ang^ presented a pheasant.* in order to avoid their aggressions. and Liang Yuan^ and others outside the fortifications of Chin-ch'Sng and their salt-land. and embraces the kingdom of T'u-yii-hun is ^^ There the stone grotto of Hsi Wang Mu and the salt lake Kukunor. but under the Han dynasty the four kinds of savages^ all appeared at court with tributes. and took op his residence farther eastward in Lo-yi (Honan). p. the Jung and the Ti made an attack on the capital of Chou. I. Afterwards. and the Japanese brought odoriferous plants as tribr. CKeng Wang. * He left the old capital Hao-ching in Shensi.D. When the power of Yu and Li'^ was shattered. but P'ing Ti '' received three.te. ' ' '' The savages from In 1 the four quarters. Owing to the excellence of CKing Wang and Chou Kung's assistance. and King Ping proceeded eastward. 2 ^^ In Vol. Critique. they had presented one pheasant. finding their nobody who could understand into Chinese. *ffl* . {Ia) and from 781 to 771 {Yu). throne is something very remarkable."^^ In the Chou era ' The aborigines of Ssechuan. * * language and Chinese. They could not converse with the Chinese through one interpreter. A. and therefore required it one more to translate their speech into a language from which Tribes in the could be rendered West of China. A place in Kansu. Cliiao Chung.

209 the Jung and the Ti attacked the king. Duke Chuang 32nd year.. gathering medicinal herbs.^ Chou Kung executing Kuan and T'^sai went much farther than this. Notes 1 and 2. who captured thousands and ten thousands of their Fm. Liaotung. and offered State of Hsi Wang in the Han period they their valuable land. was beguiled by a mean fellow. which I take to be Syria. In the Chou era they required two interpreters. 13 and Vol. Whose virtue Han or the Chou? Ai-lao to greater and whose territory their allegiance At present the and and the Shan-shan are willing to tender to virtue.^ Yii-lin.^ Annam. king of CKu. 131. a. * ' * 70 A. Several times their plans became manifest. 2. Shu. hair and T'ai Po.^ With reference to the territory of Yao and Shun. in the CJwu time. Note 6. States in Ssechuan.Further Remarks on the State. and p. now they wear fur-caps. p.^ Yiieh-sui. YUeh were counted among the Nine Savages. conterminous with Hsi-hai. It is birds whose eggs are like jugs impossible that the Han carried their conquests so far. Vol. the Hsia emperor. Ching was led astray by a mischievous magician. Chavannes. 406. states that THao-chih •j^ big -4/. but Hsiao Ming Ti pardoned them three times. The Hsi-yu-chuan rftj ^w Yb is . and Yo-lang. the king of CKu in . on the other side. people of Pa. is yet the larger. The king of Kuang-ling committed suicide in 67 See Hou Han-shu chap. The Mu lies outside the farthest limits of the world. The CKun-cKiu puts forward the principle that [the relations of sovereigns ought not to harbour wicked designs. See Analects IX. p. The modern CKu-hmung-fu in Yunnan. revert Owing to the constant disturbances of the Hsmng-nu. Kung Yang. 372 likewise places T'u-yii-hun on the banks of this lake. 13v. The two kings then swallowed poison.D. » a ^ Cf. The present Kiiei-lin-fu. Kuangsi. 16v.d. and that if they do they deserve death. p. and Ying. cut off his and tattooed his body. * ^ g3 BM' Two ancient *" expression not found elsewhere.^ cloth The They wore woollen and wrapped a sash round their heads. I. Wzi ranked as an uncultivated dependency. wore their hair long and in tufts with hair-pins. I. went naked into the country of the people of Wu. generals were sent to chastise them.] ^ The king of Kuang-ling. now they chant the Shiking and the Shuking. cattle. became subjects of the empire. Les Tou Kiue Occidentaux p. and that there are (ostriches).' Now they are using The all Chinese subjects wearing long dresses and shoes. that of the Han annexed it.

^ * u^ j^ the family of Yin Chiang. Vol. in of Yin Chiang posted a letter in the market the villages. that he was at home with glib-tongued people and employed the perverse. Ti. But here two different persons seem to be meant. coveting the grandeur of the empire. 1 2 A A and B:—j^ for »|^. and the reign of the of the Yin family its Han was firmly established. and as feudatory princes. The son of the last emperor of the Yin dynasty. extinction justice. 6':— writes:— . Ed. Hist. The is relations of King CJiu from his mother's side. Yuan to continue the sacrifices to the Yin family. the equals of Kuan and Tsai. ^ Our Lord terri- regretting his treachery. Kung Rung Ed. on the other side. ^^. "The Hsii family related to the king. g^ and Ed. treat them according The marquis Fu and tory. The and preservation. Yin Chiang. that they should is but human. family. The is righteousness ness displayed in allowing shown by Lu Fu to ofi^ raising to Wu Keng^ and the kindsacrificial rites continue the not so very great."^ Yet the emperor raised the sons of the two kings and thus pacified Ch'u and Kuang-ling. an act of clemency deserving the highest praise. How could the liberality of Yao or the generosity of Shun exceed this? The dealings of Huan Ton were such. whereas for the two kings their posterity was reinstated into all their honours. nor in accordance with Heaven's command. Yet the descendants of the latter were extinguished. slandering the holy government. and kings. also called Lu Fu.B:-^^. This was not an act of justice worthy of a holy sovereign. the HsU Hsiao Ming Ti said. . See Chavannef!. 207. conspired with him. Mem. Critique." wish him honour and glory Thus his holy heart forgave them and did not to law.^ The two kings were of imperial blood. Note 4. but out of respect for his ancestors the sacrifices were preserved. for the Yin^ were emperors as well as the Chou. I. and allowed the younger brother of Chiang. Ed. deprived him of his title and his Hating a man one dislikes his adherents left behind.210 Lun-Heng: C. and thus cut the reign of CKeng T^ang. was but a subject. kindness of Hsiao Ming would not have been contrary to was due to the boundless His favours showered down on his own kindred within and on other families without. ^ The Yin dynasty. p. Yin Chiang had another family name than the emperor. who levied troops fight them. nevertheless.

Our Lord in his utmost kindness caused them to return to Since the their native places. 161. named four present criminals. II. than a drought and a want of people are driven from their 1 which was much worse when the cattle die and the homes. On the banishment of these four criminals see the Shuhing Part Ill. Therefore Yao and Shun banished them. p. only the sagest and wisest are successful in their Thus every ordinary doctor knows how to deal with a small disease. Cf. Yen Tse said that. 134. by merely following his fate. 1.* and CUeng of Chou opened the trunk. Note ^ This seems to refer to an earthquake which happened in Wang Ch'ung's time. therefore. Cf. 67.^ In the first year of the Chien-cfiu period. virulent attack. recommended to Yao. even a common ruler. or as some say it was a Kun could not regulate the waters. all the same. Perhaps the W^^i there is merely a misprint for urn' 76a. Book I. all those were by Hsiao Ming Ti most gra- ciously merely sentenced to banishment into the border-lands. Mem. Vol. p. p. The emperor exhibited his rain. is able to establish a virtuous government. p. When grain grows and the year is normal.^ Further Remarks on the State. wits' end. who resenting the strong hand who having to investigate something did not speak the truth. San Miao was an artful and cunning man. Hist. causing all the diseases of the year. 160. I. p. Classics Vol. 18. 12 (Legge. and All they died in regions devoid of vegetation. and good Kao Tsung stooped down. 39) and Chavannes.d. the earth would be moved. guilt were personally guilty and could not shift their upon the emperor. Thus far did their zeal lead them. but the emperor was terror-stricken^ and attributed the event to his administration qualities.^ a pernicious current arrived. and whose offences were much graver than those of the aboveof government revolted. dawn of civilisation no similar mercy was ever shown. 211 intrigued with him and was. being at his guilty country. but when calamities and dangers abound. . 2 Part I. Note 1. but none but a Pien CKio can cope with a efforts to reform. ^ An earthquake is by time and not the result of government.^ All those who maliciously plotted against the emperor. the naturally determined Hook Star being between the House and the Heart. who injured the State or killed its officers. * 6 * See p. minutely investigating its merits and inquiring into its defects and shortcomings. Cf.

but replete with principles and virtue. and the its five State in troubles. their bodies were roving about on the roads. and in spite of all those difficulties it did not revolt. — the best and worthiest presidents of the board of men were in work supported the relief. Critique. office. but their hearts. and distress into comfort. yet the empire admired the emperor's virtue. Which of the Five Emperors and Three Rulers would have been fit to bring about such a state of things? sending about grain and giving . Danger was changed into security.212 virtue: Lun-Heng: C. Therefore no traces of robbery were to be found on the highways. returning to their native villages. and in hidden and out-of-the-way places no acts of violence were committed. The people were destitute of grain. Although those left starving were not a few.

CKSn Chiio mistook it for copper. where he had found this. He himself entered the water and seized it. and thousands of pieces. Upon CKen T^ing replying in the affirmative.d." THng came to and entered the water. Ominous Signs Investigated {Yen-fu). quoth Chiin Hsien and forthwith. 120 Li west of the present Lu-chiang-hsien. CJien Ving was the first to go. He inquired. where there was still much left in the water. Ed. both over ten years old. * The Huan district corresponding to the prefecture of An-cKing. but it was so slippery and heavy. "What have you got?" to fetch his rod Chiio rejoined.* At a distance of 40 steps from CKen Ting he beheld a wine amphora of a bright yellow colour that had fallen into the water near the edge of the lake. full of amazement. The father of CKen Chiio was a retired official of the State whose style was Chiin Hsien. " It is gold ". 4 has the misprint ^^- . When the neighbours of Chiio and Ting had heard the news. There were two small boys in Huan. and again became But Ting and Chiio who kept their eyes on it perceived something of bright yellow colour like so many coins. ^1^. the capital of the province of Anhui. " It is copper. hundreds invisible. his assistance it but I cannot lift it. who together went angling on the banks of the lake. Chiin Hsien personally acquainted a minister who advised the prefect. and the prefect their 1 68a.— Ominous Signs Investigated. he hastened to the place of discovery. — 213 CHAPTER XX. named Cliin Chilo and C/ien Ving. and asked his comrade whether he had caught anything. He waded through the water to get hold of it. but before he had seized quite suddenly the amphora vessel. CKen Chiio arrived later. he went home It of the and fishing-line. was in the eleventh year of Yung-ping. there was a general rush.^ The inhabitants Huan marquisate ^ in Lii-chiang ^ were then in possession of a lake. that he was unable to lift it. They pushed and raised it. was transformed into a covenant sank into the deep through the movement. and Chiio gave a description. along with Chao. and with hands full they went home and told their families. T'ing seeing this from afar shouted. and they together obtained upwards of ten pounds. ' Now Lii-chou-fu.

sank into the deep. covery of gold being very strange. 14r. but at last they succeeded raising it. portents which same year are enumerated: —a unicorn. The event was very simple and harmless and is only construed into a vessel in the miracle. sent his officers to receive the gold and instructed his private official Clieng Kung to take it over and present it to the throne.' The auspicious portents of the Han were manifold. however. white pheasant. who with his subthat. stating how he had efi'ect got the gold. 2 Extraordinary only for persons prejudiced and desirous to discover omens at all costs. a lake in Ho-fei-hsien (Anhui) in now famous for its gold-fish. which they first took for a wine amphora. then for something else. it When they stirred up the water in disappeared for some time. was not. then capital ordinates took cognisance of it. stating that the gold had been discovered exactly as reported previously. a wine spring. but punishment would be meted out. an edict appeared commanding the payment of the value of the gold to Chiin Hsien and the others according to the actual market price of gold. Therewith the matter closed. In the imperial rescript to the authorities of Lil-chiang it seemed as if His Majesty was not willing to grant Chiln Hsien and his associates the price of the gold. 2. In the 1 2 th year. Chiln Hsien and his associates addressed the emperor stating how they had found the gold in the water of the had presented it to the throne. ^ No.^ Something of a golden colour appeared in the shape of a wine amphora and afterwards became a covenant vessel and. . if was. gold and jewels are divine. and auspicious grain. therefore their appearance is something extraordinary. it An imperial edict was all issued to the if it this was right. p.214 Lun-Heng : C. it was put on The disThe prefirst cious things. being moved. this a miracle? * Was Hou Han As a not ^ This soi-disant lucky augury in is shortly mentioned in the is shu chap. record. and that as yet no compensation had been received. With edict Clieng Kung returned to the prefect. for the prefect had reported that the gold found by Chiln Hsien and others came from a public lake. saw some water. that the chief of the circuit was given. where the lake appeared the which the gold was found called ^Mmfl further Ch'ao-hu. whose testimony not worth much. and not from the private waters of these persons. In the 12 th year. Critique. Consequently no compensation lake. For this reason the prefect sent in a new report. as stated in the memorial. Small boys. They had the impression that the emperor doubted the veracity and believed that something had been concealed and that the report had been unduly embellished.

woman from CKilan-Ung in Ling- of the ^ name of Fu The longest measured a foot and is The history of these tripods. = gold. I. p. the that they were made of bronze or copper. it was the same after all and in both cases the upshot of conspicuous virtue and an omen pictures of their produce. Tripods of the Chou No matter whether it was brought by people as tribute or whether it issued spontaneously from the water. gem flail. their This stone became a charm. p. 110. Shuking. p. The Nine were the gold of these distant countries. Classics Vol. both are presages of earth. related in Vol. is colour of earth is Earth produces gold. p. 95 and 368. In the third year of Chien-ch' u. Cf. 3. In the Yung-cKang circuit^ there was gold as well. is general opinion 2 ^ Wanff CKung here assumes that they were made of gold. 506 seq. so that the washing does not pay. The is A golden and pearless age In the time of Wen Ti there appeared a smallest lumps were as big as a grain of millet. * It is needless to say that under all the other dynasties gold was found as well.Ominous Signs Investigated. The Hou Han shu chap. See Vol. 207. regarded it as propitious ^ for a sage emperor. was a uniform yellow. lies north of the modern Ling-ling-hsieti in Hunan. speaks only of Ling-ling. Yunnan. Stones belong to the same category as different. substance is but their colour the same. Part I. the insignia of imperial power. ^ The yellow metal Cf. The ruling element of the llan dynasty for the production earth.* Of metal there are three kinds. 6r. which accounts yellow into is of gold. which turned gold. essence of the yellow man of the Clii bridge transmitted to Chang Liang^ a book a yellow stone.D. whence in the 3rd year of the emperor Chang Ti'a reign purple boletus was sent as a present. ^ When The old continually seen it becomes a lucky augury. Gold and gems are the choicest omens. copper. and the yellow. In In Talifu. . accompanied with gold and gems. part of a Tael or a Y24 ounce. 215 When Yii the Hsia dynasty was flourishing distant countries made and the nine tribes oilered gold as tribute. and the red metal =: p. and cast it into tripods. I. The sound of gold and the colour of gems are most appreciated by mankind. In 78 A. Ill. Chiian-ling Note 4. « ' ^ Yiikung {Legge. the white metal = silver.'' suddenly five stalks of boletus grew ling ^ in the soil of the house of a King. Note 43). The twenty-fourth found. In the sand of the Its bankg colour of rivers people found five shu^ of gold every day. many Chinese rivers gold is but in such small quantities as mentioned here.

who Yen Sheng to present these was exceedingly pleased and gave him money. it Stalks and leaves were was. the purple boletus. C/iou Fu. He then summoned all the presidents. When and people and the empire heard the news. in fact. They had a length of over 16 feet' and were bigger than horses. caused it to trickle down. and food in return. The Hou Han shu mentions only these three places. governors. The Hou Han shu loc. shang-ch%^ officers. All the editions here write "HyV^t tlie ^^0 feet. 4 to 5 inches.^ Shih-an. resembled those of the third year. Northwest of the present Hsiang-yuan-hsien In Kuei-lin-fu. . to happen. water and roamed about and played on the shore. The prefect Shen F^ng deputed his private officer plants to the emperor. which bending under its weight. the excellence of the Han being so perfect and universally acknowledged. dresses. Together with the former ones there were eleven in all. These seem to have been comptrollers or revenue in officers. To those who looked sharply at them they appeared like those dragons painted in pictures. There two yellow dragons put in an appearance. felicitous omens were sure Ling-ling. The mountain approaches the river from both sides. ^ * 5 (80 A. and plum trees. cherry. They issued from the bigger and smaller ones. The people of Yen-shih-cJi iu all saw them at a distance of some ten steps. officialdom and citizens rejoiced. cit. the shortest 7 to 8 inches. I suppose that J^ should be written. no doubt. boletus viz. In the fourth year.^ Where the river Hsiang'^ is 7 Li distant from the city of CKilan-ling there are masses of rocks above the river bearing the name of Yen-shih mountain. being. for else the sequel that dragons were bigger than horses would give no sense. Under a protruding cliff the water disappears and forms an unfathomable abyss.^ — — ^ p gT. six altogether. cypress. merely reports that in the 5th year of the emperor purple boletus was sent from Ling-ling. well knowing that. ministers.D. narrowing its passage.216 Lun-Heng: C. The people drank it and found that it tasted like sweets and honey. made known the boletus to the empire. six grew again on the house In colour and shape they of a man of Cfiilan-lmg. The main river of the province of Hunan which falls into the Tungting Lake. They further perceived some animals shaped like colts. Kuangsi. cit. Critique. sweet Ch'uan-li7ig. In the fifth year.) ^ '' Under the Han dynasty a part of the Ling-ling circuit in Hunan. dew fell in the five districts of and Leng-tao^ soaking all the leaves of the elm. of a purple colour. 2 loc. T'ao-yang. Kuangsi.

and the alighting of the phoenix. e. as a genuine phoenix.." The emperor replied. Mem. "At present the empire forms one family. the emperor's home. and the appearance of the yellow dragons is similar. Mem. and there is no difference whether the phoenix alights in P^ eng-cK eng or in the capital. I. the ruling element of the Han being earth. /. it. which proves that earth Cliing-chi^ Ling-ling. of the two dragons. This phcenix having alighted far away in P^ mg-cK eng cannot be admitted. * The Hou Han shu in in contents itself with the short statement that eight yellow dragons were seen playing CKuan-Ung. Cf. ^ •^ In Hsiian Ti's time.c. was seen* whose distance from the capital equalled that of Under the regime of Hsiao Wu Ti as well as of Hsiao Hsiian Ti dragons made their appearance. The latter. a phopnix alighted on the city Hsiian Ti summoned the shihof P'eng. b. 217 the children all. is. the capital. ' 30 Li north from CKin-an-hsien in the province of Kansu. the four frontiers of the empire form the boundary lines within which Ling-ling is situated. ^ The distance from The whole empire In 165 B. p. 479.C. took off his cap.^ they again returned to Under the reign of Hsiian Ti. For further details on Kung-Sun CKen Chavannes. 507. so that it even may be considered near. A commentator adds that the two big dragons the Hsiang were of the size of horses and had horns. "A phoenix comes down on the capital and alights in the precincts of the son of Heaven. wherefore cities it is un- necessary to calculate the distance of * from the capital. as it were. The distance of P^ing cJiing and Ling-ling is the same. 73-49 the capital was Chang-an in Shensi. Hist. The time of Hsiian Ti does not differ from the present. that. Vol. a yellow dragon it should appear as corresponding omen. in the time of Hsiao Win Ti.^ Why do you say that one must have nothing to do with second-class birds?" And he called upon his attendants who were versed in the Classics to argue the point with Sung Wing Yi. 526. in Subsequently. cf.' Kung-Sun CKin of Lu declared. for.'^ which gave notice of it. II. and that the six colts. p. II. A On city in Hsil-chou-fu. and a lucky omen. chung^ Sung Wing Yi who said. Vol. Hist. pressed very hard.Ominous Signs Investigated. and four times yellow dragons become visible in this place." as regards the extension of the emperor's mansions. p.* for one must not have dealings with second-class birds. made obeisance and excused himself. Vol. young ones were as big as "^ but hornless. . ^ * Chavannes. this function see Kiangsu. Along with these they were eight in After they had stayed out of the water for some time.

roaming about and playing like the six children of Heaven and Earth. Vol. The water. In the era of Yao and Shun aU the animals danced. and that they should choose From this circumstance that Chia Yi. metal. Sweetness the taste corresponding to earth. colour of the present * 5 •> Manchu dynasty is yellow again. dragons were not seen in pairs.^ it official yellow colour and of number is evident that earth is the element of the Han. When. cereals are sweet. wood. XXVII. The occurance of imperial omens is not in vain. Earth produces dew descended. at present the eight dragons likewise played and gambolled for a long while. is yellow dragons which are supposed to have indicated 2 Earth being the fifth of the Five Elements its in the series of the Shuking: — number is five. was indeed the element of the Han dynasty. Cf. the children. When now formerly sweet it and grain as dew came in five down. an as their number. Boletus is eaten former ages eleven pieces only by immortals.' first who in the court of Wen Ti proposed that the five Chia Yi was the as the colour of Han yellow should be adopted. dragons came out. very seldom their children Now six young dragons came out simultaneously. the power of which frequent prevails everywhere. In are altogether indicating a longer duration of high as a fir-tree was produced. cereals. were seen. the present government must also be conformable to that of the Hsia. it. they always are * illustrative of something. The fluid of earth being congenial. declared himself in favour of the five. formerly. 130). p. In war they used black horses and for sacrifices black victims. 125.^ Boletus grows in earth. p. The ChHn dynasty again selected black {Chavannes 31em. according to Chinese ideas. . only when the Hsia dynasty court. is Again the shallow symbolism.^ a sign of a numerous progeny. the boletus grows in therefore sweet In it. earth. 3 The colour of the Hsia dynasty was black.* former ages. their lives. of extensive erudition. fire. in order to prolong one or two grew. and the Chou dynasty red. The Yin dynasty adopted white as its colour. it did so but in one place. poured dovvn districts conformably to the number of earth.218 Lun-Heng: C. Legge Sacred Books Vol. Critique. p. 163. ^ was at its height two dragons appeared in the Since the two dragons which came forth in the present time agree with those of the Hsia dynasty in number. See Liki. were evolved. now there life. and correspond to some yellow like that of the The colour of earth. 11. S^ ^i the names of the first and the last of the Eight Diagrams from which the other six. Hist.

and Huang See Appendix . their When Wen like Ti and his minister and Wu Ti received strength was that of the Dukes of Chou and Shao. there must be some coincidence. consequently long life. benevolent omens his epithet. everything prospers. Benevolence implies in a taste for feeding and nursing."] the boletus pointed ["The knowing are cheerful. The ruler being enlightened. that like to conceal themselves. and the Our emperor is a holy man. publicly appeared. attracted from their rocks and caverns by the emperor's sagehood. There is a supposed correspondence between the centre. 21. the heart. the animal of the East. appeared. that his virtue approaches that of the "Yellow Emperor. and the dragon is the animal of the eastern region. the scarled bird that of the South. 1 Analects Y\. whereas the four other elements correspond to the four cardinal points. to If yellow things its be produced they have the colour of earth. When portents appear they usually follow an excellent man. 219 Confucius said. The East is called benevolent.^ There- did Hsien Yuan. 2 Earth is placed in the centre. The omens obtained by a holy sovereign surpass those of common worthies. The emperor his benevolence and kind-heartedness loved the black-haired people. Investigated. sweet. their decree. ^ * Personal name of The green dragon the " Yellow is Emperor " Huang Ti. the white tiger that of the West.* The emperor being a sage. earth.^ whose virtue was excellent.Ominous Signs virtue. and fore place is the centre." whence the colour of the dragons was yellow to show the identity of their virtue. principle of and lucky auguries always adhere to some fortunate person. ^ and the black tortoise that of the North. use yellow as Our emperor is so kind and merciful. ^ benevolent live long. The Heaven being spontaneity. Ti. yellow. to Couvreur^s Dictionary. therefore the sweet dew poured down^ and dragons. judicious.

$1) . songs. (cf. At present there would not know it is universal peace throughout the empire. termed compositions. Classics Vol.*] His great literary activity falls in this time. rites are instituted by the superiors and therefore whereas songs being composed by the inferiors are.— 220 Lun-Heng: B. Ill. 15). and The scholiasts and deserve * Shaki?iff. Quotation from the Analects IX. In 483 B.cit. But we find nearly the is same words : HM HH 3 * ^ in the Preface to the Shuking which attributed to Confucius. panegyrics and tunes are composed.C. p. tunes be composed? to be called pedants. Note). The Necessity of Eulogies (Hsu-sung). and who is the editor? Consequently the able Confiicms. when the festive songs and panegyrics got — their places. — CHAPTER XXI.e. wanted some able pen to eulogise and chronicle their achievements. Wanq ' Ch'unr/ here takes ' it to signify the book treating of sovereigns. 2 The words A/' ^ffl following the above passage are generally regarded as forming part of the original merely edited by Confucius. odes.'' their reply will probably be that the called institutions. writer is Confucius. accomplished. 14. might panegyrics. Ergo — the officers commit to writing the actions of the superiors.^ [It was after his return from Wei to Lu^ that lie arranged the Odes. Part I. intelligent.^ they will reply: the editor. loc.. ^^ have been proposed by Chinese said to mean the "highest" the most venerable book or the book of the "highest antiquity" Legge. It is fm in Shang-shu jp^ i. and all ages heard of them. The rulers and sovereigns of antiquity having accomplished memorable deeds. and thoughtful"]. Critique. Quoted from the Yao-tien 1 {Legge. When the empire enjoys perfect peace. And who are these inferiors? The officers. If w^e ask the commentators of the Shuking who said the words following the passage [" He was reverential. Thus their deeds were made public. on that account. when Confucius was already 69 years of age. If we inquire of the scholars why rites are said to be instituted^ and songs to be composed. Various explanations of the term shang critics. Some maintain concerning the S/iang-shu [Shuking) that shang means superior:^ what the superiors have done is written down by the inferiors.

{Legge. Bibl. viz. These 40 odes form Part IV of the different The term p. and speak who took high terms A noble of the Wei State. officers should extol their sovereign. To illustrate virtue.^ Thus all in there are 31 eulogies of Chou. which cost Tse Lu his life. Part Shiking. The scholars contend that the Han have no sage emperors. I. a leading part in a revolution in Wei. temple" or 9 "sacrificial odes.c. When virtue of Shun. XIX. Diet. Cf. cent. p. * He died in b. The encomiastic inscription. 26). Wang's brother. in accordance with propriety. and because the emperor Hsiao Hsilan Ti praised the prefect of Ying-cli uan. The tripod with the inscription was conferred upon him by the duke. Book Ode 5 (Legge. is given in the Liki.The Necessity of Eulogies. Lord Shoo^ performed his duties in such a way. under Shun the empire was at peace. Chap. In our chapter entitled " Praise of the Han Dynasty " ^ we have shown that the Han have holy emperors. K'uei* sang the The kindness o£ King Hsiian^ was so perfect. and highly honoured. See No. J° xvin. IV. Shun and director of State music. 221 ' In view of the inscription on the tripod of K^ung K'ui of Wei the officers of Chou admonished one another. nothing more than the eulogistic allusions of the Shiking and a duty of noble officers. eulogising the ancestors of the recipient. XXVin.C. and 4 of iw. and the That is administration. 40 in which the poets sing the praises of exalted persons. and that their administration has not brought about universal peace. or despise his ^ own 5th father.^ Huang Pa^ for his excellent service and bestowed a hundred pounds of gold on him. 5 of Yin. b. 66r. Classics Vol. 2 ' p. 51. It and to extol and panegyrise rulers. A circuit in Anhui. II. 252). Sacred Books Vol. . Chi-iung p. Shiking Part Chap. p. cannot be accounted in should somebody forget his own family and look to other people's houses.c. 569. and in the chapter " Further Remarks on the State " ^° we have it investigated into the excellence of the is Hau and found out that all extraordinary and far surpassing that of the other dynasties. the Thus a ruler of Han officers exerted themselves in the men praises his officers. 865. and that their government has led to perfect peace. Shiking.^JS eulogy is given a meaning by modem commentators "songs for the ancestral Notes. . A minister of B. 5 827-782 ^ ' ^ The duke of Shao.* Whence it is plain that subjects should eulogise their sovereigns. Part I. Wu II. 257." See Legge. that in Chou they sang the song on the sweet-pear tree. but then re-instated Giles. is and praise merits. virtue. first Huang Pa was thrown into prison by the emperor. that the Shiking extols his doings.

The square-mensuration of very great planes offers many difficulties. Legge his Prolegomena to the Shikmg in p. the literati are The present blind and dumb peasant beating the earth proved his ignorance of his virtue.^ When light at night a candle is lifted the space illuminated by its may to be measured. but on the Eastern Sea they cannot make out north and south. Critique. and great depths are hard to be fathomed by wading through with tucked-up clothes. people and officers.* all people know their windings and turnings. it is grand. is like and incapable of distinguishing between green and a holy ruler. of the old gentlemen of strangers. the former emperors are like the old gentlemen. 19. to is see the greatness of a State and glorify its deserts doubt and suspect them of incapacity. " Grand Yao\" — The man who was playing with for it. To be coeval with a sage and not to being blind know the holy ruler. 187. but not to praise him. but when the sun shines over the world near and limited. _ Wang CKung here and elsewhere uses HK Si in . and only Yao corresponded to it."] ' earth replied. in ^ Cf. p. What sort of energy does Yao display?"^ Confucius by saying "Great indeed was the virtue of Yao " showed that he knew him. 13 adduces the words of the peasant as the "song of the peasants ^ the time of Yaoy He only I think that the question of the peasant has not this purport. in means to say that he does not care for Yao this idea in is the least. I dig a well to drink. and at sunset I take my rest. much better [Confucius said. to discourse is yellow. indeed is the virtue of Some one of fifty was beatAn observer remarked. To know than to the virtue of a monarch and praise his excellence. T It no more gifted than Confucius and the man of ang who spoke of Yao's greatness were both aware of his virtue. In the "song of the • peasants" * 5 more clearly brought out: — *^' /J j^ ^F loT '©^ ^u the sense of Rivers Honan and Shantung. the people of T^ang beating the earth. only Heaven that is "Great indeed was Yao as a sovereign. far. and compared to the present sovereign. and to like being know such dumb and unfit on right and wrong. was paramount.— 222 Lun-Heng: C. and by inquiring how Yao's capacity was. The people could find no name ing clods of earth on the road. be Navigating The excellence of the Han is as extensive^ as the sunlight reaching 1 Analects Ym. The Han are the family now embracing the whole world. and labour my field to eat. "At sunrise I begin my work. the places big and small reached by its rays are hard on the Huai and the CAi.

well versed in Formerly. by diminishing Emperors and Three Rulers. be contrasted Han. The Han have swayed the empire no less than all the other dynasties. 198. called eulogies of Chmi\ they bear a resemblance to the simple picture. no notice being taken of the events of the Han era. But by means of picks and spades one may Contemporaries of literary If the level the ground. and by a thorough investigation their respective merits and demerits may be ascertained. these dynasties. whereas the unintelligent have no idea of their grandeur. The earth has elevations and depressions. p. All generations reading the Classics dealing merely with the Five Emperors and the Three Rulers. If some were left out. The knowing know it. Ponds and lakes there are of various kinds and of difi'erent sizes. But one may use arguments as picks and spades and. Lun-heng If the and without the arguments of the we do not learn to last know of all the real state of these dynasties. being the » Cf. The State eulogies in the Shiking are Han eulogies by Tii Fu and Pan Ku. . classical If after will many find generations people conversant with literature there nothing in praise of the Han dynasty.^ fill up the baseness of the house of Han. 223 beyond the ocean. In default of long poles the the grandeur of the Five depths cannot be measured. which the Lun-hSng offered has.The Necessity of Eulogies. it is owing to the incompetence of those writers. officers the Classics were in the habit of recording the silk glorious feats of their rulers on bamboo and encomiastic inscriptions regarding their illustrious and of engraving virtue on tripods. later on.^ Under the reign of Hsiian Ti portraits were painted of the entire body of Ha7i officers. sovereigns^ are far superior to those of the must imagine that these Han dynasty. their descendants. whence there are high and low places. ^ 51 ^H' '^^ ^^ ^^^y ^^^ called below: — ^^ ^ . and their depths may be measured by immerging poles. which is more than levelling. for the Han thus will become exalted and those rulers abased. behalf. felt abashed that their ancestors had not been A eulogy is much more than a found worthy to be painted. and the various scholars working together all treat of other matters and have not a word of praise for the Han dynasty. The Han writers mostly go back as far as the Yin and Chou dynasties. later ages must wonder at this omission. abilities would exert themselves on this fame of the Han falls short of that of the Six Reigns.

to I. 30. and unless a State possess vigorous writers its virtues remain hidden and are not made public. still his case having been thoroughly examined. The work -I-' alluded to was perhaps the Yang Hsiung fu of the shih- erh p'ien ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ mentioned in the Catalogue Han-shu chap.^ Sse-Ma Yang Tse Ti. In the Shi-chi. or of eulogies numbering many thousands.^ 224 Lun-Heiig: C. and the people were not at ease. Ships and carts carry people. and we may expect that the Han will not barely not come up to the other dynasties." The people are the pedestrians.70 signifies " high. bad ones. The ever-flowing virtue of the Han is lost among the many generations.c. it is inevitable that a mediocre scribbler takes his place who admires antiquity and disparages the present.. Even the one word of a posthumous title should be illustrative of its bearer.* Without strong husbandmen the crops do not grow. because the vigorous writers among the literati do not record it.^ met with a drought and King Hsilan of Chou likewise. p. yet Ch'eng T'ang got the epithet Cfieng and King Hsilan was called Hsilan. and their panegyrists are " compared to the adornments of this cart. Good titles CKeng Tang are CJieng and Hsilan. those riding in the State-cart. till CKien wrote on the time from Huang Ti Hsiao Wu Ti. . 208. "^ *^ ^"^- means "to expand. 162. they can be compared hke ponds and lakes. but this book is very short and incomplete. with their predecessors in point of virtue. civilisation. A posthumous title is a trace left by a man's actions. 32v. time In his there was also the Great Flood. he was given the name of Yao.^ These pernicious calamities could not affect their government. and the officials in appending the posthumous designations did not depart from truth. lofty. eminent. ' 73 B. . propagate" consequently Hswan- Wang is ' * the Civilising King. but unless there be a clever writer.-l A. From this point of view Yao is also a good title. p. and how can simple carts and unadorned ships compete with those Excellent writers covered with polish and beautifully painted? are the polish and adornments of the State-ship and the State-cart. Ling and Li. Critique.^ YUn described the period from Hsilan ^ Ti to Ai Ti and P'ing On posthumous titles see Vol. but be ranked below them. how much more ought this to be required of discourses containing many hundred words. the rulers. It is true that from Kao Tsu downward the books written discuss this subject: Sse-Ma Hsiang-Ju of the Han time published a work on the hill sacrifice. but how can they equal the number of pedestrians.D. scl.

inscriptions in Chavannes. that Does this greatness it is still illustrious after numberless generations. deserves the prize? Which of these three classes of people the Five Emperors and the Three The epoch of Rulers was particularly prosperous in this respect. but chap. Hist. is greater than that of The brilliant virtue and the success of a holy ruler should. has not yet Jjun-lieng found a panegyrist. and Pan Ku composed a after his The merits and achievements of the house Han may well be learned therefrom. or what they say is bad. and when the latter reached Lang-yeh he did the same. Li Sse composed a laudatory stone-inscription recording the excellent deeds of the emperor. II. Remarks on the State. a dragon cannot soar to heaven. Our reigning Lord. During the time of Hsiao Ming there plenty of lucky presages appeared together. but cannot express themselves. Wu Ti. XXXVm and Vol. make em- the virtue of the ^ Han illustrious generations. p. and the strength of the gentlemen of the pen the rammers. be praised and put on record. The great achievements of a State are loftier than a city-wall. at all events. whence originated the chapters: — Equality of the Ages. their 2 We do not appreciate panegyrists and bombastic and coloured descriptions. See the reproductions and translations of CKin 544 seq. XVIH-XX. and Ominous Signs Investigated. I. men like Ku may be among all said to have praised to it Should we not rather use high-flown panegyrics. Vol. than be ineloquent or speak badly and improperly? When Cliin Shih Huang Ti travelled to the south-east and as- cended Mount Kuei-chi.^ Without clouds and rain. 225 CKen P'ing Chung wrote on Kuang eulogy on Hsiao Ming of Ti. . Great writers are the clouds and the rain of a State. chap. accession.^ ' CKin was a depraved State. but of all encomiasts of the State only properly. has won laurels. Ti. and officers was no lack of and Pan functionaries. Further has done his best for this purpose. that its perors shine like sun and moon. Vol. they carry in their records the virtue of the State. how can the current of these records suddenly be drained and exhausted? When somebody hit the truth. Mem. not rise even higher than the sky? The earth of the city-wall is nothing but common soil which men have used their strength to ram down and raise near the moat.The Necessity of Eulogies. II. and they are reluctant to speak their mind freely. therefore the author of the Praise of the J?an Dynasty. either those who extol him or they would fain praise him. but ' want true historians. and transmit its fame.

divulged. If. When musicians play beautiful airs on the guitar. but people ignored it. so that the holy State of the Great Han enjoys but scanty fame. it is stated in the headings that a recipe them. and the Han no more be slighted. and through the reports their If the virtue of the State. provided it they be old and far away. corresponding auspicious signs have also been These signs must not. they fervently believe excellent quality of antiquity. in case near and modern. that the readers must have taken for the age of Yao and Shun. and in speaking of omens they over-estimate the past and depreciate later ages. be This is the reason why the three chapters on . but hopes to benefit by it. because memorials their conduct talents are exhibited. however. and they despise truth. and the audience does not applaud. When the Han have some real good things. the musicians become apathetic and lose their enthusiasm. and in the provinces praising reports are drafted in order to for their skill recommend officials. and sometimes they had already appeared. those scholars do not mention them. it will not be carried on. because exquisite music is very difficult to When a wise play. State keeps an excellent administration. and the very numerous. So-and-so. and then those willing to try it will compete in copying the recipes and carving them in wood. short of talents like Li Sse At present. is that of Mr. in every imaginary They trust in falsehoods. be identical with former ones. The ordinary scholars explaining omens are prone to magnify antiquity and detract from the present. and will regard them as a hidden Mount Kuei-clii treasure. conversely. The is publication of these meto virtue morials and reports induces the in the officials and honesty. In ancient and modern times there has been no want of holy emperors. whence the necessity of eulogies becomes obvious. Now we possess many recipe books written on bamboo and silk which do not give the name of the inventor by whom The public does not use and overlooks the recipes were issued. in these stone-inscriptions the it era was so embellished. that it has already been tested. This should be changed. of necessity. does not ments. Critique. we are not who might take part in the ascent of and pass over the terraces of Lang-yeh. In the capital memorials are written. and yet the spectators do not appreciate it. them and their abilities.226 Lun Heng: C. and officialdom withholds its praise. the fault lies with the common scholars who do not make correct statespite of its gloriousness. in meet with applause.

n. there much rain during its the night. but in consequence of the statements of the possible. the latter do not come up with them. 211. 76a. author of the greater distance the courtyard." Therefore in the chapters " On the Rain Sacrifice " and " Gentle Drums the sudden changes referred good auguries of the Han dynasty. owing to " Periods its the influence of holy emperors thus successful in their efforts. The ChuncHiu period left a method for them which the Lun-heng has exsage. In the year of Chien- a pernicious air arrived just at the time of a sage. The emperor through his virtue succeeded in averting the calamity.^ and the inner rooms. p. the light of the moon is not extinguished. of Government " time. yet far is by reason of the great distance. there being either a ities plained. . he ascend the hall and peep he will not lose one word out of a hundred. ^o*h chapters are lost. he will miss ten. The Lun-heng is living in an old desolate place at a (from the capital) than that between the gate and In a quarter of an hour the sun traverses several people do not consider it thousand Li. in ® Wang Ch'ung probably refers to some place Chekiang province of which he was a native. under whom the crops ripen and the years pass in peace. ' ^ * B mm^C §E* Chap. The chapter the Han. When.The Necessity of Eulogies. XXX and XXXI. To be cKu ^. If a person to be turned from the gate to the court and in the hall listen what is spoken nine words out of into the rooms. able to change disorder into order. * is an effusion for its Order has fixed and disorder has is period. These calamhave been discussed with reference to the Han. If. but splen- ^ Books IV-VUI of the Lun-heng (Chinese text). not because they do not equal them. however. the Han are difficult to be equalled.d. Literati which make it im- As a matter of fact. 227 Exaggerations and the nine on Falsehoods ' were written and those "How to become a Sage" ^ and on "True Sagehood"^ originated. The Literati in their praise of the sages overshoot the mark. on the fifteenth. Of. and when they contrast them with those of the Han. excellent. '' " to are brought about by the Calamitous changes sometimes take place during the age of a drought or an inundation. first and only an excellent man possesses this faculty. 6 ^ Chap.

it is hard to discourse on it. but since he Hves in the central is concealed within a hundred Li. These are the reasons why the difference between the encomiums of his merits and reality are mountain high. dour not seen. When on a highway a sign-post indicating the State is put up under which the road passes. therefore their extensive virtue does not yet shed lustre its on the ages. and Confucius illustrated the three ways of amassing merit. His glorious appearance not being well known. can properly chaunt the praise of the emperor's attainments without omitting any smaller detail. Only those at the foot of the throne who walk in the steps of Pan Ku and Chia Yi. ^ oT ^^* This seems to have been an official charged with the annual revision of the archives. Wu Wang erected a tumulus for Pi Kan. but nothing has as yet been said equivalent to such a sign-post.228 Lun-Heng: is C. one learns something about his holy government. Only when imperial edicts are issued. being overshadowed. Critique. . all those looking province. are not reliable. The virtue of the Han is conspicuous. and at this post know their way exactly. The excellence of the great Han dynasty is not merely like that of Pi Kan or that acquired in the three ways. and the eulogies on his excellence lack profusion and elegance. or a chi-li^ arrives. The holy emperor sheds the hght of the sun and moon. the reports about him that transpire and are heard afar.

the more enlightened he is himself. Some when plants fruit. beautifully coloured a high officer. and his writings are brilliant. people contend that for judging the character of a scholar. in all its splendour. and therefore ranks above the snakes. his literary productions are of no account. 23. 274 Note Cf. of course. a small man's virtue Letters are unsubstantial signs. Sacred Books Vol. This incident is not only true of men.^ With but no Yiking different: — there are some that have flowers. his character perfect. A great man's virtue is vast. 21: — "iS" |fq yp*^y ^^*' ^ ^^ y^lite- Tfn ^1 ^^*' "7C* rary productions. The expression 'aT means writings as well as ornaments. where* A statement contradicted by facts. Letters and virtue is practical action. Worthies distinguish themselves by their literary ability. are compared with See p. and. a it man is is an elegant writer. ^ This reminds us of Analects IX. A illness. who was ordered Ytuin to rise and bright mat being a prerogative of laid up with a very serious and change it. 128) and p. lAki {Legge. His sayings and writings having been made public. p. {Shu-chieh). Both are like over-clothes. but have no flowers. . The greater a man's virtue. and some that bear fruit.* We learn from this that garments serve to denote the rank of worthies. one must fall back upon their writings^ (ornaments) to draw a distinction. The phoenix's plumage has five colours.^ He opens his mouth to speak and joins tablets to write. but his writings are unequal. 3 * ^ ^y ^^ '^ ^^ 2. side A celebrated virtue. is I answer that.^ The says that the feelings of a Sage appear from his utterances. the more refined is his literary work. and the fruit with the author's character. and the more illustrious his excellence.— On Literary Work. "^^^ flowers. XXVH. a great deal. may be we find remarkable. 229 CHAPTER On Literary Work XXII. donned by men. If dullards and clever men cannot be otherwise distinguished. officer writes by side with high abundance of literary compositions. Tsing Tse. his real nature shines forth and virtue are the garments of mankind. the rule obtains for all animals likewise: The dragon has ornaments on its scales.

Analects XII. and carries characters on its back.^ Those maintaining that letters do not deserve to be held in respect. ' l/l'illffl' 2 ^ * ^' '** colour is black and yellowish. in Wang Chiinys opinion. sterile land lacks the Five Grains.— 230 fore it " ^ Lun-Heng: is C. all a miracle happened. where Chi Tse CKeng ( man it only the substantial qualities ^= is introduced saying:— "In a superior character) which are ( wanted . and its skin is coloured Hke that of the mole and the bull-frog. Animals are covered with ornaments. for they had characters on their hands. ^ » loc. 95. ^ The bodies wisdom and Worthies and Sages are endowed with them. All wonderful things described on bamboo and silks do not issue from small ponds.^ of these four animals are not quite plain. Signs. is 8. The spirit of the Yellow River and the genius of the Lo deliberately emitted the Scroll. p. are on a par with Chi Tse CKeng. Chi Tse Clieng desired to stop letters. for science. which are Lettej's made use of for divination. When Chang Liang was on his a spirit in his rambles.' is The tortoise wise.^ put forth the Plan on purpose. — ? why should we seek for ornamental accomplishments 'aT = literary productions) . and in knowledge they surpass all other animals. Therefore they imitate their archetypes by a display of literature. are always combined. The tiger is fierce. and suddenly he was enfeoffed as a marquis of Liu. and men base their supremacy on letters. Barren mountains are deprived of stags. and they are not without forces amalgamating. and virtue.^ Lucky signs correspond with their lives. ^ T Again mere symbolism which the old philosophers took See Vol. way to high honour.^ and august Earth has many marks and lines. letters: When consort of T'ang Shu Yil of Chin. I. cit. the king among the birds. Critique. High Heaven has plenty of celestial The two signs. looking like Chinese characters. but was censured by Tse Kung. Ch'eng Chi Yo of Lu and the Duke Hui with the designation of Chung Tse were born. Mountains without woods are barren mountains. and men without letters are plain and simple people. and men without letters and virtue^ do not prove themselves Worthies or Sages. land without vegetation is sterile. he met with An old man presented him with a book. Vid.

obtain this much keep the beaten tracks. and when they die. and to show a fair mediocrity. Why simple. Literary scholars do single pupil or student not profit the world with their polished and exquisite style and. these remarks apply still to our own times. as any superiority calculated to oflfend the amour- propre of "ordinary scholars. no pupils. all is and equally following up divergent. and their books are seldom met but though their work cannot be taught. I all Consequently.^ those Those who themselves compose. To viz. Some say that literary scholars come short of ordinary ones. 23 scholars. and they attract students Although their body dies. their memory is not handed down. There is the empty talk of their rivals. The latter treat of the Classics of the Sages. classes doctrine survives. they hold sound views. their The but say their scope the same: their may be words may diff'er. Originality it is and genius but seldom qualify a safer to man for a professorship. to that advantage to mankind? establish what literary scholars propound is of no The work of ordinary scholars is very it and people learn in great numbers. There being nothing all a distinction between them. holding sound views is those just in vogue. scholars. details but their conceptions are very similar. their from a thousand Li's distance. scholars argue on matters concerning the Sages. which is the worthier? MS±* In many in respects. their important * writings. and explain the Vast and profound is their knowledge records of the Worthies. and we do not know yet to which the palm is to be awarded. are Hterary who discourse on the Classics. posts in the public literary scholars service are filled with them. Not a puts in an appearance. and on with." . Those most respected become professors. making the same investigations. still the other side.^ disciples crowd about them.^ These two are met with in the world.1 On Literary Work. transmitted to posterity. and they have their books are highly admired and handed down by the people. Weighing these two classes. and for that reason are always in office. they cannot compete with ordinary this is not true: answer that — Ordinary doings. ordinary scholars. are not called to office. of different meanings and principles. is The work done by unusual and not easily imitated. therefore.

Although the ordinary scholars may have been more honoured at the time. who died 121 The however.^ Shin Kung of iw. and their glory does not depend on others. This seems to be Kung-Sun Hung. In case such the affairs of every-day-life. Ou-Yang Sheng.c.^ both scholiasts of the Shuking.^ expositor of the CKien-clieng^ Is it not better to earn fame by one's need others for that purpose? a own efforts than to And does he not rank higher who records the lives of hundreds of people than he who barely wins name for himself? Some hold and that writers it that writers must be free from troublous thoughts. the world would not know them. is not their talents by which they exceed other people. born in Ch'ien-ch'eng in Shantung.* and of Ou Yang of and Kung Sun. b. their traces were soon at least. Their productions are more than mere researches. The world speaks also of the The Shiking. but couples his tliat name with of an expositor of the Shiking. and his name was handed down uninterruptedly. yet unless they were taken notice of in the books of their literary rivals. A scholar of the 2nd cent.'' but if they had not fallen under the notice of the Grand Annalist. 121. Shi-chi. They. * Chou Kung is believed to be the author of the Chou dynasty. In ancient times great and celebrated thoughts. or to Unless they enjoy quietude their ideas do not come. 8 Notices on these three scholars are given in the Shi-chi chap. His edition of the Shiking known ' as the Lu-shi. and his memory has been preserved up to the present ^ day.232 Lun-Heng: C. classical works. Lu Chia. The Duke of Chou adjusted the Rites and Music. whenever they have some leisure from their multifarious duties. the Rites of the 3*»Shen Kung lived is in the 2nd and 3rd cent. made use of their principles obliterated. they will compose. ' They are creations. Critique. Confucius wrote the Ch'un-ch'iu.c. men wrote down their and became famous in their age. have to look after all do office work in some department of the State.^ literary geniuses of the Han era.c. Chou-li. the Shiking of Lu. . b. He was a pupil of the famous ' Fu Sheng and is generally known as ^^ ^r Zfc b. Liu Tse ChSng^ and Yang Tse Yiln are all but marvellous. Sse-Ma Ch'ien. does not mention him as a commentator of the Shuking.

IV. nor are there any days when they have no leisure. 10 (Legge. . Part n. to the Shuking. Vol. p. 33. Had Confucius obtained imperial dignity.W^C' a poem so fascinated the emperor Han Wu Ti. and therefore could write his poem Tse-hsil-fu. {Chavannes. grasped his hair thrice. and his thoughts would have been unoccupied. they would not have worked at the poem or the T' ai-hsilan-ching. 469). 9r. They are affected by what is wrong. they are also able to indite eighty and more chapters. bathing his hair once. Sse-Ma Hsiang Ju^ was free from the duties of a statesman. "j See Vol. 5. 233 common people be given plenty of time to concentrate their leisure to take his meals either durinfi^ the thoughts. Cf. '^^'^ I. I beg leave to reply that Win Wang's want of time to eat during the day or in the evening. 1753). that he summoned Sse-Ma Hsiang Ju 6 to Coxirt {Giles. Hist. and vapours rise up.* and Yang Tse Yiln lived in the palace as chung-lang^^ and thus had occasion to complete the T' ai-hsiian-ching and to take up the Fa-yen. officials Did. the Ch'un-cKiu would not have been published. will emit them from their bosoms they do not write because they have nothing else to do. and start from what is wicked. it was because he changed and fixed the institutions of the Chou dynasty. « . p. No. If the principles of the Chou had not been corrupt. had What time had they to walk about for C/iun-ch^iu. Bihl. bathing once. Mem. The Shi-chi chap. pp ^K. Part V. 3 While washing Chou Kung usually waa disturbed by Note visitors Great poet. and he could not abide by them. 123. Ill. Those who by Heaven and Earth are endowed with letters. 26. p. p. Clamcs Vol. his head. Kuan Chung as prime minister of Duke Huan brought about a confederacy of all the States. title of certain of the imperial household.^ and Chou Kxmg. Wen Wang had no day or in the evening. and if Chou Kung. * Allusion p.^ it to grasp three times. or to cover tablets with the elegant compositions of their and found no employment in Chou. "^ Huai Nan ^'^'^ Tse XIII. three times. pleasure. * . 93) refers them to Chou Kung. implies that he elucidated the Yiking and increased the number of diagrams. Confucius would not have written his work. substituting jjc t)S *"*^ adding that during one meal he had to rise ten times. But the laws of the Choti were loose and degenerate. he would have enjoyed repose.^ and Shang Yang laid the pen? Confucius wrote the . and had Sse-Ma Hsiang Ju and Yang Tse Yiln been chief ministers.On If Literary Work. Book XV. 3v. as a spring sends forth its waters. uses these words with regard to the emperor Yii.

and were called the harder his official rest. and cannot write. which The cause are the hundreds of chapters See Vol. their minds had nothing else to think about. and be perfectly free from care. 5. but it is not true that they have no time. Sse-Ma Hsiang and Yang were their Both being affected by external influences. duties are. is thoughts come. Note 5. Persons with exceptional thing. to support the vacillating. p. I. foundation of the imperial power of of Cfiin. 2 Note ' Pl^ W ^ ^ 5§* rffj. Cf. little abilities may be anxious to write some- but find nothing to start from. and their knowledge reaches In former times is many writers were in office.^ Yet both wrote books containing dozens Ju of chapters. p.^ equals. are of opinion that writing requires the utmost concentration of the mental faculties. whereas others with but knowledge are able to record what they have learned by inquiry from others. those without abilities cannot think. yet they are incapable of writing a single Those well gifted possess abilities. the dryer is his knowledge. but in that their talents are its limit. and their talents being equal. peace to those in danger. word. Simpletons and for meditation. Some people hold some thoughts office. and to bring letters. the greater becomes his experience. but it does not happen that somebody has knowledge. but to adjust what scattered. 92.^ but it does not happen that they have no leisure for literary compositions. consequently all his energy is used up all the pursuit of these thoughts. and that those authors are not apt to discharge their duties. but not because similar also. and to join what is dispersed. and their difficulties. certain in who A man's mental take a direction. The more one hears. the pencil not quick at may have a quiet home just fit and unless the work. 4G3. their talents forth. Critique. when he was Tse Yiln minister Duke Hsiao. Remarkable talents sometimes have no subject to write about. their work was They were students and writers. they may have nothing to look to.234 Lun-Heng: C. Unless one has dullards the thoughts do not come. ^^® '^'^^ character RJ^ is evidently wrong and should be replaced by . exhausted. Writers are admirable in they write or say. exceeds the power of men of They themselves have must have some 1 their troubles cause. but they are never unqualified to speak.

p. and misfortune overtook him. Note 1. one cannot complete them at the same time. This no inferiority. and destroyed his entire clan. which is usually expressed by Unless be a misprint. and praised it his thoughts reach to a certain point. and if one gives up the magpies and one misses the wild goose. Note "ffj/ . it and being '^ fit to cannot be used for stabbing. Men may be able to do two things. A in great plus of mental another. nor any awkwardness. is and awkward is in another. Pu Wei was banished to Ssechuan for his Cf. I. and like- wise must have their weak ones. does if not even perceive the T'ai-shan. he has not the time to follow with his body. which the dictionaries only insect. 1 ^ Lii intrigues with the queen- dowager and on suspicion of high-treason. one does not see both sides simultaneously. The Lu-shih-cKun-chHu. Here it seems to mean the bow-string whir i. power in one direction is usually counter- balanced by a minus 6 ^ Vol. I. they are skilful in one thing. ^^ here must be a synonym of h4f. it Not that the blade is not sharp. 170. sharpness of the Kan-chiang does not strike.^ He whose desire centres in one thing.^ the Prince of Huai-nan wrote a book on Taoism. e. Zl- ™ust be corrected into. — to • ^ make it ". It is Note 4. 235 and paragraphs which they have written. Vol. square and round figures.. 8 ^:Ji. 1. why should they not be superficial in the administration? My answer is that people have their strong points. 3 * ' p. p. 338. 504. but cannot perform one and another thing. one misses the wild swan. Drawing and shooting at magpies. a useless attempt to deny this inferiority or awkwardness of men of genius in business. — I. as denoting the whirring of insects or the to pull name of an it. As regards the much sword. but the thing does not appeal to their imagination. See Vol. and looking right and left. 463.* helped his State? Some people be deficient in but excel in one thing. only their interest not roused.® when it is pointed strike. Pulling the bow^ for sparrows. Provided that the Kan-chiang sword be less pointed. and he himself was thrown into prison in Unable to preserve his own person.On Literary Work.^ Han Fei Tse published a method of government.^ and his whole family had to emigrate to Slm. know ^i^. p. but they cannot make them into one. but why should they not another? Some are deeply versed in composition. I. Lii Pu Wei composed a Ch'un-ch'iu. . -m. then it strikes better. Vol. how could he have Ch'in.

no other in literature as in the administration. 265-245 B. Yii Ch'ing.C. shooting the mark. Kuan Chung and Yen Ying were as great statesmen as writers. We have a work.]^^^%/C' The family of the empress Lil Hou. Critique. insurrection. who wrote a work * Yii-shih ch'un-ch'iu j^." See p. he does not miss and exclusively men have left traces of greater fame behind them than Tse CK an and Tse Chi^n} The majority of ancient authors did excellent practical work.^ they did not write them themselves. and by joining together written sentences. Lu Chia wrote the had won the empire military plans were still "New Words. and yet. 24 chapters. In days of yore many persons have achieved merit by their words. If it had not been for the devices of Lu Chia. Words are pronounced by opening the mouth. Lu Pu ^ A disciple of Confucius. as "jurists. name." yet the emperor The Lil clan caused an and the Liu family^ was on the point of revolting. ^^ @^ ) who was governor of Shan-fu 2 Shantung and has become celebrated for his administration. When Kao in Tsu vogue. but their use In revolutionary times. but did not succeed. 62. merely aimes at wild geese. the imperial house would not have been safe. and those who have ruined themselves by their made but a moderate use of the work. going by in Kuan Tse^s . they were visited with those conspicuous calamities. .'' Talents and experience may both be used. but merely lent their names.'' writings are few. talents may be used to write books. aloft. * has been maintained that they did not write those books ascribed to them. procures merit. family of * ^ The Han Kao Tsu. although they did not write them. then. to supersede the The empress Lu Hou attempted It house of Liu by her own family. and a Yen Tse cKun-cKiu 3 ^* -J-* ^p %y^ Shang Yang as well as the two afore-mentioned persons rank 8 chapters. chapters are formed.23G Lun-Heng: C. in Fu Pu Ch'i yjj^ X\ 70^ in (T. fault. experience depends on circumstances. politician at the court of entitled King Hsiao CNeng of Chao. when there is prosperity and progress. but they were not employed. In the case that their works were composed by their companions.^ Shang Yang^ and Yix CKing'^ were as active rejected literary productions Of those who devoted themselves to the administration. * Note 3. Wei and the Prince of Huai-nan committed some other and did not become guilty through their books.

Note 1. when injured. actions of a genius to be revered. writers who in set about boring holes finngs.On Literary Work. ^ Formerly. p. son as it to Han Tsao Hsin. whereas deformed plants which suffered no damage may grow until autumn.^ was thereby saved a memorial. and yet they were filings. distinction won among men. Vol. Thus — ' Cf. The State of Han bb might have won the supremacy instead of CKin.'^ was a great admirer writings and his extra- One may cause the words as a standard. and their words. and setting forth the views of the Sages. Provided that Han Fei Tse had not perished. there are many Sages. adopt them. I. I. these men were in contiguity with the Sages. but one cannot induce people to imitate him. 147. in former times and at present. The beautiful plants of spring. we do not know what would have become of Ch'in. People the utmost. explaining the ideas of the classical authors.'s. how then they be reproached with persons? not being able to protect their own The of Ha}i Fei ordinary State of Han Fei Tse.Mmm. and their records vitiating the true wherefore they are called They the splinters of jewels. 67. Tse. and one but one cannot prevail may set up upon people his to Some say that. ivi^^^st^ii. and Hsil Yileh sent in from punishment in Liang. were. and Worthies produce the commentaries. 237 trespassed. but dull. and was made a that by could secretary of a board. more must how could they be used and put into practice? I would reply as follows: Sages write the classics. p. ^ their writings they Their accomplishments were such. as a boxful of splinters does not make this a precious stone. 2 ' Vol."* is into the core of the doctrine of the are likened unto effect that Classics. often die away.'x^j^n . Li Sse. who in ancient and modern times were not always authors straining their brains and their knowledge to Tsou Yang presented a report. how much be true of those distant in time and of later ages? Their writings cannot but be worthless. and there cart-load of filings does not a saying to the a make a road. and of opinion that his talents could never again be equalled. did not collapse before his death.

this why then pretend that sort of writings misses the truth Classics inherent in the Classics? Ergo the are defective and incomplete. the sole truth would be found in the Five Classics. but how far its tenor was correct. Contrasting these two kinds of writings. all made by Worthies. Thus the text was handed down from teacher to pupil. p. Provided that the Five Classics. or treat of new and other topics. Vol. The thoughts. after having left the school that they might be said to be of a piece. except it be in the Five Classics. 447. needed for the classics. the commentaries. in spite of this perversity.^ After the rise of the Han dynasty. I. C/iao Tso^ and others separated the single words according to their own ideas. thus expressed. therefore they regard them as wrong. Critique. the Five Classics were recovered. but many books had been lost or were destroyed. and may commit knowledge to writing. their fathers have done.238 Lun-Heng: C. nobody knew. they had not been damaged. and their commentaries alone held to be other books and records to be wrong? Considering is that the text of the commentaries to the classics their explication. and were burned and proscribed. p. and select passages for the instruction of the descendants of Confucius^ to down the present day. may be as far reaching as those of the Classics. The chapters and paragraphs had been thrown into confusion and mixed up. would be trustworthy.^ and their lucubrations are all in existence. they will not listen to it. It is due to the goodness of Fu ShSng that the Classics were taken and concealed in some secret place. but. it did not burn the works of the various schools of thought. are But why and are the classics all right. whereas in the Classics many chapters are wanting. and brought confusion into the Classics. of those writers. . I. a See Vol. 448. which have filings? more the character of 1 Cf. By studying them. Doomed CKin was perverse. and the rest was not intelligible. and were not complete. Accordingly. The books of the various philosophers. we may correct the statements made by others. and even though an assertion be true. they think necessary for them right. Other books may dissent from the classics. But they have passed through the extravagant and depraved times of doomed CKin^ had to bear the consequences of Lit Sses iniquitous advice. These writings are not short of one book. one foot in length. The descendants will write again as their foreThey are equally learned.

The text of the works of the philosophers is clear and to the point. . the Music re- quires melancholy feelings. Consequently. These annals being extant. ^ Those discoursing on the paragraphs and clauses of the Classics. the Odes are collected into chapters. These are the sources necessary for writing the Six Classics. If we compare these two kinds of writings. which are the splinters of jewels? Standing under the eaves. 257. and from the works of the various philosophers one learns that the Classics are full of mistakes. ordinary books may also be the beginning. no extraordinary writings are required.^ and the Classics the end. rule. and then divided things.^ and the Riles suppose a people living This subject matter must be there. whereas at the beginning the genuine principles are still preserved. and the end may have lost the truth. for they embody the affairs of the people. p. one knows that a house in is leaking. 2 ' From which the Classics are compiled.On Literary Work. do not attempt to explain and carefully to investigate them. the wilderness one knows that the administration is deiicient. The Shaking and the "^ Spring and Autumn'' are culled from the State annals. and sections of the Four Classics can be formed. as a be said of the Classics which without commentaries are hardly intelligible. 1 Cf. One teacher hands them down to another. This cannot. Note 3. Those who first fixed the paragraphs and clauses cannot have had a very extensive sphere of ideas. 239 The Changes take up the signs of among the people. before the chapters at peace.

When recorded indiscriminately. When they see that really true records disagree with these fallacious books.^^^^ N°*® 2. * Note 2. taking everything indited on bamboo and silk for the records of wise and sage men and for absolutely true. stared at him. and compose a work unheard clever writer. right and all is By the explaining the words and wrong are easily discovered. Critique. they are not critical enough. Note 1. they regard those records as light literature ^ unworthy of faith. be determined. Those who transmit the sayings of produce something wonderful and unprecedented. will write a book which causes ordinary readers to stand aghast and stare blank amazement.* Chi Tse shouted for the fuel-gatherer to fetch him the gold on the ground. I. CHAPTER Falsehoods in XXIII. This coat was probably the only garment which the man possessed. and how you look down upon others! Your outward appearance is that of a gentle Chi Tse^ of Yen-ling^ piece of gold left on When the roadside. in They of. hum. {Shu-hsii}. and read them. In this belief they uphold. Vol. 523. authors do not investigate things. elucidating the text. and clapping his hands exclaimed.P. Wm. Books The world trusts in delusive books. mostly wish to they say. p. seems worldly to * Notice the modern construction ^^i-tll^^- ^^. "How haughty you are. and there was a man who had put on a fur-coat and was gathering fuel.. to win the name of an uncommonly There is the following narrative: was once travelling. Recondite truth can still be found out. he saw a It was the fifth month of summer. . who See have been a sort of a hermit not caring for changes of temperature or affairs. and profound or abstruse meanings. and do not think of what scholars.- 240 Lun-Heng: C. 2 3 A prince of eod.^ The gatherer dropped his sickle.

but talk. ' Hiuii Nan Tse XTTT. The world believes in the truth of this story. How could I tell you my name Chi Tse apologised and inquired after his and surname?". He would not consent. He did not covet a crooked blade. he has his retinue in front and in the rear. great ones surmise not small ones.Falsehoods in Books. return. and he took no further notice of him. "You are a student who of human features knows nothing more than the skin. suspended it on a tree over In his unselfishness he would not bethe grave. on his way he passed through Hsil. Why should I take up gold?"^ name and style.* How then should Chi Tse. Now. never to His unselfishness remained the same from first to last. but you talk like a ruffian. I it is idle dare say. but the fuel-gatherer replied. the prince of Hsii was no more. Then he unbuckled his sword. out of greed call out to a living man to fetch the gold on the ground? Before Chi Tse had left it. former to his unfaithful come who remained faithful to . and of Yen-ling. and carriages are following. and proceeded to Yen-ling. in the fifth month of summer I have donned my fur to gather fuel. The prince of Hsil was fond of his sword. hunger. but at that time he did not yet give it him. * See Vol. So under ^ far the Pei-wen-yun-fu ^S quotes this story from the Kao-shih- chuan of Huanff-Fu Mi. a. 523. on any account. 19r. See p. and he did not long for a marPo Yi turned his back upon his country. its Chi Tse was apprehensive of a revolution in Wu. after he had he was the sovereign When a prince or a sovereign goes out. says the same of Confucius: — ^L ~J* ©1^ IS ^U is ^^ ^^ *^T* y]^^ offered " C'o??/«««^ refused Lin-cKiu (a town which the duke of CKi had him as fief) and did not steal a crooked blade. I. inference we may draw an — he be covetous of gold lying on the ground? When Chi Tse went on a mission to a powerful State. and died of quisate. Note 1. . Hsu Yu^ yielded the empire. 32.d. ^ In the matter of disinterestedness from great acts upon from small ones. and went away. 3rd cent. because people would have him become their lord. It is plain that he cannot walk quite alone on the highway." The crooked sword perhaps used here as an emblem for a feudal lord.a deceased person and parted with his sword. left Wu. On his return. 2 A hermit. he was a prince. 241 man. intention. p. but should how should Chi Tse was able to resign the throne of Wu. If he was not ashamed of taking the gold.

he would still continue his purification. Chi Tse would how much less would he appropriate still refrain from taking gold it on the road in bright daylight. desired to help him with or at the time when he bade him it take up the gold on the it ground. Tse. and for a thousand years The maintain the same ideals. he died of sickness. In the text of the Analects there is no mention of this. neither If Yen Yuan was able to see have the Six Classics recorded it. seeing the gold lying about. . of 29. saw that outside the palace gate of it Wu a white horse was attached. subsequently. Sage silent — ' wherefore then were Confucius and this? all the other scholars upon In Suchou of the province of Kiangsu •vhere the capital of the ancient kingdom of 2 Wu was. " Something looking like suspended silk". if. his teeth feU out. therefore he died early. believe it. and. the hair of Yen At the age Yuan had tui-ned white. why did he not order his attendants to fetch in the furcoat? it rather than to call upon the man left in In regard to Liu Hsia Hui's behaviour. however.^ His spirit was not on a par with that of Confucius. asking him whether he perceived the palace-gate of Wu. all the common traditions stated that Chi Tse wanted The books Confucius both contain another report namely that Yen Yuan and Confucius. p. we go into the matter. Cf. Having overstrained his Confucius descended together. That would not be like Chi Perhaps it was thus that Chi it. 89. he wished to give him. rubbed his eyes and corrected his error. Confined to a dark place. Tse. we discover its futility. and then the gold. and at 32 he died. — men. Confucius said. and in the presence of all his virtuous have the same conduct. All common people who have heard of this. looking out ascended Mount T^ai in Lu.^ afFermative. to the south-east. Then both Afterwards the hair of Yen Yuan turned white. Yen Yuan having is "And what outside the gate?" The other rejoined. out of pity for the fuel-gatherer in the fur. farther than one thousand Li. he would have been equal to the strength. and did not want for himself.242 Lun-Heng: C Critique. replied in the He pointed out to Yen Yuan. people say that even the dark and unseen. all his brightness and vitality was consumed.

sight of the human eye is such.Falsehoods in Books. The space between the palace-gate and Mount T'ai is more difficult to overlook than what lies behind a screen. impossible for him to descry it. * 3 Another name for the afore-mentioned Li Chu. and death ensues. him second sage. p. notwithstanding his keen curtain. on record that Mount T'ai it of imposing height. . which issues from muscles died. and it is still Wu and would be quite much more evident that of the white horse see viewed from the top of the T'ai-shan. Note 3. and the loss of his teeth could not have been the consequence. Now Yen Yuan used his could eyes to look to a great distance. 1116. whose eyes were so Giles. in spite of his keenness of hearing. Between Lu and Li C/iu^ Wu able the distance is over a thousand Li. are The easily culty. invisible to him. beyond this does not perceive anything. they break. sight.^ and arteries. Bibl. looked out for Wu. he would not perceive anything. so the ear cannot hear so far either. that big things distinguished. and Yen YiMn talents should be to distinguish it? Provided as a that his were nearly perfect. Lu Chia says that. then he should have become blind. That is the natural course. Not only could Yen Yuan not it. but the discolouring of his hair. but that at a distance of a hundred Li does If not appear as big as a snail. that he could see the of a spikelet at a hundred paces distance. It is The cause of this inability is to distinguish is the distance. King Wu of CHin conjointly with Meng Yiieh lifted a tripod. which proved too heavy for him. 89. Li Lou^ could not discern what was behind a not hear beyond a and that the music-master K'uang. hundred Li. it is possible to command a view of a hundred Li. 243 The human eye can only limit it see as far as ten Li. good. the colour would remain it. If these cannot stand the efibrt. Cf. ^ A man of very keen sight of the time of tip Huang Ti. then the w^orld ought to praise instead of speaking of Li Chu. w'hereas small ones are perceived with diffi- Were Yen Ytian placed outside the palace-gate of it turning his looks upon the shape of the T'ai-shan. or beyond a hundred Li. Provided that the pupils of his eyes were unable to bear the strain. even Confucius w^ould be incapable of seeing How As can we not establish this proposition? The faculties of the ear and the eye are similar. and his sight different from that of other people.Dict. for he burst a blood-vessel and Lifting a tripod requires force. No. owing to the distance.

tlie Mem. Book V. Note 8. Critique. The hair may turn white. is not related in the I. 337). Shuking.^ Shun. but Yen Yuan used his eyes and suddenly cast a glance at something for a moment. and this may lead to death. Po Chi was deported. p. The mode of government of the two emperors was continued uninterruptedly. Part p. As sages they regarded the whole world as their home. * ' Another name for the T'ai-shan The mountains are not named in in in Shantung. but what they say about and Yao were both emperors reigning over a territory of 5000 Li. westward to the T^ai-hua. How could this have such a result? The books of the Literati state that ^hun was buried in Ti ang-wu^ and YiX in Kwei-chi. first. chapter. Hist. Classics Vol. 2 province. and the teeth fall out in consequence of excessive study. he sought their welfare. From far and near. Accordingly they where interred at the place where they just halted. Note Ktrei-chi in the province of Chekiang. the so-called Hunan. 35). is and the Heng-shan Four Sacred Mountains. 4.^ Po Chi thus tortured his mind. or make a difference between inside and outside. their progress. In the sphere within these four frontiers the feudal lords came and assembled at the foot of the sacred mountains. * A place in died. Part U. and northward to the Heng-shan.^ These were considered to be the Four Sacred Mountains. on his progress. p. the Shuking. and no change took place. 91. except the in and generally in explained as the Heng-shan Shansi. 162. To speak of Shun and Yil is right. which was situated between the Four Seas. {Legge. but in the Shun-tien {Legge. We read in the Sinking that [by constant grief one becomes old]. however. five years. Vol. and from the remotest out-of-theway places they made their appearance. IV. These tours of the emperor took place every . the Hua-shan Shensi. the next Shun's tour of inspection. According to the "Yao-tien.— 244 Lun-Heng: C.^ southward to Mount Ho. Loc. Ho-shan but another name for the Heng-shan ' in Hunan. Ode HI. Hunan The it as the place where Shun 8 * Chavannes. Part U. the vital energy If all the forces are strained without ceasing. and died. Shi-chi likewise mentions I. went eastward as far as the T^ai-tsiing. Classics Vol.^ On their tours of inspection they had become old. on their journey. in the border land. Chapter of Yao-tien. cit. and his hair soon became white.' Whatever the Sage undertook. and did not draw a distinction between far and near. imaginary: Shun 1 Shiking. is exhausted. HI. p.

bow about his review there? To say that a circuit received assertion that Yii. Yii worked in the east. I. and they Ts'ang-wu. possible. when he arrived in the south? In case Yii died already on his first progress to the east in Kuei-chi. He entrusted part of work to Yii. Yii is originally the name of a mountain. 245 was a ruler like Shun. and died empire to in and expired in Kuei-chi. the regulation of the waters. then such reviews in must have taken place on aU the mountains In times of universal peace these rulers sacrifice there. arrived in Ts ang-um-.Falsehoods Yii in Books. at once had a review. its name from a mountain is on a tour of inspection.^ It is a fact that at the time of Shun and Yii. after having established their government. and things did not change. and then. When. the Great Flood had not yet been regulated. ^ In Wang CKung's opinion these places were too distant from the capital and not reached by the emperors. Shun also. were those where Shun had been. 469. a See Vol. the four directions. made a tour of inspection. p. That Shun went to Tsang-wu. Worthies and sages regard the world as their home. That would be the origin of Kuei-chi. on their progress. The which he visited. how could he hold a review on this mountain then? If the view of Wu Chiin Kao were to be accepted. viz. and Yii arrived at Kueiplaces chi. are innumerable. on his progress. . After the decease of Yao. held a review on this mountain. but the Provided that the many rulers. and those monuments which are obHterated and washed away. and the meaning of Kuei-chi were really a review. circuit a review was held on this mountain. at once. Yao transmitted his power to Shun. On his tour he did not come as far as Kuei-chi. cannot be true. on his inspections. is a fiction. used to ascend Mount Tai and Of such sacrifices on Mount T^ai there are records of seventy-two. set out on a tour of inspection. held a review. are buried accordingly. Yii. If really the emperors. the places of such meetings round about must have been much more numerous than the sacrifices on Mount T'ai. Shun was already old.^ how did Yii hold his review. and thus become emperor. and he handed over the Shun regulated the waters in the south. Wu Chiin Kao^ asserts that Kuei-chi in the i/^ia period. who his received it. Hence a was named.

There is nobody on earth who does not share this view.^ the district villages. Shansi. where did they come from? When names were given during the time of the Six States. but a critical test will show the futility of the statement. resting-place. These are the names of the ancient kingdoms to which Kuei-chi may have belonged.* This is believed to have been the upshot of the virtues of the sages. its If they solely worked for Shun and why did Heaven grant favours with such partiality? Some hold had no and Yii * that Shjm and Yii. as some say. of Shun and Yii did not surpass that of Yao. buried in Chi-chou. when Shun was interred at Ts'ang-vm. Wu was a country inhabited by naked savages. when Yil was buried at Kuei-chi. and parts of Honan and Manchuria. but not names of a city.^ birds and At animals did not Yii. This statement and that. Critique. The object of those inspections was to examine and correct methods of government. till for him. Shun died in Ts^ang-unt. At Yil's time. Hunan. The circuit cities have their names as things have theirs. therefore is too sweeping. cities all exceed ten thousand. 534 seq. how had they to be formed? The cities of the circuits of China are over a hundred. ^ Chavannes in his list of the circuits of the Han dynasty [Mem. Wu Chun Kao boroughs. in Chung-shan. By their toils they displayed merit. and how could a review have taken place? the It is on record that. Even sages would not be able to explain their meanings. . in Kuei-chi. comj)rising Chili. who cut their hair and tattooed their bodies. Vol. There was no need for examining. 5.246 Lun-Heng: C. virtues The who was Chi-chou. ' In Yung-ting hsien. Heaven causing birds and animals to reward them by such blessings. therefore. crows laboured in his field. besides have their proper names. and that. ^ p.) * ^ enumerates 108. while controlling the floods.^ When these names originated. which do not admit of explanation. but would be unable to interpret all the other geographical names. Hist. p. Many local names can be explained. elephants tilled the ground for him.^ or. U. See One of the Nine Provinces of I'm. could account for Kuei-chi. and hamlets.' Should Kuei-chi alone make an exception? In the Chou epoch its ancient name was Wu and Yueh. therefore his definition of Kuei-chi cannot be accepted either.

that it did not do them any good? These reasons must convince us that it is not correct to regard the labouring of the crows and the tilling of the elephants as special blessings conferred upon Shun and Yu.il and Shuking Part B:— ^. pitied them. in Classics Vol. and so do birds pick out plants. what profit did Shun and Yil derive from it? In order to requite Shun and Yw. making the crows till. Oblations would have been made on the tombs of Shun and Yil. m. when the soil has been loosened and the clods have been turned. p. Part I. 38-39 {Legge. and did not cause the people to sacrifice. but now-a-days there are no more elephants ' 8 Hunan. but how could the emperors have been buried in Hal-ling? It has been recorded that the king of Wu. Kuei-chi hosts of birds used to alight. Our author seems Poyang Lake. C:— )^. The Shuking writes:—^. Elephants stamp the ground of their own accord. m. 2022.^ and that labour and the elephants in Now. How could Heaven. Ed. a deer seems to have tilled the graves of the to this story. two emperors. The Poyang Lake in Kiangsi. There is common saying that for Shun and Yu a grave is was tilled cultivated at Hai-ling. if Heaven rewarded Shun and Yu. be so inconsistent.]* The nature of Heaven and Earth finds expression in the doings of birds and beasts. see Playfair No. sewed into may have been in the case in prehistoric times. We its learn from the the Yu-kung that [the P'eng-W^ being confined to proper limits. Fu to death. 108).Falsehoods in Books. put Wu a Tse Hsu ^ had him cooked in a cauldron. and they were therefore it away from China. man can fortha with proceed to plant. ' According to the popular tradition adduced by our author. Ed. 247 far Heaven recompensed them. shedding its blessings on the Sages.^ A field tilled by a deer^ like one by elephants. I could not find any other reference . it looks like a tilled field. however it made birds and beasts work. The facts are that Tsang-wu was a country where elephants abound.^ wild geese had places to settle on. ^ to imply that Kuei-chi there were as many birds as on the Probably a place in Kiangsu. and the weeds are destroyed. and. This Ch'ai. whereas the cultivation of fields benefitted other people only. Book I. Heaven should have caused Tsang-wu and Kuei-chi to ofi'er sacrifices to them in perpetuity. When the earth has thus been pounded.

and subsequently thrown into the river. Wu Tse Hsu first was put into the cauldron. Note 5. Note 2. and P^ eng Yileh was cooked in HanJ" their anger. 218. is reliable. p. 11 v. . Vol. The valour of Wu Tse Hsii did not exceed that of Tse Yet these two men could not vent in the tripod Lu and P^eng Yileh. in the Mi-lo river is Vp ^ffi p. where the commentator says that SAen T'u Ti Chuang Tse (Giles p. At present. 140. 83.). CKu Yuan. ^ Biography of cf. See Vol. and the Ling river of Wu-t'^ung. when he was thrown was it? 1 Cf. out of spite. Moreover. the Yellow Biver and died. See Shi-chi chap. or with sauce from the broth with standers minced meat. to his counsels. Now. in Wei. Some maintain that he was thrown into the river near Tan-t'u. 64. Wu Tse Hsil lashed the waters. he p. Note 5. lived at the end of the Yin dynasty. Vol. but it absurd to say that. but the Yangtse has no Should any one say that he was thrown into the great waves. Where was his spirit. lashed up the waters. =^ ^ ">^^-^E-^ jumped Tu-shih fang-yii chi-yao chap. 394) relates of him that. that they rose in great waves. but the billows of the river did not People will certainly object that as to violence and wrath Ch^ii Yuan and Shen T'u Tse Ti did not equal Wu Tse Hsii. Furthermore.* but the waves of the Hsiang did not swell. temples for him have been erected on the on the Chekiang river of CKien-fang. when he was in the cauldron? Wherefore was it so timourous in the broth of the cauldron. p. Ch'u Yuan full of disgust threw himself into the Hsiang. 80. that they rose in waves. which There is the Yangtse of 2an-t'u. leathern pouch. * The common (^^® tradition is that CKii Yuan drowned himself p. 7r. Lu was pickled. Shi-chi chap. I. and drowned people. the Chekiang river of CKien-£ang. they did not bespatter the byfrom the cooked flesh. Critique. when they were and the cauldron. ^ Wu Tse Hsii incensed. The allegation that the king of Wu put Wu Tse is HsU to death and threw him into the River. no heed being paid « Cf. I.^ for the purpose of appeasing his anger and stopping Yangtse of Tan-{u^ in Kuei-chi as well as the wild waves. p. and thrown into the River. and so bold in the water of the river? Why was river his indignation not the same at these diflferent times? into the river. 16v.248 Lun-Heng: C. The Mi-lo an affluent of the Hsiang. into the river with a stone on his back. ShSn T'^u Ti^ jumped into rise. 1. 2 18 Li south-east of the district of the same name forming the prefectural city of (Jhinkiang in 3 Kiangsu. 84.

which has been transformed scions. and never does he demand ? At the time of and Yiieh. the Both Shan-yin and Shang-yii are S?iao-hsmg-fu (Chekiang). in * ^ * ^ Part of the present prefecture of Shao-hsing Chekiang. any harm? King Hsilan of Chou Viscount Chien of Chao.^ all the land belonged to Yileh. 4 has the bad reading ^Z^. north of Ch'ien-t'ang. his ' killed his minister. The modern Hsiao-shan-hsien in Hang-chou-fu. who. how could he still make waves? There are hundreds and thousands in the predicament of Wu Tse Hsil. Since all the three rivers have huge w^aves. officer the Earl of Tu. move living. wreaked his malice on the Yileh river. contrary to reason. why did they enter the land of Yileh? That Wu Tse Hsil. so that Yileh was governing Wu. Why Wu does the spirit of Wu Tse Hsil still resent the What wrong once done him. and Chuang Tse cities in Yi. Now the Wu State is destroyed since long. Alive. but easy to their nerves. The river of CKienShan-yin t'ang formed the frontier between the two kingdoms. When his bones and his flesh had been cooked soft and become a stew with broth. built its capital in the present to have come into the Wu territory. and Fu Ch'ai has no Wu is the present Kitei-chi. as long as the deadly enemy is alive. that not Shang-yu * only the Chekiang river. and not the act of a Besides. . it must be borne mind. The living rely on the strength of the dead must use their soul.^ whereas Wu had South of Yii-chi. harbouring a grudge against the king is of Wu. But the body of Wu Tse Hsil alone was boiled in hot water in a cauldron. y^^- Ed. Subsequently.Falsehoods in Books. is difficult to excite the waves. men. cease to excite the waves? they had divided the Kuei-chi Shan-yin. was perhaps the pouch divided. and Shang-yii^ were both situated in the territory of Yileh. District in Shao-hsing-fu. Wu Tse Hsil could not move the and himself caused its death. When Wu Tse HsiX in the river of Wu caused the waves. Chekiang. or some of his descendants are still left. and its parts cast into the three rivers? For human hatred there is still some justification. to Wu. they ought circuit. When the strength of his nerves was lost and his souP evaporated and dispersed. body in the into a prefecture. 249 in Chekiang river of CVien-t'ang. crossing a river in a boat. but also the Shan-gin and the rivers have waves. it spirit. did not reach the other shore. could he still do or take care of his body.

Ill. Critique. So in e. by these pictures. Book I. Parti. 202. then those it of the CKii near Kuang-ling might likewise be caused by to cause floods in a place Wu Tse Hsu. p. How can the rolling to and fro of the waves be Chien.^ halation and exhalation of human respiration i. where the influence of the tide makes itself felt. and Shun already. Now not having his body intact. which usually shallow and narrow. 22b under y^^ y3E If the 8 high waves of a river must be the work of an angry spirit. 47 {Legge. p. ^ The above named three rivers of CKien-taTig. it is the rivers. The CKu wrote the Yangtse. and Chuang Tse Yi smote Viscount These events seem to be true. 2 Wanff Ch'ung seems in the to intimate that there were such pictures representing Wu Tse Hsu's wrath 3 waves. and yet they are fictitious. " '' A place in Kiangsu."]* So it was previous to Yao the oldest time. accelerate When the waters fall into the ocean. This is only true of rivers near the sea. The nature of heaven and earth has remained the same from The Classic says. form the subjects of paintings. I.^ The arteries. Shan-yin.. taking his revenge upon the king of Wu. . earth has numerous rivers just as man. 113). the in- air. and thus rise as great waves. Their flowing forwards and backwards is the morning and the evening. and. majestic rolls the are caused A poet billows of the CKiil'"'^ They be a sign of its intelligence. Wu Tse Hsil could not have acted like the Earl of Tu or Chuang Tse Yi.^ Earl of Tu shot King Hsilan. Classics Vol. this would certainly not verse: — "How river of Kuang-Ung^ has such great waves. * Quoted from the Shuking Part III. but would be senseless where he did not suflfer any wrong. but. they merely rivers. his veins and The blood flowing through them. Vol. and have own like times and measures. and Shan^-yu which have big waves. Quoted by the Pei-wen-yun-fu chap.^ » Cf. Wu Tse Hsiis spirit was If.. Wu. and lo! the by the narrow passage. 250 Lun-Heng: C. these arteries throb their and with pulsate. ["The Yangtse and the Han pursued their common course to the sea. even wise and intelligent men allow themselves to be mystified. considered a revenge or a proof of Wu Tse Hsiis consciousness? Popular legends though not true. upon entering the three is they begin to roar and foam in their channel.^ their course. after having been murdered in producing the great waves at Kuang-iing.

they boil and wallop ^ against the banks. that it made that. therefore the said spring-tide and the usual tides as well are caused by the * * moon and not by Ed. in Hist. Romans already had a vague idea of the cause of the tides." Wang CKung 6 writes I. told the Shi-chi chap. Ccesar observed that at full moon the tide used to be higher than usual. drown people. p. and forms If. 223. 154 seq. CKin Shih Huang Ti. When Ch'in ShiJi Huang Ti was about to cross the Hsinng river." p. that they was buried on the shore of the river Sse. ?rra[ Mem. ordered three thousand criminals to cut down the trees on Mount Hsiang and trample upon it. Wu Tse Hsil is responsible who lives in the torrents to cause their rapids? When Wu Tse Hsil the billows enter the three rivers. j^^. Instead of which Chavannes renders by "painting red. ancient ' The An absurdity. its waters flowed backwards. 251 In are shallows. deep channels the water flows quietly. he was overtaken by a storm. is Wu Tse Hsii. Kepler was the first who based it on attraction. n. the fulness and extinction of the moon. in a fit of rage. is on a level with this statement that the ghosts of the two women produced the wind. 6. the daughter of Yao and the wife of Shun. rapids. for the great waves. p.Falsehoods in Books.^ is Wu Tse Hsil who anger must be regulated upon the phases of the moon. then his body must lie extended in the deep water of the banks. ^g" "to trample upon. .). Vol. but where there it rushes through. This story ^ has the misprint in ^ = ^. He inquired. his the bigness and smallness. See Vol.^ This is meant to intimate that the virtue of Confucius was so excellent. is while in the middle no sound is produced. If held to be the originator of these waves. as they say. The books say when Confucius ' This refers to the famous spring-tide or Hangchou Bore occurring at regular intervals * and entering the CKien-fang river. Billows and rapids are identical. (Chavannes.^ Sometimes a storm excites* the waters of the three rivers. 18r. Consequently Wu Tse Hsii's spirit must Ukewise cause the wind.^ The assertion that Wu Tse Hsiis spirit caused the waves. swells. causes the waves. and Pliny distinctly ascribes this phenomenon to the influences of the sun and the moon. or stones. The If it rising of the waves follows the growing and waning. which deities were sacrificed to on Mount Hsiang. sands. His attendants replied.

* Therefore the flowing backwards of the Sse cannot be looked upon as a prodigy. Confucius met with rebuffs during his life. and the genius of the intelligence. why did this Spirit not induce mankind to honour Conficius. while he was alive? ^ If. wherefore he said. to say that some natural obstacle forced the Sse to Perhaps Wang Ch'ung wanted meander and eventually revert to its channel. and desired these appointments for his descendants? That the Sse flowed backwards. It happens that rivers revert in their course. Note 1. whose merit and virtue were in accordance with Heaven. therefore the Five Emperors and the Three Rulers attracted lucky presages. he did not find favour. Heaven wanted to secure appointments for the posterity of flow backwards for If the Spirit of Confucius. Critique. or take a new course. why did it not appoint Confucius himself. there being a great difference between flowing backwards and taking a new course. "The phoenix does not come. which they kept during their lifetime. is a hazard and a natural phenomenon. that it Five Emperors did not possess such excellence. might Heaven made it do so. and no one wanted his services. for streams at times change their channels. on blessings. If Confucius whom Heaven from that of the Five did not bestow was alone the recipient of Heaven's grace after death. his soul must have been holy. while alive. How can Confucius dead be the same as alive? While alive.^ The river Sse was not endowed with Confucius'' sake. is * This explanation not very satisfactory. Heaven rewards the highest virtue. p.252 Lun-Heng: C. which is the same as flowing backwards. with a sigh. Sse. the River sends forth no Plan: it is all over with me!"^ Alive. * * According to Chinese ideas the Five Emperors ranii above Confucius. the waters revert and not sweep away parts of the tomb. of Confucius should be ap- basing this claim on the alleged flowing back- wards of the But a careful consideration reveals the absurdity of such utterances. but not after their death. The T'ai-pHng-yu-lan quotes this passage. But after death his actions ceased. 405. . 1 Vol. I. in The their world puts pointed to faith in this. by the flowing backwards of the Sse. he was rewarded? — The death of its Confucius does not differ Emperors and the Three Rulers. he could in his practices follow up the right principles and conform to Heaven. and in consequence the Literati discussions hold that the descendants office. and after death.

XXVII. relate that his kindness even embraced birds and beasts. would Even men cannot mend and a misapprehension of the creatures. had flown away. Upon this.Falsehoods in Books. p. The worid. not have pounced upon a pigeon in his presence. and real sorts of fictions. 253 Some it records extolling the virtue of a prince of Wei. people. and whose from ours. . The prince charged them with the crime of having hit a pigeon. for it would be incest and a It violation of the laws 1 of consanguinity. birds as be caught again? If it bowed its been a sage bird. how could one single hawk. a prejudice of common real nature of the various classes of Perhaps the prince really caught the hawk. but is idle talk. Who is this prince. and therefore could not look up. guests. table. A sage would not be able to induce birds and animals to a moral conduct. that he could cause a hawk to bow its head and accuse itself? Such a creature A hawk is speech difi*erent hawks are counted by thousands. to belaud him. which caused it such pain. which. 2 "One must {Legge. the prince killed it. that it inclined its head. to hawk pursued and called killed it be- The prince was shocked. having previously hit upon a pigeon. is whose feelings are other. In the course of conversation pliments are made. it violently turned its neck aside. That cannot be true. Since the prince was by saying that the hawk admitted its a kind and guilt. it must it have known his ways as well. their faults. meant many empty comdeserts usually are embellished by all has been recorded that Duke Huan of Ch'i^ married his seven cousins.C. The one hawk which had done it bowed its head. is Birds difi'er from men. says that the prince revenged a pigeon. Expecting that some one would get hold of its head. people to pretend that they can repent. upon his men Several dozen hawks were caught. by way that of glorification. Sacred not marry a wife of the same surname" says the Liki. just man. Ch'il-li Books Vol. head and acknowledged its guilt. it must have Understanding the words of the prince. and knowing his ways. 78). The latter escaped but the under the prince's fore his eyes. but that Once he was dining with some when a hawk pounced upon a pigeon. and spread nets everywhere. was not only bestowed upon scholars. This prohibition is still in force to-day. and did not dare to look up.^ It is the nature of birds 685-643 B.

he would never have distinguished himself or won any influence.254 Lun-Heng: to take C. and beasts not T> ake heed of the relation between ascendants and princes and set the empire right. . lost in the Classic. V. for we read ["In in the Ch'un-diiu under the second year of Duke Chuang: meeting had a Chiang. the reading of I. Sober-minded critics are of opinion that the wickedness of Chieh and Chou was less than that of doomed Ch'in. Huan united all the feudal the masses with virtue. wherefore do the commentators. Critique. the (deceased duke's) wife. Incest has never been laid at their Had Duke Huan left married his seven cousins. recording his lewdness. text ^ has ^K. the smallest merit and condemns what reason then did it not condemn the slightest wrong. For this This would not have been the flagitious. Part p. "^]^ hard upon Duke Hsiang. and Ku Liang hush it up? The fault of Duke Huan consisted in his too great condescension towards the ladies of his harem. and why so lenient to Duke Huan. winter. guiding descendants. and that the crimes of doomed Ch'in fell short of those of charge. the Lady The Ch un-ch'iu commends — with the marquis of Ch'i in A'flo. and ruling them with authority. Six concubines enjoyed his special ^ As Our the leading prince. * Legge. how could he degrade himself at home by such utter disregard of propriety? If there had been such a discrepancy between his public and his private life. Kung Yang. concealing his crime and having no word of reproof for it? Should the passage Why was the Ch'un-ch'iu so have been Ch'iu Ming. if his private life had been so he imitated the instincts of beasts and birds. therefore they mix. He prevailed it house. and his subjects disrespectful to him. that case. reason the lords followed him. unconscious of the laws of relationship. Tso all Kung Yang. Classics Vol. they are not charged with incestuous intercourse with their kin. for was distasteful to upon the princes to do homage to the royal him that the king should be deprived If before the of his power.' As to the depravity of Chieh and Ckou. For WSn Chiang of Lu was a sister to the great crime of Duke Huan? Duke Hsiang of ChU. who had intercourse with her. instead of |3c. his viciousness would have behind that of Chkh and Chou and be worse than that of CKin and Wang Mang. and nobody dared to disobey. Wang Many. world he resented a want of decorum so much. 74.

IV. There is a notice in some books to the eff'ect that Duke Hiian of CKi carried his wife. Analects V. would that have induced them to stand by him? Some say that Ktian Chung informed the princes that his master had ulcers on his back. vermin crept through the door. thrown into confusion. but it is evident that not every hamlet possesses a Confucius. this episode cf.^ Duke Huan was very proud and elated. and that no distinction was made between the sons of his wife and his concubines. Mem. This would show that the duke's lust reached the last degree of indecency. Vol. 32. when the duke died. . 651 b. Part p. so that the services of the duke's wife could be dispensed with. If Duke Huan carried his wife on his back at great audience.] ^ At that time. 1 On Ed. Cf. when he received the feudal princes in audience. V. it was not until three months later that his death was officially announced. p. the corpse of the duke was into a coffin. one among them experienced in the art of curing ulcers. which would not heal without the wife's assistance. 58 seq. in This meeting was held In the smallest hamlets. p. His angry looks could not prevent the revolt of the nine States. [Now cius in all places of ten families* an honest man like Confu- can be found. Confucius in his modesty says so himself. {Chavannes. then said that he misbehaved himself with his seven cousins. The Heads of nine States then revolted from him. 55. it cit. with his back. manners of the scholars. p. Shi-chi chap. According to the Shi-chi he. IV. have led on the princes to do homage to the refined the — At the meeting of KUiei-ch' iu.c. Legge. 255 ^ CJii was and five princes contended to become his heirs. doubtless. * * Hist. how could he have outdone this feat at the wildest Bacchanal? He had wife on his royal house? with awe and reverence by his majesty. 152 and Chavannes. the princes had assembled over a thousand men. Classics Vol. 27. so that the ^ left sixty-seven days on his death-bed. 2 A has ^t instead of gj>. Hist. and. Now fancy the duke carrying his wife and afi"ording them such a spectacle of lasci\ity. The princes believed Kuan Chung and therefore did — not rebel. 12v. before was placed I.Falsehoods in Books. favour. inspiring them how could he.). Vol.^ People hearing of these six favourites. Mem. There was.

An unprincipled sovereign cannot employ wise men. no doubt. he acquired unprincipled supremacy. Kuan Chung concealed the duke's fault. quite alone. To punish CHu for not having sent its tribute of reeds and grasses. he has pure and honest ministers. An man is not better than a tyrant. deceived the princes. ' Pi Kan was B. then. Provided that Kuan Chung was wise. p. He would remove the virtuous. Note 1. Critique. Virtuous ministers presuppose an enlightened ruler. 67. the son of king T'ai Ting. This expedition took place 656 b. have presided over their meetings for long. have become angry and revolted. then Duke Huan cannot have committed all those excesses. he invested it with believe slanderers. and an uncle of his murderer. How. and injure the benevolent How could such a one employ a man like Kuan Chung. 199. but the fact that he employed three able men.^ and Chou murdered the son of the king.256 Lun-Heng: C. then Duke Huan could not employ him. reference to this fact is found in the Han-shu.driver. knew virtuous ministers.^ Pi Kan.*' He united the feudal barons. can Duke Huan be accused of wantonness? An opponent might say that Duke Ling of Wei^ was a sovereign without principles. and whom Kuan Chung assisted. When the sovereign is virtuous and intelligent. p. Hist. and the righteous. 9v. he did not achieve anything grand. Bihl. Then from what does it follow that Duke Huan was not wanton? Duke Lirig was unprincipled indeed. . who. I. under these Chung. Vol. 1194-1192 b. and subsequently made him Privy ' Councillor. but men and making Kuan Chung his minister. He is such a hero as appears only once in a » Cf. or keep officers to serve under him? Chieh killed Kuan Lung FSng. 1. Mem. the latter would. How could the duke. Well aware that Kuan by doing so. or been successful as their leader? using able Some hold that in reality Duke Huan was unprincipled. king Chou. all his forces. * A poor cart. set the empire in order. merely sufficed to preserve his life. Diet. Duke Huan honoured the arithmeticians^ and raised Ning CHi^ from his cart. No. who was heard singing and beating the time on the horns of his oxen by Duke Huan. and. Giles. Biography of Mei Fu chap. and if he did employ him. He in took him into his service. all the same. circumstances.c.C. 534-493 7ti * /L '^ /v ' "^ short p. 8 Chavannea.c. 1568.

Chuang Tse p. and that.) Quotation 47). he gave audience to the princes. p. If in sitting one turns the back upon the screen and looks southward. is That he should have nonsense.Falsehoods in Books. and the tunes he played were most People then used to say that playing like plaintive ^ and beautiful. music must be melancholy. made obeisance and Ed. from the Shuking Part Book I. but not sufficiently grounded. DI. VI. * This explication is ingenious. Part I. princes. his back turned upon a screen and facing the south. and that this peculiarity was ascribed to the bearer of Giles name would identify it with the walrus and accordingly translates a passage of Chuang Tse chap. ^ has :g. How II. is A as well. 'I hop about legs on one leg. A screen partition between the door and the window is called a (i)^ Facing the south indicates the high dignity. found a man in it. 14r. the screen is behind. 211. Light music appears to them frivolous and licentious.^ The emperor Shun was [but he seeking everywhere a candidate for the declined in favour of JTuei and Lung]. It is like the story that K'uei had but one leg. Every one recommended Po Yi.^ post of president for sacrificial worship. in his 'was a man and no way diflferent alone suffices. ' To be appreciated by the Chinese. He was by nature a great musician.'" shih cKun-cKiu A fuller version of this story to be found XXII. p. Sr^. 23 (Legge. K'uei was full perfection. simpler explamation that J^b h'uei originally is the name of some onethis legged monster. 6v.* Of this popular tradition made the phrase that K'uei had but one leg. and he made him director of music. is There can be in the Lii- no question of one leg. but not very successfully. back. do you manage all these you have?'" 6 {Giles. At the time of Yao and Shun^ iCuei was a great officer. and his wife stood behind. 257 carried his wife on his thousand generations. It seems to it be derived from Huai Nan Tse: — "Duke Ai of 2/w asked Confucius saying. or that Duke Ting of Siwg^ in digging a well.' J^b — from others but knowledge of tunes. "The walrus said to the centipede. Classics Vol.' replied Confucius. to the Shuking relate that ' The schohasts wore the Duke Chou as a regent silken ribbons of the emperor and his hat. This has given rise to the popular tradition that he carried his wife on his back.. Yao said ^K'uei -JP. Now. . when Duke Huan held an audience of all the he was perhaps sitting with his face turned to the south. 'Is credible that K^uei had only one leg?' in ^K'uei.

The emperor entered a private house.^ Therefore they said that Duke Ting of Sung. Ed. Ed. after having lost his legs. After digging the well. when it began to rain and to become very dusky. Note As a rule a cripple cannot become an official China. bored.. . and it could be reckoned that every day one man's day's work was economized. when he had cut his legs. b. It was calculated that every day one man was thus occupied. therefore made a doorkeeper.^ as the doorkeeper. Of the 11th or 10th cent. digging Duke Ting of Sung "^ ^ As another reading Tung-mo ^B ^S is given.. he was no more sent to carry the water. writes: — Lu-shih-ch'un-ch'iu VI. Vol. Neither name seems to 2v. when the boy was carving rafters. somebody was a man of Sung. The office of a minister of ancestral worship^ would correspond to that of a tsung-chSng"^ of the Han legs. be mentioned elsewhere. and Po Yi could not have yielded the post to K^uei. "If it befor grandeur must needs remain mean.^^. and he finally became a doorkeeper. Once. where the mistress was just Some said that a child to which an emperor had come* would be noble. The cutting of one leg would be an abnormity of the and how could a man move about with only one leg? The Hsia emperor K'ung Chia was once hunting on the Tungming^ mountain. a region at the frontier of Chili « and Honan. the axe cut Since K'ung Chia his legs. 258 Lun-Heng: C. 432. nevertheless.^ wished to ennoble him as his son. 5:—^^. who will make it mean?. p. but for discharging the duties of a minister of ancestral worship one leg would not do. could not obtain rank and honour. I. comes my son. The appears to be taken. Critique. Now K'uei could not walk about with one leg. Cf. and C write ^ ^in The fuller text of the Lii-shih-ch'un-ch'iu has 6 " 7 J^ 7^ 2. he was of no use and nursing a baby. but others urged that a child not born K'^ung CAia said." and he took the child with him. from which this story "^ ^r ^ ^ ijj "^^^ -P'*" mountain of Tung-yang. he had the greatest expectations. Before the well was had always to be despatched to fetch water.c. He might have made music even sitting. K^ung Chia did not find a noble son. time.

259 a well.C. the story of Duke Hiuin carrying his wife same category. 'I who summoned him and asked the man replied : obtained a man's service. The story was probably when had been invented. and his boils could be cured by his wife.^ In his twelfth year. 'I Then he Then have bored a well.^ In the third year of his reign. He was sitting. and his wife likewise wore thick clothes. on receiving the lords. when his wife was on his back.' This report spread and reached the prince for an explanation. By his meditations he attracted the scholars. and there wsis always a man employed said to others: fetching water from outside. He illuminated his palace. But. and how should he have received the princes with his wife on his back during the day? It is recorded in some books that Nieh Cheng^ in Yen Weng Chung's^ service assassinated the king of the falsehood. seventeen . . digging the well. That is a was marquis of Han. as Yen Chung Tse J^IhI J*' ^^ officer of Han and an enemy of Hsieh 6 399-387 « ^ In 397 B. In point of analogy. is wrong. his back turned upon his wife.^ tending that Duke Ting. whence the statement that his wife was on his back. gives a variation of this story: — "Mr. Knowing that having one's wife on one's back is indecent.'" in 397 b. Better known Lei. This number. of Sunff. but not a ' * A famous bravo in man in Honan. Duke Huan was clad in heavy garments.c. Tinff in had no well his compound. they concocted the story of Ktuin Chung curing ulcers through the wife. is much it too far-fetched and not convincing. The of SuTiff Lu-shih-ch'un-ch'iu in XXII. Popular tradition went a step farther. If Duke Huan had laid aside his princely robe. the Marquis Lieh died.^ Piercing the earth Man is born from man and not from earth. for at Nieh Cheng^s time Lieh Han State. who died the well. 6v. a minister of Han. The 2 This interpretation believed. and no further philological or psychological arguments are required to explain this simple fact. until he himself bored a well. The female fluid thus being checked. prefound a man in it. found a man.— Falsehoods in Books. years' after the assassination of Hsieh Lei by Nieh Cheng. is and boring a well comes in the not done with the object of finding a man. Nieh Cheng stabbed Hsieh Lei. and got a man. perhaps the female fluid could remove the ulcers. We must read ten years. and was sitting there at night.C. of course. B. of what benefit would it have been to carry his wife? Duke Hiian bestowed much thought on the savants.

moved nearer. the 37th year p. While he was playing. 18v. but knowing Kao Chien Li to be a partisan of the prince of Yen. In his 27th year the emperor made another journey. that Huang known.c. . p. but the Chan-kuo-is'e says that. He went to Kuei-chi and came to Lang-yeh. —the year is not known Kao Huang but missed him and was be- headed. 86. lived as a poor man and unknown. in the biography of Nieh Cheng only speaks of assassination of Hsieh Lei. instigated Ching K'o to stab Shih is to death. but the report that the king being struck. p. The king was pleased. 86. narrates but says that Kao Chien Li failed to hit the ^ •^ emperor and was put to death. North his ' The Shi-chi chap. See Vol. 184). M^m. All these details are to be found in the Shi-chi chap. I. In his 27th year. for a time. . ailed three months and died. 6. Vol. 6. and king Chia taken prisoner. notice that the latter assassinated the king of Han is an invention of worthless books and unimportant chronicles.^ There failed is another report that 2an. a He brought back the head new invasion was made . In his 25th year. o but Shih Huang Ti put Ching he ordered his general K Wang its Chien to attack Yen. p. he changed his musical talent name and. and then called upon him to thrum the harp. 503.* the emperor made a journey through the empire.* The king began to sicken. p. In the 20th year of his reign. to assassinate the king of CHin. prince. This is a mistake. 8r. the king of CKin could not restrain his feelirjgs and. The king of CUin is nobody else than Cliin Shih Huang Ti. a 3 who reigned from 376-370 b. This journey was made hi II. Hid. his 21st year. The assertion that Kao Chien Li struck the king of CKin with his harp is true. Tan. 26v. while stabbing Hsieh Lei. Critique. until was found out. The Shi-chi chap. to make it heavy. the heir-prince of Yen pro- cured a bravo. of the crowninto Yen. but he and was executed. Note 2. and not to be trusted. heir-prince of Yen. on his knees. Ching K'o. Cf. Kao Chien Li had put lead into his instrument.^ Subsequently Kao Chien LP again went to pay a visit to the king of Cllin and play the harp for him. the assassin also struck the Marquis Ai.c. A native of Yen and friend of Ching K'o.— 260 Lun-Heng: C. and three months later died of the wound. CKin Shih Huang Ti pardoned his former con- nexion with Ch'ing * Ko and wished to hear him. he had him blindfolded first. his After the execution of the latter. Kao Chien Li then took his harp and struck him on the forehead. In Ti. the event. = 211 b. (Chavannes.^ Chien Li struck at Sldh Later on Ti. is false. Shi-chi chap.

I. Note 1. I. he expired. in Sha-c/iiu. Vol. have died concerning his death. having suffered from the bruises caused by the harp for three to months. 231 and 232. 319. . of Prophecies^ writes that if the emperor returned writers also state he would come by his death. p. and people say that he had always been ailing in Ch'in.Falsehoods in Books. The statements of this class of books is very often settle irreconcilable with truth. life Some that. p. 1 Vid. but ordinary people are unable to such questions. in the west he arrived at P' ing-yuan Ferry. Thus the same person is by by others in Ch'in. he ended his some beheved from sores. 261 he went as far as the Lao and Clieng Mountains and the sea. 2 Vol. and having reached the P' ing terrace in Sha-ch'iu. he was taken ill.' When The Book to Sha-ch^iu.

374. 2 ^ * which a hundred. they and referring to some wickedness. and Yang Tse over by-roads. unless in belauding somebody you magnify his merits. They are such exaggerations. Critique. A plain and simple object is cut into ten pieces and split into a hundred particles. Consequently. by exaggeration they make ten of it.* and yet it is not quite devoid of hyperboles over-charging the truth. I. Flying rumours and numerous traditions emanate from the mouths of uncultured people. It is a common weakness in of human nature to exaggerate the truth. while relating something. Hearing one thing. As regards the classical literature. Literary Exaggerations {Yi-tsmg). and the collections of fine thoughts. serve to express many. or ten thousand merely Cf. CHAPTER XXIV. the audience is not satisfied. p. should all agree with truth. and seeing a hundred. All Orientals big in numbers. they increase them to a thousand. and unless in running him down you aggravate his crimes. there are no utterances more reliable than those of the Sages. a thousand.^ The classical literature continues immutable through all the ages. Me Tse wept over boiled silk. is This statement open to criticism : — all the classical texts have undergone some alterations in course of time. is In compositions and speeches truth Praising some goodness. the lucubrations of their pens. and a true statement is turned round and round again a thousand or ten thousand times. Notes 3 and 4. This is due to the bias of ordinary people for the marvellous. We foreigners cannot admit this. But these coloured reports are all based on some facts and not drowned a flood of words.'^ for they were sorry that people should lose their original nature. over-estimate its ^ ' Here Wang Ch'ung himself commits the fault which he lays at other people's like door. . Vol. and are current in lanes and alleys. which have become quite a special feature of the Chinese language. excellence. and yet even here we find exaggerations. the hearers are not pleased. for they do not care for any but strange stories. The words of the philosophers however. in point of truthfulness.262 Lun-Heng: C. the writings of wise men. they over-colour the guilt. and regretted their departing from truth.

Under Yao and during the Chou period. with hanging ears.^ we obtain an aggregate sum of less than three thousand. did not embrace more than five thousand Li. a tribe said to tiptoe. but the ten thousand countries are an exaggeration.Literary Exaggerations. the Pigmies. those of the Jung. maintain exaggerated. thus opening their understanding and awakening their intelligence. ^P S^' 1p H>. All countries which Heaven covers and Earth sustains. It goes to their hearts and enters their heads. the habit of disforming their ears. p. The ten thousand people mentioned by the Shuking must therefore be held to be an exaggeration overshooting the mark. exaggerations are of various kinds. there were one thousand seven hundred and ninety-three feudal States. Part I. they live in Yunnan and measure 3 About 110 a.d. are within the number of three thousand. which leads to universal peace. UI. three thousand of them submitted to the Han and sent as tribute i\ory and zebus. and the guarded ones. 263 maliciously made to misguide people. The CKuan-hsiang sacklike costume merely covering breasts. The remark of the Shuking that [harmony was established among ten thousand countries] is intended to extol Yao's virtue. but also among the / and Ti tribes. meant as a homage to Yao. All China as well as the Classics Vol. The Chiao-chiau = Pigmies are often mentioned 1 in Lieh Tse gives them a height of foot 5 inches. who are nowhere walk on else mentioned. the Shi-chi. For Fo-chung. the entire domain In the Chou time. Shuking Part writes I. such as the tribes with covered breasts. the exaggerations of classical is a difference between These classical and common sayings and traditions. Yao-Uen {Legge. Adding the wild dependencies.Ja ImI like The Shuking has J£ ^R* The utmost %m^ ^m^ s«limits of the habitable land. its influence. the effects of which were not only The felt in China proper. 2. ranked S^SM' ^^^ these semi-fabulous tribes are in the T'ai-p'ing-yii-lan to seem their have received their among the southern name from a peculiar in barbarians. the surroundings of Yung-cKang-fu in According to the Hau Han-shu feet. . we had better read CKi-chung jfT^ffS. The Tan-erh were their shoulders. implying his excellence and that great multitudes ' fell under chap. Usually something conspicuous is put forward with a view to captivating those who still harbour some doubts. 17) Wang CKung ' ^ * . I.^ together with the people without the Four Seas ^ which do not live on grain. small things having been Those who seriously study this question. that they hang down upon Chinese literature. "^'rae. and the Po-chung. in the Chia-yii Confucius describes them as 3 feet high. They live in caverns and are dreaded by birds and beasts. that there literature ^ affirmation that harmony prevailed in the border lauds is correct.

Therefore the Shuking speaks of ten thousand countries. . p. when Hou Chi^ was invested with T'ai.*^ A thousand and ten thousand are names of big numbers: ten thousand denotes a great many. Part E. Critique. Classics is 1 Shiking Part IH.]'^ The an that the crane cried in the marshes.^ This is a tribute paid to the virtue of King Hsuan of Chou. 2 it Vol. 482). 2 {Legge. One couple after about 42 generations 7 Shiking Part may well have tens of thousands U. which comes near the thousands and hundred thousands of descendants mentioned in the Shiking. and that into nine pools. 297). were in perfect accord. it Beholding a crane crying in the clouds. I agree may be heard but to say that was heard in the sky. The The ancestor of the Chou dynasty and Lord of Agriculture.* down to King Hsiian. these latter blessed him with so many descendants. Ode V. is hyperbolical. illustration cry was heard in the sky. but to speak of thousands and hundreds of thousands is straining the point. cit. which were divided and that its sound was still heard in the sky. — The meaning is Shiking says that [the crane cried amidst the nine pools its of the marches. p. whence the term ten thousand countries. Ode X. Classics Vol. it could not be thousands or hundreds of thousands. for however numerous they were. that they amounted to thousands and hundreds of thousands. IV. 2 is Legge loc.C. voice. Book H. of the cultivation of virtue by the superior man. they hear conjecture that. and the Shiking of thousands and hundreds of thousands. They urge that the sound was heard in the sky. the poets of the Shiking have gone beyond the truth. From the time. his eyes decry (Leffge. Part H. IV. From a desire to praise. original fief of the Chou with which they were invested by Shun 2255-2206 b. man hears its and looking up.^ he with all his nearer and farther blood-relations could not be thousands and hundreds of thousands. in Shensi. For. Book IE. and it must be possible to hear it in the sky. from the earth. whose name reaches the that the sound it court in spite of his humble position.264 savages Lun-Heng: C. ' * Some hold that King CKeng. p. calculating is not his strong point. One may well say that his progeny was extremely numerous. Note says that there is no evidence to whom the Ode addressed. 481.c.^ In recognition of his diligence in serving Heaven and Earth. •^ Wang Ch'ung is mistaken here. when a crane cries in the clouds. 6 827-782 B. of descendants. at a great altitude. since this sound also is heard on the earth.

of course. When the ear hears its voice. A cry in the empyrean Why? Because the distance between the inaudible for us. but to maintain that not a single individual was left out is an exaggeration. cries in the nine When but when it marshes. The ear and the eye possess the same power. when Earth has an inundation. 358). a great drought. and therefore stretched the point. 3 {Leffc/e. Ode IV. ^ passage must not be taken literally (Legge. forest tracts are not dried up. A. When are visited with the poor and the destitute who have not stored up provisions. But hearing and vision do not extend beyond ten Li. beat their breasts and yearn for rain. Already Mencius remarked that Vol. IV.Literary Exaggerations. p. or he knew the fact.^ Consequently the eye cannot see. If we hear a crane crying from below. is sty and man measures several ten thousand Li. is erroneous. but the inference that. do not feel the pangs of hunger in their mouths and bellies. 530). man hears it from below. p. the empire was afflicted with a great drought.^ whereas the rich who have a sufficient supply of grain and food.^ time of King Hsuan of Chou. the eye perceives its form. n. it is because it is near us. Part n. and the ear cannot hear so far. but wished to use it by way of illustration. and whose granaries and store-houses are not empty. must be ^M • . Wherefore should they be grieved then? When Heaven sends down a drought. on account of its voice being audible from below. Mountain and 2 Shiking Part EI. mountain and and. the poet said that not a single person was left but shared in the general distress. Book UI. man is not up in the sky. The people the latter of Chou are like the people of to-day. 265 its shape. The Shiking says that among the blackhaired people of Chou This signifies that. this Classics Vol. I. More than 60 000 Li. Vol. when it is uttered on the earth. Perhaps the poet was not aware of this and earnestly believed what he said. its cry ought to be heard in the sky. a crane cries in the clouds. the forest tops of hills and 1 mounds are not submerged. what means has he to know that it is perceptible there? He does not know it. in the not a single one was left out. but makes this inference by analogy. Aggrieved by the severity of this drought. 275. The drought may have been very severe. under which the people had to sufi'er. Classics The hh| of Ed. p.

their if they had eaten nothing. when eaten. Sacred Books Vol. all strive to do their best in the service. many: Let not all the offices be empty. "empty" and "nobody" are likewise exaggerations. 55. Those who are in office and fill a post. UI. Now the Yiking ought to say. Classics Vol. the rich and noble. I. having eaten them. Classics Vol. They are not wilfidly obtuse and doltish. Yiking. C/iung's explanation. whence this expression. Part p. and various. 73). The Slinking says. Legge. If somebody takes a bamboo stick. Ode 1 {Legge. Virtue may be great or small.266 tracts Lun-Heng: C. he says that it is not strong. but the strength of a bamboo stick is weak and does not equal wood. are Critique." and the Shuking should say. and talents of a higher or a lower order. III. "Do not leave the various offices vacant. therefore. appease sweet and savoury."]^ There is not nobody.'']^ The Sliiking Wen Wang wb. yet they satiate as well. "Let not be there too few officers for aU the offices. Book I. 186. but their gifts are scanty and inadequate. IV. why then speak of emptiness and nobody? the scholars? ["How numerous were That means to more wise men than imbeciles. Those agreed that they are coarse and not sweet. so that they cannot become fully wise." which does not agree with Wang U. "it is still. Bamboo and wooden sticks both can support a sick man. is made but only serving as a screen it is still. Now aU short-witted people are imbued with the Five Virtues. 2 Book 5 {Legge. and there are but few persons. as true. but their innate wisdom is incomplete. Part gives a different interpretation of the passage: — "Let p. says.'"^ Vacant is empty. beans and barley are coarse. it is mating beans and barley are stomachs remain empty.^ blessed say that Wen Wang found many The Five Grains are such The taste of rice and all that they millet is all. When he looks at his door. The allegation that not a single person was spared. 3 Shikinp Part III. for want of men. who are sure to is escape. is equivalent with letting empty." "Few" is the proper word. p. but not that his * Diagram Feng No. the officers — of the Shuking and the inmates of the Yiking. but no wise men. its subject with his house to his household. In the Yiking there is the following passage. Legge him not have the various officers cuniberers of their places. hunger. To leave.-— ["It shows large. XVI. merely a figure of speech designed to describe the intensity of the drought. Shuking Part II. . 429). with them. can still be of use. but they do not pretend that. and there nobody about it.

left the remark that the offices must not be therefore. The term grandeur find may well be used.^ But the observer had said. to say that there is is Weak-minded all For the Yiking officials are officials nobody. What sort of energy does Yao display?"^ These words are supposed to corroborate his grandeur. 267 hand is officials are like empty and holds nothing in its grasp. If by house" is an exaggeration. 187. That. 19. how can he instruct his son? Analects VUI. so that Yao and Shun might have been called to all house by house. all the of the Shuking those of minor talents are also included. scorned of Yao's and therefore disdainfully asked about Cf. there a record that a I man dig a well to drink. really too disdainful. of the Literati also narrate that the people of office The works That means men. which no language could express. I take my rest.'' ergo the people still knew of what sort it was. p.* like superior to say that in every family they behaved to say that they might have been made officials. but the assertion that the people could no name for it is a stretch of fancy. Vid. whereas In the kept in the houses. of this question would excellence rather seem to be that the peasant it. and labour my field to eat. throughout the land within the Four Seas and amongst thousands of people. barley. they exaggerate. Furthermore. vacant is too cutting We read in the Analects^ How grand was he! is ["Great indeed was Yao as a sovereign! could find The people no name for of fifty it. It is admissible might be called to office. beans. A man of fifty is a father of not such a father does know 1 his sovereign. p. and at sunset. "At sunrise. and bamboo sticks. "Grand indeed is the virtue of Yao!" The man who was playing with earth. 99 says with almost the same words ^E ^f^ ~^ jpp ."]' was beating clods of earth on the road. "Grand indeed is the virtue of Yao. Now the utterance of the man beating the earth "What sort of virtue does Yao display" implies that the people it. I begin my work. If something is possible. 2 ^ The meaning the idea 3. * Note The Han-shu chap. 222. but the remark "house a family. nobody could find a name for Yao's virtue must be impossible. but those who know could not find an expression for deny it. replied. An observer remarked.Literary Exaggerations.

During an age of universal peace. 185. I. and the son does not neglect his duty. on the road. Cf. The Shuking tells us that 2m Yi. p. Those who do their duty possess knowledge. Note 2. Now. Shukinff Part IV. every one observes propriety and righteousness."] ^ None means nobody: The people of the whole empire all wish the king dead. Officers as the people. One may say that they wished the king said. Book X.'^ men fit to be appointed. ["Among our people to-day there is none but desires the king's death. A minister to the emperor Chou.268 Lun-Heng: C. Although Chou was depraved. on the ground that he had not yet studied. where. words be highly coloured.* it is awkward to insist upon Yao's grandeur. the place called ^ Analects XI. The dilemma owes its appointed. like the ignoramus would have to be Like the husbandman referred Tiiat there were people like the man playing with earth ignoring Yao^e virtue. however.^ Con- fucius took exception nor acquired knowledge. The man with the earth was an igno- ramus. p. one cannot say that house by house the people might have been and contending that house by house there were wise one cannot propose simpletons and ignorant fellows. I. Classics Vol. the heart does not take alarm. men to. Vol. ^ * * is an exaggeration. 407 and 449 with the reading Pi. men know their sovereign." and taking this second alternative.^ remonstrating with Chou. Critique. ^ Which excluded. .^ Keeping in view the man playing with earth. But Tsu Yi would use high flying words. but how could he be accounted a wise man? When \Tse Lu got Tse Kao appointed governor of i/ow]. was in this not yet respect a playfellow of small boys grown up. 4 {Leffffe. Part p. it is difficult to say "house by house. yet many of his subjects and officers had received his favours. every family consists of superior men. dead. unless the Therefore I say that. how could he be called to office? Praising Yao's grandeur. the father does not infringe the laws of decorum. how could those who were ignorant official can govern of Yao^ be appointed to posts? The man of fifty playing with earth. is Pi ^ and not Hou C|K. and nobody knows the sovereign well as wise better than the officials. 271). but to pretend that all had this wish is going too far. origin to an exaggeration overcolouring Yao's excellence. and knowing him. Cf. 24. the quotations in Vol. I. with the object of frightening the king. Ill.

4. that. when Chou was wounded. the present CKing-chou-fu in Shantung. and destroyed. Note 8. flowing forth. I. Vol. in order to frighten *Su Cfiin^ told and to stir up. p. and perhaps preserves. in consequence. p. 304. ' Famous politician of the 4th cent. so we learn that. and the men thronging and its shoulder to shoulder. for the purpose of rousing the king of Tsu Yi's admonitions of CJiou are like C/iin. that the pestles swam in it. the king of CHi that [in Lin-tse^ the naves of the chariot-wheels were knocking together. and the soil no doubt The weapons being blunted. and. the events thus described have not always a true basis. „ Completion of the War''^ Chou. * Capital of Ch'i. 69. which likewise overshooting the mark. at once it how could all then? The warriors of Chou and Yin carried their provisions with them.]^ In spite of C/iin splendour. and the blood have entered the hot soil. all spilled. that their Choii. From the chapter when Wu Wang overthrew much blood was like that. b.Literary Exaggerations. 269 not altered. Completion of the is War" to the pestles floating in streams of blood. without alarm. high-flown language. The blood of the slain is shed. 5 cf. the remonstrances addressed to the king of Clii by Su In the fanciful reports of the wise and the sages. Chapter of the ShuMng. of course. 12v.^ So numerous were the combatants standing up blood flowed for Wu Wang.c. I. See Vol. . the country north of the river scorched up and dry. where then in did these pestles come from? This statement about the pestles swimming to blood is meant imply that. 484. p. Their all wiped off fell down like rain. CKi could not come up to that. but how could pestles swim in it? When Wu Wang smote Chou in the plain o£ Mu. perspiration Lifting their sleeves they formed tents. Note Eod. therefore they needed no pestles had prepared dried or mortars. the mode of action is Exaggera- tions are used. Su employed such Clti. Note 5. the weapons were blunted. the pestles floated and the soldiers in the blood.. pestles it must have floated in was elevated. the fronts of their coats joined together were the curtains. wishing the annihilation of But would they have been willing to fight in such a wholesale destruction? The remark of Tsu Yi that everybody wished the death of Chou is like Su CJiin's exaggeration and the reference in the chapter . ' Quotation from the Biography of Su ChHn in the Shi-chi chap.

on the hsin-mao day. at a distance of over a foot. they did not live in a palace of brilliant splendour. the people following the good example of their virtuous ruler. the stars falling revert to not reach up to the sky. then. in the seventh year of Duke Chuong.^ a clerk of a ministry. and then altered the text into "like rain. . The stars. earth or not. fourth month of summer. they do stars fell like rain. the reading that the stars came near the earth within a foot's distance. and the statement of the chronicle that the distance was of one foot is also a stretch of fancy. "During the 'Spring and Autumn' period. clouds. Ti." The Sage denotes Confucius.C. For there are towers and high buildings. and said "The Above. why use this expression? "The unrevised Cliun-cKiu'' says. Critique. and below. "The stars fell down like rain. previous in tlie — to approaching to within a foot of the earth. p. departed again. Confucius revised it.^ This was a compliment paid to the emperor Wen But Kuang Wu Ti replied that. when the CliunAt that time the Chronicle of Lu had c/iiu was not yet revised. all * ^ 179-157 Punishments were unnecessary.270 Lun-Heng: C. I. and before they came near the earth. B. they seemed to depart again. Pen Kuang of Ju-nan^ sent in a report containing the statement that the emperor Hsiao Wen Ti'^ lived in a palace of brilliant splendour. and stars fell down like rain. would have been handed down to the present day. Confucius wrote the Cli un-cK iu. they form clouds. and that there were not only three men sentenced. is Stars falling either reach the ascertain the difficult to number of feet." Had Confucius not written the CJiun-cliiu. setting forth his achievements. and that only three men were sentenced in the whole empire." The Sage corrected this. 2 ' 25-57 Place A. ' Repeated almost literally from Vol." Kung Yang in his commentary asks: [What does "like rain" mean? It is not rain. at midnight." Like rain means like rain in appearance."] "The unrevised CKun-cliiu'" refers to the time. hills and mountains on the earth." has employed the proper words. Under the reign of the emperor Kuang Wu Ti. in Honan. but Whence it the expression "like rain. before they have Confucius touched the earth. and said. how can they speak of one foot's distance? Confucius said "like rain. the following entry: — "It ^ rained stars." and that was correct. The vapours of mountains become rains stars.D. "Like rain. the common stars were invisible. in Hsiao Wen Tis time. When it the sky. 274.

and they would have been taken for undeniable facts. the historical facts. yet he exaggerated their merits and beyond the truth. and nobody would have known that the splendour of the palace and the three sentenced men were exaggerations. this narrative about Hsiao Wen Ti would have found its way into the classical literature. going but made his report ages after. ^ The latter half of this sentence is quoted from the Analects XIX. therefore the superior class people. fancy the rulers and sovereigns of times out of mind. 271 All accomplishments and virtues are put are famous. the Han epoch our age.^ man loathes the Pen Kuang presented his is down to those who company of low report to a Han emperor. Now. excellent qualities.Literary Exaggerations. it is of frequent occurrence that they miss the truth and deviate from Had Pen Kuang not met with Kuang Wu Ti. 20. . When wise men of later ages give glowing reports of them. which have long passed away.

and playing of guitars.272 Lun-Heng: C. and the gay music was a portent accompanying the happy event. for the purpose of building a palace. 448. At this time they all were brought to light. Note 1. for the old texts were not to remain hidden.^ When the Classics were taken out from the hole. C p. but not one character was the same. Then he handed Chang Fa over to the judges. . when they were completed. while demolishing the house of Confucius. the wall was opened sounds of singing and guitar-playing a C/iun-cIiiu in thirty. Prince Kung pierced it. to compare and examine the new book. Lost Texts [Yi-wen). CKing Ti took the Shuking that had been stored away. 2 Cf. Prince Kung. But CKeng Ti being a great admirer of Chang Pa's ^ Ed. When and a Lun-yil in twenty-one.^ were heard. there were sounds of singing. a Li{ki) in three hundred. and none of the professors and secretaries' who an invitation was issued to every one in the could adjust the Shuking. Note 6 and p. who despatched an official. CHAPTER XXV. The emperor understanding empire it. and the holy emperor occasioned the magical music. and thus produced one hundred and two chapters. Chang Pa of Tung-hai was CKun-cJiiu of Tso Ch^iu Ming. Critique. The emperor the title Hsiao Wu Ti conferred upon his younger brother of Prince Kung of Lm. 462. Hsiao CK eng Ti wishing to read the hundred chapters of the Shuking. who investigated his offence and pronounced it to be a case of great disrespect and irreverence. Vol. and sent word to Wu Ti. which he presented to the emperor. he elucidated them with the help of the Tso-chuan. and therefore lay concealed in the wall. The texts were to be recovered by the Haii. They had to be transmitted to the Han. The prince alarmed caused the hole again to be closed and plastered. well versed in the Following the order of the hundred chapters. write 300 books (pien). to fetch the old Canons and the Lun-yil. A and I. and the Han were expecting them as felicitous signs. dis- covered there a Shuking in a hundred chapters.

to therefore. The Han era is in fact so like antiquity.^ The officers of the san-fu^ in spite of the great amount of their of which the emperor took cognisance. possessing great literary talents. he saw that the san-fu were unable to write a record on the Ai-lao. CKeng Ti not justified in pardoning Chang Pa? Under the the prize. * 8 Yang Tse Shan was attached 140-87 B. Note 4. * ' A tribe in Yunnan. Was. p. when the essay of Tung Chung Shu won Wang Mang the secretaries of the various See Vol. Since Yang Tse Shan this record quite correct? could do it. This passage is very doubtful. who sent it up to the emperor. a Note 1.C. and my translation not much more than a guess. When Yaiig Tse Shan* was chi-li^ in a circuit. 228. Their officials reading gives great pleasure. the productions of high officials and well worth reading. nor did he distroy his work. according to his informations.^ all the officials were convoked a literary competition. * Alias Yang Chung ^pf^^. yet. and not one out of a hundred is able to write such documents. so that Yang Tse Shan wrote it. 20. which the officers of the san-fu were incapable of.' Confucius said that [talents are difficult to find. 58-75 A.^ He transmitted Hsiao Ming a report to his chief. » reign of Hsiao Wu Ti. his genius In a box of memorials a book is often circulated consisting of ten and more documents. p. with all the documents at their disposal. and therefore were not burned. 5 Cf.Lost Texts.D. could not complete a single chapter. the thing must not have been very difficult for him. Oieng 75 forgave him in appreciation of his writings.^ Chang Pa was so ingenious. united talents. In the time of I. that he composed a hundred chapters. 2 ^ Analects YVa. native of Ch'eng-tu-fu in Saechuan.]^ He whom and his imagination enabled to write a Classic in one hundred chapters.. memorials and reports to the tlirone. and been an exceptional man. by following the order of the chapters and sections and adhering to the subjects. see p. 199. Ti'' was struck with it and summoned him to the imperial library. 448. they made the impression of being genuine. But was Yang Tse Shan wrote it. . Consequently the one hundred and two chapters became current among the people. such as is seldom met v/ith. must have been endowed with quite remarkable gifts. that CKeng Ti did well to forgive Chang Pa. to the library. talents. for although they were spurious and not true. 273 pardoned him.

All the officials sent in their productions. I. I. B. chap. his good or bad style we may make an inference on a man's In the Yung-ping period. The Pei-wen-ywn-fu merely quotes » " '" passage. they were no better than stones and Chia K'uei. Had Sse-Ma and Yang Tse Yun^^ been officers unable to fill up their documents or to connect their words to phrases. a.* only the five eulogies Fu Yi^^ Yang Chung. known scholar and poet.274 Lun-HIng: C. . p. boards were called upon send in reports. the edition of books. Even at his hunting parties Yang Tse Yun followed in a carriage. 140-87 B.D.d.. and a. p. but tiles. son of the famous Liu Hsiang. and protege of Wang Mang. how would Wu Ti have liked. Hsiao Ming Ti issued instructions that panegyrics on these birds be presented to him.'-^ From talent.d. " On the last two named scholars see Vol. An elegant form.3. See above Note to 4. and Hou Feng^ were Must it not have been great host of officials. who together with the historian Pan Ku was appointed ^ A savant where.*^ gold and gems. provided it be not a cover for emptiness. writings and favoured Yang Tse Yiin. p. The 32-7 well B. 7. I2r. one is richer than having heaped up treasures. conjointly with who by Hsiao Ming Ti was given a post at Pan Ku and Chia K'uei. 30-101 historiographer. of Pan Ku.C. Hsiao Ming Ti read them. Note 5. he supervised p.C. Notes 1 and 2. He wrote « ^ himself 28 chapters of various poetry and died young. 58-75 eminent scholar. a matter of surprise for him that among the the numerous secretaries included. reveals great talent and profound knowledge. Cf..^ flocks of spiritual birds alighted. Vol. an author 2 ' * like his father j§ An ^@^ A. or Clieng Ti have appreciated them? Therefore I say that to read Yang Tse Yilns chapters afi'ords a greater pleasure than to be an official with a thousand piculs a year. and holding the book of Huun Chiln Shan in one's hands. five men only produced good fiction compositions? Hsiao therefore Wu Ti^ was partial to works of and poetry and '° invited Sse-Ma Hsiang-Ju. 361. Chi'm Shan. Huan 1 lAu Hsin ^iJgTi Ist cent.^ Hsiao C/ieng Ti delighted in voluminous Hsiang-Ju. 27. and the memorial of Liu Tse Chiln ^ was the best. The Yiking says that the feehngs of a sage appear from his ex- pressions. Hou Feng seems this be unknown to other writers. the Imperial Library. Chcm Yi CKeng-chuan 1883. to Critique.C. 123.

Legge. 177 and 178.Lost Texts. cit. and the actions of the great — man and the superior Tsu man depend on their signs. ^:— 4^."]'' That means: Heaven and man are to be judged by their signs. — in the court of CA'm."]^ And further: — ["We look at the signs of Heaven. ^ '' Diagram Ko. Then a scaly dragon appeared on high. 388. and look at the signs of man. 275 The work of Han Fei Tse was current and Cliin Shih Huang Ti said witli a sigh: "Alas! that I cannot Hve together with this man!"' Each time that Lu Chia^ presented a new chapter of his "New Words. 72. for the signs at the right are conclusive. XVI. emitting a glare of brilliant light. not on the lower ones. When fluid CKu^ to meet the army of Han^ a Kao Tsu started from formed five colours. the Twenty-eight Solar Mansions. Vol."* and these stars had Heaven was indignant at the destruction of literature by and » Vid. and neglect the left. « ^ Vol. are man changes as the panther (changing its spots). and Perhaps C/iin when he was about to enter Ilsien-yang. . 1. Sacred Books Vol. p. I. 22. upon clearly seeing the excellence of these persons. p. When Kao was still in his mother's womb. p. Diagram Pi. Palmisters examine the left^ palm. 4. Contrariwise. Meteorologists* look up to the sky. 5 and 6. she reposed on the banks of a lake. Note 3." 6 Ed. because the lines on the left are decisive. I. No. his signs are brilliant. The Yiking says: ["The great man for they derive their information — changes as the tiger (changing the superior signs its stripes). 231. from the heavenly signs.® "Eastern Well. his elegant. 168. ® The 22nd of Cf. diviners turn to the right side. Vol. 9 I. So far dresses resemble heaven. loc. No. Nos. Legge. five stars united near the five different colours. "may live ten thousand years. Upper and lower garments cover the body. p." the attendants of Kao Tsu exclaimed "Ten thousand years! "^ Can this passionate remembrance of a man and the enthusiastic exclamation "Ten thousand years" have been for nothing? They were outbursts of joy from the innermost heart. consisting of eight stars in Gemini. 49. but the embroidery is on the upper. p. and do not look at the right one. Note he That is. No. but not on the earth.

at the instigation of Li Sse. . men like Fu Shing stealthily buried them in the earth. 447. text of the Five Classics to be burned. 194-188. after its accession.D. « T 9-2^ Aj>. 6 LiSae was torn carts.'^ the search for lost antiquities was authorised by and they were bought with gold. had to suffer one of the Five Punishments. p. but the Five Canons did not yet come to light at that time. In 25 A. wished the Han to renew it. I. and the heroes of literature assembled. Halls and palaces fell into ruin. Can a claim to the fame of being a literary one? edict. The scholars of the Five Canons took the the use Classics and concealed them. » ' * Vol. The glory of the Han dynasty and what we hear of its declarations are quite something else than those of doomed CJiin. 171. and his family was destroyed. In 76 Aj>. After Kuang Wu Ti arose. I.o. From Hui Ti and Ching Ti^ downward to Yuan Ti and CKing Ti^ the Canons and the books were simultaneously revised. Owing to the perversity of Wang Mang. this age not lay ' This supposition is incompatible with Wang Ch'ung^s principle of spontaneity which he proclaims for Heaven.276 Lun-Heng: C.* Sse. See Vol. 81. see p. ^ Wiping out the texts of sages and worthies is a most heinous crime. The Han dynasty.® the preservation of old books was not yet very careful. Critique. and enacted a law restricting of books.' The designs of wicked people. and 32-7 b. The era oi Hsiao Ming Ti^ was very favourable for men of letters. Ch'in Shih Htiang Ti first sighed over the work of Han caused the Fei Tse and afterwards. at different periods.o. and the descendancy of the culprit was already cut off with his grandsons. » » »« 58-75 AJ). officers were appointed to the imperial library. He sometimes falls back into the inveterate ideas of his countrymen which he combats elsewhere. The son of CKin Shih Huang Ti by lost the throne. are inconsistent. and 156-141 48-33."^ the armies of the Han began swarming about. changed the rules of doomed Ch^in and obliterated the traces of Li Kao Tsu first ordered Lu Chia to write books.^ Li Sse who deviced this plan. When our present sovereign had taken the reins of government. On the Five ancient Punishments in use under the to pieces b. and books and manuscripts were scattered about. Chou and Han dynasties p. and therefore first invested Kao Tsu and used those signs as omens.

and they handle literature with a subhme elegance. The Han are now at their acme.c. is regarded as a lucky augury. or to supplement old texts. for to give expression to the thoughts of one's is heart and to discuss the events of hfe. 302. the Six Arts therefore. but the experiences made are five times as many as those of Yao and Shun. 277 of Yao and Shim being so remote. memorials and reports are one. The representatives of these five classes of literature are all worthies. be held in respect. Literary receive their writings from Heaven and should. * According to tradition which has not yet been historically tested.' however. The Five Canons and form one class of literature. whence the profuseness of literary that time The penod productions. The essayists eulogise the emperor and exalt the State. There has never been a more delightful and a more glorious time than the present. Confucius said. for Argu- ments are one's own the hand. but have we not here his writings?"]' to Confucius. . a great all many philosophsubjects. The composition of essays and the writing of discourses requires the greatest efforts.Loat Texts. p. * ' ' This brightness of the sky and the stars Cf. to a more arduous task then comment upon old Classics. of the expositors of the and In the periods of the Chou and ical Ch'in. The writings of his Win Wang were transmitted to He composed men works for the Han. the records of the various writers are another. and 1122-255 Whether 206 B. that their writers have been preserved. ideas. whom they came down. the Han had any books dating as far back as the Tin dynasty is open to doubt. the stars glow with brilliant light. this period would last from 2357 to 2205 b. at all at that time.^ the books of which existed are lost. ^ 3 ^ It is more than doubtful whether there have been books b.C. 1766-1123. and so are the descriptions of generous and virtuous actions. Classics which the faculties signs are formulated by That exceeds the arts. ["Wi^ Wang is no more. but they took up other neither praising the sovereign nor profiting the State nor promoting civilisation.c. Note 6. The sky is bright and clear. are so near.'^ The Yin and the Chou dynasties.* The works handed down since the commencement of the Han^ do not reach very far.® the characters of the people are excellent. and ten times those of the Yin and Chou dynasties. essays and treatises are one class. writers were busy.

From their magnificent buildings we recognise noble famihes. and high ^ Aod we are glad of it. his hair bound into a virtue of the tuft. and completely abandon himself to the customs of the savages. That the philosophers cannot accomplish. and the soveris eign's virtue equals sun and moon. He would squat down. which rouse those who hear them from their lethargy. and I doubt whether time. Cliao T^o as king of the southern Yileh revolted from his lord.278 SO that its Lnn-mng: dignity is C. he would also have pronounced the virtue to of the Han have reached the highest point. • ' Analects Cf. disregarded his commands. and the remonstrances of great writers are reproofs of Lu Chia. essays have the highest value and should be estimated accordingly. ["The time of the Yii is dynasties of house of indeed "]. upheld for a thousand years. he remorse. and did not observe the institutions of the Han. Critique. the second in that of others. Vol.'' so overawed with the emperor's majesty. but the memorials do not mention meritorious deeds. Chia spoke to Lu him felt him of the Han and seat. is they really were so ' Han The reasoning of this paragraph not very convincing. and reports^ recommend officers. own interests in five among the He who cultivates his moral self view and not those of the ruler. that his conscience awoke. Chao T'o's conversion was not owing to extraordinary reports about the glory of the house of Han.^ Confucius remarked respecting the Chou. has his quently. 124 and 382. the first are in one's own interest.* The style may be rich and refined. the virtue of the the highest point said to have reached Confucius lived in was a hterary man of the Chou epoch. YDl. • LuChia. p. 20.* what the writings of Memorials^ suggest practical measures. but the placid serenity of a man of letters® were signs of the prosperity of the State.« Tang and Chou may be outshone now. . I. and suddenly rose up from his The narrow-minded like the scholars of our age live under the same delusion as Chao T'o. Had he the Han time. • At present these terms in the are not restricted in this way. Conseclasses of literature.

An broidery. ^ The it is fact that men a State proves that the age of a sage. also mentioned his fellow-citizens as a warning for wicked people. the pupils are bright. people may be praised or censured. is on his guard. Vol. All the sayings and doings are put on record. every spectator feels shocked.Lost Texts. disHke publicity and do all they can to frustrate it. is viz. and giving a picture of the titles illustrate posthumous virtue deceased. but Yang Tse Yiln refused. When Shu sent was writing his Fa-yen^* a rich man of him an enormous sum of money. for a rich man neither benevolent nor righteous. discloses a great ignorance of analogies. * Pan Piao. p. and the heart is kind. 385. Even by the addition of a posthumous name in one character. As regards the signs of Heaven and the signs of man. Hsiunff. Yan^ embodies the philosophical views of Yanff Tse Yiin emphcisising the value of the Analects. the eyes are brilliant. therefore not to be despised. why should he be mentioned without reason? Pan Shu P i. the spurious reading: 4. This the manner in which and stigmatise crime. handed down from generation to generation. 279 eminent literary trees indicate live in an old capital. perhaps in thousands of words. the colour of the eyes bright. to the end that he might Yang Tse Yiin is be mentioned in the book. but like a stag in a fence. Thus the pencil of men of is letters encourages the good and censures the depraved. these signs record men's actions and give publicity to their names. . the teacher of Wang Ch'ung and father to Pan Ku. wicked ones. which determines goodness and badness. exquisite silk embroidery being dragged through the mire.^ in continuing the work of the Grand Annalist. ^ Ed.^ and 6'read:-^^:^^. ^ alone has I. on the other side. and to To be able to pity a piece of emhave no idea of the worth of a man of letters. Honest men desire to be taken notice of and strive for virtue.^ every one Much greater still is the power of pen and ink. with the object of producing beautiful and elegant pictures? No. — -jrfSj ^^^ 'Sh^^* 2 ' * Cf. and knowing this.whichi8lessgood. men of letters assemble. The prognostics for a State and the divination : an individual give the same result — when when the ruler of a State a sage. Mencius would judge people from the pupils of their eyes:^ — the for is heart being pure. or an ox in a hurdle. whereas his T'ai-hsuan-ching is = especially devoted to the elucidation of the Yiking. does their writing merely consist in mixing the ink and plying the pen. Note ^^Wii^' This work Ed.

2. and from reading the words. "Hate fictions and falsehoods. gets an idea of the feet. by explaining the foot-prints. for why should a false statement be made? Feet walking on the ground leave prints that may be nice or ugly. and the words formed of strokes' may indicate a good Therefore. and unprincipled thus clearly marked out and eschew the shame. so Pan Shu Pi was not disturbed by sympathies. Worthies for the pen of a writer cares for nothing but justice. Critique. . and sages having confided their thoughts to the pen."]^ and for ten and more chapters of the Lvn-hing one device might be chosen. Analects R. many strokes of the pen form a word. one or a bad character.— 280 for the iniquitous Lun-H6ng: C. one learns signalised. the reading of which enables later ages to distinguish between right and wrong. As Yang Tse Yiln did not belaud for wealth. [Should one it sentence express the purport of would be: "Do not harbour wicked thoughts. could not to know the character of the person all described. viz. In accordance with the foregoing: * — ^e46BJ(!^^ would suggest to write: "a/* ^B "fc^^^." * — the 300 Odes of the ShUcing The text reads: — ^^^&^^ijig» I which gives no sense. and a number of words bring out a sentiment.

and so men do not get tired of his laughing. that he might have decided for one alternative. laughs not. he does not fail to learn all about its government. My master speaks when it is the time to speak. Does he ask his information. Since his own heart did not tell Confucius this. he cannot have had a penetrating intellect or seen things from afar. and that in this prescience they do not possess a pecuhar kind of knowledge. Oar text repeats -^iMl^Sp. his heart wondering and not believing the reports. " This has arisen from the beyond the truth. "Is it so with him?"^ Is it so with him?"]^ There are men on earth as selfless as Po Yi who would not accept a straw from others. If we urge that Sages are not in possession not a of superhuman powers or prescience. and so men do not get tired of his taking. He laughs when there is occasion to be joyful. He takes when it is consistent with righteousness to do so. this is frivolous assertion or futile talk. or is it given to him?" Tse * -W ^H The AnalectB • These words are wanting in the Analects. How we show it? asked Kung-Ming Chia about Kung-Shu WSn. . and their reasons never so abundant. He had to ask Kung-Ming Chia. The Knowledge of Truth Whenever people (Chih-shih).— The Knowledge of Truth. and takes not? ^ Kung-Ming Chia replied. but none that would neither speak nor laugh. —— 281 CHAPTER XXVI. and there are proofs and testimonies shall establish the truth. saying.. * XIV. and so men do not get tired of his speaking. "Is it true that your master speaks not. 14. yet in their discussions depart nobody believes them. but the result of conclusions drawn to from the human [Cbnfuciiis faculties. thus being able to determine the truth. from truth and do not bear out their propositions by evidence. their arguments may be never so pleasing. to know the matter. "When our master comes to any country. Is this so ? " reporters going Ch^ [TseCJiin asked Tse Kung saying. This is the first proof that Confucitis did not possess foresight. > Analects have ^^." Confucius said.

owing to the impurity. and their prey. Note 5. courteous. so that he needed not to listen what others said. and therefore kept prisoner five days. C. upright. When his pot. or falls into the teeth of ferocious tigers. 1 Analects 1. * A State in the modern K' ai-feng-fu in Honan. quoted by the Pei-wen-yun-fu. an enemy of See Legge. ^ ate it. Tse CKin neither knew whence Confucius derived his information about government. ihey will give him information. though somewhat diflFerently. 268. This was neither supernatural nor an independent knowledge. Since he answered Duke Ching. and gnashing their teeth. I. fierce highway robbers. leaning on their swords.^ This Confucius." he also ought to have given to Tse CKin the reply that he was superhuman and was a endued with spontaneous knowledge.282 Lun-H6ng: said. in wait for Those who know it do not venture to proceed. Kung "Our master is benign.^ Had he foreseen it. to Men are well disposed him who is obsequious to them. and Tse Kung had to communicate to him the true facts. and Conjiicius was mistaken for Yang Hu. 217. it was unfit for an oflFering. quotes this passage from the ^^ J^ Confucius Hvi-ytian. 10." rejoined Tse Kung. and Tse Kung corrected the term. is it away he would have rice. Yen Yuan was cooking his food some dust fell into If he had it left it there his food would have been impure. "My master is a Sage. he runs into the swords of the lie in highwaymen ferocious tigers crouch in jungles. therefore out and ate the was under the illusion from a that Yen Ytuxn ate stealthily. and being well disposed. if somebody does not know it. The people of K'uang* surrounded Confucius. spilled the rice. Duke Ching of CKi inquired of Tse Kung whether his master Worthy. in the ^^Family Sayings" There Ten Yimn simply eats the rice. Fierce ambush. The reply of Tse Kung to Tse Ch'in is the second proof that Sages have no foresight. and complaisance are tantamount to obsequiousness. Classics Vol. why should he merely be a Worthy? "^ Duke Ching was not aware that Confucius was a Sage. why should he merely be a Worthy?. when Yen Yuan explains why he that. witnessing the third evidence that Sages have no foresight."] Benignity. . it had he thrown he picked distance. "is a Sage. 2 The Yuan-chien This incident is lei-kan chap. Critique. 8v. ' temperate. courteousness. p. uprightness. "My master. temperance. desires to have some for an oblation. Thus Confucius obtained his information government from about what people told him. the people of K'uang. and complaisant. and thus he gets his information. ' told.

But he did not foresee it. who. shows that he did not wish to see him. However. to avoid the danger. he did not know it the grave of his father. Note 2.The Knowledge of Truth. Confiwius must have known even this of himself and required no inspection. ' p.^ The people seeing it. Analects XVIU. ^ * » Wang Ch'ung:- gH. The 6.. is the fourth proof that Sages have no [The Master was put behind. he chose the time when he was not at home. Yang Huo is also called Yang Hu. The meeting of Confucius with Yang Hu is a sixth proof that Sages do not possess foresight. 107. this look is the seventh evidence of his not possessing any foresight. Cf. and therefore provisionally buried her on the Wur-fu. for before he arrived he imagined that he that he had died. If he did not know and had to ask. but Confucius did not wish he sent a present ^ of a pig to Confucius. being prescient. when he went not wish to see him. I. Confucius. He met him.] If Confucius it knew the ford he ought not to have inquired for again. encountered it. 1. and the 1 Analects XL. went to pay his respects. This is the fifth proof that Sages have no foresight. having chosen a time when Yang Huo was not at home. thought that was the rites for burial.]* [Yang Huo^ wished to see to see him. The circumstance that. pay him a visit. 22. on the way. This surrounding of Confucius foresight. however. and that the people of iCuang would not have wreaked their animosity against him. When highway of final the mother of Confucius had died."]' to If Confucius had been foreknowing he ought have known that Yen Yuan would certainly not have met with destruction. AnaUctsXVB. Analects: — ^^. at A the critic might object that he merely wished to have a work done by the two recluses. Vol. Confucius did to [Chiang Chu and Chieh when Confucius 5 passed by them. 283 he ought to have taken another road in time. Ni were at work in the and sent Tse Lu field together. It was not before Yen Yuan arrived that he knew was not dead. but he met him on the road. and came to grief. Confuciiis said. On this. for a joint burial being impossible. « 5E]^- Liki writes ^^- . to inquire for the ford. "I in fear in K^uang^ and Yen Yuan fell thought you had died.

difters. The mother of Man Fu of Tsou. ' but the text Chinese critics take for apocryphal. Confucius had not yet entered the grand temple . "The told earth slipped. he did not ask again. and returned.284 Lun-H^ng: C. though a Sage. It has them. informed place Confucius about the grave of his father. buried his mother together with his father in Fang. XX Vn. to set an example to mankind. and his disciples learned He should have asked again about them. when his pupils he should have awaited them with tears. and said. when they rejoined him. with the object of setting an example to others? Confucius them from him. Having buried his mother together with his father. one asks. Confucius could not been supposed that he had already seen that. [The Master.'' They him this thrice. to set an example. . but concerning the grand temple with which he was well acquainted likewise. Sacred it Books Vol. being in doubt. Critique.^ On this. he asked them what had made them so late. [Confuciiis A great rain came on. The fact that Confucius first buried her on a highway is the eighth proof that Sages have no foresight.]* example to mankind. but he only it learned after their arrival. when he entered the grand temple. Allusion to Analects XVI. 124). they took for the final one. why did he directly impart them to his by word of mouth? Regarding the Five Canons with which he was familiar. therefore he asked. and that he asked again. "from the grave at Fang. 10. {Legge. Note 2. 5r. he The burial was in Fang. without his giving them any answer. p. See also Vol. or Now. and knew all about Confucius says them. pupils knew the Five Canons.^ doubt. That is the ninth evidence of a Sage not possessing foresight. 15. He then wept freely. ask again. is found in the Liki. to set an everything. 123). he inquired '^ This episode p. in the temple there was a great variety of sacrificial vessels and. and. (Legge p. asked about He did not know."]^ Had arrived Confucius been prescient he would have known the collapse of the tomb in Fang beforehand. Quoted from the Liki eod. must he ask that is in must he who already knows the truth. 11." they said. leaving the disciples behind. know them all. T'an-kung. the provisional one being performed with it great care. 4r. 197. I.^ a neighbour. "I have heard that the ancients did not need to repair their graves. * ' Analects m.

» Ed. however. . solicitous for the people and not for his name.^ Accordingly Con- know things quite near him. He would not travel about in response to invitations. If. and that the people would continue living in a state of abject misery. and he is lodged as if he were in his own house. and only have brought disgrace upon him. food and drink are at the disposal of the latter whenever he likes them. perhaps be objected that Confucius himself knew quite well that he would not find employment. to set of Truth. When a host^ invites a guest. its real it character. • Cf. only to suffer the ignominy of having his foot-prints wiped out. C write -^ ^ >n Heu of jr ^. -4 and I. is The real nature of men is difficult to know. wherefore he accepted the invitations and travelled about. and would never have employed him. and expose himself to insult. if he is in his mind. 285 an example to others. for he sons that he would have no pleasure from it. Confucius had been prescient he would have been aware humbugged by malicious ministers. calculated to bring him undertakings things. he should have stayed A superior man does not do useless at home. the guest has heard that in the family of the host there are reprobate sons and grand- who prompt their parent to withdraw the dainty dishes and keep back the choice food. Probably he wished to assist the princes. so that there is nothing to eat or drink. In case he goes he has no enjoyment. Vol. and not easy to foretell good or bad luck. and not have gone. only to come If that the feudatory lords were into danger of being cut off fucius did not even It will from his supplies. knows vain. in order to carry out his principles and save the people.The Knowledge again. and to close his halls and shut his house to visitors. When the invitations and summonses arrived. 499. Wherefore did he not show the same diligence in both cases? The visit of Confucius to the grand temple affords the tenth proof that Sages have no foresight. he would go in and have nothing but annoyance. nor venture upon dishonour. the guest. p. and returns annoyed and He who does not know a family is not acquainted with insulted. he did not care about the aspersions cast upon his character. but his holy heart could not bear the idea that his doctrine should not be carried out. on no account accepts an invitation. and that all his efforts would have been in vain. He thought of his doctrine and not of himself. nor have wasted his admonitions on unworthy rulers. undaunted by shame and disgrace. therefore he did not hesitate to brave all dangers.

whether it can ride on the wind and the clouds. prays and divines. a ^ Cf. Lax> Tse and the dragon are a human and another creature. and his career was stopped. that fish Those running may be ensnared. '* 1 returned from Wei to Lu. before he dies. obeyed the calls. Thus Confucius^ before seeing indications that all was over. Note 1. Vol. 14. Lu and Wei could not employ him. and revised the Shiking and the Shuking. he was like a sick man who. His acceptance of the invitations and his wanderings are the eleventh proof that Sages have no foresight. Should he perhaps be like a dragon?"] A Sage knows all creatures and their actions. nobody in the world employ him. all the hopes cherished by his heart were As long as there not find out the truth. were no signs or indications. and thus rise on high. 358 says "those flying" "I ^^. he still hopes to retain his life. the Sage did when Wei and Lu declined his services. with a view to curing his disease. Note the interesting character ^S for i^. How did he know Since could Lu and Wei were the most virtuous states on earth. had come. and their doings Why did he not know in the sky and on the earth are actions. Restlessly wandering about. p. say this is not true. can swim.* be shot with an arrow. The prototype the Shi-chi reads as follow. and that beasts can run. and the Songs and That means to say proper places.'^ he was convinced that all was over. I. Confucius said. signs being manifest. 1 AnalectslX. p. Critique. know that birds can fly. Before the signs of death appear. and those be shot with an arrow. the dragon. wherefore he retired and produced the CKun-cKia. and the physicians^ sent home. frustrated. I do not know. From this return from Wei to Lu we infer that Confucius himself was in the dark as to the proper time for going and accepting an invitation. the diviners are dismissed. which shows that . Confucius. resolutely grasped the pencil and revised the books. but and he retired to quiet meditation. the Music [(Jonfucius said. ["The swimming animals can be caught with As regards a hne and those running. in ancient times physicians were taken for a kind of sorcerers. and tlien all Dithyrambs it? found their was reformed. To-day I saw Lao Tse. those swimming flying may be caught with a line." . When the marks of death appear. /|A * The parallel in passage I. then. expecting to find employment. 359. and when the people of Lu end he knew that the caught a unicorn."] ' that Confucius himself knew the proper time. which is better. His docThese trine had come to an end.286 I Lnn-HSng: C.

and so far still surpassed Min Tse Ch'ien. Cf. An ofScial from Ch'i. he should have made his escape. he divined and compared the various omens. possess foresight. which being hidden cannot be seen. he was still in doubt whether Heaven had granted his request or not. Consequently. therefore he divined from three tortoises. » ' * Analects XI. p. 287 them? likewise. "Filial indeed is Min Tse C/t'ien. One does not hurriedly walk up the /. [Confucius said. or if he had no means to do so. have remonstrated and averted it. and their spiritual fluids Confucius' ignorance are entwined. and all three gave a favourable reply. then why did he allow his father still and brother to detested them? become guilty of murder. 4. e. When the altars had been erected. but Yen Tse did * they did not disparage."]'^ Shun of Yil was a great sage. Note 1. I. Why did he not know them? Lao Tse twelfth proof is the that Sages have about the dragon and If All spirits no foresight. 187. The father and the brother of Shun. Ku Sou and Hsiang^ bade Shun build a granary and excavate a • well. so that after thou- sands of generations people hearing of such a father and brother That Shun did not foreknow this is the thirteentli proof that Sages have no foresight. Lao Tse was a spirit. and not have carried out the orders. I. This is the fourteenth proof that Sages do not Yen Tse^ had arrived in quiries. But the Sage would not make a law of his own view. and he acted accordingly. a dragon is also a spirit. ^ If Sages were prescient.The Knowledge of Truth.* Shun should have seen the attempt made upon his life and. in time. then Chou Kung ought to have known whether Heaven granted his prayer. Vol. for the will of Heaven is hard to be known. his mind was settled. wherefore he still prayed for a decree. ^ ' See Vol. p. and it was not necessary still to divine by means of three tortoises. with the intention to bring about his death. and a sage obey the same law. Men have no words of disparagement for his conduct in reference to his parents and brothers. and the prayer was spoken. When Wu Wang was ill Chou Kung asked for Heaven's decree. . If he disliked such a course. who hushed up the crimes of his own flesh and blood. the straws where consulted. 173. Im with a message of friendly inhall. The omens having brought a decision.

or did he not know?" Mencius said." "Then. affairs He says that the Duke of Chou administering the That is under his sway.' This is the fifteenth proof that Sages have no foresight. From small indications he draws his inferences. A Sage takes signs and omens to investigate the nature of things. and his calculations are generally correct. "Is it the fact that he appointed Kuan Shu to oversee Yin. which he thus comprehends. 91.* The prescience of a Sage bears some resemblance to the computations and correct calculations of Tse Kung. I. 9. Was not the error of Chou Kung in accordance with what is right ?"]^ Mencius is a man qualified to examine into a thing to the did not know either — — — — — — very bottom. * Note 2 and 408. his mind was penetratmg. Yen Tse knelt. Observing the he succeeded. in for his speculations. one does not disciples kneel. He is an able thinker. under 11. though a sage. and that Kuan Shu rebelled?" "It is."]^ Confucius finds fault with Tse Kung for being too much his given to opulence. he still fell into error?" "The duke of Chou" answered Mencius. j^ ^^ quotes this story. and. with vast views and an excellent memory. but it. ['•"T'^se the sixteenth proof that Sages have no foresight. p. I. 5v. Note 1. he gives them their proper names. according to his sagehood. noticing the his talents smallest minutiae. never short of ideas. Upon seeing extraordinary phenomena. he His knowforesees. but goods are increased by him. " What kind of man was the duke of Chou?" "A sage. Our text seems somewhat shortened." "Did the duke of Chou know that he would rebel. Cf. Part See Vol. The wondering. 146. a thousand years still to come. When the latter had explained the reason he understood it. Critique. ' » Menchu U. ledge is like a vast ocean. and purposely appoint him to that office. by his extensive learning. ." was the reply. hitting upon the right moment rising was as rich as T^ao Chu. did not receive Heaven's decree. did not know to rebel. Vol. Kuan Shu was his elder brother. that Kuan Shu was going Confucius said. and his wealth increased to such a degree. and considering the present. p. in his mind. and intellect ' The Pei-wen-^iin-fu chap. Lan-Heng: C. p. "was the younger brother. by his calculations. 376. that he and falling of prices. [CKen Chia asked Mencius saying.288 it. The glance of Confucius fell into every corner. he knows them. and presenting a jewel. asked Confudus about it but Confucms and inquired of Yen Tse. "He did not know. so to say.

and far superior to man. that is "What was already Duke Huan amazed. or catch imperceptible sounds. endowed with foresight. and his eyes and ears outvying those of other people in keenness." answered the other." said Kuan Chung. or perceive them from the greatest distance. He barely surpasses worthies by one degree. "This. "Is it you that spoke of an invasion of Chic?'' "Yes. may be gathered from the follow- ing story: Duke Huan rumoured saying.^ together with Kuan Chung. asked Kuan Chung State.— The Knowledge of Truth." "I did not say. then he would know everything in the heavens and on earth. — "There has already transpired in that State. Shantung. If the Sage had been able to look through things." replied Tung-Kuo Ya. "wherefore do you speak of an invasion of CAii?" servant. before is Kuan Chung said. or perceiving some object. to hear through solid bodies. the air of mourning. is he. "that a superior man has three different airs: — buoyant joy and merriment. in of Ch'i. . and might well be regarded as a spirit. different? why then should he be held to be a spirit and totally like Sages are for Worthies. his energy never flagging. whereas small people are skilful in finding them out.C. But he could not look through obstacles. When you make 685-643 — 1 B." rejoined Kuan Chung. and Worthies are merely but not names indicating a total difference." said Awan "Your Chung. and coming across something. Tung-Ku^o Ya arrived.^ Before this plan was carried out. and anger running through arms and legs. why do you suppose it?"— "I have heard. planned an it attack upon thu. the reason that the scheme I just laid with you it of attacking Chil must be a Sage in that State. "has heard that a superior man is — — — great in forming plans. he does not behave himself otherwise. and the most excellent among a men are called Sages. and Kuan Chung said. or know things unknowable to mankind. "I do not invade CAii." was the reply. ' A State in the present Ti-chou-fu. But now his eyes and ears see and hear Hke those of other people. 289 both most remarkable. no doubt. the air of bells and drums. all the others taking carried out?" their places according to their rank. or if he could talk to Heaven and Earth and converse with ghosts and spirits. After a short while." and he caused him to be treated as a guest and to be given the place of honour. the warlike air. I have ventured to do so. sorrow and stillness. consequently Sages designations a higher and as lower degree. "that I was going to attack Chil.

* and I had not yet ha^ time to look at it. He was 370-334 Ed. yo»i have Chil in view. "Dear me! Cfiun-Yii K'un is a Sage indeed. "It is true. somebody had offered me a song which I had not yet tried. When he came the first time somebody had presented me with a dragon horse." Kuan Chung was a man with a splendid nice distinctions intellect. e. Tung-Kuo Ya knew the plan. "In praising Cliun-Yu K'un. When I first saw the king. and when I saw him a second time. His statement that there must be a Sage in the State. ^'^—^^^• * Dragon was the name for a horse eight feet high {Erh-ya). this man must be he i.C." ' A famous controversialist and ready wit of the CKi State of the 4th life is cent. ed.^ you said that he outstripped Kuan Chung and Yen Ying. the son-in-law of the king of Ch'i." The and.^ The king was by way of reproach. to say that a prescient. my heart was still occu- pied with those things. at that moment CJiun-Yn K^un arrived.Yil K^un twice. well fit for and investigations. when CKun-Yil K^un arrived. Afterwards.290 a Lnn-Heng: C. instead of saying Tung-Kuo Ya arrived he said that a Sage. exclaimed. therefore I said so. e. Kuan Chung knew that at that period there were no men like the Twelve Sages. If that Tung-Kuo Ya was a Sages and Worthies were i. the latter greatly astonished. said to the gentleman. public. and when you lift your arm and point with your finger. was perfectly correct. you think of ChiX. King Hui of Liang. wry face and do not open your mouth. was one. but when he saw me. to He saw him surprised at but never uttered a syllable. and that a Worthy was differed a in no wise ^ from A gentleman introduced Ch'un. 126. Your servant begs leave to contend that the small State disliked by all the princes can only be ChiX. -Upon seeing Tung-Kuo Ya. it was engrossed with sounds. for there this. When The plan being spoken about in the State before it was made means Sage. that ..C. . B. two totally different classes. his mind was far away. was he Sage. I had nothing of him. B and C have j^^^^. Am I not worthy to be spoken to?" The gentleman informed CKun-Yil K'u7i who replied. wherefore I remained silent. no doubt. it. A sketch of his con- tained in the Shi-chi chap. Critiqae. — — gentleman having apprized the king. Kian Chung supposed that Sage is there must be a Sage.. 2 3 B. he declared that a Sage. and he should have said that there must be a Worthy in the State. Although I had dismissed my attendants.

" chao Yao was registrar in the seal department. 40. The Tso-chuan S instead of Sung. in the principality of Shen ^3 . want some data on which to base their reasoning: When King Ling of CIiu had a meeting with the other feudal lords. but to practice this foresight. the Shi-chi replaces Chu by Chin ^^. will by and by succeed to your In course of time Chao Yao really became registrar-general. ^ Vol. Kung. The knowledge of Worthies and Sages requires research. and thus comprehend it. The mind is in the bosom. a yellow dragon. This meeting is referred to in the Tso-chtian. and Wei^ would not — ^ come. and ascertained it by his being earth.C. . Even the sagacity of T^ang and Yix could not have gone farther. lOv. When the meeting took place the four States really did not attend. Kung-Sun Clien had foreseen the appearance of the yellow dragon. 4th year and writes Tsao in the Shi-chi chap. When saying. 217. * The style Huang-lung "Yellow Dragon" under 49-48 B. a native of Chao spoke to the registrar-general Chou CKang "Your Chao Yao. IV. sent a memorial to the effect that. Hist. then he must have been one if his equals or intent on . 358).C. By searching the reason and observing appearances one may make Tse manifest the future. Mem. Sages are not endowed with spontaneous knowledge. and use their computations. under the rigime oi Hsiao Win in Ti. office. Both are possessed of the faculty of foresight. Tse CKan of Cheng declared that Lu. but hidden and invisible. (Chavannes. Subsequently a yellow dragon put in an appearance and became the style of a reign. and Fang CKan discovered the reason why the four States would Yii Kung saw from outward appearances that Chao Yao would be made registrar-general. p. and miracles and ' 538 B.The Knowledge of Truth. Note 8. the emperor Hsilan Ti. they have recourse to their devices. Stmg. Duke Chao. Fang Yu registrar. ought to calculations. 3 Cf p. If men like diun-Yii K'un be deemed Sages. still CHun-Yu K'un did know it. its correlate. then how does the knowledge of Sages exceed that of Ch'im-Yii K'un respecting King Hui? Those who from a person's looks draw inferences as to liis character. p. 291 Thus CKun-YiX K'un saw that King Huis mind was absent sounds. not attend the meeting. be not regarded as Sages.* Consequently. or they are excellent thinkers and shrewd wits. Kung-Sun CKen^ of iw. the ruling element of the Han become visible. Chu.

any discrepance between their knowledge. the nature of Worthies and Sages differ. Critique. Accordingly. various.^ that sagehood a he was was not yet regulate is reached by Confucius their lives A Sage is like Worthy: — they and polish is their conduct. saying. e. Wherefore their prodigies belong to quite another sphere than Worthies. I thirty. at fifty. "At fifteen. and formless entities." i. certain signs ' ^Wr. . signifies that And. Tse Kuiig. case it is it said of a person that he will be a is Worthy. their manifestations cannot be inconsistent. but would be one. therefore Sages are not looked upon as spirits. as "will be. [A high officer "May we not say that your Master is a various is Sage? How his ability!" Tse Kung is said. 4. like Tse Rung. my ear was an obedient [Confucius said. 6. and the must be Sages as is well. and the substances being equal. and genius. by his shrewdness. only their designations but that does not disclose any divergence between their talents or asked Tse Kung. virtue. his ability is about a Sage. and his was an obedient organ. was not tempted astray.. and at sixty. Tung-Kuo Fa. his wisdom expanded. that of Sages and Their knowledge does not exceed all bounds. the Analects have ffij. Tung-Kuo Ya. The substances being different. > AnaUct3 IX."]'^ "About" is as much . sagehood being in his reach. by his acuteness.— 292 Lun-HSng: C. It The foresight of a Sage is that of Tung-Kuo Ya and being equal to that of these two men. at forty. for names may be interchanged. ^ and not yet a Sage. diffuse. and they use their mental faculties in a similar manner. knew the decrees of Heaven. The names of Sages and spirits are not the same. I stood firm. the natures cannot accord. In this stated that Confucius going to become a Sage. "Of course* Heaven has endowed him unlimitedly. and Tse Kung. He moreover.] * In the interval between the time when he knew the decrees of Heaven and the time learning when his ear was completed. acquired a fortune and made great profits. Spirits are obscure. nor are spirits held to be sage. nor does any miracle take place when they are in a perplexity. I organ. AnalecUU. knew the affairs of the State. Before his conduct well ordered. wisdom. the same. Worthies and Sages are designations implying excellency. At I had my mind bent on learning.

An (19). The time when Tse Kung repUed to the high was most likely the period of thirty and forty years. Benevolent and wise: Master. sagehood could not be acquired.* and Yen Yuan had all the members. » * 6 Mencius U. the highest degree of wisdom and virtue.C.]^ All — — » 295-277 This is B. are you a Sage?" Confucius answered him. I. received with the original nature. would seem to be consistent with truth. therefore T'^ien CKil declared it to be easy. but he will never become a genius. 2 2 Mencius writes Min T«e.— ^ The Knowledge of Truth. and a spontaneous faculty. Min Tse CKien. Kung asked Confucius saying. "what "Then. Part Mkiuiua n. Majesty perhaps is a Yao?" Sagehood may be learned. Tse Yu. before his having to won distinc- Yaxis knowing Shun\ know him only after he has made market people knowing Shun. If it were entirely beyond human power. I heard you express the opinion that to be a Sage is easy. intelligent man may increase his knowledge by study and do good work. (20). tion. „A Sage is what I cannot rise to. "Master. " Tse Hsia. is inborn and cannot be learned. Worthies can learn sagehood. — — is T^ien CJiii replied. ." "You learn without satiety: — that shows your wisdom. until the ear became an obedient organ. Now. Jan Niu. but in small proportions." quoth the king. learned then or acquired? how it could it be if THen CKil averred that was easy. then T'ien CKil could not have made the statement that is was easy." rejoined T'ien Cliil. and teach without being tired. I have not yet won laurels. and only their efforts made to that end may differ. Is that so?" "It is. you are a Sage. You teach without being tired: that shows your benevolence. Consequently the benevolent as well as the wise are entitled to the {Tse name of Worthy or Sage. To the period when he was still before the age of and ignorant of the decrees of Heaven. May I venture the counter-question whether Your his mark. "are you a Sage?" I have learned. is like "To know like the a Sage. and Tse Chang had each one member of the Sage. 2 not true : — Sagehood. Part I. without satiety. sixty was reached. I learn Tse Kung said." officer. the term "will be" is applicable. [^Mencius said. 293 fifty of complete sagehood. King Chao oi Wei^ questioned THen CKil saying. and Your Majesty asks me whether I am a Sage."]' It may be seen from this that the benevolent and the vdse may be called Sages. His reply to the king that it was what he had learned. "When I was in the eastern palace.

"]^ again he said. or they were complete. also to take office: — that was the way When it was proper to go into office. is they were all called Sages. Mencius VII. Note 3. . it when — were all Sages of antiquity. character of Hui of Liu-hsia. possessed the talents of the Sage. Critique. Those two made themselves distinguished a hundred generations ago. yet Mencius called them all Sages. and felt their inspiring influence!"]^ Yi Yin. I.294 Lun-Heng: C." Confucius being a Sage. 15.. therefore. when it was proper to withdraw from it quickly. but not complete. and are those whom I command not my people?. but not very brilliant.^ then to keep retired from it. sagehood. 312. and the niggardly become liberal. and for that reason may be denoted by the same name. Disciple of Confucius. ["Not to serve a prince esteem. those who hear of them. Could such efibrts be produced by them. Vol. was proper to keep retired from office. then to continue in it long. Nevertheless. attainable by exertion. he ought to have said "a greater Sage than Yao and Shun'''' in lieu of saying a greater Worthy. these six disciples. wherefore their names are promiscuously used. whom he did not he did not approve. These of Yi Yin. Worthies and Sages fall under the same category. 2 3 Mencius H. then to withdraw quickly: that was the way o{ Confucius. "In my opinion the Master is a greater Worthy then Yao and Shun by i'ar. and Mencius also said. but either these talents were very refined. Worthies and Sages are about the same. p. Part 2 (22). at their time. Part U. and the weak acquire determination. Therefore when men now hear the character of Po Yi. and on the occurrence of confusion to retire: this was the way of Po Yi. nor command a people whom — — when disorder prevailed. when it was proper to continue in it long. Mencius: — tV-. the mean become generous. are all aroused in this manner. and after a hundred generations. ["A Sage is the teacher of a hundred Hui o{ Liu-hsia. generations: And — this is true of Po Yi and * Our text has P. and Hui of Liu-hsia did not equal Confucius. if they had not been Sages? And how much more did they affect those who were in contiguity with them." in a time of good government to take office. Po Yi. To say: "Is he whom I serve not my master. the corrupt become When they hear the pure. Tsai F«* said. to go into it. in a time of good government to take office. I.

find great care on their state papers. adding paragraph to paragraph and chapter to chapter. man may have an extensive it knowledge. and who as teachers impart to others the results If they can analyse their ideas. But. The big and small trees which we see on a mountain are Still a familiar sight to us. abridge or enlarge the texts. On Preeminence [Ch'ao-chi). but cannot use them. but the Chinese interpret them in such an artificial way. who know how to explain this plethora of fine sayings. and in the higher or lower plants which we cut discover in the country we find nothing new. without regard to the chronicle. and work them into cottages. Hard working students of profound learning and imposing erudition there are ever so many. chapters and less than They who have worked through more than a thousand ten thousand books. Such a man remains an obscure scholar and merely book-learned. so that reports to the throne pass for literary productions and are often collected and edited. Confucius took the chronicle^ and transformed it into the CJiun-cKiu. on the other hand. are very learned.On Preeminence. praising and condemning. and how to fix the meaning and the reading. according to theii" preconceived ideas. Only men of great learning understand to avail themselves of these subjects for literary purposes. or gather the plants. prepare medicines from them. but not one among ten thousand is qualified to write books or compose essays on subjects of the past or the present time. report to the throne and memorialize. he is on a level with those who cannot fell trees or collect herbs. they are men of letters and eminent scholars. When he came to setting forth his own views and developing his ideas. but he unable to gather is into an essay. In so far as Confxmus is believed to have read three hundred Odes and transmitted them for the benefit of those ignoring the principles of government. 295 CHAPTER XXVII. is A learned We know trees and plants. that they discover the deepest meanings in the plainest words. 2 ' We nothing of all this in tiie Ch'un-ch'hi. where an unprejudiced reader sees nothing but the statement of simple facts.' argue a point and discuss a question. we cannot down and the trees. which are but very dry chronological tables. . of their studies. his wonderful thoughts poured out from his heart.^ • The Chinese have always bestowed The chronicle of Lu. rewarding and punishing.

Otherwise such men appear sporadically.^ those who collect books and records and present memorials to the throne. and eminent scholars are superior even to so to speak. They are rare in the second degree. and Chou Kung. but eventually mountains harbour even gold and gems. copper and iron are very seldom found in them. Eminent scholars are the gold and the gems of their age. they still eclipse one another by their talents.^ vie Thus scholars surpass common people. scholars. have flourished simultaneously like Wen Wang. but writers are rare even in successive generations. but though so extraordinary. or a silk embroidery with a far behind. resembling pearls and jewels. Eminent scholars are.^ Those well versed in ancient and modern literature are learned. common is cart. the learned out- the scholars. Hills ' All authors of the Han period oflen mentioned by Wang CKung.* and those never in need of ingenious thoughts to compose themselves. Critique. creative power. and mountains are formed of earth and stones.^ a comlike collating the foot them parison impossible. In recent times Liu Tse ChSng. are eminent and Htian Chiin Shan ^ Wu Wang. men of letters.296 Lun-Heng: C. in spite of their double superiority. like comparing an elegant carriage with a quilted garment. men of letters outrival the learned. To contrast them with ordinary is scholars. . Copper and iron are rare. which owing to their preciousness are never found in masses. reciting verses treatises. may peruse over a thousand they are after all but talking parrots. and humming over learned chapters. Yang Tse Yiin. Well informed people there are plenty in every age. twice superior. The imaginative faculty necessary for books and stories and a rich and smooth diction are special gifts of men of genius. are men of letters. joining paragraphs and chapters. Whoever is able to explain one Classic is a scholar. for they leave against of common people Mount T'ai with the is Setting them and the summit plant and the neck of a tall Ti. 8 • Gigantic savages said to have come to China. That which is so much esteemed in learned men is their Those who do nothing but reading. father and son.

Wang Kung Tse asked Huan Chun Shan about that from the rise of the Yang Tse Yiin. I. Yang-CKmg Tse-Chang wrote the Tse Yiin the Classic of Music and Yang V ai-hsiian-ching ^ for the furtherance of thought. propound their own ideas and do not borrow from w^ithout. I. 388. Some cannot complete one tablet or write one essay. p. knowing how and write. 6 Cf. and their sentences are counted by tens of thousands. and by their grandeur and elegance proved themselves to possess the genius of second sages. 88. without producing anything from their own minds like Lu Chia and Tung Chung Shu. Wang Ch'ung's Ed. Note 2. Notes 3 and 6.^ who.> 4-. Ed. that but a man of almost perfect talents vu. 388. others gather crowds of disciples around them their words flow like a stream. but the Classics are too high for them. I. . Vol. 5:— fe'^±^im^.. 88. p.4 and C read h which would not agree with places above * 5 appreciation of memorialists for 4whom he mere commentators. But they rely on accomphshed facts and merely record former events.^ productive themselves. Such are Sse-Ma CKien and Liu Tse Cheng. 297 There are various degrees of learning. could have produced them. . and their style is as luminous as the moon and Tse Yiln as the stars. by Confucius. Those of the highest order come up to tators Ku and Vang Tse Kao. They surpass Ku Tse Yiin and Vang Tse Kao by far. others discourse on right and wrong and offer their advice to the government. the meaning of ' . Their words resemble those of the Classics and records. Some savants collect and enumerate historical facts of ancient and modern times and narrate things that have happened. Hrmn Chiln Shan replied Han dynasty to read 1 They possess only an elementary Cf. p. Scholars apt to explain words in a school are far ahead of uncultured Some are unable to interpret one Canon and teach their persons. and the They most remarkably as it were. pupils.'^ t^i^y Commenare not move in the same sphere memorialists. Vol. On Preeminence. works so profound and abstruse.. » 3 Note 2. See Vol. arguing on the affairs of the world. and they are regarded as experts of the Classics. ^ They have thus compiled a great number of chapters. Nevertheless the readers will call their productions records. Confucius wrote the Ch'un-ch two scholars each produced a followed the traces left Classic. All shallowness thus becomes easily manifest. p. learning.

Huan Chiln Shan is the foremost. and the expressions are the leaves. must be superior to those thus ranked. When between inside interaction and a harmony the mind sets to work. Then characters appear. At a competition of archery the mind must be tranquil. In discriminating talents he may be said to have correctly distinguished between high and low. and the skill of those who perforate tortoise-shells is more Similarly he who knows wonderful than that of the tortoises. heart must have produced the ideas. and a debater shows his superiority by his writings." in which he treats of the affairs of the world.^ Besides Huan Chiin Shan wrote the "New Reflections. prolific authors are a pride of mankind. their solid The painted characters kernels within. and the the writers. not to Huan Chiin Shan. it would be like a variegated plumage of a bird growing ruflfled and disorderly. and fictions are truth and falsehood. first In Vol. the bow and the arrow firmly grasped. Should there all grow and feathers are variegated be no idea illustrated by the letters. 466 Wang Ch'ung seems to assigu the C'h'ien place among the writers of the Han time to Sse-Ma and Yang Tse Yiin. Consequently. to those evidently wrong. lies. If these words and the heart manifests itself through words. and their husks without. and outside. Both of letters A man — abilities proceed from the mind. we may say that we have an able writer.298 there Lun-H^ng: C. the body straight. A critic must not be superior he criticises. Critique. the flowers and the husks of Their genuine ideas are in their bosoms. the Words issue from the bosom. Arguing is like shooting arrows: the arguments must be in accordance with reason. their essence This is is the same. how to discriminate between the talents of all the scholars and assign his rank to each. their leaves and blossoms above. The style writing words. as the arrows must hit the target. then the mark may be hit. had not been such a man. appear unusually fine and remarkable. These resembles a bird with feathers. Among critics like Yang-CK eng all reduced to their proper entities. the pencil follows suit."^ From Tse-Chang and Yang Tse Yiin^ him downwards there have been many great and brilliant talents. and we have had excellent works. on the body. and the kernels come out. I. Tliey are in most cases ^ much above him. . An archer proves his skill by hitting the mark with his arrow. clearly distinguishing between Unfounded assertions. p. The minds of the lapidaries are more admirable than their precious stones. Thus there is an written words appear on bamboo and silk. They have their roots below.

T^e that. Ch'un-ch'iu treats as much of ministers and high officers as of princes. Therefore it is very seldom that thoy In times of danger achieve success. From the Ch'un-ch'iu we learn to know the minds of princes. who died in 178 B.On Preeminence. that literary productions are something external and do not necessitate a com- by analogies bination of genuine talent and learning. later on. corrected.c. he really did. Moreover. that the elders wished he might manage the empire. King Chuang Note 2. and that Sun-Shu Ao's^ finding for the CKi-sse river new channel minister. them by word of mouth. foreshadowed his becoming a prime The study of is government matters the water-channel. may and thus write their books. * The text writes in Shu Sun Ao which must be 6th cent. which. no and no kernels. there roots. and the other scholars acquaint us that the cutting of meat with the thoughts of ministers. A'. b. See also Vol. Ch'un-ch'iu of Confucius is Thus the of living a chronicle of the usual way of rulers. that authors. Sun-Shu Ao vr&s a minister of Ch'u the We read in Huai Nan I. provided they possess a vast proceed and a thorough eri'dition. Thus the composition of paragraphs and chapters requires great talent and a savant of Without strong feet exceptional genius. learning and practice. The writers lose sight of the great prinand the main points. to water the wilds of Yiln-lou. 160. The records of other scholars describe the usual proceedings of ministers. Somebody may not be ministrative able personally to put into action or the adto fix devices of sovereigns and their ministers. .' They say forecast a by Ch'Sn P'ing'^ was a of his future premiership. knew that he would be a < good prime minister. and without a sharp* edge one cannot make a deep cut. but he can wrote the CKxm-cliiu give expression to his feelings and prove himself qualified to carry out those designs. p.-^l for |g. Called upon to distribute the sacrificial meats at the altar to the spirits it of the land. is they say. ^ One of the Three Heroes at the beginning of the Han dynasty.C. poor thoughts. are hidden in flowers of speech. historical works and adjusting more than those presages of the meat and one cannot walk long. Ed. Some contend experience. he did with such impartiality. In writing deep thoughts and vast schemes 299 may find expression. when he diverted the waters of the CKi-sse river. and the records of other writers embrace the doings of princes as well. ciples no depth. men The of learning are not there ^ This distinction is rather arbitraiy. Con/ncvm in which he reveals the ideas of the princes.

reply that this not true. See Vol. a city in Shantung originally belonging to Ch'i."^^ we see how can the notes originally taken were sent up to the Throne. 298. thus showing that they cannot accomplish remarkable deeds. Wei. all further circumstances. 2 ' A politician of the 3rd cent. " On Ku Yung and T'ang Lin see Vol.c. -BL I. in He is advised the emperor to get rid of the feudal princes. touches people to a general Thus in consequence of the I. Note 5. and several tablets joined together form an essay." In the case of Ku Yung's "Reports"'^ and Tang Lin s^^ "Words that must be the archives of Oiin. Note 1. Lu Chung Lien. p.^ said"'^ or of Liu Hsiang's "Earnest Propositions. 3. 463. 888. p. In the Choti time all the writers were practical politicians. flying letter of Lu Lien^^ Cf. and merely 1 know how is to ply their pen. a full • '* mmHis State. among the treatises on law. Lnn-Heng: C. How they be held to be elegant writings and beautiful sayings or flowers of speech without a raison d'etre? it When the core. p. at the court of Prince Hsiao CKeng of Chao. plans for Chao and determined its moving forward and backward. who gained the sobriquet the Wisdom-Bag.^ which was agreeing with his own "New Reflections. and ideas manifest themselves ^ in words. b. The Yu-shih-ch'un-ch'iu in 15 books. Why then say that literary productions are not like leaves and flowers evolved from roots and kernels? Thoughts engender devices. He resolved to write a Ch'un-cKm^ and offered his advice for the city. » deep feeling issues from the heart.* The work on agriculture and warfare was a sheme kept in Shang Yang as minister of Ch'in brought about its and wrote a book Lu Chia^ superseded the devices of Lu Pu whose work' had the same purport as his "New Words. Lu Chung . and under the regime of the Han all the outspoken scholars have been officials of great learning.1. 8 ^ p. Note 8. supremacy Yil CKing'^ formed on agriculture and war. « '' Vol. p. A work of his 31 books mentioned in the Han-shu chap. a wandering philosopher of in the GKi When about 238 a general of Yen was beleaguered Liao-cKeng. A scholar of the 2nd cent. 30. Vol. b." and Huan Chun Shan^ abrogated the scheme of C/iao Tso. Feelings appear in expressions.c. name is ^ ^^ J^ b. * 6 We are ignorant of I.c.300 to help. by an army of this State. 463. Critique. 469. Note The well-known See above Lil-shih cJCwn-cKiu.

To compose such writings it does not suffice to possess great learning The or much practice in writing. and arrange vince or a complications. 3. scarce. and should they merely use their intellectual faculties for scribbling on boards and tablets? Provinces or prefectures having all troubles. Had he lived in a former age under Prince Chao of Yen. but the literate were neglected and their productions ceased.c. 301 of Yen laid violent hands upon himself. Note Note 1. we shall ourselves to Kuei-chi in recent times. report to the emperor. and high functionaries not to appreciate them. Officers were commissioned and payed their respects to those in authority. but his two chiefs Uked the common type of men and could not appreciate him. and in a prefecture he made the reports for the prefect. Officialdom gave much annoyance to the emperor indeed. Chou Cliang Sheng. it is difficult to find records of men of letters in ancient which are too distant. the province and the prefecture were thrown into disorder. Ten treated him with great consideration and had a special palace built for him. and exert their not easily be removed? Tang Tse Ftin. or his deserts too insignificant. Ming Kuan. The afore-mentioned T'ang Lin and I. but Eminent scholars are men of letters a great many. difficulties Provided that a proofficers prefecture be in and possess set like Kao and Ku Tse their minds. so that the complications could not be adjusted. he would have met with the same favour as Tsou Yen^ After the death of Chou CRang Shing. I. and the two governors well ofi".' letter and the memorial had taken the heart out of them. ministers. This letter pointing oat to the general his helpless condition induced him to suicide. these scholars can take all necessary measures.On Preeminence. A famous writer of the 4th The prince of cent. The province and the prefecture were delivered of all Chou CHang Sheng was difficulties. b. Vol. There lived a student of the very first order.^ who would to work. and on receiving the memorial from Tsou Yang King Hsiao of Liang opened his prison. 67. 1 commit 2 3 * See Vol.^ In a province he was engaged in writing memorials for the governor JSn An. Tung. Cf. often mentioned by Wang CKung. or in out-of-the-way places at the confine outskirts of the empire. 469. not honoured. would disturbances Since days. for want of officials to draw up reports. Lien shot a letter bound to an arrow and addressed to the general into the surrounded city. p. Matters were settled and all troubles removed. . all strain literary abilities. Are governors. Kv. not because his knowledge was inferior. p.

antiquity and down to recent times. Would after the death of Tung Chung Shu his works not be in the hands of men like Chou CHang ShSng? What does extraordinary mean? It denotes the excellence and T^ang Lo^ and Sung Yii. and Kiangsi. whence the title of his work: He was not only a man of letters. I.302 Lun-Wng: C.C.^ were also men superiority of writings. as the Grand CJtou CHang ShSng went up to remote Annalist did in his Tables. and odoriferous plants were offered from Ferghana. e. and minutiae from Htiang 7i to the down an eminent scholar. but their names have not been transmitted on as a tribute from ' mm/. 5. Notes 2 and 3 we the statement that white pheasants were offered by the Tiieh-chang people and Japanese. of letters of CKu. * odoriferous plants by the Yung-chou. A contemporary of Sung Yu. According to the Hannshu he. 2nd cent. Connexions). he wrote 16 books of poetry. said Confucius." . But the jottings of Chou CHang Sheng were not ability did not solely assert itself in his official all. ® Another poet of CKu. he also the smallest details wrote the Tung-li ' in ten chapters. [" Wen Wang is no more. and Yangchou is the modern Chekiang. I. 2 j^ 3* Yen Chi. B. Ching-chou.. Critique. cit. and Cliing and Yang-chou^ As precious things grow in unknown. Kuangsi.'^ In Yung-chou jewels are found. >Hn . His original name was Chuang. and the works of Confucius in the hands of Tung Chung Shu. In former times there was Yen S/tang. recording all Han dynasty. Yung-chou corresponds ® Analects IX. and his documents.^ Vu Tse^ later on Wu Chi'm and finally Chou CHang Sheng. ' This connexion with Chou * man seems to be CKang Sheng In "Vol. takes it Legge and others here translate aT' by "tnith. The Han-shu chap. identical with the Wu find Chun Kao mentioned Vol. and Yang-chou are three of the Nine Provinces of to modern Shensi and Kansu. in as an elegant writer in p." whereas mentions his poems Wang CKung ' in the sense given in the translation. and parts of Ssechuan. 30 in 4 books. Yu. nephew of the famous CKii Yuan. p. now incorporated into the ^^ ^5 "Elegies of CKu. Note 3. but Tung-U [i. Kuei-chou and Kuang-tung. Hupei. so it cannot be said that there are no extraordinary men. 505. Fukien. a scholar H-j- who wrote poetry in irregular verse. far are productive of gold. e. 469. being the name of an emperor. which he changed because the character. Ching-chou comprised Hunan. had become taboo. White pheasants were brought Annam. distant countries of the four quarters. but have we not here his writings?"]® The works of Wen Wang were in the hands of Confucius.

Ed. and conversely they promote the worthy from the present time and rank them with the ancients. not done because these dukes were much superior to the sovereigas of the other States. recent people are prone to exalt antiquity and belaud what it. and the fluid. ^ Ed. men of are designated after the chronology of Lu.' Shhig have been He takes precedence among those who ^ Nine ProAdnces^ there are many mountains. 303 C/iou Ch'ang bamboo or silk. is not right that his clan's-people slight him. on their first years. 5. If a chief of the clan be a clever man. Those who understand the true nature of things^ and see the difference between right and wrong. The brightness of their mind and their clear intellect act as a safeguard against common prejudices. which gives no sense. is is In spite of the excellence of his writings. but because work is the chronicle of Lu. which are specially noted. A and C write ipT ^a. Heaven difference with the primogenial with the original essence. word. whom is all mentioned for CKang 8h4ng was such a chief of the spoken learning revered. Thus Chou CKang Sheng is mentioned as a primus inter pares. Ed.On Preeminence. enlightened come first. but Mount There are many rivers in all direcare the highest. How ? between old and new and man endowed could there be such an enormous The good rank highest.. cream have a sour Chou CKang Sheng's home was and he lived in the present era. CKu Yuan has outshone them. Mount HiM and Tai are the most elevated. but the Yangtse and the Yellow River are the main streams. they have heard about If the question be about the deeds of sweet honey and in Kuei-chi even cabbage tastes sweet to them. and as to the even achievements of their successors.-^ff ^Ij^. and so was Chou Cliang Shing it the greatest man of his prefecture and his province. B: — ^s ^R. ' Ed. he looked upon as an epigone by filled many critics. . tions. That his name alone is the same reason that in the CKun-cKiu the first years Chxnt. and the Yangtse and the In the Hua and Tai Yellow River the largest of their kind. Should the only literary talent of Kuei-chi? are not mentioned.^ and C:-^^. in ' * * According to the ancient division of Yil. take them whom they find uuAvorthy from their first place and push them into the background. situated is Shensi and Shantung. to confer their praise upon a chief of another family. e.. ^^ h. taste. In the Ch'un-chHu the chronology based on the reigns of the dukes of This is Lu this i. Two of the Five Sacred Mountains.^ Common the ancients.

are very rare. when is covered and rainy. recording everything with the greatest care. Why then should there be no exuberance of exquisite literary compositions? Blossoms usually grow together with fruit. . 86. leaves and flowers grow in abundance. the children having been succeeded by grand-children. The Chou had a hundred generations. That in our age so appeared simultaneously. Pan Ku. there are peach apricot trees covering the hills trees. When many the sky is clear. his style bore a great resemblance to that of Pan Shu P'i and not only a remote one. Pan Shu P'i continued the work of the Grand Annahst in more than a hundred chapters. its brilliant it growth. Provided that antic^uity must be upheld. or Lu and Wei. 147. p. the family affairs of a citizen imperial court: we may obtain a glimpse upon the When and hemp a cottage has been built. a generations: brilliant literature. is Note 7. is was no great * The Han dynasty like a fertile land with many trees full of blossoms its and fruit.— 304 ^ Lun-H^ng: C. sheds a lustre on the Han dynasty. How should a barren mountain become densely wooded. although they came after The Han likewise are preceded by a hundred and from why should their literary productions not be conspic- uous? Great things may be illustrated by small ones. Critique. many famous writers.* Kao Tsu reading a book of Lu Chia exclaimed with a sigh. then Pan Shu P'i. many years' residence. but his principles all right. ^ ' M^ its p. or a dry field grow fertile? The Han era is peculiarly fertile in literary talents. are not worth mentioning. plum. It is long since the house of Han has been established. and everthing prospers. an eloquent testimony to the stars twinkle. father and son. • Cf. Vast is their territory and numerous their people. and and overshadowing the plain. Vol. and like a clear sky on which twinkle stars. They were as similar as the Dukes of Chou and Shao. I. Between these two model princes and the two States of Lu and Wei there Chien the designation of the historian difference. I. there are usually mulberry trees After first.^ so to say. When his son Pari Meng Chien^ was secretary of aboard. The readers were of opinion that he was even superior to the Grand Annalist. able scholars. but have no blossoms. Rectitude flourishes. the sun and the able writers have moon are obscured. His style was easy. "Ten thousand years for such a man!" HsiX Yileh and Chu Fu Yen^ ' See Vol. and plants which bear fruit. pear. Roots and stems being so many.

to touch their hearers. but those Good musicians would are not Hsil Before like Lu Chia edited his whose ear they win book. talk they and what they said had no They could congratulate themselves that for their licentious and dissolute were not banished to sandy shores in distant parts. polished and unrefined. Had imperial grace? They who adorn their faces all desire to become beautiful. but like very few persons deign to look at them. the great majority used to speak blind people. and the schemes of many. is mouth disHkes the taste. how could they have deserved any appointment imperial favour? by . I have not heard that at present it never happens that a dish proves bitter or sour. Their style was unsense. what would have been the cause of the exclamation " Ten thousand years " or the appointment by couched in Such an ciative of literary merit. classical or historical literature. as the saying is. 305 were appointed secretaries in consequence of their memorials. using coarse expressions. most graceful terms. if the not Hft the food to feed the mouth. the hand does Very often an imperial rescript issued concerning a man belonging to one of the Four Branches. highly apprethe afore-mentioned memorials had no purport and the book no sense. Yileh and Chu Fu Yen obtained a hearing. but. thought. edict is conspicuous in composition.On Preeminence.

they abscond. Note 2. practise its sagehood own manner. and their birds and beasts. chap. which have deep thoughts and keep aloof from China. but if sages must show themselves. then the Twelve Sages ^ ought have hidden. Thoughts on Omens The Literati hold that the phoenix and the unicorn appear for the sake of a holy emperor. unicorns ought likewise to teach and admonish. 155. * » p. Note See Vol. all is When virtue reigns in when there no virtue. Why practice so different? Provided that sages must hide. 142. I. Two things may well be similar without agreeing in every feature. ' Their names are given Cf.306 Lun-Heng: D. who are wrong. See Vol. Sages about toil world's sake. I. Vol. and phoenixes and Sages wander and phoenixes and unicorns should also join must they leave China behind. If these kind-hearted sage animals are cautious. consider the phoenix and the unicorn as being kind-hearted and sage animals. and the phoenix and the unicorn pure? Why is their sagehood the same. p.^ in the world. A sage animal in its must not necessarily adopt human ways. XXX. p.^ They danger. 304. and their compassion of the people in paid no heed to dangers. Folklore and Religion. Here again our author I ' falls into his old error of exaggerating analogies. sages are no less so. they appear. to sojourn beyond the frontier? Are the sages defiled. the arrest of Win Wang in Yu-li. but might in 2. CHAPTER XXVIII. Extolling the goodness and intelligence of the two animals. the phoenix and the unicorn ought to do so as well. {Chih-jwi). I. . Vol. they at the same time wish to compliment the sages.'^ and the straits of Confucius in CKen and T'sai^ W4n Wang and Confucius were benevolent sages. their efforts for the world. and keep away from dangers. so in spite of possessing the wisdom of to benevolent sages they could not avoid imprisonment and troubles. This statement is If the phoenix and the unicorn are for the sage. I. there being nothing but their virtue to attract the phoenix untenable : — and trouble and the unicorn.

Spiritual Bird. in the case. yellow dragons. may cultivate his character and rectify his principles. . A degree less than a sage. 57. The phoenix and the unicorn came for Yao and Shun. then the dicta of the literati respecting phoenixes and unicorns are mistaken. cf. Birds and beasts are less intelligent than man.^ — If the phoenix and the unicorn really appear for a sage emperor. 73-49 b. to ^^ 61.c. then both appear for a worthy* too. As what the scholars say of ^ As has been said above. Perhaps just these names have given rise all the fables about the appearance of these omens under the said emperor's reign. beasts. XIV. All titles what is going on among them. still sages cannot eschew vexations. and the State to learn is well governed. and they also came for Hsilan Ti. view to illustrating government proclaim the of an enlightened monarch. phoenixes appeared five times and a unicorn once. that he was not a sage. in his conduct. of the reign ::fe Jjirtl ^# of the 53. and wine springs all became visible. State is well ordered or not? qualities Men are similarly and their moral are the same. viz. and man there cannot be any intellectual intercourse. Spiritual birds. and Yellow Dragon. 366. consequently they came for sages and worthies as well. See Vol. how can the former ' know then whether a organized. Hsiao Hsilan Ti must have been a sage. 307 Everybody. however. Their arguments strain the point and deviate Furthermore. wrong. Besides. when there is a wise ruler. If the phoenix and the unicorn alone are apt to remain unscathed in the turmoil. chap. beasts. between birds. p. Sweet Dew. different How and should birds and beasts endowed with a nature quite Man does not understand do not know man either Both are aliens to one another. the doings of brutes must be better than those of sages. inferiority of man and from truth. "H"^^ 49.^ whence we have the year titles: Five Phoenixes. the phoenix and the unicorn are supposed to make their appearance in China. Han emperor ^^"Hji Hsilan Ti. yet they do not know each other. The but he cannot prevent others from doing him dealings of sages are unequalled. to beasts but incidentally they birds.Thoughts on Omens. Should they come for worthies. 51 >^ * B c. I. sweet dew. do phoenixes appear for sage emperors only? Under the reign of Hsiao Hsilan Ti. know man? latter birds and the The with a scholars all make much of the the excellence of phoenixes. how can they know him all the same? from the human. a ' But then they must have intercourse with men.

work which existed prior to the Christian but the quotation agrees with the later work written in the 3rd century a. while his tears were wetting the lapel of his coat. Seeing the unicorn. which was not only captured. 8v. opine that Heaven invested through a unicorn. exaggerated. If. and not owing to the cause of appearance.^ Some one informed Confucius. p. that it had not come view of the peaceful government. he wondered why it had come. Folklore and Religion. but because the prospects of his doctrine were on the wane. perhaps from the original era. Confucius. he was disheartened. it was with reference to its capture and death. in asked. Duke Ai. for Confucius was a sage without the imperial dignity. and that unworthy persons would do away with From the is the inference it. which chanced to enter the marshes of Lu. "The it lin comes only when there it is an intelligent king. "Why has it come? Why has it come?" He was aware move the unicorn. It is a common animal. 4. 14th year.. ' and generally regarded as spurious. compared himself with this unicorn.d. * In the "Family Sayings" Confucius. Confucius did not take himself for an emperor. who happened to capture it.308 sages is Lun-Heng: D. I say that this view was already current among the literati of the time of Confucius. therefore. and neither the then sufficient virtue arrival. ^ Quotation from the ^LHT'^C^'' *^® ''Family Sayings of Confucius" chap. the arrival of a unicorn has no special reason. upon being asked why he is wept. so their arguments on phoenixes overshoot the mark. question of Confucius "Wherefore has it come" drawn that the unicorn oomes for a wise emperor. but dead. and his tears dropped down on the lapel of his coat. The CKun-cKiu relates that hunters in the west captured a dead unicorn." and with the back of his sleeve wiped his face.]^ Confitcius The scholars recording this.* ' Duke At. shed tears. Now. His hopes having failed. As a matter of fact. why has it come?. the last paragraph of the CKun-cKiu. nor the prince of to Lu^ possessed Whence Confucius' amazement at its Therefore he of which he did not know the purpose. but was not well acquainted with the animal. Confucius beholding the captured unicorn. who exclaimed. also. a unicorn makes its appearance for a sage emperor. This why I when was so . its on perceiving the unicorn. mentioned above in Note 5. says. who. ["Why has it come. reigning monarch. There it was discovered by the people of Lu. thinking that his doctrine was lost and would not be revived. it Now it has appeared is not the time for to do so. had heard of it. and has been injured.

is dies killed by man. How do we know that they live in foreign countries? The tortoise. Although its nest be destroyed fly and its eggs be broken. p. and their eggs broken. The phoenix live is related to the tortoise to and the They all in China. be of foreign origin. the tortoise and the dragon. why does it come. and it arrives. This passage is cited in the Pei-wen-yun-fa. and after the burning of the wood. which appear all perils. the dragon. and men have no occasion to destroy them. Therefore. 834. and near man. * Again a wrong analogy. the phoenix be supposed to be a foreign bird.' dragon. which. likewise. . As holy animals are unfit to escape from all troubles. because it is seldom seen and not killed. If. V. but do fly away. Classics Vol. is unfounded. no such ruler? The unicorn is supposed to l)e very cautious and to avoid injuries. we know its that it does not come for the sake of a holy ruler. that a unicorn arriving by mistake lost its life. phoenixes and unicorns do not live in foreign lands. it and from the mise that fact that was captured and killed in i/M.^ not much aflFected. too." {Legge. nor is anything mentioned about their going far away. 309 it However. they are spoken of as exceedingly cautious and keeping also unable to aloof from with a holy emperor. and the phoenix belong to the same species. when the unicorn multitudes of animals. we sur- endeavours to shun hostile attacks are unsuccessful. nor come to China when there is a holy emperor. the tortoise and the dragon phoenix does not do not emigrate. by their cautiousness. but seldom appear. would. Their nests being destroyed. Misfortune and troubles being unavoidable things for sages. government. they are seldom seen. or drain the ponds for fishing. can keep free from perils. and when there is in iyw? Since it arrived at a time when there was no wise em- peror. so sages are eschew misfortune. and the drying up of the pond they abscond. They live in China and are born in mountain forests. the away. but why was it caught and slain intelligent. the affirmation that the phoenix and the unicorn. The badness ^ of the time and the consequent death of the sage animal elicited the tears of the Sage.Thoughts on Omens. accompanied by Supposing it to be to arrive for a wise emperor. Their nature being very pure. Besides. they seek shelter.) This reply seems to intimate that the times were so bad. Part II. If they live simultaneously and their rambles just fall in a time of peaceful for the sake of a sage. and though people burn the woods for hunting. the public looks upon them as omens of a sage emperor. but do not roam about.

the source of every life in the world. See Vol. I. and they need not come from abroad. procreates the sage. ' » The original fluid. 471. is like the coming and the growth of vermilion grass. p. which always engenders sages. In the time of the emperor Hsiao HsUan unicorn. I. came forth the same time. ominous things are produced. people believe them to be exotic. The emperor in Chi-yaiig.* a unicorn appeared in lyu. That must be in the year 6 b. 180.c. 75. As sages are born in times of decay. how do wine springs and vermilion grass learn this. When he is born So it is with all in times of decay. likewise. Noticing the rarity of these animals. Folklore and Religion. the phoenix. that they just come forth in times of universal peace? The appearance of phoenixes and unicorns forth of wine springs. Vol. Ai Ti from b. also. they suppose them to appear for a sage emperor.^ The dragon is not born abroad. also. but foreign countries have phoenixes and unicorns too. Times of decay. If the phoenix is said to come to China from abroad. p.1. Thus China possesses phcEnixes and unicorns as well. ^ That this conclusion is likewise wrong needs no proof.^ Kuang Wu Ti saw the the time intervening between the reigns of CUeng Ti and Ai and a phoenix alighted Sages and sage animals are produced in periods of prosperity as well as in such of decline.310 Lun-Heng: D. but they do not come out for his sake. but foreign countries. men that become sages: grown up. A holy emperor meets with a sage animal just as a auguries. The harmonious fluid. . and beholding them just in times of universal peace. the all the yellow dragon. he falls in with them. . * for CKeng Ti reigned from B. have their harmonious fluid. Conftbdus was born towards the end of the CJwu dynasty. Wine springs and vermilion grass are produced by the har- monious fluid.S23 and 365. consequently their birth-place must also be in the same region. Cf. upon hearing that virtue reigns there.c. man blessed with happiness meets with auspicious As a matter of fact. nor are the phoenix and the unicorn exotic. and the western marshes of light ^ in Ti. 1.d.C. they fall in with these omens. have their dragons. 6 to a. p. nature must be alike.'' and so are the phoenix and the unicorn. 32-6 and See Vol. and Since they all the spiritual at bird made their their appearance. such times may produce phoenixes as well.

Cf. Kao Tsung asked Tsu Yi. Cf. Vol. To say that the phoenix and the unicorn arrive for a holy emperor. A work of Fu Shena. and the red crow. and for that reason alighted on the emperor's house. consequently he sees propitious miracles. and the fire by accident took the shape of a crow. . and therefore jumped into his boat. I. of a unicorn does not differ from that of the happened to jump of its own accord.c. Why are the phoenix and the unicorn indicative of universal peace? Because both are kind and sage animals. 2 ^ p. The fish had not heard of the virtue of Wu Wang. 3. Both texts differ in that Tsu Chi gives another explanation of the arrival of the pheasant."'^ Not seeing these marks of universal peace. cent. Vol. when the emperor's boat met it. the world is going to show benevolence and wisdom in its transactions. p. 196) where Tsu Yi n|g[ Tj 'S called Tsu Chi jjj^ ^ . Vol. he rejoined that a superior man from abroad was about to come. he knew that he did not live in such a period. I. the peace. when Kao Tsung was sacrificing in the temple of CKing T'ang. There are large and small omens. The white fish and the red crow are small animals and presages of some tranquillity. Hist. 9r. Part I. a pheasant perched upon the handle of the tripod and crowed. animals said to have appeared to Wen Wanff and Wu Wanff. Classics Vol. are called omens. 311 The appearance white fish. when seen. p.^ The fish — ' Propitious I. 3rd who preserved Ill. An emperor is predetermined for wealth and honour. in its movements. p. When such kind and sage animals arrive. and by the appearance of each the amount of virtue of the monarch may be ascertained. * Cf. 7) and Shi-chi chap. p. when setting out on a journey. I. The phoenix and the unicorn are like the pheasant. the pheasant bore some resemblance to a superior man just arriving from abroad. the Shuking. b. nor was the crow cognisant of the future rise of the house of Chou. See Vol. is like asserting that the fish and the crow came for Wu Wang's sake. 29 {Legge. 405.* Observing that. which was perceived by the emperor who happened to be looking up. who replied that probably a superior man from afar was about to arrive. Preface. p. 130. In the "Great Record" of the Shuking^ we read that. "The phoenix does not come. Shuking. {Chavannes. 447. and their arrival must be a presage similar to that of the pheasant. These things. River sends forth no Plan: it is all over with me. whereas the phoenix and the unicorn are large ones and signs of universal Therefore Confucius said. Mem.Thoughta on Omens.

All the above is their coats on the right A-borigines in Chekiang.^ the emperor Hsiao Wu Ti was making a tour of tree root. Prognosticating Wu Wang's fate from the appearance of the fish and the crow. and there was. mcrreover. we see that the Chou were destined to obtain the control of country of the YUeh^ offered allegiance. afterwards the red crow. 218 Note 3 and Appendix. just as Chung ChUn had predicted. When five feet. again his officers. Wu Wang punished Chou he met with and a crow." It is better to In the render it by "gentleman usher. 64 ^ b. Folklore and Religion. 11. as the commentator of the Han-shu exwork.** His explanation was correct.1. 370 —^ in might also mean "five toes" plains the expression ^ Hit ^^ ^^^^ translated by "five feet. p. p. ^ is ffi^ I in that In Vol. The Chinese button As the Chinese do. seq. The crow is a filial bird.312 Lun-Heng: D." Chavannes. side. a grew together with the the (gentleman usher) whose boughs. 371 have translated (Cf." its and girdles. The thing may seem so. he found a white unicorn with one horn and sprouting. Vol. they are probably going to open their the branches turning inside mean that plaited hair. Hist. * The old dynasties had each there own element with a corresponding colour to reign. and its red colour corresponds to the fluid of the Chou dynasty. the empire.® First. g^^" . Reasoning by analogy we find that the white fish and the red crow belong to the same class of portents. All these ideas have sprung from the mystic See p. I. that meant to say that the sway of the Yin was broken. the and a celebrated king of the Hsiung-nu appeared with several thousand men to make his submission. by "censor. the white fish was caught. p. surmised that by means of these animals Heaven enjoined upon Wu Wang to chastise Chou. If the presages prove true. p.' and its whiteness is the colour of the Yin dynasty. . to cut off the left lapel of their coats.* and Some months later. by which they were believed theory about the elements. and there is no outside. since the omens turned out true.^ to wear caps to accept civilisation. People noticing that when a fish ' See Vol. Mdm. 516) Han-shu. The essence of the fish is wood. some outside people are likely to submit. and their glory transferred upon the Chou. after Wu Ti consulted all Chung ChiXn"^ is replied. "A wild animal with joined horns shows that there all the same root. According to ancient symbolism. * quoted almost literally from the biography of Chung Chiin in the Han-shu chap." but it one hoof. According to these omens. in- spection in the west. 4v. Chung Chiln * * * also called a ^p ^B pb which means a censor.

Experts can explain them and know whether good or evil is impending. for a wild bird coming and building nest indicated that the capital Im was going to be treated like a mountain and waste land. The arrival of the phoenix and the unicorn does not differ from the wild bird's roosting The mainah happened to was by chance that the owl alighted in the house. See Vol. P. Not that omi1 Cf. its build nest. is Chang-sha that the chief of the house visited a similar supei-stition in its by a screeching-owl was going h\ We have ill Europe.Thoughts on Omens. 2 ^ A famoHS author of the 2nd cent. and it perch on purpose. the diviners foresaw the catastrophe of the Lu State and declared the omen to be unlucky for the owner of the house. 162. where he died. tsa-chi. councillor in Chang-sha. b. A. informs us was the popular the belief in to die. Germany screeching-owl a bird of omen likewise. p. whence name "Toteneule. Zp h. quoted in and he thought that he would not have long he composed the poem. for the place was low and damp. Martin. Subsequently. notably the oracle: ffip — BB /^ y^ 3^ ^ . The diviners considered its an ill omen. In Hunan." . and Duke Chao himself would have to leave his country. P'ien-tse-lei-pien to live. 209. Because they were animals from the wilds and the marshes which took their abode in a city and a palace. Emperors regard the whole world as happiness or misfortune is their house. The ^^ tpl ^|| that gp it Hsi-ching the chap. the interpretation remains the same." Afterwards Chia Yi. The Pj after words of our text are culled from Chia poem.^ a screechinghis — "When in his He opened books and divined as the landlord a screeching-owl enters the house. p.c.^ of When owl perched follows: Chia Yi"^ was privy house. already a circuit under the Ch'in dynasty. I. Note I. the duke was attacked by the Chi family and fled to Clii. without having returned to Lu. When in store for house-owners. 313 period a mainah it but it is not a fact: —In the "Spring and Autumn" arrived and built its nest. Chine. of this The translator points out the remarkable parallels poem with Yi's Raven of Edgar Allan Poe.* Notwithstanding the discrepancy between the various wild birds. omen had troubled him. S The -^ ill ) where the poet writes ^& and inserts a He tells us in the preface that he was living in exile as tutor to the Prince of Chang-sha. 32.^e Legends and other Poems. 1894. The mainah and the owl did not know the impending disaster of the two States nor roost or or the perching of the screeching-owl. in fact. lucky or un- lucky signs are seen among men beforehand. * This incident has been described by Chia Yi himself in his celebrated poem in irregular verse lw|. 148. must quit it.|^^C> of which we have the a partial translation by W. p. went away. In order to soothe his feelings.

A mountain child in Shanai. He did not know that a subject would have a son who was doomed to misfortune.^ K'ung Chia entered the house. house of a citizen. A meets with an auspicious augury. he would obtain good or bad omens all the same. But. For further Note 3. Propitious and adverse portents appear in the court of the it emperor. because he was caught in a rain-shower and sought shelter. 3 The became unlucky. When S/ioii. but they would not come to pass. and therefore arrive for the sake of these fortunate or unlucky people. it is. there being no person * to be affected by the omens thus playfully obtained. which an emperor came must needs rise to high honours. Folklore and Religion. Some said that a child to people explained his arrival either as lucky or unlucky. . Should somebody divine by the tortoise or milfoil only for and no other person appear. they could know human fate and accordingly might put forward their signs or lots. There are the signs of the tortoises and also the lots of milfoil. nous creatures possess knowledge. and he entered the where the mistress was just nursing a baby. when he arrived. ' Divination would give certain fit results. and when the latter enters the house of a citizen.314 Lun-Heng: D. He was unfor its aware of the birth of a child and did not come Consequently it sake. is like K'^ung Cliia entering the cottage during the rain. ^ that these presages are caused by Heaven's comimmense Heaven were to give its orders to those tiny things. p. nor did he come for his sake. to tell the persons in question. is an error to pretend that the phoenix and other in ominous creatures are endowed with intelligence and arrive response to an auspicious destiny. and ominous things arriving must fall in with lucky and unlucky people. Between Heaven and Earth there is always good and bad fortune. whence the idea that they are heavenly messengers. but their arrival appearing strange. as if they were sent by Heaven. how could it employ them? These things would not do Some hold if mand. The milfoil and the tortoise do not possess supernatural powers. details vid. they would not understand its language nor comprehend its meaning. but others were of opinion that a child unfit for such an honour would become ill-fated. These signs and lucky always portend some good or bad luck. whereas the ill-fated find unpropitious signs. that lots man consulting the tortoise or milfoil. 258. fun. but Heaven's behests either.^ it the Hsia emperor K'ung Chia to rain. the began was hunting on Mount sky turned dark.

Peasants yield their fieldmark and travellers."^ the monthly plant. the rain does not The wind does not howl in the boughs. . and that in the markets there two diflferent prices. of the passage of Mencius Part 7 (24). mentioned in the Pei-wen-yiin-fu. sweet dew. referred to are great auguries. 244) where we read times ]^ Q I in lieu I. 315 CHAPTER XXIX. The phoenix and the unicorn. the "meat fan. &c. ^ paraUel passage of the LtAi IV. 366. which Quotation from Liki HI. however.Auguries Verified. XXVII. and their description is more or less correct. 2 -^- ^ l-Ll Hi $ip yj :^XXVU. boats . but there should be no exaggeration.^ the brilliant star. Books Vol. 64r.* wash away the clods. The milion learned say in regard to the auguries of times of universal peace that they are things formed of a strange grass. every five days it is windy is but one day. such as verwine springs. p. Moreover they add that in these times mountains produce chariots and lakes. 31r.l| part Legge supposes to allude to some unknown legend. correspondences.' gates Hoary heads have not to carry burdens in and bridges are never closed. the flying phoenix. and women in Quoted from a passage Tung Chung Shu the time of universal peace. in its first "< |1| [ij ^gg^ tH . there afraid. and the phoenix. I am ^ On ""* these ""^ omens see Vol. p. {Legge. fluid. This prosperity attracts the yellow dragon. the unicorn.^ that men and women are not each have their own way. Sacred 392) reads: $. referring to a parallel ancient men * took the right side. {Legge. is much wrong about them. j^ Q of our text also used in We further learn from the Ldki that the left side of the roads. Auguries Verified {Shih-ying). These assertions of the literati are highly coloured and overThe ominous things partly exist and partly do not exist. the road. W H in ."^ and the like. I. As for the smaller auguries and the less important drawn.* the "indicator."^ auspicious grain. no robberies com- mitted on the roads. and every ten days there one rainy day. p. their hands. Sacred Books Vol.

316 Lan-Heng: D. insects. why does it not There must be some harmouy. is admissible therefore. the wind not howhng in the boughs. and the rain nothing but a rodo- rain must be in proper time. rain. there never were such things. it cannot make "meat fans" grow in kitchens. and dew must be sympathetic. and that one is not cheated with the market-price may be. they cause them not to spoil. they walk on the same road. but if there are. is said about the wind every days. away or flies and other Not only do they cool food and drinks. some sympathy between these phenomena and ' certain events. How could in times of universal peace extra roads be constructed for the male and female sexes? No special roads are built. However genial the breeze of the time of universal peace may be.' the statement about the flying phoenix and the sweet dew. That men and women have no intercourse. is an exaggeration." and puffed up. As to and the "indicators. not even In as in times of perfect peace. there are no such things. Scholars pretend that "meat fans" grow in cook-houses. it could cause the Five Grains these grow without any human help as well. and that there are not two prices. to If it could do this. . how could there be different ones. • Quoted from the Ti-toang-shi-chi (Pei-ven-yun-fu). as thin Moved they make wind. have many leaves and but sdso drive very thin kill stalks. and the rain not washing the clods of earth away. How should they not affect cheapness should they not attempt to obtain purchasing goods. air. but to speak of different roads. very well. ' The L4ki does not speak of different roads." the "monthly plants." however. Folklore and Religion. Though wind and five can be no question of chants. they say. that these the T'ai-ping-yu-lan chap. but five what has been every ten. there and ten days or exactly fixed periods. or how high prices in selling? There being this instinct for low and high prices according to circumstances. to be used for cooling purposes.'^ Provided that in times of universal peace there are no mer- montade. kitchens. most likely for the following reasons: — To tell the truth. They appeared in the tjmes of Yao and Shun. 873 informs us The chief authority of "meat fans" grow like lotus. Wind. collops grow of their own accord. prices. but are magnified the "meat fans. we cannot avoid speaking of two All these things exist. they will see their principal aim in in seeking their advantage. In case it could make "meat fans" grow in kitchens spontaneously. fans.^ and fanning eatables. but of different sides of the roads.

what is the use of ice-houses. and up to the fifteenth fifteen capsules had grown. Another writer relates that this plant had round leaves and was multicoloured. crows to get white heads. The purport of producing fans being to blow wind upon spontaneously.Auguries Verified. Vol. 8 in The five vows of the king of CKin who promised to liberate Prince Tan case the afore-mentioned miracles took place. On the first day of the following month. but does not fall. From the sixteenth on- ward one capsule fell down every day. the statement about the "meat fans" being like the fulfilment of the five vows. p. (T'ai- pHng-yu-lun chap. Vol. 261 and 308. Grasped by In the the hand. but they require wind to be moved. "• The grew among Literati. caused the sun to revert to the meridian. 115. On the first day of the month one capsule* came out. one capsule grew again. p. 317 fire cause rice to boil in the pot of itself. 873. and of cutting ice for the purpose of refrigerating things? summer months people use their fans. How are ''meat fans" required for this? There is a tradition that Tan. fans act like strong wind. In a short He makes these leaves grow and drop instead of the capmonth of 29 days one leave shrinks.) . XXVm. Legge^ is very old in China. or to burn in the oven of its own accord? eatables. and without wind they remain motionless. * * ^. The emperor. of yore. 423. Note 4. could learn the number of days from observing the growing and dropping 1 tJC it ^^ • "^^^ '^^ °^ ''^ *°^ °^ ice-houses (Cf. a monthly plant"" the steps leading up to the side-buildings of the palace. and the wooden elephants on the kitchen door to get legs of flesh. p. » Cf. but do not stir of themselves. moreover. The same description is given by the historian Pan Ku in his Q J^ ^g Po-hu-fung (Pei-wen-yun-fu). it would be different. heir-presumtive of Yen. but. why are these eatables and why must special fans be ' not caused not to spoil produced to fan them? Provided that fans can grow in kitchens of themselves. If " meat fans " possessed a spontaneous motion. The Liki alludes to several times. horses to grow horns. narrate that. Only after the hand has furnished the wind. XXVH. in order to cause wind. Sacred Books Vol.) I.^ is an untruth too.^ until on the thirteenth all the seeds had dropped. sules. facing the south. Heaven to rain grain.^ Since this is a fiction. they are fit to refrigerate the things in the kitchen. they must move them with their hands. I dare say.

Would the scholars dare to contend that the monthly plant. on the contrary. they might be examined in autumn.^ by a look on their growth could know the number of days. its capsules must grow about the end of autumn. Lun-Heng: D. and. expression used by Pan Ku who seems to have believed in the monthly ' ' plant. Now.. Now. of which Chinese scholars are not fond. name. and frost and snow come drizzling down. that the plant grows on the steps of the side-buildings e. spring.'' Supposing that the capsules grew upon the reception hall. might know it? Knowing merely the number of the day. raised Me feet Tse says three above the R It ^$. summer.^ so that the emperor. all plants wither. on the twenty-first day. the usaal calculation. and winter it would be impossible. if. outer hall. fifteen capsules are produced. and do not ripen is bitter cold. six must have dropped. on the sixteenth. The name expressed by find the sexagenary cycle. they say i. in order to find out That would be most irksome and annoying the number of days. The grains of the monthly plant are like the pods of peas. To date. As regards the Yao and Shun that it was ' imperial hall. wherefore did it not make them show the name of the day. on reaching winter. if Heaven could produce these capsules to represent the number of days. would require a simple out the to fifteen. and needed not take the trouble of consulting the almanac for that.' 318 capsules. Provided that it lives and dies like all other alone does not die? Then plants. on seeing the character on the capsule. and by no means a blessing. Folklore and Religion. below the of that of ground. the difference of the remaining capsules with fifteen must be added . Moreover. growth of the monthly plant be deemed a great luck? but not its information. and summer. When November could not be considered a great advantage. way of counting days. one capsule falls down. this not yet in spring They do grow before the end of autumn. he would still have to consult the almanac for Thus his beholding the number of days would not How then could the spare him any trouble. but during the other three seasons. seated between the door and the window. Therefore it would become necessary to count the remaining ones.* and that the monarch. These dropped capsules would be lost and could no more be counted. on fifteen days of a month.

whence one glance would have been sufficient." palace. by engendering omens. which proved a source of mortification to the emperor. the monthly plant is a herb the imperial hall being inhabited day and night. it would have produced a most awkward thing. yet. 18). the indicator in its When such a one enters the corner points at him. ^g^ J^: Shuking as quoted below. he would be compelled to enter the outer hall. then. grows in a corner of the which points out cunning persons. shaped like a plant.^ These stars were very important. Rather than to rise for the purpose of viewing the capsules below the hall. 173 under 'o' cf. and he examined the capsules himself to number the days? The ''indicator" learned further relate that in times of perfect peace the palace. 319 whereas the houses of the Literati are quite low.) says: - I.Auguries Verified. Part Diet. HI. them month after month? it recording events. Classics Vol. . p. court." CovAyreur omits to translate the pointing. the plan of the imperial palace in Couvreur's dictionary p. Shuking Part chap. the Whenever days are counted one by Of old. M'J JS -ta which when a cunning person approached curbed Tfii U^ ^ ^^ Po-wu-chih {Kanghi's ^ ^ 0^ ^ ^>^ in "In the time of Too there grew a plant itself and pointed at him. How could capsules grow there. the stars. in order to foretell the weather. and the monthly plant grow below the steps of a hall three feet high. should the emperor himself have counted the seeds? In Yao's time Hsi and Ho were charged with examining the Four Stars * during the lour calendar seasons. and look at them from there. the moon. wishes to please the emperor. if the latter be obliged to rise and examine the seeds to learn the number of days. even the ancients. the emperor might have hung up the calendar day on the screen near his seat. the emperor desirous of seeing the capsules. 3 {Legge. and the zodiacal signs. but in order to know their number. sun. could not do so from his seat between the door and the window. in spite of their simplicity. II. yet the emperor did not observe them personally. so that the monarch ^ See . « The >5^ the J^ "^ A. would have weeded out any plants growing in the rooms ^ : — of the palace. Besides. Wherefore. and people count one.'^ Heaven. Should this be the case. s * p ^ — the I. there were the is with a view to astrologers^ who regulated and fixed the days. Cf.

plants and trees of the time of universal peace would outshine worthies and sages. Why not. After a while. as a wic ^^7 ^^ used synonym for ^^ " repeatedly. pointing. In law-suits there is right and wrong. simplicity then imagined that ladle could point." "To know a man one must be wise. » When its a handle The Shukinp. Heaven created on purpose. and human character may be straight or crooked. Accordingly. and is nothing but an invention. in their it The ancients. it but its indicating power is Provided that really could point. make the nature of the holy emperors such that they could know it themselves. difficulty in finding exhibit his knowbut the ledge of men. to point and it did not them Shun.' which turns southwards is thrown on the ground. If Heaven created the plant. 2 : {Lepge. so that the "indicator" grew in a their palace of its comer of arrived it own accord.. made them known. The feathered. ^ Though men are imbued with Five Virtues and communicate together through their voices. Book HI. and from this pointing the ability of indicating cunning people was evolved in their minds. it really existed. That does when touched. know the cunning? According to the view of the Literati. yet they do not know each other. » Shukinff {Kao-Tao mo) Part 11. three men being required to give judgment? Perhaps this "indicator" plant never existed. where the two clauses are transposed ' — 'p^ "S* Jh W^ ^^ The Chinese name A ^Ij -pf Supposing this plant to be more than a mere freak of fancy should suggest that the Mimosa pudica has been the archetype." the compound ^u Mt therefore might denote is a plant repeatedly bending down and contracting itself. they rise and open again. How could the "indicator. cause the "indicator" to point out unjustice and crookedness too? Why must one take the trouble to hear the cases. then what the Mimosa bend down. out. Classics Vol. knows where the cunning person this plant is. Folklore and Religion. did it not fear the trouble? No sage emperor ever had a better government than Yao and which was most peaceful. When cunning persons them out. That may have been the . HI. 320 Lun-Heng: T). The it is difficult for an emperor. 70). p. with the object of indicating cunning people. and Shun had no Albeit yet he employed Kao Yao to Classic^ says. at the same time. Perhaps no cunning people came forth originally. then perhaps the plant's nature was affected by the aspect of men. Part yjj^ I I. as well as the nature of this peculiar plant seem to countenance such a supposition. or fictitious." being a plant. nevertheless. observing the movements of the plant. digitated leaves first close.

^ Since neither a ning nor a /^ — ^ Mr. was doubtful about the guilt it. more commonly written latter is TM ^ . he ordered this goat to butt but spare the innocent. All officers When Kao guilty. it had a bodily defect. Chinese teacher at the Orientalische Seminar. The Shuo-wen says it was like an ox. could not convince him of Yao. a natural ominous creatures. thereupon. I say. a fin. Because this plant could point. . this peculiarity that. nS. Berlin. At present. The indicating power of the plants would.Auguries Verified. placed on the nature of these worms. why. Kanghi quotes this passage. told he did not believe I they will always creep it. where the aforesaid caps were first worn. Hm. the remarks concerning the "indicator" apply to the monoceros as well: A goat must have two horns. changed their minds. and did not come up with its species. it When he was first but found by his error. Ssa-Ma Hsiang-Ju. one direction. It would butt the Accordingly. » ^ experience that was an undeniable fact. 211). creep northward. knows the guilty. then. the monoceros had one. be its original nature. by instinct. using it on all occasions. could point out cunning people. has assured me that some worms have in though turned round. in the court-yards of public buildings. We learn from the Hou Han-shu that it was hunted in the kingdom of Ch'u. Consequently.^ This the and meat. the Kuang-po-wu-chih that it existed in the time of Yao and that its hair was woven into a curtain or a tent for the emperor {P'ien-tse lei-pien chap. it was a sage animal born most efficient assistent in judicial proceedings.c. and reformed their conduct. 2nd cent. Yao^ administering justice. Kax) Yao and the monoceros^ are painted. The figure of this fabulous animal used as official in embroidery of censors and Taotais. and scholars declare that the monoceros is a goat with one horn which. Therefore did Kao Yao hold it in high respect. b. also. it belonged to the class of superwith one horn. occurs. must it be looked upon as a miracle? A turtle with three legs is called a ning^^ and a tortoise with three legs. When compared with its kindred. Hsieh-chai. adopting loyal and honest proceedings. The name seems to be first mentioned the Tso-chuan in connexion with a cap worn by southerners. alludes to the animal in a poem. the Sage^ propagated the statement that the "indicator" grew in a corner of the palace and and functionaries cherishing wicked designs. of a culprit. For the first character also Ipfflrt and for the g^ or S^. 321 points to the south. Worms from fish is ground. Too Pao Ming.

When Shih Shang '' boats. name of any monster. Hist. p. it merely could gore a man. Chavannea.322 are considered legs. wizards can no more be regarded as exceptional or remarkable men. the magpie. Vol. Consequently it bears some resemblance > ^ Cf. I. if the monoceros. M6m. of boat-officers and not the 3. I. and predetermine happiness Wizards know good and ill and adversity. Note 3. more wonderful than turtles and tortoises with four wherefore should a goat with one horn be wiser than others with two horns? The rhinopithecus ^ knows the past. lest those suffering punishment shoidd be recalcitrant. There leaning on his halberd and grasping a T'sang-kuang. IV. Kao Yao. the rhinopithecus and the like would all be supernatural. ^i5 fm "^C * surname of S TC^ -LtiiSAan^ (Vol. Vol. All animals are endowed with some its special knowledge. 358. but not two. the future. (Gha- vannes. Vol. 3r. in view of faculty of butting be held to be super- natural. M^m. Hist.''^ A standard. but there is no necessity why it should parrots can talk. make use of the supernatural Fu^ was minister of war to the Chou* sovereign and leading an army to defeat Chou. he shouted to his men the word t'sang-kuang is a water animal which is in the habit of subverting There is a general tendency to as an incentive.* have known whether he was guilty. 22. if the monoceros be said to possess similar faculties. Lun-H^ng: D. 238). 32.^ they arrived at Meng Ford. up to their old age. and when it gored somebody he punished him. from a desire to give more weight to his administration by the supernatural. Folklore and Religion. • >& "TC" ^ * corresponding passage of the Shi-chi chap. p. in- ducing them promptly to cross the water. to the monoceros. Chavannes as quoted in Note . Cf. and Their original nature enables them to do one Perhaps the monoceros was so organised that thing. There is no doubt about that.=S. and that culprits. p. p. availed himself of the monoceros. should never complain of injustice. in order that people might be afraid of doing wrong. Therefore he used this monster to impress his men. luck.1. p. 37) these two words are replaced by title j^ kS^ "green rhinoceros" which Sse-Ma Cheng explains as the Cf. however. since otherwise the t^sangkuang would injure them.

-^p the Wen Tse concurs with this mystic view. p. (T'ai-p'ing-yu- lan chap. the star of virtue. the fluid affects heaven. 323 This strange creature lives in the river. It is to be a big star shining even. Classics Vol. and enabling people to work at night. Book V. does not follow that it People dread and loathe but must subvert was such a strauge animal in the river. and at times comes swimming ships. it. and "aT" fill it comes a wise ruler. 356). therefore he magnifies and embellishes it. The Shi-chi chap. Mem. and did not know the exact shape a big star. Since there It has. 6 {Legge. 27. been said that in times of universal peace the "brilliant star" appears. when there no moonshine. Ode IX. to the surface. . Man is afraid of the marvellous. it 675 takes it for a meteor. also. moreover. The monoceros goring culprits is like the i sang-kuang subverting boats. so that the "brilliant star" appears. It it has one body with nine heads. p. may have come the latitude of follow up the The ancients in their simplicity could not courses of the Five Planets. 392) says that it appears when the sky in clear. saying that when sincere feelings heart. and becomes visible a State endowed with wisdom. in 5 chapters. Elsewhere the it is stated Ti by the same writer that the shaped like last "brilliant star" appeared vividly in time of Huang at a crescent. Part U. of Jupiter and Venus.) It is doubtful whether we have to do with a real star of great brilliancy or with some meteorological phenomenon. is Mem. IV. Jupiter or Venus At that time. 32r. H . who adds for that this star shines during It is new moon to assist the moon. "brilliant star. states* that in the east there was and in the west Hesperus. 7. a work on the Shuking. "Vol. Vol."^ On perceiving they styled it The Lucifer ^ Shiking. Chavannes. Hist. p. All these are empty stories without any foundation. still existing and mentioned by Chang Chih Tung * ^^ The in T'ai-p'ing-yu-lan quoting the same passage from the Shang-shu- chung-hou says 3 Crater eg . has no constant form. * Shiking Part II. The Po-huis fung (Pei-wen-yiin-fu) declares {Chavannes. Hist.Auguries Verified. were perhaps no * MD^ ^^ Fp ifiP) . Corvus. lU. p. The fact is corroborated by another author. We learn from the "Middle Period of the Shuking'' ^ that in the time of Yao the brilliant star became visible in Corvus. in his bibliography. formed of the clear essence of heaven. again. shining so that one could work night. Ill. Shang Fu used it to overawe his warriors. 4^.^ These.^ Now the brilliant star may have been one into of the Five Planets of which the biggest are Jupiter and Venus.

stillness. 9."" ^ Of course they are both the planet Venus." the U^^M- Our -y-jg This clause wanting modem text of the Erh-ya. . 530 likewise quotes from the Erh-ya: — EgM^n^MlE' S?BiE# in chap. and thus gave them the names of Lucifer and Hesperus." effulgent as a crescent. The Erh-ya it.^I^'^. not follow big star in the skies. If in appears a new sun and another moon likewise? The authors of the Shiking are common people.^ It Religion. p.^ and that called "wine spring. but incorporated in the old commentary. Venus traversed the sky If persons ignorant of stars had seen they would again have called it a "brilliant star. 392 . the lustre of the sun and the moon are peculiarly brilliant. 5th cent. Hesperus as well as the brilliant star belongs In times of universal peace. other stars than Jupiter and at may be that they appeared dusk in the west. Sacred Books Vol. in summer they develop and autumn they are harvested. The well known dictionary of classical terms Tse Haia. A and in C correctly write ^M ™*y edit. Under the rdgime of Wang Mang. B has ^^ like the . XXVII. when nobody was well versed would there be in astronomy.e. of the four and I am afraid that is it cannot be a big star attached to the sky. far b.^^ for the have stood this place. Edit.d.^ The four fluids and in winter there is complete combined produce the "brilliant star. text of the BrA-ya writes "B^Sf^l^' instead of is "Sweet rain" ' "sweet dew. "brilliant star" extra."* fluids According to this explanation of the Erh-ya. The poets of the Shiking did not know them. The Erh-ya^ in in its chapter on the four seasons says that in ripen. A/ ^^ Wen-hman about ««« a. to the Five Planets. Something originally words in by Wang CKung: — PQ^. * * So quoted from the Erh-ya chap. "brilliant star" would be but another name of the blending of the seasons. ascribed to the disciple of CoTifucius. p. This passage cited is not to be found our text of the Erh-ya.324 Lun-Heng: D. The Five such blessed a Planets are akin to the times there sun and the moon. all students have recourse to but they do to be a insomuch as they hold the "brilliant star" Why is the assertion of the Erh-ya about the "brilliant star" so divergent from the view of the scholars? The Erh-ya further says that is when "sweet dew" descends it is the whole vegetation ^ blessed. and the middle period is an age of simplicity. Folklore and Ventts. spring plants begin growing.9. and at dawn in the east. antiquities of the Five Classics. a book commenting upon the it.c. as it. The Liki (Li-yun) Legge.

loc. ^ This clause now forms part of the old commentary. and the Yin uniform. There it a considerable discrepancy between these two difficult to statements. the rain water is well apportioned. How so? This dew as sweet it as lollypops and honey cleaves to trees. but not of the text of the Erh-ya. But the savants of to- day urge their taste is that these springs flow from within the earth.'" gives a very reasonable explanation. ' Erh-ya chap. but not taste sweet. Provided that in times of general peace there be still wine springs issuing from the earth. whence the name "wine spring" derived. springs are given different names according to their different modes of flowing forth. at others not. saturates When the other dew without CKung's view. to come means welling up. must However. 325 Consequently wine springs mean sweet dew. 13. is and that as sweet as is wine. they ought to be mentioned in this chapter. In the chapter of the Erh-ya treating of water and springs we read that a spring which at times intermittent.' Auguries Verified. A cascade* falls down. does not support Wang sent There we read: — ^^ j^ *& ^& its . all but it is not dew nourishing plants. a whirl-wind arises. the stars do from their courses. Accordingly they mean to say that this sweet dew it descending moistens and nourishes the whole vegetation. to fall flowing downward. Respecting dew they do not contend that the taste of the rain sweet. and their contention that the taste of sweet straight out down means dew is very sweet cannot be accepted as correct. there is and honey. J»fh qJ fiHI^^ "Heaven Legge. is called A fountain' comes straight out. and always the sweet also a sort of dew as luscious as lollypops a presage of universal peace. where it is said that "sweet dew" is equivalent to "wine spring?" Therefore the affirmation of the Literati to the effect that wine springs rise from earth. down fattening dews. . 2 is visible. Earth sent forth 'wine springs. and is know the truth. its a sweet taste falls down. wherefore are they inserted into the chapter on the four seasons.^ Consequently. cit. that the phrase means nothing but that the dews were abundant and the springs delicious. and not to the Five Grains. sweet dew falls is down. Scholars maintain that radiance of not deviate this sweet when the highest principles prevail the the sun and the moon is most brilliant.

Yet the sweet dew of our time is difi"erent from that described by the Erh-ya.326 Lnn-Heng: D. This is a characteristic Sweet dew. Thus the Erh-ya comes near the truth. infiltrating and soaking everything. therefore. for its statement may be verified by experience. When the sweet tasting dew falls down and adheres to a tree. I should say. the tree to which it sticks does not become more luxuriant than others to which it does not stick. the soil and irrigates the vegetation. . Folklore and Religion. is nothing else than wine springs. no natural calamity intervening. The sweet dew of the Erh-ya has the peculiarity that all plants touched by it will flourish and come to maturity. of a fall of sweet dew.

I. trusting their words. The passage . it After a long time rains of itself. the passage Shi-chi chap. is owing to the fluid of the season. in the course of a year. whereas the phenomenalists believe these phenomena and droughts depend on the position of the to be caused of the Shi-chi seems defective. endeavours to find out his guilt and reform. According Fan Li. here expressed." Accordingly water. Heaven would likewise have rained spontaneously.^ of heat. and every five days there is wind. for example. the sovereign kept quiet ^ form. a famine. 310. The T'ai-p'inff-yii-lan chap 11. and the fluid revolutions of Jupiter. "The planet Jupiter being in the constellation tse. be dripping. give their own explanations. and rain would have been succeeded by sunshine as a matter of course. 327 CHAPTER XXX. ^?- ^ Aries. yet the phenomenahsts ten days rains once. and that at one time there is an inundation. quotes this passage but in a different The rule. Cf. 129. ^ water means destruction. In his administration he remains the same before and after. who their theories. and floods It to heavy downpours. at another dryness. 3v. to right north. p.— On the Rain Sacrifice. wood a fam*ne. the conduces to a ruler of men must not. during the time of a flood. of the season accords with their periods. p. nor searched for his own imaginary faults. However. and fire a drought. Vol. Phenomenalists hold that long rain causes floods. and the sovereign. 2v. Droughts correspond to intense Yang. On the Rain Sacrifice {Ming-yii). and a good harvest would follow the Jupiter agrees with their terms.^ Long and a long period of heat gradually drought. by the conduct of the sovereign. floods planet Jupiter. necessarily. when Had. be burning hot. Even though. or during a drought. Fan LP in his work "Calculations" said. of. about every may it lasting rain forebodes a flood. and that long heat produces droughts. p. and not taken any trouble. refers only to the time of general peace : ^ ' * A minister of Tueh. of itself. metal a good harvest. be argued that. and after much rain. sunshine reappears Then the phenomenalists point to the success achieved agrees with them and henceforth believes in by the prince. a drought.

"The moon approaches the Hyades. not have and really it did not rain. by a flood. "Formerly. I. The moon is a sign for the whole world. wind and rain would be dependent on this movement of the moon. bade Tse Lu prepare his few minutes." and in the Shuking we remark that "When the moon follows the stars. a drought. still During the "Spring and Autumn" period. . All this aims at a return to the normal state.^ parting southward. Vol.* The northerly and the southerly directions of the moon. in fact a great shower came down. or they turn to * the left or the right. so that the fluids of the Yang and Yin would be regulated by man. phenomenalists the prince may have been inactive. without deviating from the original direction. Yet there is are some who contend that their departure northward followed by a drought. and. wandering through the sky. Notes 3 and 4. Revert they cannot. "the moon drew near « • Cf. after a long drought. Confucius goiiig out. the great Rain in Lu was an offering together with a prayer for rain in Sacrifice ' a time of dryness. do not concern Lu alone. therefore. p. 277. "Yesterday evening the moon approached the Hyades. that they may the calamity. whole world. Three ways for the sun and the moon passing this constellation. propound their devices. Confucius. Tse Lu asked for an explanation. is not connected with any places of our planet. departing northward. there is wind and rain." said Confudus. However. the heat or the rain cease. and the departure southward. and Confucius replied. serious illness. they cause a flood. The which find the Shiking says that. heavy showers of rain." Later on. on the point of going out. else there might be four ways. Folklore and Religion. They either continue their course. after a the Tse moon had again approached the Hyades. dein different directions. will bring There are three ways parting from the "House" constellation The sun and the moon in their courses pass on these ways. a case of dispel the spirits are sacrificed to. it. The moon. in they prayed and sacrificed to obtain happiness. man cannot affect Heaven by his dealings. after he had Tse Lu asked the reason. and Heaven does not pay heed to human actions and respond to them. and a sign for the. as.328 Lun-Heng: D. whereas the "House" constellation is a mark for the Nine Provinces. it had not rained. Certain regions of the sky are supposed to correspond to certain countries on the earth." ^ Accordingly. but Confucius would left. Lu wished to prepare his rain apparel. rain apparel. and not depend upon Heaven. When.

Under the rigime of Duke Mu of Lu^ there was a year of drought. I. under j35 H." said Hsien Tse. 329 it rained. when it rained in Lu. . therefore did not rain. how could the shifting of a market-place in its Lm cause the moon to alter the sky and within one month's time it once passes the Hyades. it should have done so everywhere on earth. The courses of the sun and the moon have their regular periods. 201. and. 66 a. "Heaven has sent dryness. Wherefore should the market not be shifted?"* According to these words of Hsien Tse. chap. Sacred Booka Vol. and by no means on government. » 3 Sorcerers are believed to be filled with the Yang fluid. and it does not rain. * Culled from the Liki {T'an-kung p. by shifting the marketplace rain is obtained. 1 would like to burn a sorcerer. On the northern part. quotes this passage.. 247. where tliree days iustead of five is written. and if was really by Hyades was but a presage of rain. course? The moon completes one circumvolution round ' The Pei-wen-yun-fu 407-377 B. Yesterday evening the moon it came near the southern Consequently in influenced part. Provided that the shifting of the market could have such an influence on the moon.^ What do you think?" Hsien Tse did not approve of this measure. Legge. When it comes near its southern part. During the period of the Six States government was not everywhere the same. Note 2. this is done for five days. and. "it is the habit to hold the market in side-alleys for seven days. that it approached the southern part of the in thirty days.C. when a ruler of a State expires. administrative measures. it world. XXVII. whereas it appears from the text of the Shiking and the Shuking that the vicinity of the moon to a constellation has this result. hence the Rain Sacrifice. The duke addressed Hsien Tse saying. The duke then proposed to shift the market to some other place. would they approach the south of the Hyades on account of a market-place having been moved? The moon and the Hyades are prognostics for the whole world. p. Provided that rain is to the the moon approaching was common to the whole respond to these administrative acts. Cf. "At the death of the son of Heaven. 80). p."' Lu the rain depended od the approximation If it of the moon. there is heat. and rewards and punishments were meted out at different times by the various princes. Vol. then at least six or seven Hyades are necessary for the moon to approach.

277. Hyades.^* From the T^ai-shan whole Empire. hidden as it is in rains over the — the depths of high mountains? ruler eHcit it? How could the rain sacrifice of a Rainy moisture the is amidst heaven and earth. and gathers. with a view to attracting rain. Suppose that a ruler of men were to pray and sacrifice on the banks of a river. we ignore to which spirit it was ofi'ered. that kind-hearted gentleman would on no account some one were a kind-hearted person imploring him If human body. which he had not yet done. Such being the case. would rain be obtained. pire is That in one day's time it spreads over the whole Emit only the case with the T'^ai-shan. I. * Cf. they are air. * In the Ch'un-ch'iu the great rain sacrifice is frequently mentioned. used the scheme of the CKun-cKiu. and would refuse those from the feudal lords or our present high officers. what manner should the air of clouds and rain smell and enjoy offerings? [It breaks through the stones one or two inches thick.330 Lun-Heng: D.""^ nor Heaven on low earth. how could its succour be obtained? If the clouds and the rain were the recipients of the sacrifice. is the great Rain Sacrifice an offering to the mountains perhaps? Were it really so. If it was to the Spirit of Heaven. . if at that time the market-place were moved? The dictum of Hsien Tse cannot be accepted. to his ancestors. Tung Chung Shu. as tears are to place in wine and food before to shed tears. unless led through artificial channels. A father does not accept oblations from collateral branches of his As to the rites of the rain-sacrifice of the princes. unless. and how about rain.^ raising a hill and setting up a sacrifice. which has no apparent form. Folklore and Religion. * ' Only a son or a grandson may sacrifice Therefore Tung Chung Shu raised a hill would be as unacceptable p. Heaven would not receive an oblation but from the emperor. from small mountains over States and cities. a common water-level be produced. for his sacrifice. does not run together. would it be in his power to cause water of a higher level to mix with other water below ? Even in the case of visible water of but slightly different level the prayers of a sovereign would be of no avail at all. nor mix.^ cepted the In sacrifice. Vol. But unless a spirit acdescendants. A sacrifice from the low earth to Heaven as an offering from collateral descendants to a deceased. it would be ineffectual Water in different rivers and differing for the following reason: in height by some inches or lines. by digging.

and without any prayer there was bright sunshine again of itself. and calling get his rain apparel ready. who must pray for it. p. praise. somebody unreasonably prayed for it down. it nearly always rains. degree of virtue. and. Then the virtuous ruler receives unjust reproof. Accordingly.On the Rain Sacrifice. Note 2. instead of raining. to tears/ this request. in response to a rain sacrifice? When ofi"ered in Confitcius was going out. The wife of Ch^i Liang also cried pitifully. 178. there certainly upon Tse Lu to was no rain sacrifice Lu simultaneously. and approaches the northern part of the Hyades. Phenomenalists do not argue or investigate the question analogies. notwithstanding. and the bad one gains undeserved Cf. torrents of rain came down spontaneously. by and setting forth their preposterous it theories. sound does not reach it. shows clemency. Heaven possesses the highest it. . sent not virtuous. the city wall crumbled down."^ of Yung Men Tse moved the prince of Meng CKang of Kicei consequence of the sorrowful speech of i^ Cliin in the cavern. In the course of a year. it would be on a level and if then Heaven recklessly with a prince yielding to sohcitations. and. and which method do those performing the rain sacrifice employ to impress Heaven? When the moon proceeds on the northern way. A ruler who can stop it? who listens to supplications is If. When there is to be rain. the Hyades must be situated on the northern way. and a wicked prince praying for rain just hits upon the right moment. but. But would this constellation of the northern way be willing to send Chung Yi? The and the fluid of down rain. or by words like those of Su Cliin and and the eyes of Heaven are very far away. sunshine and rain alternate. and. virtuous prince prays for or it just must rain of its own accord. Then how can rain be produced. to please his people. 52. they deceive the sovereigns. 331 comply with commanded. and a in vain. when there is to be sunshine. Cf. the tears Is it possible Ku Tse dropped down like then to afl'ect Heaven by laments those of Yung Men ears Tse. before the proper time for rain has come. p. because tears do not issue forth on being How in then could rain be procured by supplication? The laments and and Chang Yi on his coat. Thus fine weather and rain have their times. Either the time of rain has not yet come.

332 Lun-H^ng: D. acknowledging five faults. sacrifices or prayers would be of no ad- There is another report that T^ang. say : should — calamities in consequence of bad government and disasters In case of calamities of the it. one must discard the notion of a revolution of luck. the Flood and the Drought of Yao and T'ang were the effect of the revolution of the celestial fluid.^ in the revolution of the fluid. and any vantage whatever. and though aware and of a dutiful son that a disease is incurable. either of these views escape How can those holding from this impasse^ and which means I should be taken to avert water or dryness? Of these calamitous changes there are two kinds. their government is faultless. forthwith obtained rain. his kind solicitude for his people. People reasoning on these subjects. yet they do not let things go and await the end. 16. however. ministration not bring about a change. search for the cause and try to remove ours prove ineffectual. and all treatment of no avail. whereas worthies have their imperfections. what rainfall? is to be done ad- procure a to If it is really caused by the government. Yet Yao was visited the Great Drought. to Provided that this view be correct. Though knowing that in case of a sickness it is useless to immolate to the spirits. . they at least first kind. as they say. their government be not answerable. one must and though these endeav- show the compassion of the sovereign. The deahngs of perfect men are irreproachable. one cannot uphold the story of the mulberry grove. and his inability to Such is the conduct of a loving father towards his son towards his parent. they still consult the 1 See p. having prayed in a mulberry Believing grove. and being irreproachable. and not the upshot of government. a of the recourse prayer instead could of mending defects If. and maintaining the truth of this story. but that small droughts and floods are due to government. Note 4. on the other hand. Among the sage rulers of all the ages none can vie with Yao and T'ang. then Yao and T'ang must have been two iniquitous rulers. and that against great pains medicines are in vain. pretend. and T'ang with regarded as the outcome of their government. Luck has its time. in regard to the Flood and the Drought of Yao and 'V^ang^ that they were the result of the season. then the time of this revolution cannot but be spontaneous. if. Folklore and Religion. then it was mere luck. The world considers sages to be perfect. without any guilt. and cannot be prayed for. help. If this be with the Great Flood.

minute prescriptions about p." . that the soul three Rituals:— LjAtj. The feelings of those who make oblations for rain are Hke the sentiments of a loving father or a dutiful son. Note ^. 518). When virtue is declining. in our every word and speech let us be thinking . This custom very it. may I-li. and extinguished. 16-17 {Legge. and let us be thinking of officers of complete virtue.5:-. A question as to the difference calamity caused by government and a disaster without anybody's guilt I should answer When virtue is flourishing.ed. The and Chou-li give I. They 5. no one is responsible for it. — Yea. Then stick to your words and your speech. When death has come. g|J 222.'^ In sorrow and deep love. 243 seq. of a in order to comply with the wishes of the people. Book XIX." cf. and call persons affec- qualified to prepare medicines. Ill. Classics Vol. establishment of government. to In the former instance. and lay to the charge of the ruler. Those governing.On tortoise the Rain Sacrifice. sacrificial rites are make good the damage. When it comes and not change the learn it from the words. In the last to a sacrifice without and reforms within. there is responsible. and government disorganised. 3 in a special chapter "Calling back the soul of the dead.g^g^^. .^and6':-. King CJiing. old.' Their compassionateness and tionate devotion makes them still hope life is for a result. . Quoted from the Shuking Part V. to regulate the people whom we have How the do we know? Duke of Chou We to received. Of them calamities without any guilt people know nothing."] * The establishment of the government by the Duke of ' Ed. Religious System Vol. To the first part of this clause Legge gives quite a dlflPerent interpretation: "And let us never allow others to come between us and them. addressed by has happened in all ages. so that there remains nothing to be done. are found in De Groot. thus: — and a disaster happens all the same. the old style of govern- discharged with- comfort the people. they climb upon the ridge of their house. p. 5 Our text of the Shuking has ^. ill-luck Undeserved one must remain government. inquire after evil influences. and some is catastrophe takes place. and the out.g^^^^. Part II. the government instance. and with a garment beckon to the departed to their revert. p. in this case offer sacrifice likewise. 333 and milfoil.^ and the government well ordered. faithful to one's principles. . they will not give up the hope that the dead may become aware of it. concerning the ["Sometimes things* will interfere. slip into it and return. ment is continued within. A garment of the deceased is is * used.

and he used his affluence. extraordinary and viewing an they change their proceedings. and. do not hesitate paying no regard to its innocence. in their alarm and confusion.334 Lun-Heng: D. and thus work did aU they could. Duke Wen of Lu was visited with a great drought one year.^ generous as he was. without altering the administration. were most liberal and enhghtened. » B. to to help the indigent. with King Hsiian ot" Chou. Chou must be admitted to be most considerate. those charged with the relief This displayed his clear insight. but he sent about the poor. the people were famished and driven The views of our sage from their homes. The wet fluid interfered with Yao. Tsang Wen Chung was alive to the fact that government was not responsible for the drought. and at the commencement and the end of the Chien-cKu period. hence he confined himself to building the walls.c. making economies by reducing his expenses. Lord occupying the Imperial Throne. deficiency was obviously a time of universal peace. and calling upon the people to contribute.C. Therefore he admonished the king to stick to his word and. The cattle died. of government. drought. According to the Ch'un-chHu Lu had i. The wise mode be distributed among in. that extraordinary accidents are He was aware not to be avoided by liberality. practising frugality.^ all the northern provinces had to suffer from a continued drought. a 3 A. be altered. Folklore and Religion. in 625 and 617 A scholar and officer of Lu. by changing what should not ascribe it to government. Extraordinary events might interfere.. and the dry one. and under him the It officials all discharged their duties. not to introduce any changes. but they were not caused by any recklessness. they merely bring down misfortune upon themselves. ruler understood the state of affairs. .D.^ Tsaug Wen Chung* suggested that he should repair the inner and outer walls. The phenomenalists witnessing to a sudden change. and not the slightest was to be discovered in the government. to suffer great b. met with a long T'ang. reduced to poverty. since the administration was unimpeachable. dryness in the second and in the tenth year of * Duke Wen e. necessary? is On what do they base their affirmation that the They contend that respecting the great CKun-cKm the commentators Kung Yang 827-782 76-83 rain sacrifice rain sacrifice of the as well as Ku Liang. event. And yet the fluid dry rushed and did not change the grain.

Note 8. sacrifice. . whence it is obvious that the rain sacrifice must be performed. 335 comments. the rain sacrifice ' Legge translates: Legge: —"enjoy home the breeze singing. I would dash through the Fi. 520." adding a in his notes that this word '/^ is used with to drive reference to custom of washing the hands and clothes at some stream." ^ Confucius replied. among the rain altars. commentary to the CKun-cKiu it it is said when the torpid insects begin to also that. stir. p. and when the Dragon appears. VU.* its Young men with caps and To dash through in imitation wade through water of dragons from the water. ["At the eve of spring. that the spring dress is ready means to say that the dress lor the fourth moon is ready. In Tso Cfiiu Ming's that. for the to sing and of opinion that yil'' (to dash) means to bathe and feng^ (to carol) to dry the body. Vol.'' Then it is still cold. Spring denotes tlie moon. fourth The "eve" is synonymous with late. to sing hymns." I. is time for the rain sacrifice. order to agree with WangCh'uTig's comments. but evidently not bathing was a part of the rain critics are Some in the Yi river.— On in their the Rain Sacrifice. have no word of criticism. Cf. and six or seven boys. away evil influences. apparently indentifying ^^ and aCf.' and with songs make my oifering.. ^ is To carol among the dancing performers to of the rain sacrifice ofierings^ sacrifice i. * Wang CKung here writes =^ Jfn '^a . the same as to sing. 25. carol among the dancing performers of the rain sacrifice. "I agree with 7'i^M. I. ^ Legge has "to wash. and no proper time for bathing or drying the body in the wind. in p. With songs make means e. * » — "and return Analects XI. along with five or six young men who have assumed the cap. when the spring dress is ready."]^ In Im they used to hold the rain sacrifice on the banks of the Yi. and make some oblation sacrifice. Tsing Hsi in reply to a question of Confucius as to his wishes said." See Note 9. The fourth month of the Chou dynasty corresponds to the second month of" the corrected year. Consequently wading through water. boys are those gamboling the Yi signifies to rising at the rain sacrifice. I had to remodel my translation of the first volume. Vol. borrowed from Legge. 114.

to all. also an old custom. The rain sacrifice is an In the same manner as the rain sacrifice is based established rite. on custom. also Vol. V. was impressed by the sacrifice and asked the pertinent question old origin. Note Cf. grain is Our present worship of the LA/ng constellation The vernal sacrifice has fallen into desuetude. cit. everywhere. by Tung Chung Shu. " loc. and it becomes difficult to sacrifice Therefore the altars of the land have been erected as centres of devout worship. Folklore and Religion. p. Part 21. it cannot be wrong. Since they spread everywhere. why in Lu they This the rain did not exalt virtue. The second month the time for the rain sacrifice. Whence worshipped like the living. A strange argument. in case of high water drums are beaten.* The insects begin to move. 46. We the spirits of the land which produce is acknowledge the merits of But the earth all things. and merely cared for the rain sacrifice is sacrifice. Fan rain CJiih rambling with the master. and with a view to removing calamitous events. There and it was set forth being such a ceremony. Thus the invocation the autumnal rain sacrifice. it Consequently is based on custom. and ghosts. and animals immolated at the altars of the land. altars difficult to sacrifice have been built to represent them. Analects XU. If the original fluid of the Yin and the are ' The dead Tso-chuan to Duke Huan 5th year. that the bear fruit. is may of the Ling constellation to offer the rain sacrifice the yearly rain sacrifice. wise. Floods and droughts are the it is fluids and Yang.^ of very for the Liki says that sacrifice is an offering made in times of inundation and drought.336 is Lun-Heng: D. offered. of the Yin of great extent. It is customary to sacrifice. I. . p. and Tien wished to have it performed. See 7. and the eighth month of autumn hkeIn spring they sue for grain rain.* This is the first justification of the rain sacrifice. 520. and tlie Dragon becomes of spring is visible in the second month.^ Confucius said "I agree with Tien. Confucius did not criticize it. as though they were men. he concurs with him. analogous to that of the spirits of the land. and only the autumnal one remains. I.'' He approves of his wish In this and harmonize the Yin and Yang. where The worship is they are implored with the greatest reverence. and in autumn. Confucius would have been obliged to reprove him instead of giving his assent. If the rain sacrifice had not been proper. Legye puts quite a different construction upon the words of Tso Ch'iu Ming See » * Ciassict Vol.

reform. which This is is and the previous sincerity of the heart thus revealed. subject having offended against his sovereign. Therefore. it is cheerful. 50\'. Sacred and bells and drums sounded. fluids of the While the ensue. p. 337 and drink? Under this supand offered the choicest dishes. At a rehgious ceremony the heart feels distressed. and. acknowledge their guilt. Books Vol. XXVII. they still offer rites the rain sacrifice with the that. but this sincerity resides in the heart. 274) states that great the instruments of music are employed at the summer sacrifice for rain. If then the administration were quietly changed. when The distressed disclose their sentiis made. of the land is the second justification for the rain sacrifice. (Legge. in sacrifice. music the rain sacrifice testify to the sincerity of the sovereign. the meaning of jewels and brocade. in addition to the oblations made to the "Ling" idea constellation. then it would be like the offence of a subject. That is the fifth argument. and. when they are punished. The XiAri. to Therefore the rain sacrifice is necessary show the anxiety.^ the fourth argument. ^ :i& for !^. harvest.On Yang be like living the Rain Sacrifice. "^ Jewels and brocade are offered Tiieh-ling. and Heaven's anger could not be appeased. and the proceedings stealthily altered. and with a view to making good again the disaster caused by the calamity. and the cheerful give exThe prayers at pression to their feelings with bells and drums. or the guilt of a son. and freshets and droughts are not subject to time. out.' man. bells and drums. and does not become manifest withis Therefore all the alarm and anxiety manifested by the rain sacrifice. which cause such an alarm. can it eat position they are presented with perfumes. no calamities sacrifice. 1 Ed. moreover the fluid of the year ruler of may suddenly change. they prepare the rain is The worship of the "Ling" constellation a very ancient custom. all with the greatest care. and a son A having failed against his father. ments by offering jewels and brocade. which accounts for the extreme fear of the men. still year are in harmony. and being rewarded with an abundant This is the third reason. Provided that droughts. be brought about by government. repeating the deficiency may be supplemented by the sacrifice on a second day. p. should the former have been unsufficient. . it would not appear without. with the hope that these offerings This analogy with the sacrifices to the spirits will be requited. moreover.

to Confucius^ is and scrutinising the ideas of Tung Chung Shu. whatever they heard. now bending them down. that his criticisms do not exceed the right mesisure. examining the view of also dead. now raising them up. Grinding a sword. They were not to raise unnecessary nor always to acquiesce. neither were they to be lavish of bitter criticisms. claims to be such a disciple. obviously. we do not cut the whetstone. They guide the talents of their disciples. Folklore and Religion. The Han established the office of scholars of great learning who were to teach the youth the art of disputation with the object diffi- of probing every question to the bottom. 2 Wang CNung seems to imply that he acts like the scholars of great learning. and Tung Chung Shu can is Since Confucius whom in the we apply for instruction? None but disciples of Confucius world and followers of Tung Chung Shu^ are qualified to give a satisfactory answer. and exposing the right and wrong culties. but are necessary to bring out the truth.'^ By expounding the meaning of the Cli un-cK iu^ we endeavour to elucidate the rain sacrifice. . ' Our author.' 338 Lun-Hfeng: D. principles. nor to give a sweet reply. our only wish being to make it pointed. but for their benefit. no more.

p. and not the ^ Yang preponderates.Gentle Bnims. and offended against august Heaven and Earth. for at times of great floods the fluid Yin. and animals immolated at the altars of the spirits of the land]. all If. spirits Giles * Jan. high water causes disaster. object that an attack Some one might with justice. by attacking the of the land. however. All the various things violate her sacred critics together are much inferior to Earth. In case the kindred of his mother had subjects? done mischief. Duke Chuang 25th year. therefore. they do not attack mountains or The altars of the land are earth. would he attack his mother. would be improper to hurt the sacred body of Earth. * water and earth are quite dissimilar.^ is the sovereign. According to the CKun-cKin. The Yang^ being paramount. he violated laws. I "^ suppose that Yin should be written here. nearly related to inundations. in order to help his He whose government is deficient and who throws the Yin and the Yang into disorder. and Couvreur /^" nrf" ^^il'/'iomx writes the last character W^i Kanghi WC. to restore order. As regards the nature of the Five Elements. 345 seq.* and to body would be contrary The of the C'^^wn-cA^iw. Gentle Drums [Shun-ku). fit*. are unable to raise these objections. 277. then the water might be warded off. I. 339 CHAPTER XXXI. and that such a measure cannot be in accordance A ruler of men honours Heaven like his father and Earth like his mother. It i^. Rain issues from mountains and flows into rivers. would they bring him relief? Provided that an inundation injured Heaven. When Quoted from the CKun-cKiu. * Cf. which equivalent to an attack. instead of attacking himself. upon the spirits implies victory and defeat. to all principles. merely for the sake of the various things mjured by an inundation. . See below p. but now things have to suffer from the water. Yet when rivers. but that it were not injured by Earth. Neither Heaven nor Earth are materially affected by floods. the spirits of the land are attacked.' The expositors of the Classic hold is that the drums symbolise an attack or compulsion. Vol. [in time of high water the drums were beaten.^ Mountains and rivers are. to deliver people from the calamity.

they attack the spirits of the land. by attacking earth. ordinary phenomenon of the mulberry trees. Earth is stronger than water. which of them must be followed? In the time of King CKing of Choti^ a tempest broke loose over the empire. do they cause it to subdue water? Furthermore. but in lieu of assaulting water. He would ponder re-establish over the government of former kings. feeding the old. The two methods are conflicting. A is there and has not fled. which of them are the nearest relatives?^ fluids of the Five The altars of the land are earth. and make it enter wood. and water is their progeny. Thus the mountains are the parents. When Heaven is going to rain. The Elements are different and vary very much. with thunder and rain. The rain flows and becomes water. The grain lay down. and he enjoyed his government for This story was universally known in the "Spring and Autumn" period. the mountains first emit clouds. and the water mitting more crimes in this way? is to assault the kindred of the Yin. but does the punishment attain ascendants and descendants only.^ is there. the object of attacking the spirits of the land Suppose that A is a. raise the succession of extinct princely houses. earth is attacked. Waj\g Ch'ung puts ' Therefore earth and water should not be interchanged.^ In the time of T'ai Mou of the paper-mulberry grew together. dynasty a mulberry and a Some say that Kao Tsung terrified Yiti began to practise virtue with stooping body. whereas in the CKun-cKixi era they attacked the spirits of the land. robber who has wounded people. Is it not like the workmen of our time using a hammer and a chisel? the With the hammer they beat the chisel. Upon this the two trees died. Floods are not difi'erent from the extraa long time. ' Mountains and water of coarse. and obscure scholars. but the injured let him go and attack B. yet the king of Yin changed his government. illustrate the principle of regenerate extinguished States. or even the friends of the criminal? If mountains and water as well as the altars of the land are held to be related to rain. In capital punishment even relatives are implicated. ' Heaven is Yang and Earth is Tin and so far the kindred of water which is Ym also. the parents and the progeny of rain as it. Folklore and Religion. . Now. Would they stop A from comRain is water. nor earth be made reaponsible for inundations.340 Lun-Heng: D. which gather and become rain. This is the idea underlying the attack upon the spirits of the land. water does evil.

water comes down. When we hold up a moon-mirror towards the moon. 4. trees were raised up again. or the officers? If neither the government is changed. to inquire what was He held to be done.^ Their counterparts on earth are snails and cornweevils. how can not right. • .' Great rain and continual floods are of the same nature. flij 351 «>d Huai Kan T. and about the merit of the Duke of Chou. on this peculiar custom see chap. what is to be done? trees When to insects eat the grain of the crops. King Oi(ng opened the book from the metal-bound coffer. p. details ' • For more Cf. one attacks all that belongs to the Yin. we find that this done out of regards to the pubhc feeling.e IH. and the big ceased. 268. and lo! the rain The grain rose again. tJS jfj] . 17 seq. it The animals in the moon are the and corn- hare and the toad. XXXlV. for the purpose of removing the calamIf ity. When the moon is eclipsed in the sky. but is this put a stop to the rain? Provided that the same kind must be attacked. the book in his hands with tears in his eyes. p. p. p.^ When it rains without ceasing. whom they liken to the insects. then the moon is the essence of all the Yin. Now. 2r. There they ^ See p. all grain and grass wither and die. be flogged and maltreated. those well versed in the calendar. cause the officers. and with rattles to drive the locusts into them. The officers and underlings direct the people to draw furrows and dig moats. and smash and corn-weevils. King CUing changed his faults. and wherever they alight.^ is we thoroughly go it into the question. To obtain a result one ought to hunt and snails kill hares and toads. which proves that they are of the same kind. nor the officers are punished.Gentle Drums. 328. :-gr 'g J. When locusts appear. and in the Cliun-cKiu period they attacked Since the views of the two Classics disagree. they either pass flying or they alight. See VoL Cf. snails weevils decrease on earth. 341 were up-rooted. is it the government which brings about the rain. I.* The moon approaching the of the "House" from the north. and merely the spirits of the land attacked. and the wind stopped.)§ • • Cf. the spirits of the land.^ Hyades or leaving the constellation nearly always inevitably rains. and the damage was enormous.

— 342 Lun-H6ng: D. 527). " scrape together heaps of locusts. mountains and in season. thousands and thousands of bushels. and high officers all have their special duties. According Chang Chih Tung's Bibliography the work in existence. who have been identified with the ^& " "prime minister" and the pi ^^fe "minister of Instruction " of the Shuking. Diet. the five relationships sponsible. p. 5 (Legge. Earth" of the Chou-li. Note the preserver of the Shuking of the 2nd and 2. 528. Notes 7 and 8. and the spirits of the land attacked. the Pei-wen-yttn-fu ignores them. 3rd cent. seem not to occur elsewhere. and the sacrifices to Heaven"^ is held answerable. and the princes.^Vk . the springs not flowing. the minister of auspicious vapours. and frost and snow fail to come down. Part n. Vol. p. Sheriff I. This expression usually denotes the three chief ministers of the Chou dynasty: Vol. wind and rain not neglected. Kung Yang says that the ceremony was correct. but drums are beaten. Classics : The titles given to them Shang-shu ta-chuan — minister Heaven of Heaven. Legge. Kung Yang Kao^ could not fathom it. When officers frequently assassinate their prince. mentioned p. the minister of Men^ is made re- When the city walls are not refitted." The king as well as the three ministers^ all have their functions. Now floods are not laid at the charge of lords and high officers. Cf. How do as we know but that this is wrong and that Lu acted contrary mentioned the incident to the rites? Confucius writing the Classic a warning against malpractices.c. lords. a work written by Fu b. Bihl. but. in. not determine its meaning. of Men. is still No.fertl They bear some resemblance "officer of to the ^^ 'j^ " officer of and the ^fe '^ cit. to Cf. and "^'(5^ Grand Protector. and of Earth. being in discord. and Giles. and illegitimate sons murder their progenitor. * — . 599. -^yr ^^. what would be the effect of an attack upon Fm? How could rain be checked thereby? read in the Shang-shu torchuan:^ the kind We — "When there are in- Heaven and Earth are rivers not prayed to. Folklore and Religion. although they attack the locusts themselves. of the Now. Book in the XX. . in ~|[rfS Grand Assistant. loc. and Tung Chung Shu. 447. In his commentary to the above quoted passage of the Ch'un-chHu. the Shuking Part V. "HIt §j5 Grand Tutor. so that. and the people visited with floods. then the minister of Earth* bears the responsibility. they cannot stop them. . and ditches and moats in bad repair.

one must commit acts of dissipation.— ^. and if they sent forth all their men. because the fire is much too intense. loc. one considers human actions." Accordingly. accountable. if in a State suffering from floods they really wished to attack the Yang.^ draw round They endeavour to red silk. we might nonplus them with the following argument: When. times of drought. who is responsible If it be the ruler.* At a battle. plunged in dissipation. refers to this Yang and I. armed with spears. he causes floods. To understand the mind of Heaven. explain it which is hkewise unby the supposition Water. but not enumerated in the Catalogue of the 2 Hou Han-shu. the waters rise and flow over. and Tung Chung Shu not dead.Gentle Drums. Kung Yang Kao were still alive. Vol. ^ C. they must suffer the penalties of their crimes. 287. Cf. and to form an idea of Heaven's government. after a long rain. cit. custom and gives a similar explanation as here given. If it be his ministers. Should it If — be neither the sovereign nor his ministers. To draw such a silken thread round the altars of the spirits of the land for help. Now. If a big mountain catches fire and is sprinkled with water from a pool. that the altars correspond to the Yin. and the water too little to quench the flames. then he must change his government. to appease Heaven. Why then attack the spirits of the land? Besides they This attack is inex- plicable. Now. and measure swords. in order to extinguish the fluid. causes droughts. ' ^a* %/^ KuTiff ^^' *PP^''®ntly a work on the Ch'uriF-ch'iu. which cooperates with the drums in bringing relief. every one knows the uselessness of such a measure. 343 is at present. and red to the Yang. becomes surrounded by the colour of Yang. the idea of attacking the spirits of the land again being put forward. p. being Yin. of what use would be the beating of drums and the attacking of the spirits of the land? In the "Remarks on the CJiun-cKiu"^ in it is said: — "The sove- reign boiling over. one takes human thoughts as a starting point. » * Ed. their fortuitous revolutions. B:— Jg. ed. would be like^ sprinkling a big mountain with water from a pool. proceed in a hot-headed way. in case of floods. and swords in hand. . for it? and amend his dealings. the inundation of a State is like a big mountain on fire. and. victory cannot be won. but the fluids of the Yin and Yang viz. to stop them. unless the combatants try conclusions man to man.

they flew to ' arms. Fu Hsi and Nil NU Wa. they expel sickness. and met with as Ydo and T^ang encountered the flood and the drought. the high water of the CJiun-cKiu. and one's time up. and regulating the water. *^See below . as at the end of the year. it also begins to rain afresh. Flood. When in the struggle between CKu and Han and in the time of the Six States. but. they sacrifice to know nothing ' of this. and that the sovereign quietly reclines on his high couch. when is life is at an end. trying to turn winter into Sunshine and rain are summer. so that a great dryness has been the consequence. suddenly turns into the Fm. fell The Great not invoke the Yitt. and after having stopped for a long time. without force of arms. even though the sovereign remains inactive on his pillows. Folklore and Religion. what can he do like against the rain? day and night. himself king of Rites that. and The struggle between Hsiang later Yu who had made CKu Liu Pang. By still using a physician and taking medi- they may perhaps is be cured. then it. all the same. and a change of conduct or reforms are of no avail. was the clever doctor of the Great Flood. is Yao's employment of is the regulation of the water like a dropsical therefore. would it rains uninterruptedly. the ' • Han Kao p. and whether a drought supplications for not like jaundice among men? By prayers and happiness they are not to be cured. but he employed all to regulate the water and make Yii for the rivers run eastward. human them. or night into day. and did spirits. again turns into the Yang. according to custom. 347.344 to smite Lun-Heng: D. man's recourse to a doctor. They are Should anybody desire to sacrifice also like summer and winter. all Wherefore did the of the land is critics change this? The attack on the spirits not justified by facts. Tau. In case of incessant rain. in order to check their chanto ges. no doctor and no medicine can help. spontaneously. The Great Flood of Foo. cines. of itself. the rain stops. and the Yin having gone he be successful? In case that to extremes.^ The Wa were both sages. the stronger held the If field. which Yao in with. the "water sickness" of heaven and earth. one man alone assaults the spirits. perhaps a success might be achieved. and the weaker were defeated. The wise ruler understood its nature. or change his government. Yil. Why? Because the Yang having reached its climax. beating the drum. How is do we know but that the ^ floods of heaven and earth are like the " water sickness " of mankind.

Cf. is the rain pours down unceasingly. is omittiug Fu Hsi. when a ruler was about to go out. 55. recriminating. and yet Ch'iu collected his imposts for him. p. cannot be explained by scolding or reproving. then the sound of bells and the of drums would mean an aggression and an onslaught on the highest powers. If human custom to reinforce cries and intensify shouts Of old. compared with the spirits of the land. treats Earth as his mother. children. used concerning the high water sacrifice. [The head of the Chi family was richer than the duke of Chou had been. The emperor fault. A mother having committed some inferiors can her son be charged by his father to reprove her? to explanations of that sort between ject has solely the right to As and superiors^ a subremonstrate. whereas the ruler may then violate all reprove and recriminate. Confucius said.' spirits drums were really beaten for the purpose of assailing the roll of the land. When the Yin is in its apex. and Yang ' The ^^T' suggestion that Nil *^® Wa shonld be sacrificed in to. drums are most likely used to address the spirits of the land a second time. This view of the critics is er- roneous." imagine that it means attacking.* a From the mutual armed attacks of the Six States an objection cannot be But to mean person in would likewise be improper. is imperi. The objection that J^ it should be taken in in the sense of "attack" in the passage of the Analects.i must be understood regard to the struggles of the word J^. Nil Cfiun-chHu.^ For reprove an exalted one. as Six States."]^ Scolding means reproving.inent.Gentle Drams. and increased his wealth. derived here." But may this course be that reproving he acts under instructions from Heaven. s * Analects XI. is ' same word which the foregoing discnssions used in the sense of attacking. 345 to. why does that mean to attack? The critics reading the word "drums. 16. Yin reigns supreme. It is Why the rules of propriety? a by drums. but drums need not necessarily refer to an attack. and reproving. ° Men are mean. My you may beat the drum and scold him. "He is no '^ disciple of mine. TI. on Wa is to be sacrificed not stated in the ' what then does Tung Chung Shu base his suggestion ? The Classic of the "Spring and Autumn" speaks of drums only. bells were warn off struck and drums beaten. At inundations. . whom they are supposed to attacL ^ Now gongs are used for the same purpose. to frighten and low class people.

No.^ what has happened. Folklore and Religion. is according to the but is there any rule preBecause the scribing the combination of an attack and a sacrifice? Red hot in silk in the shape of a cord points to heat. drums are used. affair.346 weak.C. Red silk is like a needle an inch long and a ball of moxa. ' W^ paraphrased by:-^^]fnf3PBl|^jai- . if Ave say that it is an announcement of the preponderance of the Yin and the impotence of the Yang. attack a mother. Wu attacked and defeated CKu. m the dictionaries say. nouncement. With plenty ' This custom ^^ is mentioned in the above quoted passage of the Cfiun-ch'iu. Moreover. To immolate an animal. one uses such a small thing. while making an anrites. the Yin. This is not the proper course of things. as the loss has been ascertained. but a sacrifice does not tally with an assault. Since oral sup- plications are inadequate. perhaps a misprint for a fife or a shrill pipe used to exhort people to work. drums are employed. and to show the undue preponderance of the Yin. A grandson of a ruler of CKu. therefore they are informed by the Those who maintain that drums imply an attack. Diet. ^'"'^»' •« See Giles.^ King Cliao fled. and ShSn Poo Hsil* took an opportunity^ to walk afoot to C/iin. « * In 506 B. and help the voice of Great principles are difficult to know. to inform the spirits of the urgent need. By driving a needle one inch long. to assist the prayers same manner as. Such an impiety is the consequence of this view. They make known When robberies are rife. the proceeding is the Robberies are likewise the upshot of government. this character. the urgent need is announced first nevertheless. But this is a government same. In important and urgent matters bells and in small and indifferent ones. Now. an announcement agrees well with the offering of an animal. jingles and fives. Provided the petitioner.* All this is done. and vein. the difficulty of assaulting a venerable being does not arise. at the altars The beating of drums and immolating of the animals of the land is the publication. 1697. Bibl. fluid is exhausted. at an eclipse of the sun. announce the urgency. The spirits of the land all are the chiefs of beating* of drums. drums are beaten and animals sacrificed at the altars of the land. in this case also is As soon an announcement first made. a violent disease by rubbing a ball of moxa over a may be cured. in the Lun-Heng: D. It is ^ i'JC' either Kanghi nor the (Jheng-tse-tung know *iL». that great floods and long inundations be occasioned by government.

averting and stopping the clouds and the rain. ["When it a strong wind blows. There against is Since the Yin fluid causes disasters. which do not exclude each People painting pictures of Nil Wa. Nil Wa melted fivecoloured stones. How does a drummer beat the drum? Provided that he be as upright as Sh^ Pao Hsil. reverting into the mountains. which was perhaps owing plicity of primitive times. 250. it man beat the drum. Though it be natural phenomena. fighting with Chuan Hsii for the imperial dignity. and Hsi later generations Chung wrought carts. p. causing the "Pillar of Heaven" to break and the confines of the earth to be smashed. other. a tradition that Kung Kung. Nil Wa sacrificed to. if the sovereign were to recline apatheticly on the follow each other. subject to certain laws. ^ 3 Therefore Yao*8 not immolating does not Cf. it would show a want of sympathy for the troubles of the people. that they feel the same pity as the king of Ch'in. I.^ ' Gentle Drums. on the plea that former ages writing and carts were diffi- unknown? culties When arise. The fluids of clouds and rain one single person may eventually suffice to beat the drum. the harrassed people are blessed with sunshine and repose. In accordance with the view of Tung Chung Shu.^ When Tung » Quotation from the Liki. and. was vanquished. but doings differ. Note 1. Water and drought are like thunder and storm. in his wrath. and having cut the legs of a sea-turtle. the times are the same. tell against the later custom. enjoying the peace of the kingdom of Ch^u. a superior be night. the name A^ Wa was first introduced as designation for a lady and a ruler of ancient times. and finally obtained auxiliary troops with which he repulsed Wu and saved Ch'u. then If one might be possible to prevail upon the spirits of the land. Yang is male. Though don his clothes and cap and sit up. erected them at the four poles."] apprehending an untoward accident. bulging pillows of his bed-chamber. Cf. Vol. 296. he will rise. and repaired the blue sky. Vol. to implore her protection. and with earth overcome the power of water. I. and the thunderclaps quickly man will be deeply moved. p. . Yao did not immolate. then cause fears like that of Wu. is and Yin female. Can the inventions of in be condemned. may have different customs. Different ages. knocked Mount I\i Chou. however. 347 of tears he asked for help. awaiting a change. to the sim- T'sang Hsieh invented writing. When they disperse. make a likeness of a lady and give it the appellative NiX (woman).

Folklore and Religion. Provided that. their first became current. the the Yang principle of Heaven being in disNil harmony and vanquished. Chung Shu sacrificed to Nil Wa. would she be able to check the rain showers? .348 Lun-Heng: D. Wa with her spiritual force helped a wise emperor. was a goddess who repaired the blue sky and erected fluid the four poles. this tradition Originally.

A

Laat

Word

on Dragons.

349

CHAPTER XXXU.

A

Last

Word on Dragons

[Luan-lung)}

Twig Chung Shu explained the rain-sacrifice of the CKun-cKiu

and set up a clay dragon to attract rain, his idea being that clouds and dragons affect each other. The Yiking says that the clouds follow the dragon, and wind, the tiger.^ With a view to this Yin and Yang sympathetic action, he put up the clay dragon. follow their species, and clouds and rain arrive as a matter of
course.

Scholars might raise the

following

question:

— The
real

Yiking,

speaking of clouds following the dragon,

means a

dragon;

how

can

it

be a clay dragon?
of ShS in Ch'u^ was very partial to dragons.
dishes he had
like

The Duke
all his walls,

On

pannels, plates, and

them

painted.*

If these semblances

must be looked upon

genuine ones, then

there must have been a continual rainfall in the State of the

Duke

of Sh4.

that,

The Yiking also says that wind follows the tiger, that means when the tiger howls, wind blows from the valley.^ There
between wind and the
in a valley, also attract
tiger,

being Ukewise a sympathetic fluid

would a clay

figure of a tiger, set

up

wind?

If a clay tiger cannot attract wind,

how

could a clay dragon bring

down

rain?

In ancient times, they used to rear dragons,
to their carriages.
This chapter

which they yoked Hence there was a dragon-keeper and a master
not to the credit of our author,

'

is

who

here shows himself

as credulous and unjudicious as those of his countrymen
to expose.
>
^

whose

superstitions he likes

See Vol.

I,

p. 356,

Note

2.
in

A

contemporary of Confucius of the name of Tse Kao, mentioned
She was a
district

Chttang

T»e

(Giles' translation p. 45).
*

of Ch'u.

The duke was

dragon ornaments carved.
appearance, looking
this

fond of dragons, that, in his residence, he had many The heavenly dragon, hearing of it, once made its through the window and dragging its tail through the hall. By
so

imexpected aspect the duke was frightened out of his wits.
chi-yii I, 2v.
I,

J|^ -^p

^E ^S.

K'ung Tse
6

quoting

ffl
2.

^p

Shen Tse.

Cf. Vol.

p. 279,

Note


350
of the dragons.
Lun-Heng:


D. Folklore and Religion.

In the palace of the Hsia emperors there were
in

always two dragons, but
its

the last year of this dynasty,

when
rain.

downfall was impending, they absconded.^ can be expected of

Even

so

long as

real

dragons were on earth, there were no clouds and no
fictitious

What

semblances then?

represented on an ornamented thunder-goblet,^ but
that this thunder-goblet could attract thunder.

According to the Book of Rites the shape of thunder was we do not hear

How

then should

a clay dragon occasion a rainfall?
a load-stone^ attracts needles,

Amber ^

takes up straws, and

but under condition that they are

genuine, for they cannot borrow from other species.

Other

species,

resembling them, cannot take up or attract things.
possible.

Why?

Be-

cause the nature of the fluid being different, no mutual influence
is

Liu Tse Chun ^ directed the rain sacrifice and took care of the Hv£in Chun Shan also took- exception, on the ground that amber and the loadstone could not take up needles or raise
clay dragon. straws, unless they were genuine.

Liu Tse

Chiln

was

at a loss for

an answer.
writer, yet

He was

a

Han

scholar of vast erudition and a prolific

he was embarrassed. That does not prove that the proposed sacrifices were a mistake, but solely that he did not know
I

their real reason.
I.

say:

The
is

objection that the dragon
to insist

was not genuine,

is all

right,

on relationship. When an east wind blows, wine flows over, and [when a whale dies, a comet appears.]^ The principle of Heaven is spontaneity, and does not resemble human activity, being essentially like that affinity between clouds and dragons. The sun is fire, and the moon is water. Fire and
but
it

wrong not

water are always affected by genuine
I

fluids.

Now,

physicists

'

(;ast

Vol.

I,

p.
I,

354 seq.
p. 293,

»
'

Cf. Vol.

Note

1.

^H £^
in

.

See on amber the learned paper of B. Laufer, Historical
passage as the
p.
first literary

Jottings
I,

on Amber
Part
3,

Asia (Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association Vol.

1907)

who

refers

to

this

mention of amber
is

in

China.
hu-p'o

The words quoted by Laufer

218, Note 3:

"tun-mou
must be a

identical with

= amber "
*

does not occur

in

the Lun-henff, and

gloss.

Son of lAu

Hsianff,

more generally known under the name of Liu Hsin

^IIhX'
*

* celebrated scholar like his father.

He

lived in the 1st cent. b.c.

and a.d.
arts.

and was a proteg^ of

Wang Mang.

His studies included the Yihing and occult

Quoted from Huai

Nan

Tse HI, 2r.

A

Last

Word

on Dragons.

351

burning-glasses wherewith to catch the flying fire from the sun, and they produce moon-mirrors to draw the water from the moon.* That is not spontaneity, yet Heaven agrees to it. A clay dragon
is

not genuine either, but

why

should

it

not be apt to affect Heaven?
fire

n.
the

With

a burning-glass one draws

from Heaven.

In

fifth month, on a ping-wu day at noon, they melt five stones, and cast an instrument with which they obtain fire. Now, without further ceremony, they also take the crooked hooks on swords and blades, rub them, hold them up towards the sun, and likewise If a clay dragon cannot be compared with a affect Heaven.^ burning-glass, it can at least be placed on a level with these crooked hooks on swords and blades. HI. Prince Meng Cfiang of CKi wished to pass through the gate of Oiin during the night, but the gate was not yet open. A companion of his imitated the cock-crow, and a veritable cock

responded.^

Since a cock could be roused
fictitious effigies.

by

a false crow,

rain

can also be caused by
IV.
a

When

Li Tse Chang was at the head of the government,
in

he wished to see clear

criminal affairs.

He, therefore, caused

figure, resembling a criminal, to be made of mu-iung wood. was dug in the earth, a coffin made of rushes, and the wooden criminal placed into it. Whenever the punishment of a criminal was just, the wooden criminal did not move, but, when he had to complain of unjust and cruel treatment, the wooden Did the spirit of the criminals enter figure moved and came out. the wooden figure, or did the spiritual fluid operate upon it?* At all events, the spirit affected the wooden criminal;^ why then should a clay dragon not have the same effect? V. When Shun with his holy virtue went into the wilds of the big mountain forests,® tigers and wolves did not hurt, and snakes and serpents did not injure him. Yu cast metal tripods, on which he shaped the figures of a hundred objects. These tripods were carried into the mountain woods, where they averted noxious influences.'

human
pit

A

Many
»

critics

contend that this

is

not true, but those times of

Vid. p. 341.
Cf. Vol. I, p. 378.

« «
*

See

p. 132.

The
It
is

Pei-'wen-yun-fu quotes this passage bat slightly altered.

*

strange that a

man

as critical as

Wanp CKung

should believe such

a story.
Cf.

Shukmg Part H, Book
I,

I,

2 {Legge, Classics Vol. HI, Part

I,

p. 32).

Cf. Vol.

p.

505 seq.


352
Lun-Heng: D. Folklore and
Religion.

highest antiquity are long ago, and the spirits of the Ckou tripods

Metal and earth both belong to the Five Provided that the virtue of him who forms the clay dragon equals that of Yii^ it must also have the power to attract
existed.

must have
Elements.

clouds and rain.

VI.
it,

Amber
is

takes up straws.
is

but a magnet

not amber.

clay dragon

not real either,

The horse-shoe magnet ^ resembles Both can attract small things. A but it must be compared and be

classed with a horse-shoe magnet.

VII.

The duke of

She in CIiu had a penchant for dragons:

on walls, pannels, vases, and goblets he had pictures of dragons painted. A genuine dragon heard of it and came down. Dragons, clouds, and rain are of the same fluid, wherefore they can mutually affect each other, following their species.

By making

pictures,

the duke of She succeeded in bringing

down

a real dragon.

Why

should

it

not be possible, now, to attract clouds and rain?

VUI. Spirits speak to men by images, and not by reaUties. While asleep, they perceive these images in their dreams. When
things are going to be lucky, lucky images arrive, and,
are going to be unlucky,
spirits is

inauspicious signs appear.

when they The fluid of

of the same class as that of clouds and rain.^
Spirits

IX.

show

the truth by images; wherefore can clay

is unreal? In remote were two brothers. Shin Shu and Yil Lu, possessing the power to dominate ghosts. They lived on the Tu-so Mountain in the Eastern Sea, where, under a peach-tree, they looked after the hundred ghosts. The reckless ones who maliciously caused human misfortune, were bound by Shin Shu and Yu Lil with cords of reeds, and thrown before tigers, to be devoured. Therefore, the district magistrates of our time are in the habit of having peachtrees cut down and carved into human statues, which they place by the gate, and they paint the shapes of tigers on the door-screens.* Peach-wood men are not Shin Shu and Yil Lii, nor painted tigers, such as devour ghosts. These carvings and paintings of images

dragons alone not attract the real by what
antiquity, there

*

In Vol.

I,

p.

506 Waitff GKung denies that these tripods had any super-

natural forces.

^

The purport of
suffice

this

image must
of
spirits.
«

for clouds

somewhat misty argument seems ta be that a clay and rain, just as images and omens are correlates

Cf. Vol. I, p. 244,

Note

1.

A
are intended to

Last

Word

on Dragons.

353
clay dragons are

ward

off evil

influences.

Now,

not real dragons attracting rain either.
in

peach-wood men and painted
X.

tigers,

But people believe only and know nothing of clay

dragons.

True, these are but arguments from ancient books, for
strict

which no
ing,

proofs are to be found.
kites

However, Lu Pan and MS
three days without alightIf the

Tse carved

wooden

which could

fly

very ingenious inventions indeed.'
kites, flying

formers of clay
productions

dragons have the talents of Lu Pan and
can be similar to these wooden
fluid

MS

Tse, their

without alighting. an
air

The

of flying kites

is

the fluid of clouds and rain,
to
fly.

which

causes the

wooden
It

kites

Why

should

it

not be able to

follow a clay dragon?

XI.

cannot be said that the fluid of clouds and rain

is

more intelligent than that of flying kites. Anglers make fishes out of wood, the bodies of which they cover with red varnish. Going to a current, they throw them into the water, where they rise in The fish take them for real ones, and all the stream and move. gather round them. A piece of red wood is not a real fish, for fish have blood and possess knowledge. Still they allow themselves to be duped by a semblance. The knowledge of clouds and rain cannot be greater than that of fish. How could they have misclay givings, on beholding a dragon?
However, these are fish whose intelligence falls short of that of mankind. The Hsiung-nu were in respectful awe of the power The Hsiung-nu of Chih Tu.^ A figure of him was carved in wood. shot at it, arrow after arrow, but could not hit it once. We ignore the fact whether the spirit of Chih Tu was residing in the figure, or whether, since he was dead, the spirits of the Hsiung-nu, doing homage to his ghost, were in the wood. If the mind of Chih Tu was in the statue, the spirit of the heavenly dragon must likewise be in the clay dragon, and in case the spirits of the Hsiung-nu clung to the wood, then the minds of those offering the rain sacrifice must be in the clay dragon as well.
XII.

»

Cf. Vol.

I,

p. 498,

Notes 2 and

3,

and Huai

]\'an

Tse XI, 14v.

^

A

general of

Hsiung-nu.

He was

a

Han Ching Ti, who in 142 b.c. made an attack upon the man of great courage and a stern character, who received
figure

^^ jj^ " Grey Eagle." When he died a him, was carved and placed in view of the Hsiung-nu
the sobriquet
it,

of wood, resembling

at

Yen-men.

They

shot at

but, being too

much

afraid, did not hit

it.

This

is

the simple version of the Shi-

chi (Pei-wen-yun-fu), favourably contrasting with

Wang

Ch'ung's mysticism.

354
XIII.

Lun-Heng: D. Folklore and

Religion.

Chin Weng Shu

was the
his

heir-prince

of the King
to

of

Hsm CKu}
Han.

Together with

father he

went

submit to the

His father having died on the road, he went with his mother, and received the rank of an imperial prince {chi-tu-yil).'^ When his mother had died, Wu Ti caused her portrait to be painted in the
A'an-cA^ ware

palace with the inscription:
Chin

— Consort

of King iY^m

6'A%<,

accompanying the emperor, went up to There he stood paying his respects, and turned towards the pictures, he wept, that his tears moistened his garment. It was a long while before he went away. The portrait was not his mother in person, yet, when he saw her features, his At the thought of his beloved parent, his feelings tears burst forth. were touched, and he did not expect reality. A clay dragon is like the picture of the Kan-cJiilan palace. Why should clouds and rain, on perceiving it, not be moved? Yu Jo* XIV. But this was the story of a savage only.
nee Yen.^

Weng

Shu,

the Kan-cKilan palace.

resembled

Confuciiis.

After the decease of Confucius, his disciples

Yu Jo were aware that Yu Jo was not Confucius, still they sat together, and did homage to him. In case the intelligence of clouds and rain equals that of the disciples, their thoughts would be touched, although they knew that it was a clay dragon, and not a veritable one, and they would make their

would

sit

together, affectionately thinking of their master.
seat.

occupied his

The

disciples

appearance.

XV. The
features
Confucius.

of Yu Jo,

Li.

Whe

of Confucius had their doubts about the and therefore merely said that he resembled The emperor Wu Ti was very fond of his consort. Lady she died, he pondered whether he could not see her
disciples

figure

again.

The

Taoists

made an

artificial

figure

of the lady,

which passed through the
her,

palace-gate.

When
real,

the emperor beheld
albeit yet

he did not ignore that she was not

he was

'

Chin

Mi

Ti

-^

R

;fim,

styled
a

Weng

Shu,

tlie

son of Hsiu Ch'u, a khan
to high

of

tiie

Hsiung-nu, was

first

made
a

government slave and afterwards raised

honours,
Diet.

when he

received

Chinese name.

He

died

b.c.

86.

See

Giles,

Bibl.

No. 382.

3

The words
Ti,

of the text 4}c
(58,

® ^ ^^ )^
the
last

give no sense.

In the

biography
r^jj

of

Ckin Mi

Him-shu chap.

p. 21r.

two words are written

J^,

the family

name of

the mother

of Chin

Mi

Ti,

which should be inserted for the

spurious
*

Jl^^A
disciple of Confucius,
('f.

Vol.

I,

p. 3(50.


A
SO moved, that,
full

Last

Word

on Dragons.
lier.^

355
If the fluids of
is

of joy,

he went near

clouds and rain be hke the heart of

Wu

Ti,

their tender passion

roused, and they appear in spite of their knowledge of the unreality

of the clay dragon.
In addition to these fifteen arguments,
analogies:
I.

there

are

still

four

At the beginning of

spring,

the east, they mould clay figures, a

when man and

the ground
a

is

tilled in

woman, both holding

a plough and a hoe in their hands, or they set up a clay ox.^

These cannot labour the ground, but they correspond to the season, and agree with the time, and are to exhort the common people Now, although it is obvious that a clay dragon to be industrious. cannot attract rain, it likewise accords with the summer time, and by its category favours a change of weather, the same idea which has led to the moulding of clay men and clay oxen.
II.

According to the Rites the tablets in the ancestral temple
foot

are

made of wood, one

and two inches long,

to represent a

deceased ancestor.^

A

dutiful son, entering the hall, worships

them

with
they

all

his soul.

are not his parents, he must
call for his veneration.
it

Although he knows that these wooden tablets show them the greatest respect, and

A

clay dragon
it

is

like a

wooden

tablet;

even though

is

not genuine,

exercises such an influence, that

the image must be taken notice
III.

of.

Sages are cognisant of the uselessness of
but since they symbolise
life,

mud

carts

and
it

straw

figures,*

they do not dare to

dispense with them.

Putting up a clay dragon, one
it

knows
carts

that

cannot cause

rain,

but

is

symbolical like the

mud

and the

straw
elk,

figures,

and has

efi'ect.

IV.

The son

of Heaven shoots at a bear, the princes at an

ministers and high officers at a tiger

and a leopard,

officers

at a stag and a wild boar,^ to illustrate the subjugation of the

'

Vol.

I,

p. 97.

*

The

so called "spring
in

ox"

^^4-*

already mentioned

in

.the

Liki.

It

used to be carried
air
oflF:

procession during the last month

of the year, to see the cold
still

— HH
3
*

"1^4^
De
I,

W 5^ ^ ^Note
1.

This custom

is

practised iu

many

parts

of China.

See

Groot, Fetes d Entoui p. 92 seq.
p. 536,

Cf. Vol.

They were used at funerals supposed to make use of them. See Vol. XXVII, p. 173) and also p. 117.
*

in

ancient and

modern
p. 52r.

times.

The dead

are

Ld/ci,

T'an-kung,

{Legge, Sacred

Books

This competition of archery was a great ceremony described

in

the Ldki,

l-li,

and Chou-li.

The

latter

work

also

speaks of the various targets, but the wild

356
fierce.

Lun-Heng: D. Folklore and

Religion.

A

piece of cloth

is

called target [hou)

implying that unIt is right to
full

principled princes^ are to be shot.^

Pictures of bears and elks are

painted on the cloth, which
appreciate these symbolical

is

styled target (hou).^

images and to choose names

of

A clay dragon and an elk are painted. There are fifteen proofs, based on affinity, and four analogies, explaining the meaning by other customs. Tung Chung Shu's insight was immense, and his institutions are not inconsiderate. For putting up a clay dragon he had his good reasons. When a dragon suddenly emerges from the water, clouds and rain appear. Of old, as long as there used to be a dragon keeper and a master of the dragons, there were no clouds and no rain. It is like an unexpected meeting of old friends, who have been separated by a great In their joy, they sing and laugh, or they turn sad, distance. shed tears, and, for a while, are down-spirited. Their doings appear
meaning.
is like a cloth target

upon which a bear

to be quite abnormal.*

The

Yiking says that clouds follow the dragon,

but not that

the dragon follows the clouds.

On

the cloud goblet, thunder and

clouds were carved, but did the dragon deign to come
scholiasts cannot explain this, so that

his objections,

which Liu

Tse Chiln

down? The Huan Chun Shan could urge was unfit to meet. Owing to

this inability, the

fragmentary.

remarks of Tung Chung Shu on dragons remained The Lun-heng has supplemented them, "A Last Word

on Dragons" denoting a supplement.
beasts allotted
(Cf. Biot,

to

the emperor and his officers are different from those here given
p. 138).

Tscheou Li

3 This explanation is mere fancy. Since the emperor took part in the shooting, one might as well say that the ceremony was meant as a warning for the emperor that he would be shot like a bear, in case he proved to be miprincipled. *

So

it

is

with dragons.

They

did not attract clouds and rain, as long as
their

they were drfmesticated

and always there, but

sudden and unexpected

arrival

has

tliis

effect.

The

clouds are touched, so to say, and then drop their tears.

The Tiger Trouble.

357

CHAPTER

XXXIII.
[Tsao-hu).

The Tiger Trouble

The phenomenalists

aver that the devouring of

men by

tigers

is a consequence of the misdeeds of the high commissioners/ their idea being that as the high commissioners are the chiefs of the officers,

The commissioners do mischief by fleecing their subordinates, therefore tigers devour men to accord with this idea. Tigers eat men, but it likewise happens that men kill tigers. If they contend that, as tigers eat men, the commissioners plunder
so tigers are the fiercest of beasts.

the

officials,

do the

latter

extort

money from

the commissioners,

when men

eat the tigers?
is

In our age, there

not one unselfish and undefiled officer

among a hundred, and

all

high commissioners have wicked

designs.'^

By good
all sorts,

connexions and old friendship one succeeds, and bribes of
big and small, are always welcome.
If tigers are considered

to correspond to high commissioners, tigers in the country always

destroy people.
at fixed periods.

Tigers come out at certain times, as dragons appear

The

Yin creatures appear in winter, whereas Yang

animals come out in summer.^
their fluid,

Their appearance corresponds to
corresponding species.

which prompts its its sword come forth in winter, the " Heart"" ^ and Orion and its sword are the " Tail" ^ become visible in summer. the constellation of tigers, the "-Hearf and the ''Tail" the heavenly
Orion and
signs of dragons.
their appearance,
is

When
and the
is

these signs are visible, the creatures
fluid supervening,

make

the respective species

affected.

Such

the nature of Heaven and Earth.

with

Those who move about in forests and marshes just fall in Tigers tigers, which assault them and tear them to pieces. hungry, are endowed with fierceness. When they are greedy and and encounter a man arriving of his own accord, why should they

A

hard judgment indeed.
tiger represents the masculine principle
I, I,

The

Yang.

Cf. Vol.

p. 127,
p. 118,

Cf. Vol.

Note Note

5. 2.

358
not eat him?

Luii-Heng:

D. Folklore and Religion.

Human muscles and sinews are weak and powerless, and man lacks agility, therefore meeting a tiger, he is sure to enters a If Meng Pen ascends a mountain, or Mrs. Fing perish. wood, they do not succumb. When Confucius was walking through a forest in Lu, a woman He sent Tse Kung to inquire, wherefore cried most mournfully. she cried so sadly. The woman replied, "Last year a tiger devoured my husband, and this year it devoured my son, hence my lamentation." Tse Kung rejoined, "Why do you not leave the
'

place under these circumstances?"

"Because," said the woman,
officials

"I

like the

government which
Tse

is

not oppressive, and the

Kung went back, and reported what he had heard to his master. Confucius said, "Remember, my disciples, that an oppressive government and tyrannical officials are worse than tigers."^ That tigers kill men has ever been the case. Government not
are not tyrannical."

who

being oppressive, and the officers not being tyrannical, the effects
of virtue are apt to avert tigers.
viduals were eaten in
forest did not

Nevertheless, those

two

indi-

conform
either.

to goodness.

two successive years, ergo the beasts in the There being no such corresponofficials,
it

dence in the case of unselfish

cannot be expected for

depraved ones

Some say
not equivalent

that tigers comport with the perversity of high
is

commissioners, but that the so-called inoppressive government
to

these

commissioners.

The woman was under

the rule of unselfish officers, but

how

could good government operate

upon
else

tigers?^

In Lti there were no high commissioners,

than ministers of State.

The

ministers of

who are nothing Lu were not Con-

fuMus or

but members of the three families.* Their proceedings as ministers cannot have been recommendable. All power and influence being invested in persons devoid of virtue, their doTi,

Me

must have been wicked, and there can be no question of disinterestedness. If the depravity of ministers induces tigers to devour men, then those in the wilds of Lu must always have eaten men.
ings
^

A

lady of the seraglio of
its

Han Yuan

Ti.

1st cent, b.c,

who once

faced a

bear that had escaped from
'^

cage.

See

p. 145,

Note
as

o.

^

Government

a

whole

could

be

bad,

even though the

local

officials

were good.
*

The

three noble fiimilies, Menff, Shu, and Chi which in the time of Confucius

were the

real rulers o(

Lu, the reigning duke being more or

less

dependent upon them.

The Tiger Trouble.

359
hills,

The
fall

destruction in the water does not reach the

and

the fluid on the hills does not enter into the water.
a prey to their enemies

All creatures

which

are near.

Thus

fish,

caught by
chased
rove
in-

the fisherman, do not die on the mountains, and animals,

by

the hunter, do not dive into the pond.'
to

If people like to

through the mountain woods,
trude into the tiger's den,
it

spy out obscure caverns, and

cannot be a matter for surprise that

the tiger pounces upon and devours them.'^
a sickness, was changed into a which attacked and devoured his elder brother.-* People do not wonder at this simultaneous metamorphosis; why then be surprised that in mountain forests, jungles, and marshes people are killed by tigers? Snakes and vipers are very fierce, and likewise injurious to mankind. If somebody meets with a snake in a marsh, to which class of officials does it respond? Wasps and scorpions hurt people, and so do poisonous exhalations, water, and fire. If a person is stung by a wasp or a scorpion, infected by poisonous air, burned in fire, or drowned in water, who has been the cause? Provided that there be a sort of relation between wild animals and officers or government, then all those animals living on
tiger,

Duke Niu Ai of Lu, during

mountains or in
phants,

forests,

such as

elks, stags,

wild boar, oxen,

ele-

and rhinopithecus,* kill men. But should a correspondence be assumed only in case they eat men, then fleas, lice, mosquitoes, and gadflies ^ all feed on men, yet the human body being so strong and big, it does not occasion its death. In times of famine, when food is dear, and the people starved, they go even the length of eating one another. Such an atrocity is far worse than tigers, but phenomenalists do not ascribe
bears,

brown and spotted

wolves,

this to oppressive

government.

Moreover, tigers do not only eat men:
their veins,

— birds

with blood

in

and animals with bodies,
is

all

afibrd

them food.

If a

man
refer,

eaten

believed

to

testify

to the

wickedness of the high

commissioners, to which functionaries do other birds and animals

when devoured?
'

The

tiger is a hairy

mammal, and man a

water,"

The catching of fish is what Wanfi CKung denotes by "destruction in tlie and the hunting of animals what he calls the " fluid, i. e. destructive, on
Remaining
in

the hills."
2

their

own
2.

places,

where the destructive
would be
safe.

fluid

of mountain

forests viz. tigers do not intrude, people
3

*

mm

Cf. Vol.

I,

p.

326, Note

seldom comes out. then the districts of the plain with large the must always be excellent. ' line is of argument. As long stir. going to up an insurrection. must mammal in its hunger eats a naked one.' the Giants devour the Pigmies. the commissioners saunter about through lanes and alleys?* As a matter of fact. Accordingly. and marshes. For this . the high officers being extinguished. than tigers enter The glory of the cities. which is not always visible. rats were observed dancing Even with us rats are credited with some kind of prescience. the killing of a man by a tiger in the its country has nothing to do with government.360 Lun-H^ng: D. and bears some resemblance to the common rat. here meaning savages in general. their towns and cities sink to their agitation indicate an extraordinary calamity. the tiger's eating a man in the country. but no sooner are the high officers on the road to ruin. has its counterpart in the viciousness of the commissioners. as people live in happiness is and and tran- rats do not but scarcely their felicity destroyed. While cities and districts enjoy peace and happiness. and cannot be tamed. when rats by The same holds good for tigers. and are dangers impending. fate and time come '* The barbarians The savages in towards the four Quarters of China. Supposing that a devouring a sioners. do. It lives in jungles. man in is a correlate of the depravity of high commiscities. for we say that rats leave a ship which " is going to be wrecked. * The Han-shu stir relates that. jungles. and the high officers have no trouble. the south and the west. tigers do not leave their hiding places. in They thrive tiger's mountain forests. when the kings of Kuang-ling and Yen were in their palaces. for the tiger is a wild beast of the mountains and woods.* the level of a wilderness. whereas in territories covered with mountains. and wander about among the populace. reason they are visited by tigers. and not domesticated. why naked one. but in a big city is a appearance prodigy. Folklore and If a hairy this Religion. at that time. when and walks about among the But. as it usually hides itself. people. it happens that a tiger enters a city. be accounted an extraordinary phenomenon? countries Beyond the the of the four classes of savages. and marshes they are always commissioners culpable. quillity. The nature of tigers is like that of Man and the YiJ^ Plains and large cities are not resorts tor tigers. • Provided that there be always a correspondence between the doings of tigers and high commissioners.^ Proceeding on this clusion that. eaten we arrive at the con- when a man living by a tiger. woods.

into the palace was an augury of life.c. in Honan was a son of the emperor Wen Ti.'^ T'^ien The — * Fate is looked upon as something material of which there may be greater or smaller quantities. ^ ^ ' A A celebrated official of the 2nd and 1st cent. 361 gear. into play. the king of Ch'ang-yi. Kung Sui replied a wild bird.c. In ancient and modern times all kinds of wild animals have served as inauspicious auguries. he was transferred to be councillor to the king of Liang. in fact. that he con- tracted a disease and died likewise. b. the flesh appears as a corpse. later on a privy councillor of the emperor Han Wu Ti. the commagistrate of Lu-nu. Cf. — In the time of the king of CKang-yi. not tigers alone. and he suffered execution. The modern Ting-chou who died in 121 b. p. ^ Originally a poor scholar. and began building its nest. Some time after. where he his own country. and that Thus. 162. King Huai of lAang place in Shantung. Subsequently. a "mainah" arrived. T'^ien Kuang felt disgusted. and was shot by the king. ^ Chia Yi was privy councillor his to CU ang-sha. Before the upper story of the Ying palace of the king of CKu was completed. He died in 169 b. lost his Kuang conjointly with KungSun Hung^ and others planned an insurrection. Kung that the entering of an exotic partridge. — Duke Chao duke. King Huai^ was fond of riding. ' and time out of of the body fades away. Subsequently the Chi family expelled the afterwards died without returning the king of who fled to CKi. a wild cat mewed on the roof of his house. a stag- Heaven that a walked over its terrace. death. In the time of Li Wen Po. later on.The Tiger Trouble. in Chili. and breathed his last. the lustre Fate being exhausted. consequently the tiger eats principles of it. his A screech owl perched on house. what is looked upon as the high officers are just wicked. to of Lu going out one morning. It is a fortuitous coincidence according to the tiger happens to eat a man. an extraordinary phenomenon. . Afterwards the intrigue was discovered. Chia Yi took this death so much to heart. a 3 * Cf. ^ He opened book and divined that he was going to leave his master. is in harmony with the laws of Heaven.c. p. but was thrown from his horse.^ who questioned the steward of the palace. When it was about to be discovered. Sui. 313. and. Note 4. the king expired.^ an exotic partridge alighted under a palace hall.

prefect of Tan-yang? Tse Feng was commander.^ When Wang entered his residence. When they point to desolation and death. the vital force disperses and vanishes. and similar events. mander of the eastern part of reception hall. to constantly met with. and when a town is to be deserted. Religion. precincts. Thus. The present Lai-chou-fu in the province of Shantung. I have selected some conspicuous ones. promotion and all dismission both have their prognostics. its wild birds intrude into his home. a deer and afterwards he rose to the rank of a Good and bad luck can both be ascertained. fect a sheep lay down in his Subsequently he was promoted and appointed pre- of Tung-lai. animals from the prairies enter These affinities are very numerous. prove the truth of such prognostics. A circuit in Kiangsu and Anhui. Folklore and Kuei-chi. . when a man is about to die.362 Lun-Heng: D.

or they are always there. Either they seldom come out and suddenly cause damage. Chun-ch'iu. To which officers are they related? Duke Hsilan of Lu levied the land tax on each acre. To which officials do these correspond? Sometimes influential citizens disturb officials. sometimes insects have red heads and white bodies. Their kinds are very numerous. Remarks on Insects {Shang-ch'ung). 1 In 594 B.^ Some say that they resemble winged ones. On dry land there are always mice. or their heads as well as their bodies are yellow. and their usurpations are more varied than those of officers. that of office-bearers. officers. down on the earth like a shower of rain. If those red time the officials are not necessarily subjected to punishment. by civilians. Duke Hsiian introduced a new a tithing system. interceding for Their ascendancy is greater than those who are to be tortured. as is the case with worms in fish or meat.Remarks on Insects. Cf. they obscure the sky. by insects Out of covetous- ness they the grain. are regarded by Wang Chung as retribution unjust mode . make encroachments. or both are green. How are their corresponding insects shaped? Insects are usually destroyed by wind and rain. which all injure the grain. fields. but at that their ravages. and the black heads. falling When locusts appear. Judging by their heads and bodies. civil officers. which class of officials do they represent? With which do they tally in the opinion of the phenomenalists? thing. If these officers related to insects be punished. which results in the insects eating Those with black bodies and red heads are called mihtary those with black heads and red bodies. 368 CHAPTER XXXIV. and in paddy fish and crabs. 15th year. Duke fl««a/i The locusts of taxation. heads are supposed to be produced by military officers. the insects desist from and are seen no more. They eat everymaking no diff"erence between grain and other plants. or both white.C. doing mischief. that the eating of grain The phenomenalists maintain is caused by the officials of the various departments. Tso Ch'iu Ming condemns this measure as contrary for this to rule. when simultaneously larvse of locusts were born. or black heads and yellow bodies.

^ Locusts eat grain and grass. of their own accord. It would be to the point. Lemons ctymologiques p. " For those oflfences for which the insects are supposed to have made their appearance. were originally connected: zD and are nothing else than a viper with a big head. But at that time the local authorities are not shan circuit.® Having received their fluid from wind. and ^^ the radical. they are bred in eight days. a air. Tlie present T'ai-an-chou in Shantum/. ' a^' This explanation the is " '" forced and certainly erroneous. '° Insects are produced by the fluid » 55a. the undulating of the currents of are formed of Ui/!.^ all liable to punishment. would the two components "all" and "insects" suggest the idea of wind? explanation given by factory ] Wieger^ Rudiments 12. Some ancient forms of Isl a current. * Therefore the locusts could not be considered a punishment for unjust taxation. and. • a synonym for ^^ a reptile = ^^ . ^3 is a crawling animal. dry up. character reptile. but the officers of these places had not all measured the fields for taxation.* and then entered the country of the / and Ti. He and submits XA. if character JjffiL designated some insects. and do not always remain grubs. as the silkworms' feeding on mulberry leaves has a limit. 77 is not satis- either. and describes the crawling. Tsang Hsieh knew and therefore formed the character feng (wind)^ of fan (all)^ and cKung (insects). In hundreds and thousands of districts and villages they alighted. and die. that the ancient character was composed of Q in movement. in a few days. and they die after a Their breeding takes a number of months.— 364 Lun-Heng: D. reach the end of Either they proceed on their journey. for to whom The sun.d. 2 ' * A circuit comprising the modern K'ai-/enff-fu in Honan. they are transformed. and not wind. days.^ locusts rose in the T'ai- They went to the south-west. and that this combination suggests the atI mospheric currents pi-oduced by the action of the sunbeams. Having completed their span. or they stop. passing CKen-liu^ and Honan. suppose that the KT is the phonetic. a reptile. In the thirty-first year of Chien-um. instead of ^b. occurring in other characters. expansion. Folklore and Religion. their life. and from the antique form \&^ we infer that R and 1 . of wind. eating of grain has its The number of insects' term.. If the sovereign does not punish his officers. Ho-nan-fu.'^ the insects die nevertheles. it.

collect insects of spring and grain. Cf. wheat and beans never. he is himself born between Heaven and Earth. Thus the insects would censure man. and are not aware that you are Inasmuch as all animated beings like the taste of something. in case no insects were produced with the crop. The existence of insects amongst other creatures is nothing wonderful for the knowing. ^ A A method still followed to the present day. T>>e hung is said government of which he condemned. when the insects feed on other herbs? Among and the three hundred naked animals is man takes precedence. Note 4. by soaking the seeds in horse dung. the latter do not consider an exceptional calamity. 365 either The Grains. officers what manner of things do they exact. that he withered up into dead wood. "You eat the produce of Heaven. and he would be unable to refute their charges. 427. what wonder that they eat each other's food. and detests the coming forth of insects. saying. of villages growing millet would inva- the departmental officers riably be culpable. Man eats the food of insects. In fragrant and succulent plants there are always insects in great numbers. be always made responsible for the existence of insects. . recluse of the have blamed him for living in a country the » Another hermit.Remarks on Insects. they would scold man well. p. lest they should be damaged by insects. Man likes the Five Grains.^ Thus. their mouths and bellies are not different. insects. if they could speak. insects likewise eat what man lives on. and that they eat so many things. Both being animals. Vol. I. The system of SMn Nung and Hou sisted in boiling horse Chi of sowing grain con- dung and soaking the seeds in liquid manure. Were insects endowed with intelligence. C/ien Chung Tse. Pao Chiao took these words so much to heart. but summer Hve on the Five or on other herbs.^ How could these officers get rid Chi of all viciousness by merely employing the method of Hou and Shin since. and detests the insects for eating them. the village officers would become Poo Chiao^ and Nung. and under a prince whom he despised. and we eat it as You regard us as a plague. the emperor could not discover their guilt? ^ to Chou epoch. money and As they eat the Five Grains. consequently he an animal also. celebrated for his purity." yourself a calamity to us. officials Therefore of ^iil kinds of grain millet has most If the rice has them at times.

the fermentation produces grubs. fretters. mole-crickets. and mulberry is trees. worms are produced. some long. and they are by no means all similar. or when garments are folded together and not hung up. grain."^ and crabs all have parasites: some are white. when mincedmeat and gravy are not covered. and suck his blood. or when the scrolls of books are never unrolled. To whom will these critics. intestines. the phenomenalists call them is a calamity. some short. than it is called a calamCassia trees have ity. leeches may stick to his feet. or when cooked rice gets warm and damp. Therefore living they put forward such officials as bear some resemblance to them. . and not only one species. and so they are. Cassia furnishes medicine. Now these grubs eating millet and are not considered disastrous. no less than that of To see nothing wonderful in these insects as a disaster. whereas. it when insects eat the is laid to the charge of the government. they perish almost as soon as they appear. some black. When millet and rice turn mouldy. wood-worms. up to their end. wood-worms and woodshows ignorance of the and a misconception and to decry real character of the various classes of animals. but no sooner do they feed on the Five Grains. leaves of corn.366 Lun-Heng: D. As long is as insects content themselves with other plants. Struck with the rarity of their appearance and with the fact that when they come out. so fond of similarities. Diseased snails. Folklore and Religion. Their usefulness very great. they keep wind. ffl'Sj.^ flies. which of the fluid of upshot They cannot choose their days of life. and mulberry trees serve as food for silkworms. They are greatly diverse All are the in size. it not the custom to see anything extraordinary in them. When fish and meat rot. 3 When a man passes through marshes. wood- fretters. is If in the course of discussion they urge that millet less of much is consequence than corn in general. in has three worms in his marshes are called leeches. Perhaps the latter character "an ulcer" 2 spurious. we reply that there the greatest variety of insects. grubs are rice moths. of the nature of calamitous phenomena. By insects like we usually understand those which feed on grain. but a calamity presupposes some guilt.^ as the three worms eat his bowels. and when their life-time very short. they eat something. low Man The worms They eat man's feet. I have omitted translating some insect or reptile not mentioned in the dictionaries. compare the three worms? ' $Sl3&is My translation is a conjecture.

but should the grow like clouds and mist. Consequently it is preposterous to point to the depravity of the officials of the various departments. it must be exceedingly warm and damp. ^^^ ffim it which the dictionaries only give the meaning " to wriggle. 394). it is not regarded as a calamity. . The Shiking says: ["They buzz about. but when it becomes warm and damp. Therefore only to consider this an echo of the actions of governtheir ment if insects eat grain. 2 Shikinff Part II. then these officers must be covetous in spring and summer. Their instincts are the same. p. and it is cold and dry in autumn and winter. If the village officers are made responsible for the growth of insects. Classics Vol IV. Even though they be functionaries like robber Che. to which alone it can be ascribed. between Heaven and Earth from such as ant-dragons and entozoa. do not believe slanderous speeches. when insects grow. voracious grubs would hot sun. hghtiug on the fences. the air is warm and damp in spring and summer.^ are imbued with the fluid. The analogy of voracious grubs makes it evident that all insects owe their birth to warmth and dampness. and then put in a dry vessel. when insects are not yet produced. Grain being dry. reptiles and vermin. If other creatures. pollute white The damage is the same. Exceedingly means that the Yin and the Yang are not in harmony. while alive. just things. Part II. and disinterested in autumn and winter. it moulds and putrefies. big or small. they would in their offices imitate the conduct of Po Yi in autumn and winter. is to misunderstand the true principles and to ignore the real nature of the animal fluid."]^ as the blue flies Slanderous reports injure honest men. insects do not generate. For a disharmony of the Yin and the Yang the government has to account. The birth of insects depends upon warm and damp weather. O happy and courteous sovereign. and what they eat. and their propensities similar: the strong and big ones devour the weak and small ones. lacerate one another. 367 the Yin and the Yan^. Spring and summer are not always the same." Here mnst be a substantive. Ode 5 {Leffffe. Book VII. the shrewd and clever hurt the blunt-minded. insects do not grow. Whence do we know that insects grow from warmth and dampness? From noxious insects. they open mouths to eat. in the If the grains of stored up old wheat are dried seeds not be dry. they either like or do not like.Remarks on All creatures that are born Insects. and the ' Shiking therefore used this image. As a rule. and the growth of insects can no further be precluded. the blue flies.

but why The then incriminate the principle of of the various departments? Heaven is spontaneity. In case mosquitoes and gad-flies represent some calamity. a calamity then? live flies would tally with the prince's lending his ear to defamations. good and bad luck happen by Rare insects happen to be produced. they listen troughout the year. chap. mosquitoes and gad-flies feeding upon him must be the worst of calamities. ficials ^ This story is narrated in the biography of the king of CKang-yi. whereit fore are the insects producing not held to be calamitous? Moreover. and asked his opinion. which annoyance is greater. that of creatures produced the whole year and feeding on man. Noticing their transactions and observing the simultaneous growth of noxious insects. 63. accords with the temperature. The fact that their dirt is piled up below the stairs. he summoned the officer of the Guards Kung Sui.368 Lun-Heng: D. chance. when covetous ofhappen to be in office. people presume that it has been caused by the officials. The king stairs the dirt of CKang-yi dreamt that below the western flight of flies was piled up. thus all conforming to the weather. and Perhaps the birth of insects of itself. Kung Sui replied. Folklore and Religion. The king was a grandson of the emperor Han Wu Ti. If to be accounted a calamity. but does a ruler always to slan- derers? mankind. If flies why not regard them as may be looked upon a§ a calamity. none are worse than mosquitoes which are generated the whole. The next morning. when Heaven gnats fly is about to rain. Provided that the eating of animals be a calamity. ants come about." ^ is going to listen to the insinuations of slanderous as insects of- According to this view. p. animals must have unexpectedly been produced and have hurt others. "The flies are emblems of slanderers. 18r. then being the noblest of all man creatures. officials out. are there always officers on earth preying upon their fellow-people? insects hurtful to Of and gad-flies. denotes that Your of Highness ficers. CKien Han-ahu. year. or that of others appearing but occasionally and doing mischief? Itching is an occasional and not a constant complaint. .

2. whose end near. and has gone to such lengths. Thus ordinary the like. possess knowledge. have these very doubtful arguments. avoids giving a distinct answer. and therefore treat them as though they were alive. and that the arguments put forward by the Mehisls are wrong. people. 369 CHAPTER XXXV. Note A practice still prevailing our time.^ If they contribute to the sacrifices and prepare the other funeral requisites nevertheless. Therefore they make dummies to serve the corpses in their coffins. As instances they adduce Earl Tu and others. The reason cianuts that the discussions of Confur- on this subject are not clear. Lu Chia speaks like the Confucianists and. believe the living. Sages and Worthies funerals and all are agreed in advocating simplicity of sets economy of expenses. to gratify the spirits. I. . maintaining that the dead are unconscious.* They even in kill people to These arguments of the Mehists are refuted This is Vol. This custom has become so inveterate. whatever he says. tombs arrise and have They. and there are many is that do amiss by their extrat- vagance and lavishness. on the one side. that very often people will ruin their families and use up all their property for the coffins of the dead. and cannot be changed into ghosts. can assume a shape. XV.^ The Confucianisfs do not agree with them. Vol. 202. and injure people. p. Liu Tse Cheng wrote a memorial on the simplicity of funerals. Wang I. and. Simplicity of Funerals {Po-tsang). on the other.Simplicity of Funerals. the Mehists contend that men. chap. that their tombs and mounds are closed and devoid of grain and other things. but the world high store on expensive funerals. after their death become ghosts and spirits. and without companions. Ch'ung's opinion at least. pleading for economy. and fill the latter with eatables. but he did not exhaust the subject. they hear of Earl Tu ^ and and note that the dead in their is intercourse with sick people in this. then. they desire to intimate that they are not ungrateful to the deceased. As to the latter. in Cf. and imagine that the dead in are like They that commiserate them that their souls are so solitary their graves they are so lonely.

credence. though they avail themselves of literature. however. As a matter of fact. and the Confucianists think the same of the Mehists. the public remains wavering and ignorant. and perusing them page after page and paragraph after paragraph. the dead are hidden from our view. Provided that the disputants and men of letters have proofs such as Earl Tu adduced by the Mehists. be substantiated. being dissolved and belonging to another sphere than the and it is almost impossible to have a clear conception of them. all this out of regard it They is ignore that in reality is of no use. To attain this aim there must first be a holy heart and a sage mind. Unless. the true nature of ghosts cannot be determined. Even men of great learning and able scholars may be all unfit to discover the truth. but do not fear justice. but could not establish the and Lu Chia. and then experience and analogies are to be resorted to. living. does not adopt either alternative. Confucms condemned these practices.370 Lun-Heng: D. there is such a discrepancy of opinions. then the truth that the dead are unconscious can be borne out. follow the deceased into their graves. economical and not to squander too In this dispute of the two schools. the dead are conscious and do not distinguish themselves from the living. Since they both have their different tenets. and the question not being settled by evidence. If anybody in his reasoning does not use the greatest care . and those who believe in a lucky and unlucky destiny. and do not care for the living. the problem of life and death has not yet been solved. arguments of the Mehists to the effect that they are conscious. there is nothing but empty words and futile and even the views of the most honest people do not find Therefore.' and for the prejudices of the living. lor the sake of a funeral procession. nobody having ever been resuscitated by sacrifices. Folklore and Religion. Now the Mehists say that the Confucianists are wrong. in his essay. eagerly imitated by others. The subject not being borne out by proofs. They clear their house of everything talk. or the truth. and a consensus so dil'ficult to be attained. The memorial of Liu Tse Cheng does not do much to elucidate the assertion of the Confucianists that the dead are unconscious. and the advice to be much money on burials. their state of consciousness or unconsciousness be ascertained. the old and modern plunging into the works of the various schools of thought. make much of the departed. but their extravagance In their belief. dread the dead.

37 and discernment. wicked people spied it out. that. barely limiting himself to a remonstrance. from some insignificant indications. however. and remonstrated. ascended the steps (of the straightforth and. Why ? Because the wealth 1 ^ J^J^. and their greed was roused. and break tombs open. made his remonstrance." Chia-yil IX. hall). hearing of stones ascended the steps and interfered saying. on the ground that the grave might be violated. went across the court-yard. for though they may have the sympathies of learned.1 Simplicity of Funerals. taking his evidence indiscriminately from without. and thus estabhshing right and wrong. ^ into a coffin. and thus affording people an opportunity of gratifying their wicked designs. upon hearing of foresaw this result.^ Calamities very often originate from covetousness. when the man of Lu put them into the coffin. do not inquire into things with their mind. he beheves in what he has heard or seen from others. That would be reasoning with ears and eyes. We learn and to Ed. " is To inter a man with precious like exposing a corpse in the open plain. and require the use of the intellect. p. The desires of wicked people having been excited. from the "Family Sayings" when a member is of the Chi family had died. The intention of Confucius was to avert a calamity. Cat's-eyes are precious stones. fail to find the truth in spite of the plainness is An opinion incompatible with truth. Confucius. even though he had possessed the same influence on mankind as Pi Kan. they of their proofs. Consequently. right and wrong are independent of eyes and ears. Ergo. System Vol. but thoughtlessly believe the reports of others. The Mihists. This reasoning with ears and eyes conduces to empty semblances. people would not have listened to him. then real things^pass for fictions. I. they do not fear laws or penalties. But since he did not show that the dead are deprived of consciousness. in their investigations. 16r. they were going to put cat's-eyes into his coffin. it. in order to avert this calamity. passed over the steps (of the hall). for princes. and does not test it in his mind. . A writes J^. It is illiterate people. and not with the heart and intellect. not apt to be imparted to others. Confucius. therefore he crossed the court. On the old custom of filling the mouths of deceased princes with jade and Reliffiotis other precious objects see De Groot. this was a breach of etiquette. as customary bestow pearls and jade upon him. of Lu was going to put cat's-eyes it. they do not find favour with the owing to this that the maxim of tlie Mihists that all expenses for the various things employed at funerals are unprofitable does not gain ground. just then governor of Chung-fn. A man Confucius. and if empty semblances be used as proofs. 269 seq.

for a dutiful son the best plan Confucius perfectly well understood the true condition of life and death. Hist. under these circumstances. nobody — be They Or in could afford to put precious things into the grave. calls in the diviners and requests the services of physicians with the hope that the malady But. that they did not fear a desecration of their graves. Thus. . the custom of using cats-eyes would have been abandoned. and barely a strong protest made. these persons would slight the dead and forget the deceased. the discussion would have been closed. The care in abundantly providing for the wants of the living leads to moral perfection. If he had said that the dead are unconscious. is mentioned the Preface of the Shuking. the doubts concerning the dead were not solved. . diiferent spheres must not be confounded. Had it been plainly shown that the dead have no knowledge. Wu he as wise as Hsien. the Sage reluctant to speak the truth about the unconsciousness of the dead. Mem. a neglect cannot cause any injury. A dutiful son nursing a sick parent before his death. sons and subjects might perhaps have violated their duties to their father and sovereign. and that sumptuous burials are of no advantage. that they were not apprehensive of poverty. of the feudatory lords was so great. Vol.' ^''"^ ^ the lived under the I in dynasty and I. after may be expelled. Cf. but how does carelessness about the dead interfere with evil it ? If the consequences. taken However. p. whereas the ignorance of this fact involves the living in ruinous expense. the love of sons and subjects would decrease if they had decreased. and. and was to follow the advice imposing upon him the heaviest obligations. That is the reason why Confucius could not carry through his doctrine. 191. Ckavannes. the problem was not solved. then a disregard might have but if they are unconscious. Now. and after it had been made public. The conviction of their unconsciousness does not necessarily lead to an ill-treatment of the dead. dead possess knowledge. diviner Hsien /jX jnV. and there would have been no occasion for crossing the court-yard and remonstrating. Therefore they say that the ceremony of funeral sacrifices being abolished. was Being afraid that he might open such a source of impiety. Folklore and Religion.^ or as clever as Pien CKio—CEn bring him back to life the death ' of his parent.' and their power so strong.372 Lun-Heiig: D. and the question settled. Note 1. and his motive in not making a clear distinction is the same which appears from Lu Chias words. the cases of undutiful sons would multiply. and the medicines prove efficacious.

because the dead inhabit quite a different region. and his case still pending.Simplicity of Funerals. apprehend lest people should show a disregard for their ancestors. They only know that. by death. ^ Two prominent disciples of Confucius. they ought to be buried in their house and be close to the living. All schemes would be in vain and lead case has been tried. knowing there is absolutely no help.^ When a parent is in jail. he takes an elevated seat in the hall. even if it be of no great consequence. to resemble ' Therefore puppets are made In men. how does all the care bestowed on the dead benefit mutual good feeling. Those who ignore the unconsciousness. having been buried. are in a similar position to imprisoned parents who cannot be rescued from their punishment. but if something is not beneficial to the administration. Now. and. yet those burying the dead have not the slightest scruples about it. parents are abandoned. people fear to violate the moral laws. 2 Therefore they treat them. . when buried. but would it not likewise be an impiety to dismiss the diviners and keep the physicians from the dead? As long as a parent is alive. and no treatment whatever would be of any benefit to the dead. to useless trouble. it should not be neglected. but do not take exception that. and effigies like living persons. to rescue him from this danger. they live under the yellow springs. and supposed to take offence. stays under the yellow springs. If they were to be taken care of like living people. the vital fluid is destroyed. as if they were still alive the living. Now. Is there any great difference in an expensive funeral? By supineness with regard to the deceased. when punishment is settled. but after the and a penalty has been fixed. but. it should not be made use of in spite of its grandeur. and cannot live together with the living. Lu they used and togethei' with In Hades. but do not think of the separation from their anagain.^ No human being lives under the yellow springs. a dutiful son hurries about. and even a Tseng Tse or a Min Tse Cliien^ could do nothing but sit down and weep. 373 when. the souls of deceased parents decidedly have no consciousness. Those ignorant of the unconsciousness of the dead. but merely symbolical and imaginary. are afraid that people might offend against their parents. and how could any disregard or neglect violate any law? Confucius further said that "spirit vessels" are not substantial. cestors. well that. When a sage has established a law furthering progress. there is no escape left. after death.

then the leakage ceases. antecedent to the so " spirit Real vessels are. living warned against an overDummies being buried. one must stop all the holes. but do not follow the use of ^ dummies buried together with the dead. likewise." made of straw * 6 and merely symbolical and commemorative of an ancient custom that had fallen into desuetude. 173.^ but why did Confucius not consider the possibility that for "spirit vessels. . their wealth the people greedy for money. human He it. dummies seeing in this custom an things indication that Hving men would be if interred together with the dead. and the army Yen suddenly arrived. that he the individual was but afraid of wasting for and he State. it was to be men might be forced to accompany the dead. p. device of the Mehists self-contradictory: — on the one they advocate a simple burial. all their regarding the unconsciousness of the dead. p.) 2 This was not likely. Confucius sighed. and his subjects dispersed. The State became impoverished by extravagant funerals. Sacred historically Books Vol. or clay. and having an Unless the discussion on death be exhaustive. he straining of this principle. XXVII. sacrifices. the good the troops of unable to stand the sovereign ground: —the left his country. all Su Su Cliin in the habit of erecting was envoy of Yen. In order to prevent the water from leaking out. it be stopped. who by their lavishness bring themselves When valuables. Liki. feared that on. into the greatest straits. Unless all the holes outlet. the water finds an causes damage. but did nothing to prohibit life valued human felt so for much. these extravagant customs are not stopped.374 Lun-Heng: D. T'an-kung p. Folklore and for burials. they will spend money for the sumptuous burial of a parent. and exchequer empty. and on the other. they honour * Cf. the people of Clii were enormous sepulchres. {Legge. 47. These expenses impoverish the people. Cf. and on. the cities fell. all while they are going sorts of things are required for burials. outlet. Ch'i was State was ruined. and if (at funerals) had to be used as later for the living.* pity this no sympathy the In his reasoning was wrong. and be ruined in the same manner as Clii was by the cunning of Su is Cliin. speaking. for nothing. human called sacrifices precede. for. as long as people are in the dark." real vessels might be placed in the graves in future?^ He obviated the use of funeral gifts.' This sigh was an expression of grief. 52r. vessels. Religion. The side. filled with heaps of nothing to incite them. its C/iin personally did When was gone.^ Now.

does not Wang of Ch'ung as an advocate of economy. p. but II. ^ ' De Groot in his Eeligious System Vol. Chu Hsi was piety have counteracted favour of plain funerals.d. Therefore the public should carefully consider what has been written. however. therefore. and in to Wang Fu of the Later on. then all the dead possess knowledge. a. If Earl at the shabbiness of their burials. ghosts be dead men. the disquisitions recommending 2nd cent. then a mean burial would not be Thus theory and practice of the Mehists are inconsistent. filial simplicity burials. proper. head and tail do not agree. really they refer to Earl Im. but the exaggerated reasonable arguments. But right and wrong not being understood. ideas on all . they may bury their dead in a simple style. 659 speaks mention at great length of the reaction against expensive funerals. He in calls attention to two chapters of the Lu-shih-cfiun-ch'iu. and having done so. they would be incensed To justify this veneration. and it cannot but be wrong. is a general craving for luxuriance and a strong aversion What advantage. then the belief in Earl Tu preposterous.Simplicity of Funerals. There to paucity. would the veneration of ghosts bring to those guilty of mean burials? Provided that ghosts is be not dead men. cannot be practised. who was Tu be deemed a ghost. if. 375 ghosts. and if they do. a dead man.

( 2 * Quoted from Huai Nan Tae in XVUI. 'but building an annex on the west side is not among them. 376 Lun-H^ng: D. then both would be on a par with the common of ill people of the present day. Common people believe these superstitions. and only an annex in the west is said to be unpropitious? How could such an annex be injurious to the as > upon 494-468 B. for such an annex is held to be inauspicious. Should the astrologer and Chih Sui have been of opinion that an annex in the west was inauspicious indeed. This prohibition dates from days of yore. have a record that [Duke Ai of Lu^ wished to build The astrologer opposed this scheme as unpropitious. his attendants remonstrated several times. Four Things to be Avoided (Sse-hui). The first is to build an annex to a building on the west side. and not to listen to a proper remonstrance is the third. CHAPTER XXXVI. but he would not hear and asked the prime minister Chih Sui saying. Folklore and Religion. but we know not whether it was auspicious or inauspicious. Whe and the astrologer declares it to be unpropitious. 'Not to act fairly and justly is the first unpropitious thing. nobody in the world would dare to build facing the west. is followed by a case of death. he frankly acknowledged his fault and changed his mind. Duke Ai flushed up and got angry. . west-side. The annex was not built]. and being so. 18v. What do you mean?" 'There are three unpropitious things in the world. The annex in the west caused useless trouble. Owing to this appre- hension. must be avoided by all means. ^ for the astrologer and the prime minister both received the order to stop building. There are four things which. according to public opinion.' The duke became meditative and. To give way to one's unrestrained desires is the second. "I wish to build an annex on the an annex to the west. how is it that three sides are not looked omen. having pondered for awhile.. and shortly afterwards again asked which were the three unpropitious things.' is On all the four sides of a house there earth .' The duke cheered up. The other said. it is true.' replied Chih Sui.

not taken into acconnt. in explaining The omens. in erecting a The house builders state that house mischievous in is spirits may be met days with. would For if there be something init be a lucky omen in the east? auspicious. then all annexes on the four sides ought to be ill-omened. when a new is building is erected in the west for the use of a second is master. the east side of a western building be diminished? Provided that the residence enlarged.. and evil influences. at the same time. the inferiors are few. in removing one's residence care should be taken to avoid the spirits of the year and the months. if an annex in the west be inauspicious. who is it that takes exception at people extending their house to the west? Should earth resent it. The other possibility that the new building destined for the one master to enlarge his dwelling. e. a cultivation of virtue leads to happiness. the The honoured and and youngsters are and assistants in the east. When in the west an addition is made to the master. sacrificing. and a disposes of good and bad luck. Masters many. if the west side of an eastern house be enlarged and. inferiors —The west is the region of elders and the seat of the the elders being in the west. that it is held to be inauspicious. this prohibition of something inauspicious is based on reason. . what damage does it do to earth. their assistants. * 1. but there are a hundred inferiors below. experts in the various arts and professions. certain may be encountered when bloodshed against the to be shunned. a spirit resembles man. as bad luck body has good luck as its correlate. and an infringement of the laws brings about misfortune. these instances these prohi- bitions are given in view of ghosts and spirits.^ whereas the assistants are not inare the masters. what harm is there. and how does the subsequent calamity manifest itself? Properly speaking. specify the different cases. There can be no two superiors above. for spirit of the house dislike an annex to the west. and not to be observed on account of good or bad luck: honoured. Now. fall sick and die. or hurtful to the spirit of the house? In case au annex in the west be unpropitious.Four Things to be Avoided. would a demolition tliere be a good augury? Or. and every man would it? gladly see his why should he dislike Supposing that the spirit of the house dislikes the trouble caused by the alteration. spirit A house has a form. The superiors and elders and youngsters. Those who do not avoid them. there must also be something auspicious. it if an annex in the west is believed to be unpropitious. where must be built to be propitious? Moreover. 377 ol" earth. and in burying one In all may fail odd and even days. but as for building an annex in the west.

it should not be done. People merely know that this should not be allowed.' Being unpropitious trary to justice. and the prohibition is insisted upon. does not venture to approach and inter them. the distinction between superiors and inferiors is not drawn. they ignore the you inquire of those insisting upon meaning of this avoidance. he does not bury the dead. whereas live together. In a house old and young inauspicious. convicts be not allowed : ^ The Fing-su fung. advice so the other. a Even good man may innocently suffer punishment and thus become a convict. and therefore called unpropitious.^ Such a one may ascend a tumulus. after having suffered corporeal punishment is called a convict. The two parents after their death are said to be deceased. and a new building in this direction would be hurtful 2 to them. and looks upon the coffin as if it belonged to a stranger. One when the father and the mother of a culprit die. but great laxity prevails in regard to graves and fields. . He does not even condole. then they ought not to enter their home. or between living and deceased parents? If convicts be reproved by their ascendants for having suffered punishment. A tomb. nor do trouble far. but do not understand the if reason of this interdiction. gives a similar reason The west is the seat of the superiors.— 378 creased. there are each). The second thing to be avoided is that a convict having suffered corporeal punishment ascends a tumulus. an annex to a liouse in the west is considered nobody pretends the same of an annex made in the west of a tomb or a field. In respect to auspiciousness these three places are the for man. The rule is diligently observed in houses. Folklore and Religion. being convicted. this goes that much about it. but not a hundred inferiors (for That is contrary to justice. therefore great care is taken to carry out this idea. for the following reason: A tomb is a place where a dead man is interred. and if. being the residence of a dead man. two it superiors. not of ill Yet though being con- is omen . Now. What difference is there between a house and a tomb. is somewhat neglected and treated with indifference. on the other hand. and in a field which is not inhabited by man. Lun-Heng: D. A good man. a field one whence man gets his food and drink and a house the place where man same lives. and being near their tomb. and those complying with this imitates this prohibition. quoted in the Pei-wen-yiin-fu. or see their parents either.

that before his end he show that body was intact. Ghi-yi {Legge. 379 have commerce with the dead.: Four Things to to be Avoided. spirits. According were performed the grave. "The body. Confucius said. the injunction is based on these causes. my young ' friends. expired in their hall. wanted and he was glad that he had escaped all bodily injury. and carelessness."^ A dutiful son dreads falling into the clutches of the law: the cutting and branding of the body as well as the disfiguring and scathing of the hair and the skin. and the skin. the modern custom to offer them at Consequently. they should not cry by their coffins. is That first reason. Now. " Uncover my feet. of unworthy dealings. it As regards the place of sacrifice and the sacrificial is of the utmost im- portance that there should be penance and absolute purity. a convict does not ascend a tumulus out of shame lest he should cause displeasure to his ascendant. fit to Their modesty and reverence demand that they should selves. for their ancestors. and dare not impair them. 2 3 Analects VIII. Our text 3. and not attend at an offering. fine. p. the sacrifices to ascendants is in temples. A criminal is ashamed of having sufi"ered the disgrace of a punishment. retire and humiliate them- remarking that their descendants have ' BH . 229)."] ^ Tsing Tse to was his so considerate. [Wherefore Tseng Tse being ill called to him the disciples of his school. of the Analects reads: — fix* XXVIU. . we received them from our parents. It is for this reason that he does not ascend a tumulus. and that the descendants should also return their bodies complete. the to the ancient rites. I know my escape. and said. people that have suffered punishment are disgraced. and there can be no question of any avoidance of unlucky influences The convicts are aware that their ancestors have generated them complete. are the upshot of a lack of virtue. then they enforce this should not be allowed to mount hills or mountains either. then. and most earnestly reproaches himself. there are two reasons why convicts do not ascend a tumulus. when their parents have If. See Uki. Which prohibition ? reasons have those people to give who As a matter of fact. in convicts be not permitted to ascend a tumulus. or to worship their ascendants. uncover my hands Now and hereafter. is A tomb the abode of ghosts and rites. the hair. Sacred Books Vol.

" Wang Chi admitted that it was impossible. When such a buries somebody whose death is a cause fills of grief to his ascendants. I am like a man who has been subjected to torture. 120 and 131. times of old. suffered punishment. So he declined three times. but Wang Chi would not hear of it.^ the gravest head and in an iron collar. and. worthy of would feel and them with sorrow. to stand abashed before their ascend- because their body people. and most likely. why should they be unfit for a funeral? The public believes them all to be obnoxious. the penalties are merely symbolical. the scious. T'^ai Po again decHned. not be able to enjoy the ofl'ering. where he collected medicinal herbs. in accordance with their customs. T'ai Po returned. may wear coloured silk dresses and caps and girdles different to those worn by common people. which means that he unqualified to perform the a coffin is sacrificial rites. and did not remain intact. These convicts are said ants. provided that they are con- grieved at the death.' A convict not ascending a burial mound is like is Tai Po de- clining the royal dignity. 81. T^ai Po noticed that T'ai Wen Wang. would commiserate them. latter. the customs of Wu. at present. p. torture torture by the But. and Wang Chi intended much against his will. 2 Vid. and tattooed my body. The lesser whose punishments are less than forced labour at building a wall.B80 Lun-Heng: D. I. to yield the supreme power to him. Therefore he repaired to Wu. and not like that body was in fact. At the person. saying. "I went to Wu and Yiieh. the aspect of a convict pity. Vol. Folklore and Religion. which may have rendered it unfit. and consisting in shaving the delinquents ' Cf. where Wany Chi is called "king Chi" or Chi U. when to be buried. In son. burial of a descendant the ancestors are grieved. and. cut off my hair. is mutilated of other Anciently. and there is still less any occasion for shame. but not. accepted his resignation. and tattooed his body. then the burial mound is nothing but a piece of uncultivated land. to follow At the decease of I'ai Wang. p. to conduct the funeral. cut off his hair. by racked. at the sacrifice. and commiserate the dis- grace of their descendant. wherefore then should he be abashed? Should they be unconscious. and cannot be the chief of the ancestral temple and of the altars of the land and grain. and feel unhappy. and he knew that Wang Chi had a holy Wang wished to raise him to the throne. . This is the second reason why the former do not ascend a tumulus.

. and only. woman who. after having passed a month in the huts on burial grounds and on the The unexpected sight of the woman appears roads. a great mistake this. the ox. 7JC ^ "''g^* be equi- "fresh fruit. Is it perhaps in view of the bigness of the human body and of the quantity of its vital fluid and its bh)od? But the size of an forth applies to human ox or a horse is much meaning Ed. they return. the pig. that I am at a loss where to begin with my deductions: Human birth does not distinguish itself from that of the Six are all Domestic Animals. to them very unlucky. i valent to •* yjC W ^ • A and B have pr|\^ for ^." The horse. The a child. and does not include that of animals. that breed and bring their young not otherwise than man. it comes out with it hke the egg-shell of a young bird. greater than that of man. having born Those who have some lucky a away into mountains and forests. undertaking in hand. When filled a woman gives birth to a child. the dog. What harm is there to justify people's aversion? Should it be due to its supposed inauspiciousness. and the cock. If we study the question carefully. ' JH^-. or to ascend the tumulus of a stranger. the birth of a child and the production of all the other organisms? If human birth be held to be baleful. is third thing to be shunned is believed to bring ill-luck. comes into the of with the original This fluid is the finest essence Heaven and Earth. and so is a child.i|\. Yet the aversion birth only. is the creation of the myriads of organisms baleful too? The new-born issues with the placenta. on what it is this dislike based? world. then all organisms with husks and shells ought to be detestable.Four Things to be Avoided. Tiiis is not found in the dictionaries.wrapped round the infant's body. 381 carries its error to the length of not allowing such persons to con- dole at the death of a fellow-villager. the goat. how could it be harmful and detestable? Man What diff*erence is there between is an organism. fluid.' They of them animated beings with blood. If the placenta be deemed foreshadowing evil. the human placenta is like the husk^ of fruits growing on trees. . There is such a plethora of organisms. traand have no intercourse with such a Avoman. go far versing streams and lakes. They even avoid coming near her house.

Yangtse. because body. (notwithstanding this similarity between the the same way. that its smell alone suffices to produce a cutaneous eruption. '^ ^ ' * t^nn strangely corresponding to the German word "toilet" Most Chinese privies are so horrid. south of the Yangtse. and only one singled out. There nose is certainly nothing fetor.^ and for many dried fish are a relish from Avhich they do not recoil. smelled still as for detestable things. the Six Animals are hardly different from man. and dried fish to be putrid meat. they do not leave the house born. (such as black varnish be- spattering one's body). The and the mouth eating something rotten. and are no more If going be seen? out on the road. and its good or bad qualsmelling stench. If. make a wry face and begin spitting and vomiting. * * ^S ^ii. we behold foul stuff" a man carrying a pig on his shoulders. That which the mind does not turn to. when but when is a a bitch whelps. is Chinese varnish so poisonous.382 Lun-Heng: D. Six Animals and man). and do not shudder at them. knowing that there North of the is no harm in it. irrespective of its similarity to all the others. it with her. they place her outside the house. why then must people child is in a ditch. is we do not the a filth on somebody else's woman bearing a child. yet there are persons that put up with privies even. and not on our own. they recoil ' = privy. Now. Folklore and Religion. Why to abhor them. of a child and the breeding of the Six Animals. proves the ignorance of the people. people feel their stomach turn. Now. carries be so scrupulous as to shun her? North of the Yangtse. the case becomes rather doubtful. that even Chinese try to avoid them. dog. I must say that this popular avoidance is unreasonable. and the nose has them. when they have vanished. Privies^ may be said to be fetid. but in case they are unable to Supposing they could make a distinction between the birth I would admit draw a line.^ after the eyes have seen. more loathsome for man than pufetid smells trescence and putrid and make one sick. the latter is avoided. and they have passed. ities are left out of account. or remark some take this for evil omens. Now. there is no equahty. everything is over. . which like- wise an absurdity. their avoidance. and they produce their young in That. and not the former. but not of a they are afraid of a human being. is thought of as disgusting. with reference to distasteful objects.

The fourth thing to be shunned first is the bringing up of child- ren born in the or the fifth months. the crescent. and the called the "dark moon. filed. When. What is the one detests."^ it is moon face each other. where it filled with the fluid. are pure. 383 In either from a human being. on halves. wherefore should kill their children of the first or father and mother? The human embryo. Father and mother having perhaps died through some calamity. precautions. When they are clean in their bodies. the moonlight is is no other than on the this first month. the other at. As a matter of fact. but what there between a human being and a dog. does not. fication."^ and on the thirtieth. this assertion has found credence and is are supposed to kill their father taken for certain. the called a "crescent. the fifth months Now. their proceedings are undeThese irreproachable dealings are the basis of honesty and unselfishness. ment of the next month? Why light called auspicious after the day of the following commenceit If it be really ill-boding it cannot be it said to be auspicious in the next month. imbued . the other side there no principle in all these popular As regards the darkening of the moon. it the eighth day of a month. or a place within or without the house? does not fear. sun and called the "facing moon. is intended as an incentive to self-purifilth preventing people from polluting themselves with and sordid things. is remains in the womb. All are develops ten months. because such children and mother. On the last day of the month.Four Things to be Avoided. it is The dark moon. when it born. and whatf people of this side stagger After all. on the fifteenth. their minds and their minds being pure. when sun and moon are conjunct in a mansion. superstitious difference is case the attempts to avert evil are not the same. and if really be so would make no difference that the new month had not yet begun."^ facing moon are in reality the same. the injunction to keep aloof from newborn infants and puppies. but not from a dog. is moon is cut in two when. a month is counted from each conjunction of the sun and the moon in a solar mansion. and therefore on no account can be reared.

p. ordinary and exceptional." replied Vien Ying. and what diversity between the and the sixth. Then. 'Does the fate which man receives at his birth depend on Heaven."] him with the superintendence of his household and the reception of guests. and interfering in the discussion. diflFerence is there it. "I ordered you to do away with this son. Folklore and Religion. and the child become as high as a door. and minutely exam- ine the difference between good and bad omens. minister of C/iH. that an ill omen might be found in them? This opinion has long spread in the world. my son. and will do harm to his parents. "a fifth month child grows as high as a door. T'icn Ying told his mother not to bring him up. and introduced him to his father. dread is baseless. Vien Ying. or does it depend on a door?' Tien Ying made no reply. 2r.' said Wen. very angry." WSn rejoined. "He replied" should be written for rejoined. how did you dare to keep him alive?" Wen bowed his head. he entrusted [Subsaid. He grew and Vien Wens name became known to all the princes. * Quotation from I." and. 'What is the reason that Your Honour does not want to rear a fifth month child?' "Because. the common Vien Ying was an ordinary father. had a son. whom she named Wen." "She replied. [a humble concubine of T^ien Ymg. and did not inquire into its reasons. the biography of Tien "Wen.384 Luii-Heng: D. but Vien Ying did not die. why are you dissatisfied? Should fate be received from a door.'>. the mother took her son Wen together with his brothers. also Vol.] Vien Ying acquiesced and * higher than a door. the Shi-chi chap. "He rejoined" for "She . where. what cling to destiny dare not act against If men of vast erudition and great talents carefully go into the question. whereas the latter confided in fate. said to her. who could attain to that?' sequently. According to the reasons put forward by Vien Win and corroborated by the fact that his father did not die. and did not admit the avoidance. and all those who fluid. in line 13. with the same original first fifth between the and the second months. 161. so were their actions. As their parts were Vien different. 7. they must arrive at a clear understanding. the former trusted in the general prejudice. As Wen had been born in the fifth moon. 'No doubt. p. in line 10. Their numbers increased daily. Cf. but the mother clandestinely reared him. 'it depends on Heaven. "Leave off. When he had grown up. Of old. said. but Vien Win an exceptional son.

I shall give some instances of universal customs.^ are due to mischievous influences: and no calamities In making bean-sauce people dislike very much to hear thunder. parents. and never faded. 385 his son's far name is obscure and unknown. when seems their the air * charged with electricity. Still fame spread this common avoidance has also its reason: fifth The the first month reaches original is the beginning of the year. * have come down to our own rational times. would one must not thank any one for a knife or a pair of scissors. and solely for as this reason are be shunned. There are innumerous minor rules and observances. milk becomes sour this. otherwise they . Things to be avoided are manifold. then the public is convinced of the truth of the assertion. cular carefulness. E. was the reason that. while and wide. to us it appears inane. which I trust will be considered. entail misfortune.^ is to be dreaded One person did not its eat the sauce in order to induce people to hasten preparation. but always if really some prodigy put forth. all meant to induce to virtue and to exhort to partiNothing is to be feared from ghosts and spirits. The belief of his countrymen is that many actions. 2 This is Wanij Cliungs opinion. and abides by it. in Wang Ch'ung does not know This single case. subsequently. and somebody should happen to die. and in its acme. and there is no proof of a real misfor- tune. Y/ang Ch'ung before the be- to intimate. Four Things Ying's to be Avoided. to apart from their qualities. people always liked to have viz. and no one contradicts it. and one apprehends suffering capital punishment {hsing ^J)-^ as ^ ^ ' This reason may be in accordance with Wang Ch'ung's system. the knife and the well face each other. ^ Perhaps the is electricity caused the sauce to spoil.^ One avoids grinding a well. and not to allow the stuff to knife over a well lie about in their it fall premises up to spring time. bean-sauce ready before the Similar "avoidances" first peal of thunder was heard ginning of spring. its fiery and impetuous and weighs heavily on its the to offer resistance. It an unfounded assertion. — lest into the some say. or. Not being strong enough ^ they must come is to grief. The first thunder-storms are spring.. This idea has gained ground. As to what and shunned. The world is suffers itself to be imposed upon and to fall into the greatest errors. because the character hsing (capital punishand tao (a knife) ment) ^j is composed of ching (a well) Grinding a knife over a well. different views prevail everywhere.g. is nature Yang A child being born in one of thes6 months.

(Legge. 16. Folklore and Religion. who in bed. and not spoken in reference to good or bad fortune. ^ ^ This may be an allusion to the frailty of the like body or of friendship. 18r. A man Liki.^ — Lun-Heng: D. XXVII. and to exhort cut the friendship. 80). CKung's. would it as some say. did not lie like a corpse. ["One must not roll the rice into a ball. Analects X. The Liki says. otherwise she sui*e ^ not to marry during the year. making such a request would be one having somebody The very * sensible reasons given for these various customs are Wanp p. and one must not slobber. This rule goes back to Confucius. ular cautiousness. lest it or. .' One must not receive chopsticks from anybody because they — — are not solid. is A young lady avoids cutting a. to bury. fresh pat of butter. CKu-li p. —a it tile might re- down and hit one One must not hang up a cap upside down — for semble the garments of a dead man. 386 One must not fall sit under the eaves of a house on the head.^ All these "One must not" are to induce people to exert partic- them to do good. should be filled with dust. One must not lie down flat for one would be like a corpse."]* These are prohibitions regarding propriety and righteousness. not be turned. One must not expect others for a to sweep the ground for one man building a grave might request one to sweep for him. Sacred Books Vol.

False Charges against Time {Lan-shih). the in the sign if tse.^ would suspend the utter futility of this mistake.'^ the year-star swallows up some in the first land in the sign yu. for example.False Charges against Time. on the If e. the year-star and the moon will swallow something. 387 CHAPTER XXXVU. they institute sacrifices with a view to averting the evil. every one doing Hke the others. When people dig up the earth for the foundation of a building. planet Jupiter is g. both resent this disregard of ' This must not be taken literally. punishments and to The penalties. The element of the east is wood.^ and. Charcoal is a combination of wood and fire. in moving their residence. water. and being about to be thus injured. wood. this family would suspend charcoal. 2 ^ The North. and infest a family in Should. Fal The element metal corresponds to the west. they raetal. It seems to mean to cause damage or misfortune. reveals the west. * * 6 ' ^ South-south-east. metal. East-north-east. Jupiter and the moon and should those luminaries be going to devour a family in the east. The West. in order thus to eschew the calamity. There is unanimity about this. . and hanging up fire. a case of death occurs. that of is the south where the inimical luminaries are placed. however.^ and yin. while menacing the family. In this respect the spirits cannot have two minds or and their former ideas cannot be opposed to the When. people do not take heed of the year-star and the moon. using objects made of the Five Elements.^ Moreover. How? have equal minds. land which they consume. spirits of Heaven and Earth must People misconducting themselves are Hable different feelings.^ tse month stands in Some building being living in yu erected on land situated in and ym. people and sse are swallowed up. A careful consideration.^ it the moon consumes some land in the sign sse. they have recourse to charms^ to counteract these influences. or they feign to change their residence. later ones. fire.

"^ XXXIX.' Now. The ways in which people infringe the laws are many. has the soil of the signs sse and yu to suffer for their guilt? If the spirits of the year-star and the moon take exception to the moving. year-star they are eaten without any reason. those builders should be swallowed by tlie yearstar. If they are subject to punishment. . the year-star in reality is Jupiter. a quarter to the right or the left of their stand-point. Kiangsi. Now. cruel to innocent persons. Thus the would be Just when Jupiter stands in tse^ the houses in tse would be and those in tou^ be injured. As for the spirit of the year-star and the moon. If its penalties and ravages are different on various occasions. opposition. one cannot expect Heaven to follow the exceutricity of the spirit of the year and the moon. * * ' We A ought to read yu. In small cases the penalty is remitted. province under the Uan comprising Kianysu. how is it that their judgment is so inconsequent?^ Ghosts and spirits call the sinners to account as a district magistrate reprimands and punishes. it would also safe. contrariwise. Therefore. But it does not happen that the innocent sufl^r. say in Yang-chou^ in the south-east according to the view of Tsou Yen who takes China for one continent only. some building. as soon as a tse house* begins to be stirred. — ' On In the collision with the year-star =r Jupiter of people moving their residence see chap. as above. and Chekiang. doing moon or the year-star. collide with one case they punish those who a different them.388 their Lun-Heng: D. yet while in tse they are building houses. Folklore and Religion. but though remaining idle and inactive. and are irritated with the delinquents. Jupiter is the spirit of tlie year and the moon. the people of sse and yu have not oifended against the people. Fukien. and only great viciousness entails capital punishments. wherefore then. When it has its position on the horizon in the sign tse. in the other. those living in quite direction viz. one is nevertheless visited with disasters. and their misdemeanour is the same as that committed in moving one's residence. without any guilt. and find fault with building. I suppose. sse and yu have hard times. One must not commence building. or do any work. Anhui. In the matter of" the swallowing by the year-star and the moon. and some edifice is constructed in one of the provinces of China. likewise move the body of the earth. the world calls it injustice. Perhaps we should add "and a yin house".

the sun must likewise Tigers and wolves are brutes.000 years have elapsed from the creation of the world to 481 b. there must likewise be a yu region. a year. in the house of the family. must resemble that of Heaven. do the spirits of Jupiter and the moon grow from the essence of tigers and wolves? In a time of famine. Consequently. The Taoists like the Indians are fond of big numbers. Are the spirits of Jupiter and the moon imbued with the fluid of those men-eaters? If Jupiter and the moon have spirits.'' These are multiplied and involved numbers. The dead are to be worshipped after the manner of the living. In the west.276. man devouring have a spirit. According to one authority 3. when there is a scarcity of grain and food. * ^ The suburban J0L' sacrifices were offered to Heaven.0i years. why then does Jupiter not swallow this yu quarter Jupiter stays amidst men. out of hunger. as if they were men. Some reckon a yuan at 129. who really is they cannot eat men either. and 4. but not men. therefore at the suburban sacrifices.^0. outside of China. why should the sun not do the same? A number of days makes up a month.c.^ ought to swallow the soil of the Western Cliiang\'^ — how could the land in the south-east suffer any damage? In case and a house in the west lies in yu. several seasons.192. How ' (!Ould ghosts and spirits have anything to do with them. these two are attending spirits of Heaven: their eating and drinking. therefore. devour one another.^ and injure another family instead? it that swallows? If it really be Jupiter and the moon. and the names of fractions and full numbers.False Charges against Time. in the house in question. and Respecting the food of the numerous ghosts. 389 be in the south-east: then the year-star consuming some ground in the sign yu. Heaven does not eat men. something like a geological period. was first in supposed to stay the interior. Besides. at the offerings made to the various spirits all sorts of things are used.617 years a yuan'^ period. a number of months forms a season. spirits between Heaven and Earth. .* they are not immolated as victims. 2 3 it Tibetan Jupiter tribes. in the north. and the moon does. now is placed amidst men. erecting some building there. Jupiter swallows land. others at 24. ' These periods may be of Taoist origin. men. the Sage says that they must be treated like men.539 years are a t'ung^ period. 1. Three funp are one yuan. If the two stars are not celestial spirits.

12 years. The twelve J^. Folklore and Religion. and the to moon in twelve months.T seq.* The sun receives the twelve hours and does not swallow land. all tiie In the course of or cyclical tweh e months the moon has passed through is twelve constellations the yin in signs. In the same way. or felicity and misfortune depend on them? If the year and the month. must have spirits. One day divided into twelve hours. When dawn during a. the moon. addition. is not right that one star should not eat. Hist. He does not take a meal each time a building that the spirits of Jupiter and the in erected. he and being satiated. &c. a. The twelve moons mao times rest in yin and mao. the stomach of a spirit must be like those eats. do the two sufi'er hunger then? 3 * *g. 65. every month of the Chinese calendar is connected with that cyclical sign in whicii the moon in rests during that month. are those places of the firmament through which the sun passes in twelve double hours. alone. marking that place of the horizon over which the sun stays during each double hour. that the sun. however. The twelve hours of the day are denominated after the twelve cyclical signs yin. Being hungry.). 383. Mem. also p.zodiac. then the four seasons would have them. which in completed cf. although connected with the hours. Wang CKung to not correct saying tiiat and mao case. and it if the addition of hours gives spirituality. consequently the yin and are added to the twelve moons. which belong yin and mao. to they are not times this but corresponding those of om. Cf. m.). Notes 1 and 2. the is first quarter and the crescent must have spirits too. and the fung and yuan periods as well. Three days of the moon are po^ (the first quarter). consumes land. mao.^ What difference is there with a full year or a full moon? If the year and the moon is have spirits. full-moon. buildings are few. the yin hour (3-5 the sun rises during the mao time (5-7 m. The mouth and of man. does. p.390 Lun-Heng: D. For this reason they ai-e made use of ovei'.^ and fifteen. designate the twelve hours as well as the twelve months Moreis the course of the planet Jupiter through these signs of the zodiac. it is to decide the question by a reference to hours. as full numbers. does not? If the sun has no notwithstanding this connexion.. . eight days are the crescent. whereas it the Has the sun no spirit in spite of this moon has owing to this relation? How is being thus related. Chnvannes. Provided a building spirits moon eat when there is course of construction. affords a means of denoting the consecutive years. and not proper that the moon spirit. Vol. resting in the twelve signs. on which Ill. to "times" are added constellations the twelve months. is he stops.

the eating would take place within one step. In building a house. the calamity would reach far or near. I. of Chou was building Loyang. the earth erected. unless he avoided a collision. In the Classics and Records. on the field. people quit their liomes. if the height exceed 100 feet. and the proceedings being the same. but we are not told that after the work was completed. finished. the length of which was half that of the empire. but while the construction of the Great Wall was going on. great works At that time the two stars should have swallowed lots of land. would they be afraid of a Cf. the deaths among the people of C/iin were comparatively few. . dykes are equally raised. and everything the When Duke were carried out. According as the work is big or small. Jupiter and the moon eat the ground. built Meng T^ien the Great Wall for the C/iin dynasty. we hear that the people building Loyang flocked together from the four quarters. must have been the sse cause. if the two in stars really eat. Sages and Worthies should have criticized this proceeding. but do not do so. fields no less than houses are put in order by men. 167. 391 During a famine. g. suppose. appetite. which remain desolate and abandoned. Now. some construction 3 feet high be built. dug up. p. they cut a ditch and raise dykes. and wooden beams are Beams and and the digging and cutting the ground is in case a house be erected. Every building activity ceases. like mouths and bellies that of men. the force displayed in these works and the efforts made are identical. and have they no possible that under when the land cultivated? How is it similar circumstances. Vol. and the their many moon died. when the house is building. eating and drinking are different? Those maintaining the encroachments of the two celestial bodies. because.' The misfortune caused thereby ought to have affected tens of thousands of people. many hardships would have befallen the people. If. the statements about the year-star are probably baseless and untrue. when a field is is put under cultivation. ought to have moved from the place thus menaced to a favourable site. Therefore. Do the spirits of the year-star and the moon starve then? Moreover. are they hungry. Now. a feeling of hunger in Besides. their the and yu quarters. the eating would extend over more than a Li. they employ charms paralyzing 1 influences.False Charges against Time. are the same. will measure the bulk of the work done and calculate the If e. distance by steps. and the Sage foreseeing this.

among human beings the small cannot vanquish the great. subdues wood. to be afraid there ought to be some equilibrium of the antagonistic quantities. According to the laws of Heaven. that. in this case. a little cannot overpower much.392 Lun-Heng: a t). the minority beats the majority is of very rare occurrence. eat but of his inadequate Wolves. not because of his cowardice. How could evil influences be suppressed and averted. is sure to be Metal. as regards human beings. In all contests depending on strength and courage. he killed. and that. and men. crowded together. but there is too much metal and and the disproportion of dimensions and quantities too great. be heaped up mounds. caused by the year-star. would they master those elements? The of the elements remains the same. obvious that the metal does not melt. The nature of Heaven and Earth is such. or the calamities. or if a handful of earth be employed to stop a breach of the Yellow River. and a charcoal fire approached. in struggles eat the wolves. very seldom the small overcome the great. armed with a the strength of sword. and a single warrior. Folklore and Religion. it if. a thousand Li in relation width. If a cupful of water be thrown on the burning mountain of CHin. try conclusions and exert his strength. metal blade. be removed by means of a blade of metal or a charcoal fire? . to light and burn them. The Five Ele- ments overcome one another. and metal succumbs. are not violated. not daring to eat? dead charcoal. and therefore shut their Really. Let a big army be equipped with wooden staves only. in packs. but the dimensions and quantities are not proportionate. is due to the great amount If metal of in it wood and is the small quantity of metal. or dread mouths. strength. men. could not gain the victory. wood gets the better. The principles of the Five Elements too is little fire. and the few do not subdue the many. A boy five feet high. or a small force vanquish a great one. but the forces of things must be equally balanced. and competitions. by its nature. fighting with MSng Pen.

death. and singleness and parity ' Prosperity and decay are the events and circumstances making people happy or miserable. Happiness and misfortune accompany prosperity and decay. for many generations. they attribute them to in former good or bad luck order to frighten and caution their That is the reason why. have arrived of their own accord. If there be some sickness. when any do not examine their hearts. in their proreliance they also place on in days.slandering of Days. Slandering of Days {Chi-jih). steps. they expect everything from time. so. H03 CHAPTER XXXVIII. Common taking people repose implicit confidence in them. and. or other calamities. At all proceedings people will say that the unlucky must be afraid of their bad luck which will come to pass. Books on forbidden days enjoy no to less popularity than tracts on the year and the month. Works on time and days exist in great numbers. they pretend that the luck which they hope fortune When happiness and misfor will be realised. 2 These seem to be geomantic terms. have not had any misgivings about the calendar. a serious case. . trust in the time of the year. and repudiate such ideas. The day being lucky and innocuous. oddness and evenness agreeing. people hearers. and single and paired months are to be avoided. and even scholars able reason cannot solve the problem. and induce those believing in Heaven and time to have some doubt. of having neglected a forbidden day. ^ as well as odd and even days. and a short inquiry into their general tenor will disclose what they are worth. The calendar for burials prescribes that the nine holes and depressions of the earth. in minor ones. ^ alternating and passing away. they speak of having offended against the year or a month. and why for such a long time the truth has not dawned upon them. As people ceedings. people Consequently. concerning the lucky. but conform to some days. and unconcerned with their intentions.

394 tallying. The non-observance of is luck and good fortune. and making ditches or tilling a garden. (7 writes g^ would have duchess was to be buried on a chi-cKou day. they always find out some correspondence. being the 26th combination of the cycle of sixty. concealed in a tomb. I am not in a position to accept this avoidance. by combining these dates with lucky auguries. 8th year. this calendar. solely in interring it.' She could not be buried to avoid ' Both ai'c elements. tomb and a coffin. there concealing the corpse. Folklore and Religion. or between body into the coffin. wood Wood is worked to receive the and earth resemble each other. but their burial in days were not always conformable to the calendar.. then the burial might have been on a chi-cKou^ day. Duke Hsilan Lu was Ching Ying. unlucky auguries are not avoided. when oddness and evenness would have been in harmony. the ^ and B have g^ . and this being the case. and earth is dug up to inter the coffin. in accordance with the burial calendar. In respect to the nature of the Five Elements. and the month single or paired. . and high officers died by hundreds and thousands. they still odd or even. How can we explain this? In the 'Spring and Autumn' period sons of Heaven. conduces to bad luck and disaster. they still require that it be harmony. princes. digging are similar proceedings. said It is it further that an interment could not take place because it rained. Shortly after death. * Quoted from the ^' The Duchess of Ch'un-ch'iu. Should the digging up of earth injure the body of Earth. Ed. ^ should be chosen as well. the grave is earth. and a corpse and a coffin are very much the same. If the grave be made much of. Now. the day would have been propitious. a special day coffin. 8 ' 2< 5:Originally it. burying means concealing the coffin.* Provided the Duchess of Lxi^ died on an odd day. and shrouding. and. and that that was performed at mid-day on a king-yin^ day. and the dilference is What there between a shrouding and burying? In placing the wood. When the day is odd or even. after a while. Working and corpse. Lun-Heng: D. the corpse the coffin is is concealed in the coffin. good luck is sought. then in trenching ditches or tilling a garden. ed. but the rain prevented Chi-ch'ou. on the other hand. and oddness and evenness being demand the singleness or parity of the month. but unless they can do so. When the day is not injurious. '* I^'ggiiig a giave. If people are able to make a distinction between these two things.^ I am willing to admit their prohibitions.

If. latter five. and the princes would be either even or uneven throughout. or three. a rain-fall during a burial being regarded as very propitious. the days of interment. states that to delay the interment owing to rain was according to rule. but the disregard of odd and even could result in the most serious calamities and disasters. I. and waited for the kengyin day. at present. e. great officers. p. the calendar for burials the month of the interment of the Son of Heaven. because they did not shun bad luck. ministers. XXVII. and une^ en if the latter was. 223) informs us that The Liki {Legge. the ministers. Now we consequently there exist no fixed rules for the time of burials. and as such the in duchess. and officers. In adding seven.Slandering of Days. yet they did not take any precautions for depraved princes are bent on seeking happiness. Under the reign of King Win of were Chou. been an even day. and this rule seems prevail Cf. and the arguments of the Cliun-cKiu were very subtle.^ The same Accord- applies to the princes. the 27th combination. commenting upon the above quoted passage. The keng-yin day. To seek their convenience have been the intention of the people of Lu or according to the view of a diligent officer. 395 it the rain. or if. being even in case the was even. De Groot. some few words and some slight attempts at criticism would not have been out of place. /. great officers. the princes of a State in the fifth. Religious System p. they paid no attention to odd and even. taking the sunshine on this day for a good presage. would correspond to the month of death. ^ If the Son of if Heaven expires he dies ing to in in the first month he is is buried in the seventh. 2 ^ * 213. harmony with the uneven day of the death of was an odd day again and not tallying with the odd day of death. ' The Tso-chuan. by their heedlessness. people were afflicted. The intellect of Confucius was very acute. they had incurred misfortune. Liki eod. Now. Vol. it . find nothing of the kind. the second he buried in the eighth. laws and institutions perfect.' entail calamities could not and thereby The Liki states that the Son of Heaven is interred in the seventh month. and that between Duke Yin and Duke Ai was the worst. Sacred common people did not suspend the to interment because of rain. by neglecting lucky auguries. and officers in the third month. but rejected if the day was a good one ought not to have been in- barely because of the rain. for rain may have been convenient. g. the month of death is included. Books Vol.* Degenerate ages have great faith in these sorts of laws. and The "Spring and Autumn" time was very degenerate. c.

here only used as an argament. living. they cannot partake of food and drink. Affection for other beings. the Sacrifices calamities.396 Lun-Heng: t). tions. and the ghosts are the essence of dead men. and though days be selected or shunned. The calendar of sacrifices has its favourable and inauspicious is to presages as well. I. some catastrophe Now.^ If they are not. to show that virtue has not been forgotten. because.^ If sacrifices and when the month will ensue. when animals are slaughtered. and the baleful days of the month shunned. and their omission does not entail Since sacrifices and the omission thereof neither cause happiness nor misfortune. do not bring happiness. baleful. As we never see their shapes. there are no ghosts for the diverse sacrifices. several no distinction being made between ' AMIn it. sacrificing is feeding the ghosts. The service of the dead is analogous to that of the living. 15 and below. they that of men. yet the ritual of their worship is identical with that of the deceased.* If. In the many thousand animals are throughout China. must do the same after they have died and become ghosts. blood is spiUed. Because men do not choose propitious days for eating and drinking. are offered ^vith animals slaughtered on such days. corresponding to Since we behold the living eating and drinking. eating the Six Animals. The living have no fixed days for their eating and drinking. how can lucky and unlucky days be of advantage or harmful? If bloodshed be avoided. people cannot have seen them eating and drinking.^ always bodes evil. it is unnecessary to select days for sacrifices. and the worship of ghosts. and the departed do not possess any knowledge. . for Wanff CKung does not share * See Vol. we only think of them in the form of living men. and remembrance of dear relatives are the main springs of sacrifices. As for the offerings to other spirits. chap. Thus. however. a day when bloodshed is be avoided. although they are not dead men. they are unconscious. and the dead are treated as though they were alive. wherefore then must spirits and ghosts have such days? In case ghosts and spirits really are conscious and not different from men. should likewise take these precauslaughter-houses killed daily. The various sacrifices are performed in appreciation of great services. ^ general belief. for the purpose of avoiding the appearance of ingratitude. Folklore and Religion. and the numerous ghosts. of what use would it be? In reality.

^ Cf. When the meat supply is settled. be chosen a day for combing the hair as well. without considering analogous cases. hsi hair turn white? (jr>fC) mu to signifies to remove the impurity of the feet. also count by thousands. and ('/^) to remove that of the body. and the only for washing the head there are certain days. When they are executed in the market-place. adopts an opinion. though they do not exist. his hair turns white. would her Moreover. and why is a calendar established for sacrifices alone? Why are butchers and judges left out of account? The world tation of convicts. it does not obtain it. animals are slaughtered. 397 lucky and unlucky ones. A man is or ugly.iS*t^fc ^S seems out of place and should be expunged. but the butchers do not die an untimely death for that reason. (^) remove that of the yii kxmn (^) to remove All that of the hands. fices. by means of these two non-entities. and when a case the culprits are decapitated. there ought to selected.* If the hair be considered the noblest. ' ^Bjat^ft¥. beheaded every month. if anybody washes if head on a tse^ day. body no days are For washing the feet. p. and believes in things to be Attempting to secure happiness.9M'J«*?&ffi. whereas he does so on a 7nao^ day. yet the judges are not visited with misfortune. Note 3. Why do victims. and resemble each other. If a woman as plain as Mu Mu ^ were to wash her head on a tse day. The decapi- and the slaughter of animals are both bloodshed indeed. In writings on baths his we are informed that. would she excite love thereby? Or if a girl of fifteen were to do the same on a mao day. is exhausted. As regards capital punishment. If the head be deemed the noblest part of the body.Slandering of Days. I. liked or disliked according as his features are handsome whereas the black and white colour of his hair depend upon his age and the number of his years. he becomes lovely. Vol. the hands. those criminals. in bathing (y^) the face is included and the face belongs to the head also. immolated at sacrifices. It sacri- though there are no ghosts. receive a different treatment. no auspicious day is chosen. these manners of washing aim at cleansing the same body. 473. The second . head. avoided.

in tailoring. Are clothes of greater importance because cover they the body? Of things appreciated by humanity there is none more urgently needed than food. and not white. of the Twelve Branches ^fe" hai and -+- are water. . Cf. gS 1/in and JuH mao. lovable. Water and wood both belong to the Five Elements. the Yin ^ which is regarded as passive or destructive. and of mao. certain days are tabooed. in all cases when fire is Further. bathing on a is tse Water cannot be The animal of tse is it the rat cannot be loved.^ and the colour of wood is not white. to take the colour of hoar-frost? Consequently. made on a lucky day. day ought to be chosen. 467. in using wood one does not shun anything. still use wooden combs to-day. tee elaborated related to in the Han and epoch. bathing on a mao day. and clothes protect it from without. a must be admitted. nature of his hair turns white. oi\ the According to the theory Five Elements. and that of mao is the hare. a fact illastitited by the character ^ comb j^wthe Tariff fluid. For food and drink no days are chosen. and causes the hair of another. giving auspicious and inauspicious Dresses.'^ if different degrees of used. We Ed. Now. the producing foi-ce of nature is nobler than water. day. Folklore and ' Religion. Clothes as well as food serve to support the human body: food supports it within. Appendix I p. Should water be nobler than wood. made on an inauspicious day. washing his head on a tse and is that. wood. rat. becomes the object of love. provided that a person. " A and B have the misprint: — X\ j^ '^ for R . have to insert the answei* to the preceding rhetorical question: — nobody. times. The the fur of the hare person. then. bring misfortune.* Who that renders the day. tse is who the cause of this? The loved. to wood. There are books for tailors. by washing all it on a mao day. For combing one uses wood and for washing. only in using water certain days are appointed. Therefore the first of — ' The Chinese for Fire. fluid. water nobility is less noble than fire. water.^ bathing days are not lucky or unlucky.® whereas. is water. * The pi-escription cannot be explained by the fanciful theory on the elements and their ^ correlates. they attract happiness. then whenever water is used a day should be selected.398 Lun-Heng: D. and it is not admissible to estabhsh a special bathing calendar. Besides.

clothes are less valuable than a chariot and horses. that the aforesaid selection becomes necessary? K the spirits dislike them because they cover and shield the human body. but some are held to be good. 284. A house covers the human shape. armed attendants. on the other hand. for making a canopy. works. viz. 399 the Eight Objects of fall Government ' is food. their preju- the second. Besides. Mayers' Manual Pt. . entrance doors. of what is By dices. II and sacrificial wines. musical instruments. no restrictions are to be obThe more served. sovereign by the central patli. entertainment of guests. have good or bad in- but for hats there are no restrictions. In case the in spirits be dis- The Eight Objects of Government. washing removes the impurity of the head. enumerated the Shuking. sacrifices. and constructing a ship. how could they be liable to the evil influences of the year and the moon. and a dwelling harbours the human body. Cartwrights do not seek a propitious and a lucky day. warfare. for being Clothes on the body. and manufacturing a hat. food. worn on the body. is more important than the hat. a propitious tion of a day ought ' to be chosen as well. All these things are alike and refer to the same body. then for building a carriage. the second commodities. Moreover. For commencing the building of a dwelling and the construchouse the selection of a day is requisite. robes of State. robes of State. - and Its importance lies not so much in its in its usefulness — in this respect a coat or a cloak are more important Gifts — as covering the head. Common people. For washing there are prohibitions. and the taboo is not the same. then nothing. ^ The time. people lose the true estimate important and not.Slandering of Days. bows and arrows. and hats are used as head-gear. others to be bad. whereas tailoring is beset with prohibitions. ^ These Nine yT *^ were symbols of authority. cannot grasp the truth. commodities. vermilion They were: — a coloured and horses. valuable object is thus treated with indifference. and much care under commodities. and clothes protect it from cold. Should they rank higher. No.'^ In manufacturing it. instruction. baths take away the dirt from the body. clothes. is bestowed on the meaner. for baths no good or bad fluences. anciently bestowed chariot upon vassals and ministers. the right to approach the battle-axes. auguries exist. the noblest part of the body. with their shallow knowledge. jurisdiction. first of the Nine Gifts of Investiture tailors alone look out for are a chariot and horses.

The system there is is related to these customs connected with the ping. whether the day be auspicious or not. ' The inventor of writing. for he has no bad intentions. and merely desires to shelter his body and find a resting place. the spirits of the soil could not pardon man. If. moved. however. then. even wilful manslaughter would not be atoned for. In default of such a prohibition.^ If people study on a ping day. and. are liable to punishment. All murderers and those who have wounded others. even the omission to select a day would not have evil consequences.400 pleased. analogous to killing and wounding. for the Yin and Hsia dynasties perished on a tse and a mao day. For killing and wounding the selection of days is of no use. bat not because they forebode . it might w^ell forgive man. in view of the vexations caused by his disturbing the earth. people cannot bring tliernselves to undertake anything. and irreasonably hated him. they would not escape. Although something be shunned of any disaster or calamity. and the soil dug up. Some days ai-e shunned out of respect for great men that died on these evil. sufferings. and out of sympathy with their tse not necessarily visited with misfortune. of what avail would be the selection of a propitious day? ' murder and the wounding of man. of tabooed days tse. days. a garden. The rites prescribe that on tse and inao* days no music should be made. a good day should be appointed also. no tear The and mao days. under this condition. wherefore then should there be those prohibitive rules concerning the construction and the erection ghosts and of houses and dwellings? In studying books the ping'^ days are eschewed. and. they Out of regard for the death day of former emperors. The holy mind of a spirit would not be irritated because the earth is for making a trench or tilHng thereby. The imperial law forbids The jurisdiction spirits. Folklore and Religion. Provided that the spirit of Earth be molested by the turning up of the soil. of a district magistrate is like the sway of and the crime of throwing up and piercing the soil." ' disturbance would be the same. because they say that Tsang Hsieh^ expired on a ping day. or make music on a are and mao day. though they should select a day for transgressing the law. ' " These dynasties were celebrated for their music. Lun-Heng: D.

401 A great variety of spirits are referred to in the calendars^ embracing Heaven and Earth. The Liki says that on an even day and outside matters. One ^^ is superfluous. Confucius said that one puts up a dwelling after having taken its forecast. and the people also choose this day. but does not concern itself with prognostics. text writes ' Here again the but avoids B^ f^ h of them and . . 2 Confucius admits the to. and perhaps they are not The laws of Heaven are hard to know. existence of ghosts and spirits. a day on which they display their activity. Odd and even are observed with regard to inside and outside matters. and that they be questions sacrificed speaking answering any about their natui-e. Wherefore then should the spirits of Heaven alone be so cruel? The State law inquires whether a thing be permissible or not according to human ideas. would not mete out punishments. the king.Slandering of Days. ' Quotation from the ^p^^^ Hsiao-ching (Pei-wen-yun-fu). but provided that spirits exist. or domestic affairs are settled indicate happiness and misfortune. then what benefit could be derived from shunning real.^ Regarding the sacrifices of the CHun-cJiiu. on an odd day. or what adversity If a king undertakes something on such and such a day.^ the scholars have not mentioned them. but the Sages do not speak of thein. but do not refer to good or bad luck. for he would not be angry that his subjects did not shun him. on hearing it. he could accrue from a non-avoidance? does not allude to the divination of days.

Vol. is on a road. . people submit to them. Concerning the moving of one's residence. and that to turn one's back upon it likewise bodes evil. * :M:^WPQ- Ed. Does it object to people's moving altogether? Then all moving would entail calamities."^ and the moving in opposite direction to it. Kffij ^ fictitious point.4 and C write # for ^. to Mem. CHAPTER XXXIX. and somebody runs against also called sui-yin. Ill. I propose to inquire a the words of scholars and students. quently. and are prone defences and prohibitions. When they move to the east or the west. Hist. and scholars and well informed Books on auguries outshine the Classics and Canons. would be like those of a high officer. (See Chavannes. Or does T'ai-sui not prevent people from moving. Folklore and Religion. and that people in general may be roused. people on earth must not move Building a house and in a northerly or a southerly direction. they say that to encounter T'ai-sui^ is unlucky. p. Q-Tiestions about the Year Star (Nan-sui). and the utterances of artisans have more weight than Now. nor meet Let us ask what this avoidance of T'ai-mi really means. but resent their collision? or south on the roads Then all people going north The feelings of T'ai-sui When ' a high officer "TT would be visited with misfortunes. weighing right and wrong.* or in one of the four intermediate directions. marrying. Then Jupiter itself would have position due south. . not collide with the T'ai-sui. artisans carry the day. The encounter of T^ai-sui is termed ^'Jupiter's descent." used for designating the year by means of the cycle of sixty. little into this question.402 Lon Heng: D. believe in Even the wise become Conse- doubtful. all Why? its Because then they do shock. The term its chia-tse would correspond the North =: --^. that others may see for themselves. these configurations are lucky. --the opposite o{ Jupiter. they should avoid this as well. 654). ''•Jupiter's destruction". Common to people have a feeling of uneasiness. In case T^ai-sui is in chia-tse.^ wherefore both are attended with misfortune. and are at a loss how to settle these questions.

is not a recent invention as De Harlez. down dead. Le Livre soil. and people moving from east to west. and not knowing this. While crossing the course of not a straight line. The spirits of Heaven dislike crookedness. '^ We see from this passage that the personification of T'ai-sui'' p. fall in and north. falling in with the cortege^ jumped down from the bridge. des Esprits des Immortels. Diet. 403 Why and horses of his men. as a spirit of Heaven.® A high T'ai-sui proceeding southward and northward. V^B^ZiUm^MZiU-^^'^ ^"d C replace .^ by ^. when on a trip. No. leaving their houses. * ' T'ai-sui from north to south. 134 says. south or northwards. would also run against it. it happens that they take a crooked road. it? how could people. Giles. then perhaps it proceeds along a crooked line. and not necessarily along a straight one. take the straight road. 144. Trusting that the carriages of the emperor had already passed. How many wayfarers are unexpectedly drowned. Unable to stay there. Bill. handed him over to the sheriff Chang Shili Chih'^ for trial. the ' the Pa-ling bridge. and seems by some to be regarded as a dangerous spirit of the * ^ On the firmament Jupiter describes a curve.Qnestions about the Year Stai*. he suddenly Of yore. and frightened the carriage-horses. very angry. Moreover. 105 and p.* as with high officers. they ignore whether they will meet with the Year Star or not. he would fly into a passion. This spirit is venerated at the present day.' If Tai-sui does not go officer straight south tions. Should it.C. in case the spirit of T'ai-sui really travels about. there emerged again. T'ai-sui chastise only those who. Note et 5. or do we know but that they also encountered on its journeys? Those mo^'^ng their residence cannot stay in their former home. and not a crooked one. in changing their domicile furniture and the carts should run against it? Emperor Wen Ti was crossing was an individual on the road who.^ then people moving from east and west and in the four intermediate directions. At fall present. Provided that the spirit of T^ai-sui^ travel like WSn Ti. carrying their transporting their things. The emperor. the configuration of these intermediate directions would be like that leading to a collision. . 2 ^ Cf. they cannot make up their minds what to do