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MODULE-1 TENSES 1. Principal clause- past tense; subordinate clause-past tense: He said that he had finished his work. I was informed that her mother was ill. This rule is not appliedIf the second clause is universal truth: My brother told me that smoking is injurious to health. If ‘than’ connects two clauses (any tense can be used): He respected you more than he respects his uncle. 2. Use Past Simple/Perfect tense with expression of past time(yesterday, last night, ago): We wrote to you yesterday about his mother. I had finished my letter last night. 3. Phrases like ‘as if’ or ‘as though’ require past tense with plural form: He behaved as if he were a millionaire. 4. Use present indefinite tense with usually, generally, often, whenever: I usually go to play cricket 5. Use present perfect continuous tense when time of action is specified: I have been reading in this class for two months. 6. If ‘since’ is used as a preposition always use present perfect/ past perfect: The college had/has been closed since Monday. 7. If ‘since’ is used as a conjunction, use simple present/ present perfect before it and simple past after it: A month has passed since I came here. Two hours have passed since he fell asleep. 8. Sequential actions require same indefinite tenses: He got up, looked here and there and went away. 9. Never use future tense after – until, till, when, before, after, as soon as, as: He will come here when he is ready. (not ‘will be ready’) 10.Never use perfect tense in imaginary situation: Were I in her place, I would enjoy a lot. (not ‘would have enjoyed’) Practice Set 1. When Carol (call) last night, I (watch) my favorite show on television. 2. I (work) for this company for more than thirty years, and I intend to stay here until I retire! 3. Sharon (love) to travel. She (go) abroad almost every summer. Next year, she plans to go to Peru. 4. Thomas is an author. He (write) mystery novels and travel memoirs. He (write) since he was twenty-eight. Altogether, he (write) seven novels, three collections of short stories and a book of poetry. 5. We were late because we had some car problems. By the time we (get) to the train station, Susan (wait) for us for more than two hours. 6. Sam (try) to change a light bulb when he (slip) and (fell). 7. Everyday I (wake) up at 6 o'clock, (eat) breakfast at 7 o'clock and (leave) for work at 8 o'clock. However, this morning I (get) up at 6:30, (skip) breakfast and (leave) for work late because I (forget) to set my alarm.
I (study. Writes. *It is the most unique book. She (cook) and he (read) the newspaper. Tanzer. skipped. was cooking. not) anything. left. positive degree is used. Wake up. will be working 10. I. had forgot 8. He is senior to me. they (do) the same thing. will not have accomplished. have been working 3. the comparative ending ‘– er’ is not used. was reading. This boy is as clever as that. e. entire etc. will be preparing. will also be doing. Right now. usually) taught by Mrs. However. Was trying. Is reading. leave. We never say ‘most unique’. General Errors1. She (prepare) dinner and he (read) .g. 3. This boy is more clever than that. The adjectives like Unique. e.g. slipped. Answers 1.8. . Monty.g.When two persons or things are said to be unequal in respect of some quality. This boy is the cleverer of the two. goes 4.The students (be. When we compare two qualities in the same person or thing. you (complete) your studies and (find) a job. will have found. comparative degree is used. has written 5. on the other hand. this week they (be) taught by Mr. was watching 2. The adjectives ending in ‘–ior’ take ‘to’ and not ‘than’ after them: e. ‘chiefest’.Are usually taught. 2. Loves. Use comparative degree when two things are compared with each other. * This boy is the cleverest of the two. Jim (read) the newspaper and Kathy (make) dinner. 4.When one person or thing is said to surpass all other persons or things of the same kind superlative degree is used. still) and you (work) in some new high paying job. complete. e.g. universal. are being taught DEGREE OF COMPARISON (ADJECTIVES) • Positive Degree . is making. had been waiting 6. got up. (accomplish. Got. chief. ideal. This boy is the cleverest of all. are not compared at all since they represent the highest degree. will be reading 9. They are very predictable people! 9.When two persons or things are said to be equal in respect of some quality. fell 7. e. ‘extremest’. eat. • Comparative Degree . e.g. Last night at this time. *You are wiser than old. they (do. Tomorrow at this time. By this time next summer.g. e. perfect. has been writing. Will have completed. called. will still be studying. extreme. 10. were doing.g. also) the same thing. This boy is the cleverer of the two. • Superlative Degree .
He turned out to be no other than my old friend. Rohit is not as mean as Rahul is. He was the laziest of all workmen. This pen is much cheaper than that. If comparison is made by using ‘other’. 9. This pen is much more cheaper than that. The flowers in my garden are prettier than the ones in my friend’s garden. We are sure to need help.g. *Knowledge is even more preferable than riches. Knowledge is preferable even to riches. 8. (not ‘minorest or more minor’) The interior parts of the building are beautifully decorated. 11. 14. This is one of the best and most powerful machines that have ever been made. minor are always used in the positive degree: This is a fact of minor (secondary) importance. Do not use ‘other’ with superlatives *He was the laziest of all other workmen. *The road is the more shortest of all.Latin comparatives: interior. *He is cleverer than any boy in the class. major. the cooler we feel. comparative degree is used in both: e. *He is as clever as any boy in the class.You are more wise than old. The higher we go. 15. Peter is as bright as Susanne. 5.When the degrees are confused *Peter is as brighter as Susanne. Thoreau’s writing is not as easy to read. 6. Usage of ‘other’ after positives and comparatives. 12. 2.* He has read the two first chapters of the book. exterior. 13. 7.Preferable has a force of a comparative. ‘Likely’.When the comparison is not complete *Rohit is not as mean. (How can two chapters become first?) He has read the first two chapters of the book. ‘than’ is used instead of ‘but’: e. 16. ‘certain’ and ‘sure’ are followed by ‘to’: e. The population of Calcutta is greater than that of Delhi.g.If the first of the two or more adjectives is a superlative than other should also be superlative. so followed by ‘to’ not ‘than’. He is cleverer than any other boy in the class. The road is the shortest of all.Usage of double Comparatives or Superlatives is wrong. (not ‘most interior’) Practice set 1. He is as clever as any other boy in the class. 17. . 18. I think it is more harder to understand Freud’s theory than Watson. When two changes happen together.When the items that are being compared are in different categories *The flowers in my garden are prettier than my friend. *This is one of the best and powerful machines that have ever been made.g. 10.*The population of Calcutta is greater than Delhi.
4. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Sylvia found a unique dress for her daughter’s baptism. 7. I don’t have any money. e. Sophia’s resume was more organized than that of Nick’s. e. ‘a lot of’ etc. 3. but Nick’s resume included more information than Sophia’s. (in a rising tone) Teacher: Yes. Thoreau’s writing is not as easy to read as Hemingway’s. Answers 1. 6. Use of negation with a phrase like ‘never’ e. . During the Civil War. Laurel and Hardy are the most funniest slapstick comedians in film history. 10. Slavery in the United States was much worse than Europe. you can. 4.3. Not using affirmative sentences with phrases like ‘some’ and ‘a lot of’ e. * I didn’t have never expected such behavior from you. e. faulty comparison is more harder than faulty predication to overcome. the North won more battles than the South did. sir.g. the North won more battles. 8. To some people. faulty comparison is harder than faulty predication to overcome. e. Marketing has a higher employee turnover rate than the rest of the company’s population. Sylvia found the most unique dress for her daughter’s baptism.g. 8. Student: May I borrow your book.g. which eventually led to the South’s surrender. Use of negation with an already negative sentence. Sophia’s resume was more organized than Nick. Slavery in the United States was much worse than it was in Europe. 9. Use of negation with phrases like ‘some’.g. *Will he have to earn some money to buy a car? He will have to earn some money to buy a car. *Rohit needs any pen and he wants to borrow it from Rahul. To some people. Use of affirmative sentences when you intend to ask a question.g. 5. 10. 3. 6. Laurel and Hardy are the funniest slapstick comedians in film history. I didn’t have ever expected such behavior from you. Rohit needs a pen and he wants to borrow it from Rahul.g. *I don’t have some money. 2. 5. Marketing has a higher employee turnover rate than the rest of the company’s departments. 4. 2. which eventually led to the South’s surrender. 6. Use of affirmative sentences with a phrase like ‘any’. but Nick’s resume included more information. *We can’t find no good books to read. 9. you can. AFFIRMATIVE and NEGATIVE 1. I think it is harder to understand Freud’s theory than that of Watson’s. During the Civil War. Winter is the most coldest season of the year. *Student: I may borrow your book. sir? Teacher: Yes. We can’t find any good books to read. 5. 7.
Answers 1. an) ii. 4.L.C. I haven’t read some books. an R. I won’t eat no chocolate today. A university. I need a vacation as I am tired of work. 3. Before words beginning with silent ‘h’: e. Peter needs some money and he wants to borrow it from Robin. Before words beginning with consonant sound: e. An apple. 8. L.g. but the ones that I have read are extremely good.A. An hour. 6. 2. a unique article etc.I have never expected such behavior from you. 4. 7. A boy. Indefinite (a. John: Which color dress do you need? Mary: Some of them will do. I haven’t read many books. Aren’t there any children in the class? 5. an N.C. Rice sells ten rupees a kilo. With units and rate: e. S. He could not speak a word to save himself. I won’t eat any chocolate today. 10. The driver has never found any gold. R. N. a dog etc. 8. 9. The driver hasn’t never found any gold. There are not a lot of students in the class. 2. When two subjects or articles are thought of as a single unit: . 3. 7. I haven’t never seen some polar bears. John’s friends never drink alcohol. Peter needs any money and he wants to borrow it from Robin. I haven’t ever seen any polar bears. 10. M.g. 4.g.. X are not vowels but begin with vowel sound when they are in abbreviated form: e. 3. John: Which color dress do you need? Mary: Any of them will do. Practice Set 1.g.. 3. Use of ‘A’: 1.I. There are not many students in the class.g. 9. 6.F.A.g. I need a vacation as I am tired of work. Definite (the) • Use of ‘An’: 1. MODULE-2 ARTICLES Articles are of two types: i. 2.R. H. In the sense of one: e. F. With vowel letters having consonant sounds: e. An M. John’s friends ever drink alcohol. Aren’t there any children in the class? 5. Before words begin with vowel sounds: e. an F. an honest man etc. 2. an egg etc. but the ones that I have read are extremely good. 5.g.
the saddest day NOUNS Nouns which are used in singular form: i. the Red Sea. The scenery of this place is worth watching.g.g.g. Economics is a very interesting subject. measles etc. e. ii.g. * A ten-rupees note is lying here. hundred. furniture. mountains: e. The Democratic Party. score. advice. Nouns used both as singular and plural in the same form: 1. The wages of the workers have been raised. The wages of sin is death. When a singular noun represents a whole class: e. Deer.g.g. Cattle. poultry.g. business. trousers. * My spectacle is missing. word etc. He was ready with a cup and saucer. the Ganges. In exclamatory expressions before singular countable nouns: e. Physics. With names of certain books. people.e. ii. bread. the tenth block. *Economics are very interesting subjects. * He is true to his words iii. bedding [All * are wrong] e. Scenery. e.g. repair. He bought ten dozen mangoes. the flute. the Taj Mahal. the Andaman islands 3. The police have caught the thief. Scissors. police. 8.g. A lot of. poetry. . stockings. islands. the Hindus 4. a five-year plan e. apparatus. issue. e. * He bought ten dozens mangoes. What a beautiful place! Use of ‘The’: 1. information.g. He is true to his word. a two-hour journey. Brick.g. e. With names of gulfs. e. My spectacles are missing. With certain expressions of quantity: e. spectacles.g. e. the Bible. mischief. fuel. fruit. riches. stationary. Dozen. ordinals and superlative degree: e. Nouns used only in plural form: i. rivers. monuments.g. A ten-rupee note. * The police has caught the thief. The Himalayas. sheep. Economics etc. a couple 7. news. thousand. when preceded by a numeral. million etc. iv. To make a common noun of a proper noun: e.g.g. musical instruments. wages etc. The mango is considered the king of fruits. machinery. 2. goods. *The sceneries of these places are worth watching. With names of political parties. a four-mile walk. oceans. gentry etc. This man is ‘a second Newton’. ii.g. 6. a dozen. religious groups: e. fish. A ten-rupee note is lying here. Mathematics.
Collective nouns such as jury.2. orchestra etc. government. team. ‘But’ and ‘except’ are followed by pronoun in the objective case. 7. I want one of the books kept on the table. With a definite point of time: e. e. ‘Let’ is followed by pronoun in the objective case. e. audience. 3. ‘One of’ or ‘any of’ is followed by plural words. 4.g. The pronoun ‘one’ must be followed by ‘one’s’ e. He is married to Sunita who is Raghav’s daughter. Everyone should love his country.g.g. PRONOUNS Subjective/Nomin ative I You He She It We They Who Objective/Accus ative Me You Him Her It Us Them Whom Possessive/Genit ive Mine/My Yours/Your His Hers/Her Its Ours/Our Theirs/Their Whose Reflexive Pronouns Myself Yourself Himself Herself Itself Ourself Themself --- 1. e. One must do one’s duty to one’s country. b. ‘Everyone’ or ‘Everybody’ must be followed by ‘his’.g. 5.g. John and Mary love each other. ‘Each other’ is used for the two and ‘one another’ for more than two. With festivals: e. * Everyone attended the party except he. e. Any of these tools may serve the purpose. e. e. ‘Whose’ is used for persons and ‘which’ for lifeless objects. I usually get up at 5 o’ clock. 2.g. Let him go. This is the table which I was talking about. e. committee. public. ‘At’ is used: a.g. PREPOSITIONS Prepositions of Time: 1. He will come at Holi.g. . Who do you think did that job? Whom did you abuse? 6.g. ‘Who’ denotes the subject and ‘whom’ denotes the object. e. Everyone attended the party except him. The jury has taken decision to organize the event the next month.g. They help one another. 3.g. The jury were divided as there was a conflict of opinion.
e. Prepositions of Direction: 1. ADVERBS 1. ‘In’ is used for larger area.g. He has been ill since yesterday. 7. 2. My brother will arrive on Monday. Hari answered only two questions. Adverbs of frequency are normally put between subject and verb: e. He studied at Oxford. He seldom or never tells a lie. We walked to the river. ‘To’ is used to express motion from one place to another. It is shady under the tree.g. . ‘Between’ is used for two persons or things. I have been here for three years. Your work is below average.g.g. The word ‘only’ should be placed immediately before the word it modifies: e. e. he is also a lawyer. He was running slowly. ‘Among’ is used for more than two. She is clever enough to understand things. 4.g. 5. Can you distribute these sweets between him and me? Can you distribute these sweets among the three boys? 3. e. ‘Since’ is used with the point of time when action begins and continues. ‘Ever’ is sometimes incorrectly used for ‘never’: e.g. ‘By’ refers to the latest time at which an action will be over. e. ‘Towards’ refers to direction. The adverb ‘enough’ is placed after the adjective: e. 3. ‘At’ refers to an exact point. ‘For’ is used with perfect continuous tense showing the duration of action. Adverbs of manner.g. e.g.g. In summer the weather is warm. I sat down beside my wife.g. He lives in Bombay.g. The examination will be over by 5 pm. 6. ‘Under’ is used for vertically below. e. ‘From’ refers to the starting point of action: e.2. ‘Beside’ means by the side of and ‘Besides’ means in addition to. My birthday is on the first of June.g. 2. Besides being a teacher. place and time are usually placed after the verb or object: e. ‘In’ is used: 1. ‘On’ is used with days and dates: e. months and years. e.g. He often goes to Delhi. e. ‘Below’ is used for lower than. 6. Reena does her work carefully. *He seldom or ever tells a lie. 5. With the parts of the days. 2.g. 4.g. He saw me running towards him. She came from USA. Prepositions of Position: 1.
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