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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
“ To see the confluence on many dreams That dashed together in one light, One river born of many streams Roll in one blaze of blinding light.”
Sustainable development plan for the tsunami affected area – Cuddalore, as mentioned above, is the culmination of all the efforts put forth by our team, be it the students or the professor.

“ The sword conquers for a while but the spirit conquers forever.”
All for one and one for all was our desire in making these efforts, with the most extra ordinary collection of talent and human knowledge, that has never ever been together, is gratifying. There are so many people to thank; who have helped to plaster smile on our faces. We thank our Dean, Prof. P. Swaminathan, who has taken this project as priority of the school and have stood by us till the very end of the project. Our HOD, Prof. S. Ravi has gifted us the perfect amount of freedom, giving it a new meaning, that freedom is not merely a word or an abstract theory, but the most effective instrument for advancing. He has made us imbibe the wish to learn and also helped us in achieving fruitful results. Our staff members, Mr. J. Narayanaswamy, Dr. V. M. Marudachalam, Dr. M. Abdul Razak,

Mr. S. R. Masilamani and Mr. K. Pratheep Moses., the most-superlative and pre-eminent, who have never let us down in all our efforts they have always kept our face in sunshine, so we don’t see the shadow. We like to thank the faculty members and students of Landscape department, School of Architecture and Planning, Chennai.

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We feel enchanted to express our gratitude to Prof. Shovan.K.Saha, Head, Dept Of Environmental Planning for the support he rendered in making this project a success. We thank Staffs of Department of Environmental Planning and Landscaping, School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi, for the interest and cooperation they provided in making this joint studio a success. We are indebted to Dean Prof. T.M. Vinodkumar, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi, for rendering his support to make this joint studio a reality This message would be incomplete without acknowledging Dr. Senthil Kumar, Prof. ,Annamalai University, for the valuable information, which he shared with us by his seminar during our visit and also by accompanying us during our visit to MGR-Thittu. We would like to thank Mr.Gagan Deep Singh Bedi, District Collector, Cuddalore for his support rendered during our study in Cuddalore. We thank all the government offices of Cuddalore District, Municipal office, NIC and Taluk office for supplementing us with all the data required for the study in a very short time. We extend our heartfelt thanks to meteorological department to help us with the climatic data for the Cuddalore district. We thank Dr. Venugopal, The Director, Institute of Remote Sensing, Anna University,for helping us to trace the base map of the study area. We express our gratitude to Dr. Nagenthran, Department of Geology, Anna University for helping us to gain knowledge about geologic condition of the study area. We thank GSI, Chennai, for providing us with the maps and details, which could be utilized for our benefits. We take up this opportunity to thank the people of the villages who were helping us in the best way and being a steady hold up in this effort for reconstructing this vision into reality. We also extend our

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thanks to all the VAOs and NGOs involved in the mitigation measures and helped with their heart and soul. We thank our Senior Mr. Pradeep and his friends to enable us to have a comfortable stay in Chidambaram during our Second visit to the study area. As a reciprocation of this opportunity, we take pride in thanking our parents and all friends who have been helping us to work in the right direction. They had been inspiring us for not just being Planners but also better Professionals and further proceed on leaving all the conventional rules behind. We would be indebted, if we forget to mention the timely help of Madhu Ganesh who helped us achieve our set targets. This project “Sustainable Development Plan for Tsunami affected coastal area – Cuddalore District “, dedicated to our beloved Project Coordinator Prof. S.P.Sekar, whose concern for us and our project were not only enriching our ‘roots’ but also open outs the ‘Vista’ for our journey ahead. Thank you Sir…

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PRELUDE
Cutting a swathe of death and deconstruction across the coastal areas of a halve dozen littoral countries of the Indian ocean, the titanic tsunami rising from the fifth largest earthquake, since the beginning of 20th century and biggest of all in the past 40 years, has plunged the whole region in shock and grief. India and Srilanka are the most grievously hit. In South India, particularly Tamil Nadu suffering the highest of all. People from all sections of the society responded towards the natural challenge and contributed generously in various ways for the rehabilitation and reconstruction efforts. As planners, for the refurbishment of the costal community, which calls for a well-coordinated measures of relief, rehabilitation and mitigation plans. With these parameters, planners need to evolve ideas or concepts, to support new developments, which are flexible enough to respond to future changes in use, life style and demography. Their ideas or concepts require a sense of responsibility.

UNBLOCKING THE BLOCKAGE:

School of Architecture and Planning, Chennai and School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi, two premier and prestigious institutions of our country have entangled into a single system to create plans for the people, enriching the existing facilities and services. This combined project has become a milestone in the career of all the students, who had a hand in framing the project. A Multidisciplinary group of 60 students of Planning and Landscape discipline, from both schools visited Cuddalore, our study area for an intensive field study. The study area measures about 57.5 Kms in length starting from the border of Pondicherry and extends up to Pitchavaram down south. It covers about 26 coastal settlements both in Cuddalore and Chidambaram Taluk.

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The study aims at a rapid assessment of the devastations and damages happened along with the relief and rehabilitation measures undertaken. The study also involves the understanding of the Socio economic characteristics of the settlements. Prior to the field visit, necessary spade works were done. Base map for the Cuddalore district were traced from the Institute of remote Sensing, Anna University. The traced sheets were divided into grids of 1 Km by 1 Km for easy geo reference at the field. The digitized copies of each grid were given to the persons who were involved in survey of the area in the grid. The students were issued with a folder containing the grid maps, two sheets of tracing paper, four A4 sheets, a pencil and an eraser and also the set of questioners for household survey.

CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS The team set out for the study on 28th February afternoon and reached Cuddalore by night and started for the next days survey. DAY 1 : 01.03.2005 The team as a whole in three vans started for the reconnaissance survey of the study area from the border of Pondicherry to the extent of Pitchavaram in down south. Information to be collected from the field were identified and a detailed check list for collection of data relating to various sectors were prepared. In the later part of the day, we attended a lecture by Dr. Senthilkumar, Prof., Dept of Geology, Annamalai University, regarding origin of Tsunami waves and their effects on the coast of TamilNadu. On the return to staying place, the team sat and worked out the action plans for the next day and also discussed on the objectives.

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DAY 2 : 02.03.2005 Groups were formed with 8 members in each group, of which four were from Landscape and four were from environmental and planning disciplines. This crew of 8 members proceeded to each settlements to obtain all information pertaining to situation of the village prior to tsunami, the economic conditions of the people, the damages that occurred and also views of various stake holders about long term rehabilitation plans were collected through community survey, household survey and other tools. The team members returned to the place of stay to share with each other, their major findings and observations. DAY 3 : 03.03.2005 The team members then, worked out on the information gaps in the yesterday’s visit and details needed to be collected for that day were listed. The crew, which had finished the survey the prior day, were asked to study another settlement and rest were sent to the same settlement to fill up the gaps. After returning from the study, the findings of the survey were discussed among the team members in the evening. We were able to cover a distance of 20 Kms after 2 days. Then we

worked out for the strategies and actions for the next day which is to be assigned for each crew. DAY 4 : 04.03.2005 This was the final day of visit, wherein we finished studying the remaining distance of the study area. Strategies were worked in a manner that the works were to be completed on the final day. Some of us also went to collect secondary data from the Government offices and NGO’s

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DAY 5 : 05.03.2005 The day started early, we started working on the compilation of the data which were collected from the field visit. We were working in the community hall hired from the hotel in which we stayed. Thus at the end of the day, we were able to transfer the whole data available on the sheets. Our journey back to Chennai started late at night of the day. DAY 6 : 06.03.2005 Being Sunday, a holiday we planned to have a complete rest and prepare ourselves for the works to carried out for the remaining days. DAYS 7-10 : 07 TO 10.03.2005 At Chennai, these days were used for compilation of the data available from the primary survey done in the field and to transfer them digitally. Guidance were taken from the professors of both institutions in preparing for the review next day.

DAY 11 : 11.03.2005 We had a presentation of the collected data before the staffs of both the institutions to share the major findings of the intensive exercise conducted in the filed. Suggestions and strategies were worked for the road ahead In three stages i.e., • • • Data collection, Analysis Proposals

under the guidance of our project co-coordinator Dr.S.P.Sekar with valuable suggestions from our head of department, SAP.

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. INTRODUCTION TO TSUNAMI TSUNAMI ON INDIAN COAST REGIONAL SETTING – CUDDALORE INTRODUCTION TO STUDY AREA DEVASTATION IN STUDY AREA DEMOGRAPHIC STUDIES PHYSIOGRAPHY LAND FORMS CONNECTIVITY SETTLEMENT PATTERN INFRASTRUCTURE SOCIO ECONOMIC ANALYSIS INSTITUTIONAL FRAME WORK ACTION PLAN FOR PUDUKUPPAM 09 14 17 19 21 23 29 41 45 51 58 62 68 76

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1. INTRODUCTION TO TSUNAMI

1.0 TSUNAMI: Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning ‘harbour wave’. Tsunamis are popularly called tidal waves but they actually have nothing to do with the tides. These waves which often affect distant shores, originate from undersea or coastal seismic activity, landslides and volcanic motion and swells up, ultimately surging over land with great destructive power. “tsunami is a natural phenomenon consisting of a series of waves generated when water in a lake or sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale.” Tsunami is an after effect of - earthquakes - land slides - volcanic eruption - impact of extra terrestrial bodies The immediate effect of tsunami is much like throwing a large rock into a pond. Where the rock impacts, the water surface heaves dramatically with a series of vertical MOVEMENTS up and down.

1.1 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WIND WAVE AND TSUNAMI

The wind generated waves observed rhythmically rolling in one wave after another wave. Period of wave is 10 seconds. Wavelength - 150m. Tsunami is different from wind wave. Period of wave - on the order of 1 hour / wavelength - 100km and above.

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1.2 REASONS FOR TSUNAMI : •

An under sea earthquake which is too small to create a tsunami by itself, may trigger an undersea landslide quite capable of generating a tsunami. It can be generated when the sea floor abruptly performs and vertically displaces the overlying water.

• • • •

Vertical movement of the earth crust can occur at plate boundaries. Subduction earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis & occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. Sub-marine landslides may disturb the overlying edifices, disturb the overlying water column as sediment and rocks slide down slope & are redistributed across the sea floor. Similarly, a violent submarine volcanic eruption can uplift the water column and generate tsunami.

1.3 GENERATION OF TSUNAMI:

1.3.1

TSUNAMI BY EARTHQUAKE/TSUNAMI BY LANDSLIDE: • Tectonic earthquake- deforms earth's crust when this earthquake takes place under sea. • Water above deformed area displaced from its equilibrium position. • Waves are formed as the displaced water mass, which acts under the influence of gravity, attempts to regain its position • When large area of sea floor elevate or subside, a tsunami can be created • Generally created if earthquake occur at plate boundaries because it creates large vertical

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movement of crust apart from it- submarine landslide, collapse of volcanic edifices can create a impulsive force that uplift the water column and generate a tsunami

1.4

EFFECTS OF TSUNAMI

1.4.1 EFFECT OF TSUNAMI WHEN IT REACHES TO LAND

In open water wave tsunami has extremely long periods. The actual height of a tsunami wave in open water is often less than one meter speed in ocean 500 - 1000km/h .As the wave approaches land - the sea shallows and the wave no longer travels as quickly. The wave becomes steeper and taller, and there is less distance between crests. Scientific reason - the energy flux which depends on its wave speed and wave height, remains nearly constant. (Shoaling effect) so when its speed diminish the height increase and it behaves like tidal waves. (height - 30 meters) when it finally reaches the coast, a tsunami may appear as a rapidly rising or falling tide, a series of breaking waves, or even a bore.

1.4.2 EFFECT OF TSUNAMI WHEN IT HITS THE LAND

As tsunami approaches to shore it begins to slow and grow in ht. Just like other waves tsunami also loose energy as they rush on shore in two parts part of wave energy reflected offshore the shoreward propagating energy is dissipated through bottom friction and turbulence. Despite of these losses tsunami reach the coast with tremendous amount of energy with great erosion potential which completely wash the landforms

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1.5 DISASTER MITIGATION

A) AVOIDING Four basic site planning techniques that can be applied to projects to reduce tsunami risk most effective mitigation method siting buildings and infrastructure on the high side of a lot or raising structures above tsunami inundation levels on piers or hardened podiums

B) STEERING Guides the force of tsunamis away from vulnerable structures and people strategically spacing structures, using angled walls and ditches, and using paved surfaces that create a low friction path for water to flow.

C) SLOWING Creates friction that reduces the destructive power of the waves specially designed forests, ditches, slopes, and berms can slow and strain debris from waves efficiency depends upon estimating the inundation that could occur.

D) BLOCKING Hardened structures such as walls, compacted terraces and berms, parking structures and other rigid construction can block the force of waves. This can however amplify height, reflect or redirect wave energy to other areas

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1.6 CONCLUSIONS • •

Tsunami cannot be predicted. The intensity of tsunami varies from place to place depending upon: Type of land Type of tsunami

• • • •

But an effective warning system can help to prevent disaster. Tsunami resistant structures to be constructed in more devastation prone areas. Well defined rescue areas to be designed. Awareness camp to be conducted from time to time.

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2. TSUNAMI ON INDIAN COAST
tsunami on the Indian coast
2.0 INTRODUCTION Peninsula of India is one of the countries, which have rich scenic value, with vast extents of beaches and many ports. The costal stretch our country runs about 3000 Kms. The coast is rich in flora and fauna, which supports and supplements the economic activity of the people along the coast.

Costal stretch of Indian Sub continent The coast line India is divided into three coasts They are., • • • Konkan Coast Malabar Coast Coromendal coast

Seven states of our country abut the coast .The east coast of the peninsula is known as the Coromendal coast.

2.1

TSUNAMI ON INDIAN COAST

On the early morning of Dec 26th, tsunami struck our coast line. The south eastern part was affected the most .i.e., the Coromendal coast got affected the most. Tsunami which had never happened in the Indian history for the past one century had its epicenter 42 Kms north of Indonesia. Tsunami which had its origin there has traveled through the Indian Ocean and caused devastations on the Indian coast in more than an

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hour. The devastation due the wave further extended to Srilanka also. Of all the Indian states Andaman and Nicobar islands had the maximum devastation. 2.2 EPICENTER OF TSUNAMI : 42 Kms north of Bazeunazerah, Indonesia : 00:58:50: UTC (06:28:50 IST) :03.29 N :95.77E

Epicenter
INDIA
MANMAR

Origin time Latitude

SRI LANKA
MALADEVES

TAILAND MALAYSIA

Longitude

Depth: 10 kms below the surface of the sea
INDONESIA

Magnitude: 8.9m richter scale Tsunami has taken away 10,000 lives from us and has affected more than 2 lakh people. The devastation scale along the Indian coast ranks TamilNadu in the first place, which is followed by Kerala and then Andhra Pradesh. The table gives the various details on the effects of tsunami in various states of our country. The wave which struck on December 26th early morning does not have the same intensity of devastation in all districts. The district of Nagapattinam got most affected followed by Cuddalore and then by other districts. The southern districts were shielded by the Srilankan Island to save them from tsunami waves. The table gives the level of damages on various districts.

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No.of Villages including hamlets affected Affected Population Affected Families Persons evacuated Loss of Human Lives Male Female Children

51

FACTOR

ANDHRA PRADEAH 211,000 7.9 985 0.5-2.0 5 301 1557 195

KERELA

TAMIL NADU

PONDICHERY

TOTAL

99,704 11,804 61,054 617 110 285 222

POPULATION AFFECTED AREA AFFECTED(Sq.km) LENGTH OF COAST AFFECTED EXTENT OF PENETRATION (km) HEIGHT OF TSUNAMI (m) VILLEGE AFFECTED DWELLING UNITS CATTLE LOST

2,470,000 UNKNOWN 250 1-2 3-5 187 11,832 UNKNOWN

691,000 24.87 1000 1-1.5 7-10 362 91,037 5467

43,000 7.9 25 0.30-3.0 10 26 6403 3445

3,415,000 40.67 2,260 211,000 211,000 876 110,829 9,116

2.3

TSUNAMI IN CUDDALORE:

The district of Cuddalore ranks second in the affected districts. This district has three blocks, Cuddalore, Chidambaram and Kurinjipadi, which has about 26 villages abutting the coast.

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3. REGIONAL SETTING
3.1
VILUPURAM

DISTRICT PROFILE: The town of Cuddalore configures itself as the headquarters of Cuddalore district and Cuddalore

45

CUDDALORE

To China Salem SIPCOT industrial complex Neiveli
Kurinjipadi

taluk. The town was considered as municipality in 1856, comprising of revenue villages. The town was
Parangipettai

later upgraded as selection grade municipality effective from 9 - 5 -1993.

Pichavaram CHIDAMBARAM To Perambalore To Sendurai PERAMBALORE

The district has about 6 blocks within its administrative boundary. The lists of blocks are
To Sirkazi

NAGAPATTINAM

• • • • • • 3.2

Cuddalore block Komaratchi block Kurinchipadi block Panruti block Portnova block Bhuvanagiri block ADMINISTRATIVE STATUS: The district of Cuddalore has the following administrative organization • No. of municipalities • No of panchayat union • Village panchayats – – 5 13 16 681

• No of town panchayats – –

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3.3
. 174

LOCATION: The district of Cuddalore is located in the estuary of the river Gadilam and Pennayar river with the

PANRUTTI TALUK

PONDICHERRY STATE

bay of Bengal. The district is bounded by Villupuram {refer physiographic location} 3.4 LINKAGES: The district is situated at a distance of 200km from Chennai and 22kms from Pondicherry along the east coast of TamilNadu. Cuddalore is well connected by railways and roads, the roads in the district connects it with the nearest urban centers viz. Villupuram, Trichy, Thiruvarur, etc. The express way of east coast road which starts

NELLIKUPPAM BLOCK

40kms LIGNITES
PANRUTTI TALUK

CUDDALORE BLOCK

CUDDALORE

NEYVELI

PANRUTTI BLOCK

KURINGIPADI BLOCK

from Chennai and ends at the district forms the main source of connectivity to the town.
VIRUDHACHALAM TALUK KAMMAPURAM BLOCK

CHIDAMBARAM TALUK

BAY OF BENGAL

BHUVANAGIRI BLOCK

CHIDAMBARAM

PORTONOVA BLOCK

PICHAVARAM

45kms NATARAJA TEMPLE

38kms MANGROVES BACKWATERS

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4. INTRODUCTION TO STUDY AREA
4.1 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY AREA Our study area comprises of 57.5 Kms of coastal area and width of 1 km laterally extending from Pondicherry border in North and up to Pitchavaram in south. The reasons for choosing this stretch of the coast are : • • • • The Tsunami devastation is not uniform along the coast. Some are severely, moderately and least affected. The land form along the stretch is much diversified in nature. The geomorphology of the shore line is continuously changing. Presence of barrier islands, estuaries and lagoons all along the stretch.

4.2

AIM OF THE PROJECT The main aim of our project is to understand the characteristics of tsunami devastation and to

Propose site specific action plans for the costal stretch of Cuddalore district.

4.3

OBJECTIVES • • • • To demarcate the area affected and to evaluate the Physical, Economical and Social impacts of Tsunami To clarify the villages based on the intensity of devastation and to validate the relevance of different factors leading to the non uniformity in devastation which had happened To recommend Guidelines and propose Policies and strategies for the coastal stretch To propose site specific action plans for PUDUKUPPAM village.

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4.4

SCOPE Our scope of the project extends from understanding the Tsunami impact on different aspects

such as physical, social, cultural and economical characteristics on site specific settlement patterns and to propose macro level policy guidelines for the delineated study area. It also includes detailing of one settlement PUDUKUPPAM, wherein detail action plans are proposed.

4.5

LIMITATIONS • • • •

As the project was conceived in a very short time, due to time constraint, we could not survey at household level and all analysis are done at village level. The study conceived as action plans for immediate future hence it doesn’t cover either immediate rehabilitation are long term ecological security. As Tsunami facts conceived from secondary source data, we fixed our study area limit as 1 Km lateral to the coast. All though CRZ is a comprehensive regulation, when during Tsunami the water inundation reached beyond 500 mts, we concentrated more on the water inundated area for analysis rather than strict CRZ regulations.

The proposal considered in the project is a short term action plan rather than considering CRZ implications which is already under review by Government of India for its reframing and rezoning accounting 1 Km from HTL.

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5. DEVASTATION IN STUDY AREA
5.0 INTRODUCTION

The scale of the loss of life and material property bought on by the devastation of Tsunami was over whelming. Tsunami devastation was not uniform in the entire study area. Some areas were severely, moderately and least affected.

No. of settlements affected No. of affected population No. of families affected No. persons evacuated Loss of human lives Male Female Child

: : : : : : : :

26 Nos. 99704 Nos. 11804 Nos. 61054 Nos. 617 Nos. 110 Nos. 285 Nos. 222 Nos.

There were many indirect damages resulting from the consequences of direct damages. The largest proportion of the damages are concentrated in fisheries, housing and infrastructures, material assets damaged related to coastal fisheries, agricultural and micro enterprises in different sectors.

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Damaged Fully Partially Wooden Catamaran Without Engine with Engine FRP Catamaran Without Engine
.

4012 275

602 166
.

59

45

With Engine 904 235 ___________________________________________________________ Wooden Boat without Engine FRP with Engine Mechanized Boat IB Mechanized Boat STB Engine Engine Nets O/B I /B 2 175 2 1 799 166 NIL 74 308 53 690 94 14285

The Intangible damages are manifold. The physiological impact on the fisherman community is severe. The women and children in particular were vulnerable and needed counseling.

5.2

OBSERVATIONS : • • The devastation impact was not uniform through out the stretch. The loss of human life and property was severe. Damages concentrated more on fisheries, housing and infrastructure.

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6. DEMOGRAPHIC STUDIES
6.0 DEMOGRAPHY Demography is the character and setting of the people, who live in our area of study. Demographic studies are crucial, in understanding the population, with a wide range of considerations, directly or indirectly. Our context of study is the area within one km from the coast along the coastal stretch Cuddalore district. There are about 15 revenue villages in the stretch comprising of 26 hamlets affected by the tsunami.

6.1

COMPOSITION OF THE STUDY AREA:

Revenue Villages Villages 6.2

- 15 Nos. - 26 Nos.

POPULATION OF THE STUDY AREA:

(source : Census of India.)

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NAME OF THE SETTLEMENT SUBAUPPALAVADI THAZANGUDA DEVANAPATINAM SONAKUPPAM SINGARATHOPU AKARIKORI SOTHIKUPPAM RAJAPETTAI NOCHIKADU CHITRAPETTAI TAMMANAMPETTAI NAYAKARPETTAI NANDALIGAMPETTAI PERIYAKUPPAM PETTAI AYYAMPETTAI REDDIYARPETTAI ANNAPANPETTAI MADIYAPETTAI KUMARAPETTAI SAMAYARPETTAI VELINGARAYANPETTAI PUDUKUPPAM INDRA NAGAR MUDASLODAI M GR THITU

NAME OF THE VILLAGE SUBAUPPALAVADI GUNDUUPPALAVADI CUDDALORE CUDDALORE CUDDALORE CUDDALORE PACHAVANKUPPAM KUDI KADU KUDI KADU THIYGAVALI THIYGAVALI THIRUCHOPURAM THIRUCHOPURAM THIRUCHOPURAM KAYALPATTU KAYALPATTU ANDARMULLIPALLAM ANDARMULLIPALLAM PERIYAPATTU SULAMBIMANGALAM SULAMBIMANGALAM VILLAYANALLUR KOTHADAI ARYAGOSTHI KILLAI KILLAI

1971 365

1981 380 3078 127625 5384 2977 4188

1991 405 4256 140806 6802 3693 4950

2001 409 7498 282261 8111 3835 5053

101335 3710 2291 3559

2859 2289 1402 2614 3519 2778 2329 2440 7795

3496 2626 1614 3215 4198 3014 2794 3161 9083

3470 2817 1786 3337 4999 3264 3202 3472 9461

3955 2735 3194 3760 5253 3582 3735 3720 9899

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Population of these villages are considered for determining the population of the hamlets. Their growth trends are also calculated for each decade. Thus drawing inferences from them for determining the
DECADAL POPULATION GROWTH
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10

indigenous character of the villages. Population of these villages are taken from the census details.

1971-1981 1981-1991 1991-2001
GUNDUUPPALAVADI THIRUCHOPURAM CUDDALORE ANDARMULLIPALLAM PACHAVANKUPPAM PERIYAPATTU KUDI KADU SULAMBIMANGALAM SUBAUPPALAVADI ARYAGOSTHI KOTHADAI THIYGAVALI KAYALPATTU VILLAYANALLUR KILLAI

The decadal growth of the population is computed by incremental increase method using the formula. Percentage growth rate in each decade = (Pi - Po) / Po * 100 Where, Po – Population of the initial year Pi - Population of 10 th year

DECADAL GROWTH RATE
ANDARMULLIPALLAM SULAMBIMANGALAM GUNDUUPPALAVADI PACHAVANKUPPAM SUBAUPPALAVADI THIRUCHOPURAM VILLAYANALLUR PERIYAPATTU ARYAGOSTHI KAYALPATTU CUDDALORE THIYGAVALI KUDI KADU KOTHADAI

PERCENTAGE INCREASE IN DECADES

1981-1971 1991-1981 2001-1991

4.1 6.5 0.9

na 38.27 76.17

25.94 10.32 1

45.12 26.33 19.24

29.94 24.05 3.87

17.67 18.19 2.08

22.28 -0.74 13.97

14.72 7.27 -2.91

15.12 10.65 78.83

22.99 3.79 12.67

19.29 19.08 5.08

8.49 8.29 9.7

19.96 14.6 16.64

29.54 9.83 7.14

16.52 4.16 4.62

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6.3

OBSERVATIONS : • Villages along the coast, show fluctuating decadal growth rate in comparison with the state average, the growth rate of these villages are in decreasing manners. • Growth rate in the last decade shows substantial fluctuations in comparison to the previous decade. • Villages such as Gunduuppalavadi, Panchyankuppam, Andarmullipalam show an increasing population in a steep manner, due to the annexure of neighboring hamlets for administration purpose. • All the villages show a decremented growth in the decade of 1981-1991, due to the severity of the natural hazards which struck during that decade.

6.4

INFERENCES :

The reasons for variations could be due to following reasons, • • •

These areas are prone to natural hazards such as storm, cyclones, tsunami etc.,. Out migration of the people from the village to town and cities. Change in occupation pattern.

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6.5
occupational pattern -2001
SUBAUPPALAVADI GUNDUUPALLAVADI CUDDALORE PACHAVANKUPPAM KUDI KADU THIYGAVALI THIRUCHOPURAM KAYALPATTU ANDARMULLIPALLAM PERIYAPATTU SILAMBIMANGALAM VILLAYANALLUR KOTHADAI ARYAGOSTHI KILLAI

OCCUPATION : The coastal stretch of Cuddalore has agriculture and fishing as the main occupation

This Graph indicates that most of the villages have majority of primary workers.

OCCUPATIONAL PATTERN -2001
NAME OF THE VILLAGE MAIN MARGINAL NON WORKERS

C la s s if ic a t io n o f P rim a ry Wo rk e rs - 2 0 0 1
K I LLA I A RY A GOST HI K OT HA DA I V I LLA Y A NA LLUR SULA M B I M A NGA LA M P E RI Y A P A T T U A NDA RM ULLI P A LLA M K A Y A LP A T T U T HI RUCHOP URA M T HI Y GA V A LI K UDI K A DU P A CHA V A NK UP P A M CUDDA LORE GUNDUUP P A LA V A DI SUB A UP P A LA V A DI

FISHERIES AND OTHER PRIM ARY SECTORS AGRICULTURE

SUBAUPPALAVADI GUNDUUPALLAVADI CUDDALORE PACHAVANKUPPAM KUDI KADU THIYGAVALI THIRUCHOPURAM KAYALPATTU ANDARMULLIPALLAM PERIYAPATTU SILAMBIMANGALAM VILLAYANALLUR KOTHADAI ARYAGOSTHI KILLAI

129 2552 88638 2467 964 1066 1098 886 1342 1274 1985 1393 1335 622 3272

0 193 36659 475 317 860 271 394 95 458 319 470 222 510 924

280 4753 156964 5169 2554 3127 2586 1455 1757 2028 2949 1719 2178 1598 5703

0

20

40

60

80

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6.6

OBSERVATION : • • • • Economical growth trend shows a good prosperity for the further exploration of fishing and its related activities. Development initiatives in the near future should consider rejuvenating agriculture. Gunduppalavadi, Panchyan kuppam, Kudikadu, Thiruchopuram are the villages showing decrease in fishing activity. Kayal pattu and Andarmullipallam show a decrease in agricultural activities, when compared to previous decades.

6.7

INFERENCE : • • Fishing farms the main occupation of these villages. The decrease in occupation is due to migration of people and also due to shift in occupational trends.

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7. PHYSIOGRAPHY
7.0 INTRODUCTION Tamil Nadu lies between 8°and 13° 30’ N latitudes and 76°15’ and 80° 18’ E longitudes. The state is bounded by Bay of Bengal in the east, the Indian Ocean in the south, Western Ghats in the west and the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh in the north. The geographical area is 13.01 M ha and the population is 62.11 million (2001 census) 7.1 CUDDALORE Cuddalore district was formed in 1993 from the erstwhile composite South Arcot district. It includes Pantruti, Cuddalore, Tittagudi, Vridhachalam, Chidambaram, Kattumannar Koil taluks. It is bounded on the north by Villupuram district, south by Tanjavur district, west by Salem and Dharmapuri districts and east by Bay of Bengal. It lies between lat 11° 12’ 35” and 11° 52’ N, longitude 78° 50’ E with a total area of 3678 Sq.Km. Cuddalore is the headquarters of the district.

7.2. PHYSIOGRAPHY

TamilNadu can be broadly divided into four physiographic divisions namely • • • • The Coastal plains The Eastern Ghats The Central Plateau The Western Ghats

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The coastal plains stretch over 1000km from Pulicat Lake in the north to Kanyakumari in the south with an elevation of 2m to 30m above mean sea level. About 30% of the population lives in 80 km width of the coastal belt.

7.3

CLIMATIC CHARACTERS

The various parameters dealt under climatic characters are • • • • Temperature Rainfall Humidity Wind direction

The climate prevailing for a better part of the year in the coastal belt is sub tropical with little variations in the temperature. The average maximum temperature varies from 37°c and 43°c and the average minimum temperature varies from 12°c to 17°c. the humidity varies from 40% to 70% in summer and 60% to 80% in winter. The long term average annual rainfall is around 947mm, 34% during southwest, 46% during northeast, 5% during winter and 15% during summer. The average annual rainfall in the coastal belt varies from 1030 to 1384 mm .Drought conditions prevailed during 1983, 1987, 1992 and 1993 .The predominant wind direction for the coastal stretch is from north east to south west.

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7.4

GEOLOGY The topic deals with the soil type, various concepts of geological formation of soil of the study area and their respective geotechnical characters.

7.4.1

GEOLOGICAL FORMATION

Geological formation along the Indian coastal line belongs to Archaean age which is more than one million years old. The entire coastal belt of Tamil Nadu consist of recent alluvium and beach sands overlying sedimentary formation such as sand stones, limes and Laterite stones of different geological age formation overlaid on crystalline rocks mostly of granites and gneisses. There are a number of sand dunes developed along the coast .based on the geological features of Tamil Nadu coastline is divided into four zones. • • • • Barrier beach Coral reef coast Deltaic shore Alluvium plain coast

7.4.1.1

BARRIER BEACH:

The western coast of Tamil Nadu is entirely in Kanyakumari district the same way tentatively be classified as barrier beach coast.

7.4.1.2

CORAL REEF COAST

South of Mandapam upto Kanyakumari can be called as sand dune coast

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7.4.1.3

DELTAIC SHORE:

Point Calimer to Mandapam Alluvium plain coast The shore line extends from Chennai to north of Coleroon river and from north of Coleroon to Point Calimer.

The study area comprising the Cuddalore district is broadly divided into five geological domains. The hinterland is covered by hard crystalline gneisses of the Archaean period. The inclusions or the interruption of this hard basement are seen as patches, which gives valuable and different Mogenic history of the past.

Charnockites and Migmatitic gneisses (basement) of Archaean age. Older sedimentary rocks of the cretaceous age and younger sedimentary of Milo-Pilocene age Laterite soil cover over Milo-Pilocene sediments in the central part A narrow track of coastal plains in the east fringing bay of Bengal and Alluvial plains of the Pennayar and Gadilam river in the north and velar and Coleroon rivers in the south.

The Cuddalore formation of Milo-Pilocene age comprising different types of sandstones, ferruginous and mottled at places, lies uncomfortably over the upper cretaceous rocks and sometimes overlaps the Archaean rocks. A small patch of Laterite soil is demarcated on the top of Cuddalore formation in the central part of the area. The quaternary formations comprise grey, brown, black clays and sands under fluvial regime and grey brown sands, black clays, sands under marine regime.

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7.5

GEOMORPHOLOGY

The geomorphologic characters of any area are the external landforms given a reliable picture of the underground strata and its physio-chemical conditions. The different formations and the layer formations confirms and logiest to its geomorphology. The geomorphology of the area is one of the special types, which covers both hard rock and coastal sedimentary components. The eastern part adjoining to the beach and shores cover coastal geomorphic units. The inland topographical units are being described as the piedmont geomorphology.

The eastern part of the district represents a flat plain and the western part slightly hilly area. The slope varies from 8’ to 4’ towards east. In the west and in the coastal plains, it is less than 1’. The area is typified by residual hills, pediments and Pedi plains formed due to denundational processes. The fluvial zone comprising flood plains of velar, Gadilam, Coleroon and Pennayar rivers with associated landforms such as levees channel bars, point bars, meander scars, palaeo channels and flood basin / back swamp deposit. A narrow fluvio marine zone comprising palaeo-tidal flats and interdistributory flood basin is seen between fluvial and marine regimes. The marine landforms of east coast formation include beach tidal flats, mud flats, mangrove swamps, spit, lagoon and estuary. Aeolean action is reflected in the form of barrier dunes along the coast. A number of strand lines depict the progradation of the Cauvery delta during the Holocene period.

7.5.1

FLOOD PLAINS: Flood plains consisting of sand clay are found along the boundaries of Palar,

Varahanadhi, Pennayar and Gadilam Rivers. The thickness of the alluvial sand varies from 1m to

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7m and the flood plain itself is found spread over widths varying from 0.25 to 5.0 km from the riverbanks. The fluvial zone comprising flood plains of velar, Gadilam, Coleroon and Pennayar Rivers with associated landforms such as levees, channel bars, point bars, meander scars, and palaeo channels and flood basin/ back swamp deposit. The marine landforms of east coast formation include beach tidal flats, mud flats, mangrove swamps, spit, lagoon and estuary. Aeolean action is reflected in the form of barrier dunes along the coast. Beaches are landforms covered by sand and sandy materials having high porosity and unconsolidated loose formation with voids and spaces. These features are ideal for ground water storage.

7.6

GEO HYDROLOGY

The area has been divided into three entities: • A discontinuous unconfined to semi confined aquifers zone, coinciding with the crystalline of the Archaean age. Groundwater in this zone is restricted to weathered mantle and fractures with an yields of 1-5 lps • A moderately thick discontinuous unconfined aquifers zone down to 30m below ground level in lateritic country. Thick regionally extensive, unconfined aquifer down to 50m below ground level occurs in the sandstone and shale with yields of 10-20 lps. • Geohydrologically the study area falls under a high potential zone defined by quaternary cover sediments having semi confined to confined aquifers down to 150m below ground level with yields of 25-40 LPs.

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7.6.1

GROUND WATER LEVEL:

From the northern boundaries of Pondicherry state to Cuddalore, the water table remains below mean sea level both during the pre and post monsoon periods. This would indicate the fragility of ground water resources in thin stretch. This is also evidenced by the average depth of medium bore wells in thin area ranging from 60 m to 150 m and deep tube wells from 150 m to 450 m below ground level

7.7

GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS

The area has been demarcated into seven engineering geological provinces based on bearing capacity, compressive strength and foundation characteristics of the rock units. They are • • • • • • • Alluvium Coastal sediment Laterite / Laterite soil Younger sedimentary strata Older sedimentary rocks Basement crystalline rocks (gneisses) Basement crystalline (charnockite)

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7.7.1

FORECASTING OF CYCLONES:

7.7.1.1 STORM SURGES Sea level rises when a tropical cyclone hits the coast these occurs a rise of se level and rush of seawater inland. This inland moving water is sometimes the cause of devastating damage to coastal property and loss of life. This phenomenon is called landfall.

Factors, which may operate together to produce the rise of sea level at the coast around the time of landfall. • INVERTED BAROMETER EFFECT Water level of the sea surface rises at a place where atmospheric pressure is lowing horizontal plain. The sea level rises by about 1m for such pressure defect of 100hpa. • OPEN SEA WAVE There is almost one to one relationship between sustained surface winds and the open sea wave conditions. • INTERACTION AMONG OPEN SEA WAVES In the open sea, waves of different lengths, periods and height interact with one another, giving rise to high waves with amplitudes of 20m and even more. • FETCH OF WATER The sustained wind stress due to sustained strong winds o a tropical cyclone pushes seawater.

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GENERAL COASTAL SHELF Due to the coastal shelf, the depth of sea increases as one moves from the coast

towards the sea normal to t he coast line. The on rushing water in the right hand sector of the tropical cyclone in the northern hemisphere and in the left hand sector of the tropical cyclone in the southern hemisphere encounters diminishing depth as it moves from the open sea to the coast line. This leads to a tremendous rise of sea level near the coast. • LOCAL TOPOGRAPHY In addition to the effect of general coastal shelf there is rise of sea level due to local topographic features of the coast also. For example an estuary presence diminishing cross section like a funnel as the water moves from the open sea into the land. The diminishing cross section increases the local speed of on rushing water and also the level of its top. The river water normally flowing from the land starts flowing in the opposite direction, flooding the coastline and the riverbanks. Plain level coastal surface allows the onrushing water to spread over large coastal areas. • ASTRONOMICAL TIDE Due to the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun on the earth including the ocean water, there is a rise and fall of water level depending on the phase of the moon and the sun. Due to the astronomical tide the level of seawater changes irregularly irrespective of the presence or absence of a tropical cyclone. The effect of the astronomical tide has to be added algebraically to the effect of a tropical storm of the cyclone on the level of the sea. The rise of sea level due to the combination of factors such as inverted barometer effect, fetch of water, general coastal shelf and local topography are often called storm surge.

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7.7.2

CYCLONE DAMAGE POTENTIAL

The following table gives the classification of the cyclones of the Indian seas according to cyclone severity scale:

Category

Maximum wind velocity measured in knots
< 35

Details of possible damages and associated surge and central pressure

Little damage to Pucca structure. Slight damage to thatched huts, roofing. 1 No surge or minimum surge less than 0.5 m. central pressure greater than 990 hPa. Slight damage to pucca structures. Branches of trees fall off. Thatched huts 2. 36- 75 damaged. No damage structure and surge height less than 1.5m and inundation only less than 1km. central pressure between 980-960 hPa Considerable damage. Roofs blown off in thatched huts and tiled houses. 3 76-115 Big trees uprooted and tall iron towers twisted. Tidal waves may range between 1.5 to 3.0 meters. Coastal inundation up to 5km. central pressure between 980-960 hPa. Severe damage to very strong structures. Buildings collapse or get 4. 116-155 damaged. Huge avenue trees uprooted and big girders twisted. Surge height greater than 3 meters and inundation in the coastal area can extend up to 10kms. Central pressure normally between 960-940hPa. 5. > 155 Near total destruction, total chaos with possibility of no survivors. Surge height greater than 6 meters. Coastal inundation can reach up to 20kms. Central pressure less than 940 hPa.

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7.7.3

COASTAL VULNERABILITY The coastal vulnerability to cyclone depends upon factors other than cyclone intensity.

Coastal topography, population density of that area and the annual frequency of cyclone and the return period of cyclones of particular intensity to strike at that place would also be useful for effective vulnerability analysis.

To quantify the coastal vulnerability, a vulnerability parameter is defined here as the product of three main contributing factors namely the coastal population density, the coastal topography and the annual frequency. The maritime district wise vulnerability parameter is calculated by taking the products of the annual cyclone frequency, the maximum shoaling factor and the population per unit sq.km. Area as obtained from the 1991 census of India. Relating the same with the past details on coastal population and structural damages, a vulnerability scale ranging between 1to 5 is arrived at for the Indian coastal areas. For this purpose all the past available damage details on structures and populations affected were compared with the corresponding values of the vulnerability parameter. Based on this, the vulnerability values are classified into five appropriate scales vis-à-vis the damage experienced.

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Vulnerability (VP) <100 parameters

Scale

Expected damage

1

Minimum disturbances

2

100-500

Less than 25% of population installation affected. 25-50% of the population

3

500-1500

installation affected 50-75% of the coastal

4

1500-3000

population and the installation affected. Total affection of the coastal population and installations.

5

> 3000

7.7.4. CYCLONE DISASTER RISK A disaster risk index has been worked out for Indian coastal area using the index of Southern (1993).since a hazard and vulnerability indices are described on scales of 1 to5, the cyclone disaster risk which is a simple product of the two is thus measured in scales ranging from 1 to 25. Using the concept, the hazard indices are calculated from maritime statement coastal segments considering the highest Vmax value ever experienced so far during the past 119 years from 1877-1995. using these values the disaster zoning of the entire coastal segment is done.

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8. LAND FORMS AND WATER INUNDATION
8.0 INTRODUCTION: Land forms play an important role in human habitat. Since progress in civilization involves the development of closer relations between land and its people, man multiplies his dependencies upon nature. It is a natural process and includes two aspects. One it accepts the influence of certain factors and simultaneously influences others for its own part.

8.1

COASTAL LANDFORMS Coast is unique, it is where the land and ocean meet and is of great significance - the interaction

between marine and terrestrial environment. Coastal waters are a great resource to human kind, which rank among the most ecologically sensitive and economically important of all systems. It comprises of varied biotypes such as estuaries, backwaters, mangroves, salt marches, coral reefs, lagoons, creeps etc.,

8.1.1. DEFINITIONS SHORE – The zone between low and high water marks over which sea migrates. SHORELINE – It is the line that separate land and water. FORE SHORE - It is the narrow zone area between high tide and low tide line. BACKSHORE – It is the part of the seashore that lies between foreshore and coastline. BEACHES – The beaches are landforms covered by sand and sandy materials having high porosity and unconsolidated loose formation with voids and spaces.

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BEACH RIDGE – Beach ridges are elevated sandy tops adjoining the beaches and are good horizons for groundwater presence. BEACH TERRACES – The step like projection bordering the sandy terrain and the shoreline are called as beach terraces. SAND DUNES – Sand dunes are land forms with elevated sandy topping which can be either primary or secondary nature. BARRIER ISLANDS – Barrier islands are the areas where the land forms are of special type where the land is fronted by sea on one side and backwaters on all the other sides. ESTUARIES – Estuaries are river mouths., where river will be at the lower level than the sea and meet each other.

8.2

INTERRELATION OF DIFFERENT COMPONENTS Land form, Economic activity and settlement pattern form a triangle where the relationship is

mutual, amongst them. Landforms and settlement pattern have a historic reference. From the onsets of civilization, people have settled close to sea. Their economic activity depends on the sea catches they bring ever day. Their livelihood and pattern of life is structured revolving around the sea. Similarly economic activity and land form are inseparable. Hence on the whole, all the 3 components are inter related and they have a definite degree of mutual interdependency.

8.3

LAND FORMS AND TSUNAMI : Tsunami devastation is not uniform throughout the coast. Some places have severe impact and

others moderate impact and others have least impact. The main reason for this is the diversified landforms prevailing in the coastal stretch. The impact of Tsunami varied according to various factors, notably the bathymetry and geomorphology of the coastline and the presence of various natural features. Thus areas

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adjacent to relatively steep continental shelves were generally less damaged than coast with an extensive shallow continental shelf. The buffering role of mangroves, sand dunes and plantations (primarily of casuarinas) played an important role in the non uniformity of devastation.

8.3

ANALYSIS: To understand how tsunami impact varied with the physical land forms, a comparative analysis of

the 26 settlements with the following parameters were carried out. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Affected population Wave direction Height of wave Elevation of settlement Change in coast line Inundation distance Type of crops affected Water quality Distance of settlement from coastline Percentage of vegetation in front of settlement Percentage of sand dunes in front of settlement Height of sand dunes Type of settlement Distance from backwater Bathymetry 11m contour

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8.4 • • • • • • • • • • •

OBSERVATIONS

The following were the observation which resulted from the above analysis, Average distance of water inundation along the study area is 350 mts. Devastation of man-made property after 400 mts from HTL is minimal. Settlement, which has elevation more than 3m, had no property damage or human loss. Most of the settlement are near to the coast and parallel to the coast. Cashew, Palms got affected the most, whereas Coconut and Casuarinas got less affected. Settlement, which had vegetation and sand dune cover in front of it, had less impact in front of Tsunami. Average height of sea waves is between 10 ft and 15 ft and direction of the sea wave is perpendicular to the coast. Bathymetry contour had a role to play in Tsunami devastation. Shallow coastline suffered the most. Settlement, which didn't have vegetation cover, or sand dunes got affected the most. River mouth opening got closed after Tsunami. The coastal terrain changed after Tsunami varying between +10m to -50m.

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9. CONNECTIVITY
Pondicherry

9.0

CONNECTIVITY Any settlements exists due to interaction. Interaction depends upon movement system, roads,

Subauppalavadi

Thazhungulam Devanampattinam

streets, footpath and public transport routes and also the service utilities. Which make the settlement grow further. These connections allow villages to work and link them with the wider world. None of them prevail in isolation, they form the part of rural fabric which encloses them.

Sonankuppam Singarathoppu AkkaraiGori Sothikuppam Rasapettai

Nochikadu Chiththirappettai Tammanampettai Nayakkarpettai

BAY OF BENGAL

9.1

INTERACTION – IMPORTANCE :

The interaction between these villages form the vein system of the area. Their importance is not just the functional performance but how they contribute to the quality and character of the settlement. 9.1.1 LINKING UP These settlements need to be clearly linked to the existing routes. The linkages should be more direct links which enables efficient connection and overlap with the surrounding areas. 9.1.2 MOVEMENT CHOICES : The connectivity provided should give the people maximum choice in how to make their movement in times of disaster with a pre assumption in favor of safety.

Periyakuppam

Nandilingampettai Pettodai Iyyampettai Reddiyarpettai

Kumarapettai Samiyarpettai Velangirayanapettai Pudukuppam Indiranagar

Mudasalodai MGR Thittu

Portnova Chidambaram

Kiilai South Pichavaram T.S.Pettai

9.1.3

FUNCTIONAL EFFICIENCY : Design of the connectivity routes should be meant to ensure more functional efficiency as

there is always a risk of conflict.

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9.1.4

EXISTING CONNECTIVITY The main spine which runs through the district is the East coast road (ECR) from

Chennai heading to Chidambaram. ECR serves as the higher order road connectivity for the study area. Most of the settlements are linked, either directly to indirectly to each other and also to the main roads.

9.2

MEANS OF LINKAGES : Predominant means of connectivity to the settlement is 1. Road ways and 2. Water ways River Uppanayar runs parallel to the coast and separates few settlements from the mainland.

Hence the connectivity to such settlements is by ferry service. At the same time there’s also an elevated bridge connecting the settlement to the mainland. Linkage to the settlement is by roadways (Bitumen, concrete and pucca roads) – foot bridge, culverts & bridges and also through ferry services. EXISTING LINKAGES :

9.2.1

ROADWAYS : Our study area consists of 26 settlements. All are fishermen hamlets with only one to town scale. Out of these, seven settlements are directly connected to the NH by tharr roads. They are : Devanampattinam Suvauppalavadi

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Thammanampettai Singarathoppu Nayakkarpettai Kumarapettai Samiyarpettai Kuccha roads and Concrete roads are other most common road types seen within settlements.

9.2.2

WATER WAYS: The settlements which are connected only through ferry service are: • • • • • • • Sonanguppam Akkarigori Sothikuppam Rasapettai Mudasalodai And MGR thittu. Singarathoppu is the only settlement having a proper elevated bridge

Among these MGR thittu and Mudasalodai are barrier islands and the means of connectivity to this island from the main land Killai is by crossing the back waters. They don’t even have a boat jetty.

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9.2.3

BRIDGES : Singarathoppu is the only settlement having a proper elevated bridge and is connected

directly to the ECR.Other than that, all other settlements have got culvert cutting across the channel. The settlements are categorized as • Best connected • Moderately connected
Path taken by Tsunami waves water inundation line

• Worst connected Based on the degree of connectivity. The other parameters considered were Quality of connectivity, distance for higher order services and the time taken during emergency evacuation.

Rr .U pp an ar

road connectivity via NOCHCHIKKADU Path taken by Tsunami waves

9.3

ROLE OF CONNECTIVITY DURING TSUNAMI:

As we had already mentioned in the previous chapters. The devastation wasn’t uniform throughout the study area. There were several issues and reasons that determined the devastation. One such reason identified was SETTELMENT LOCATION: If the settlement had been located in a high lying land or upland – then there might have been less damage to lives and property. Here is one such case: 9.3.1 case1 :SOTTHIKUPPAM: The entire settlement is located in a level higher than the mean

ted bridge eased d the evacuation escue operation aster pace.

sea level. Ad it also had a fantastic tree belt in front of their residence . By our landform analysis, all these features should have saved the settlement. But the death toll for these settlements is 23.
Path taken by Tsunami waves

Period. 9.3.2 case 2 :SINGARATHOPPU: This was a low lying area, flat terrain, with not much

vegetation in the front. And the settlement was more like an island. The tsunami water inundation

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was high in this place. Hence by landform analysis, it lies under a risk zone. But the death toll for this place , happened to be nothing. The reason for such kind of irony is CONNECTIVITY

Soththikuppam, is almost like an island. The only means of connectivity was by FERRY, that too stops by night. In order to take the road route, one have to travel another 6km via nochchikadu. And moreover the damage was due to the river behind the settlement. Hadn’t there been an elevated bridge, it could have saved these lives. That’s what happened in Singarathoppu, though water surrounded them from all sides, people ran up the bridge and guarded themselves, Thus connectivity holds an important role, not only in saving lives and property, but also in easing the rescue operations and rehabilitation measures.

9.4

INFERENCES: • • • The settlements with better connectivity suffered less loss. Better connectivity in terms of roads facilitated immediate relief measures. Movement assessment: the movement during Tsunami was mostly away from the sea. That is a horizontal movement perpendicular to the coast.

9.5

GUIDELINES FOR PROPOSALS 9.5.1 EVACUATION CENTRES: • • • Immediate evacuation centres in each settlement within reachable distance,at the same time at a safer distance. These are high rised structures or structures present in a highly elevated land. Existing structures like school or a community hall is identified for the purpose.

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9.5.2

NODAL CENTRES: • Among the 26 settlements, few settlements are identified as NODAL CENTRES based on the following parameters : a, Population size b. Degree of Connectivity c. Facilities available. d. Locational Advantage e. Safety factor. • • • These are the rehabilitation centers at next higher order. Each of such settlement takes charge of few other hamlets, within the given distance. These centers take care of : a. Road connectivity b. Economic connectivity c. Socio-cultural connectivity and

d. Communication facilities 9.5.3 ROAD RE – ALIGNMENT The East Coast Road is either directly or indirectly connected to each settlement. The linking distance varies from1 km to 6 km. the higher order road, did had a role to perform during a disaster. And since horizontality is followed in connectivity settlement, there should be a vertical road, parallel to the coast, connecting all these which would lead to CUDDALORE or CHIDAMBARAM.

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10. SETTLEMENT PATTERN
10.0 INTRODUCTION Human Settlement patterns are by definitions those which consists of both Natural and Man made elements. Settlement pattern defines how the settlement has evolved over a period of time and its present form. Most of the settlements along the coast have an organic and spontaneous evolution. Development happening are in an irregular fashion which supports their daily activities. Settlement Pattern has a very great dependency to Economic activity. Fishing forms the major occupation. The life style of the Fishermen folk is supported and supplemented by their occupation.

Tsunami and settlement pattern are linked to a certain extent. Due to the proximity of the settlement to the coast, the devastation is high.

To analyze the settlement pattern along the stretch, a comparative analysis is required whereby we can find the reasons of the non-uniformity of devastation.

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DESCRIPTION

EXISTING BUILDING PRACTICES

DAMAGES DUE TO TSUNAMI

ANALYSIS DAMAGES OCCURRED

OF

Foundation

The mud houses have no strong foundation. Most of the pucca and semi -pucca houses have foundation just one to two feet below the original soil level. Few of the pucca houses have a strong isolated &stepped footing.

Damages occurred to the building due to the scouring of the sand from foundation. Cracks have developed in most of the buildings due to foundation settlement

The depth of the foundation is less so scouring has taken place. No binding between P.C.C, foundation and plinth. Sufficient corner lapping and cover to reinforcement were not properly placed. The plinth height is less so sea water ingress below, so floor gets damaged. For Mud walls there is no tie between truss, purlins, and post in the walls so all behave as separate unit.

wall Details

The height of the wall is very low in Kutchaa houses. In case of Semi-Pucca houses and some RCC slope roof, the wall height is nearly 7 ft. Almost all private pucca houses have nearly 10 ft wall height

The walling of mud houses has been washed away. Walling of the semipucca houses have been partly damaged and some of them are fully washed away Most of the walls of private pucca houses have not been damaged.

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Roof Details

The Mud houses have rafters made of bamboo and local wood. Most of the mud and Semi Pucca houses have coconut and palm thatch roofing cover, which they usually change every 2 to 3 years Few of the semi pucca houses have tile roofing and in pucca houses the roof is sloped on both sides in case of government houses and almost all roofs are flat in case of private houses.

The thatch roofing has been severely damaged. The tile roofing are partly damaged, few of them are fully damaged which are nearer to the sea and in low lying area. Few of the Pucca houses have collapsed. cover concrete portion has already been removed causing rusting of reinforcement.

The roof has been washed out because of the flow of water. Opening near sea face should be avoided. Because of improper covering and poor quality of RCC the bottom portion of concrete has fallen down.

As tsunami devastation was not uniform along the coast for our study we have identified two settlements which were most severely devastated two of least affected and two islands settlement. We compare the settlements characteristics to bring about inferences and to propose guidelines.

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10.1

DEVANAMPATTINAM

Population Life lost Pop. Affected Occupation :

: : :

8478 101 7276 fishing

10.1.1 SETTLEMENT CHARACTER • • • Settlement developed along the coast line and the main road connecting entire town. Settlement developed linear and organic form. Its located in 2m elevated land

Mostly pucca and semi pucca houses and less no of huts. Huts were located in entry of the town and it is very close to the sea. Huts were totally damaged and a small no of semi pucca houses were damaged.

10.2

PUDUKUPPAM

Population Life lost

: :

1389 146 1094 FISHING

Families affected : Occupation :

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10.2.1 HOUSING CONDITION Most of the houses are huts and semi pucca houses. Pucca and semi pucca houses developed towards the sea. 10.2.2 SETTLEMENT CHARACTER Settlements are developed towards the coast line it was developed in a organic form. Settlement is not elevated, it’s almost a flat terrain, there is no sand dune and vegetation huts were located very close to the coast. 10.3.0 Population Life lost MGR THITTU : : 856 54 715 FISHING were

Pop. Affected : Occupation :

10.3.1 SETTTLEMENT CHARACTER • • • • • Its a barrier island Low lying area There is no sand dunes and vegetation Its very close to the coast Its an organic arrangement

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10.3.2. HOUSING CONDITION. • • • Most of the houses were huts and Semi pucca and very less no pucca Houses. All the houses were affected by tsunami.

10.3.3. MAIN FACTOR FOR MORE DAMAGE • Its a barrier island • Low lying area • There is no sand dunes and Vegetation • The houses are Structurally not in a Good condition.

10.4.0 RAJAPETTAI

Population Life lost

: :

2288 02 1058 fishing SETTTLEMENT CHARACTER • • • Its a barrier island. Its a very small hamlet . Settlement were arranged in a organic pattern.

Pop. affected : Occupation :

10. 4.1

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• • •

Its located 50m from the sea and 600m from the river. There is sand dunes and vegetation. Most of the houses were huts and semi pucca .in western side settlement is fully covered by cashew nut trees.

10. 4. 2 • • •

HOUSING CONDITION. Most of the houses were huts and semi pucca. Very less no houses affected by tsunami. Settlement is highly elevated from the sea

10. 4.3 • • • •

MAIN FACTOR FOR LESS DAMAGE In western side of the settlement is fully covered by cashew trees. There is sand dunes and vegetation. Settlement is highly elevated from the sea. The remaining housing are in a good condition.

10.4.4 • • • • •

GUIDE LINES FOR THE PROPOSALS . No close proximity of settlement to the coast Settlement should be located 400m away from the coast line Non linear development along the coast good for the settlement. Avoid the huts development close to the coast. Elevated land is suitable for the settlement.

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11. INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES
11.0 INTRODUCATION Infra structure facilities is one of the basic requirements of people for human habitation .Its adequacy and necessity are the two main two constituents which paves way to enhance the quality of life in the best way .The infrastructure facilities rendered in a town are dependent on the following factors which are as follows., • Population of the town • Size of the town • Geographic conditions • Climate • Economy • Policies/issues that are taken by the State and Central government. • Physical infra structural facilities Henceforth to improve the infrastructure, the first step that we have to take into consideration is to improvise existing facilities to meet the necessary needs. Here the scenario is different, tsunami has brought about massive destruction to human lives and also property damage .Most affected sectors are the Housing and Infrastructure. The Post Tsunami Infrastructural facilities are to be identified and the have to be adequately supplemented to support the settlement s requirements. Our study area comprises of about 26 fishermen hamlets, which fall within 15 revenue villages along the coast of Cuddalore district.

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11.1

EDUCATION FACILITIES NUMBERS 32 6 3 1

EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES Primary school Middle School High School Colleges 11.2 HEALTH FACILITIES:

HEALTH FACILITIES Dispensary Hospital

NUMBERS 6 1

11.3

SHOPPING FACILITIES Many settlements have convenient shops and ration shops. The weekly shopping is carried on in

Cuddalore town. In places like Villayanallyur and Killai they have a weekly market on Monday and Tuesday respectively.

11.4

RECREATION As for as recreation is concerned, they spend their times in Beaches playing volley ball and

Kabadi. Especially after tsunami many parks and play grounds have been constructed in almost all the hamlets in order to get rid of the psychological fear of children. To watch movie and outing they prefer to go to Cuddalore town .Also villages like Devanampattiam, Rasapettai, Iyyampettai, they do have T.V.

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rooms and small libraries .Places like Sothikuppam, Thiruchopuram, Devanampattinam, Kumarapettai,
Condition of drainage

Samiyarpettai, they do have Kalyana mandapam for marriage festivals.

11.5
27% covered drain open drain 73%

POST OFFICE Fifteen villages consist of post offices and it is served to all the settlements.

11.6

POLICE STATION There are three cyclonic shelters they are located at, 1. 2. 3. Thalangulam Rediyarpettai Pudukkupam

Quality of Water

11.7

GRAVE YARD Grave yard is located at the low lying area of almost all the settlements. Settlements which are

very adjacent or close, they have a common grave yard.
23% Good Bad 77%

11.8

CONDITION OF DRAINAGE 1. 2. Most of these settlements have open drain system only. No proper drainage facility has been provided.

3. All the settlements have loose sand and the waste water percolate into the soil.

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Source of water

11.9

QUALITY OF WATER 1. The quality of water was good before Tsunami hit. 2. After Tsunami hit the sea water intruded into all the settlement and the water has become

33% owned Municipal 67%

saline. 3. Temporary sintex tanks of 500 litres capacity are kept in which water is filled by lorries.

11.10

DAMAGE OF ROADS 1. Majority of roads are earthen roads

Damage of roads

2. Cement concrete roads were damaged and washed away by Tsunami waves. 3. The sub-grade of the bituminous road were damaged

23% 41%

Cement concrete Bituminous WBM

11.11

SEWAGE SYSTEM 1. No proper sewage system 2. Few houses do have septic tanks, since the water table is at10-15 ft it is impossible to have septic tanks in all the places.

3%

33%

Earthen

11.12
S e w a g e s y s te m

SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL Almost in all the villages, the disposal of solid waste is along the sea shore. Since most of them

are organic waste it is easily decomposed.
20% 10% S e p t ic t a n k D ry p it 20% O t h e rs 50% None

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13. SOCIO ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
13.1 METHODOLOGY

Study of existing Socio-economic pattern on tsunamis impact.

Assessment of damages
SETTLEMENT PATTERN

People’s perception on Socio-economic impacts

Analysis of Existing situation

Lesson’s learnt from case studies

AGRICULTURAL FIELD

Identification of issues and problems

Formulation of Strategies

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13.2

SOME UNDERLYING COASTAL REALITIES • • Coastal communities are by and large outliers in terms of social development and livelihood opportunities. Fishing communities are socially differentiated, where the weak or poor are always at the loosing end. • • Although Tsunamis are rare, these communities are exposed to other coastal phenomena like tidal waves, cyclones and regular monsoon fury. Investors and government targets coastal resources disregarding people's livelihoods and security in gross violation of the CRZ norms, radically changing landforms.

Vehicles
13.3 • • •

LIFE STYLE PATTERN – PRE TSUNAMI The social lifestyle pattern of the entire coastal community is homogeneous. The fisher folks are a very close community. Each village is like a large and extended family. All the communities have vibrant local organizations & societies and their exists definite social hierarchies within each one of them.

Boat
LIFE STYLE

• • •

The typical fisherman village has a mix of pucca house, asbestos roof houses as well as thatched roof huts. Many households of the relatively lower strata lead a relatively easy life style especially in terms of white goods possessing, spending power etc.

40% 60%

WELL OFF POOR

The typical fishermen community is highly male dominated.

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• •

The fishermen wives and children help their men folks in their occupation. Most of the fisher folk population (60 - 70% of the population) can read and write and do basic arithmetic.

13.4

ECONOMIC ASPECTS – PRE TSUNAMI • • Almost all of the adult and able male population in a village is engaged in fishing. Women folks of most fishermen households are engaged in post catch activities - with/without payment. • • Compared to the Fishing activity, the agriculture contributes very less to the Economic Activity of the study area.

Pucca house
OCCUPATION STRUCTURE OF STUDY AREA

3% 7%

Fisherman Agriculture
90%

On a broad level, fishing village can be segmented into four categories: 1. The Affluent (those having steamer boats and launches and/or landed properly and/or other immovable and movable assets). 2. Boat owners (includes owners of both traditional as well as mechanized boats). 3. Crew members (who were for/with the boat owners). 4. Marginalized/poor/very poor/destitute households (mainly widows etc,).

Others

• • •

Net components such as nets, buoys, bombs, weights, ropes, etc., are purchased separately and the net is assembled manually, generally by a group of fishermen working together. They generally work on a fixed fee basis which, depending upon the size of the vessel; duration of the planned trip to the sea and extent of work involved. The total fish production is 25,225 tonnes out of which the exportable quantity is 15,000 tonnes.

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13.5

SOCIAL IMPACTS – POST TSUNAMI • • • The disaster has devastated communities with its high toll of human lives, injuries, adverse effect on family networks, homes and livelihood. The damages are most in terms of housing and livelihoods with loss of dwelling units, household assets. Women are more vulnerable during disasters and marginalized in their access to relief resources because relief efforts rely on existing structures of resource distribution that reflect

Social Setup
• • • • •

the patriarcha structure of society.

Young girls are forced into marriage to get protection and supplies. There are cases of
violence against women human rights. The personal hygiene of the children is totally neglected which is leading to skin infections, diarrhea, and chicken pox etc., Many children lost their parents, their education and they are longing for the helping hands. There is the problem of fear psychosis among the people particularly the women and children. Guilt, loneliness, devastation, helplessness, anger, despair, death are psychosocial consequences after Tsunami.

Loss of Human lives

• •

The existing social hierarchies and networks in the community and the CBO's rushed for immediate rescue and relief operations before the arrival of outside help. The value attached to religious believes not changed after Tsunami

13.6.

ECONOMIC IMPACTS – POST TSUNAMI Coastal fisheries and agriculture are the worst affected economic activities.

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13.6.1 • •

FISHERIES

In addition to the loss of human life, the fisher folk, also lost their fishing boats, nets, and other accessories. Fishing harbors and landing centers have also suffered heavy damage.

Loss of Boat

13.6.2 AGRICULTURE • • • The agricultural sector had a great impact on the livelihoods of small and marginal landholders. Destruction of standing crops like paddy, groundnut, coconut, cashew, mango, banana, ragi (millet) and vegetables. A total of 317.93 ha of Agricultural crops, and 199.26 ha of horticultural land have been damaged.

Loss of crops

13.7.

ISSUES • • • • • • No permanent rehabilitation shelter for the affected people. Livelihood of the fisherman community totally dislodged. No proper social and physical infrastructure facilities for the affected populace. No protection and security for coastal women and children. Lack of childcare system to take care of orphans. Lack of organization framework to strengthen the existing fragile SHG's. Lack of integrated initiatives for trauma counseling and management. No proper long term measures for agricultural sustainability in the coastal area.

Salt intrusion in Agricultural field

• •

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13.8.

STRATEGIES • • • • • • • The livelihoods component should restore incomes, upgrade skills, and improve productivity and livelihood. It should be specially focused on coastal women and other internally displaced and newly vulnerable social groups. Risk mitigation measures, such as insurance and targeted social transfers, will reduce the vulnerability of the newly created vulnerable groups (widows, orphans, sick, and disabled). Forming of new Self Help Groups for both male and female. Building and strengthening of Institutional frame work. Forming trauma counseling and management centers. Conducting awareness programme on tsunami for the people.

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13. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

13.0
Central Government

INTRODUCTION An organizational network is made up of agencies whose activities are determined by human

National Development Council

settlements. The organizational system is the way in which the government connects agencies so that specific decisions will be carried out and specific objectives attained. In any governmental organization,

National Panning Council

two types of system are present. One is the vertical authority where instructions are passed down from the upper levels for implementation to lower levels and the other is the horizontal authority in which units from

State Government

sector rely on the operation of units in the other sector for successful implementation. For developmental initiatives at any spatial level, the following Institutional agencies are involved,

State Development Council

For developmental initiatives at any spatial level, the following Institutional agencies are involved • GOVERNMENT Central Government

State Planning Council

District Planning Committee

State Government Local Self Government

Sectoral Dept.

District panchayat

Panchayat Union

Administrative Department Sectoral Department • NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS (NGO'S) / COMMUNITY BASED ORGANISATIONS (CBO'S) •

Town panchayat Corporation

Municipality

Village Panchayat

PRIVATE ORGANISATIONS

Grama Samiti

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Each of this institutional setup has its own territory, jurisdiction, responsibilities and functions which are both obligatory and discretionary in nature.

13.1

HIERARCHY OF EXISTING INSTITUIONAL SETUP

District Planning Committee consolidates plans prepared by the panchayats and municipalities in the district and prepares a draft development plan for the district as a whole. It is a statutory body and serves as an excellent tool to integrate the plans of urban areas and rural areas. It provides a platform for conflict reservations in the matter of common resources and control of transitional areas. Collector is responsible for a very vast area and has considerable scope for exercising control, power, influence and authority. The district collector is the Inspector of the Panchayats. Out of three- tier panchayats the village panchayats are being empowered to undertake works relating to any developmental activity, maintenance and electrical. However, the panchayats are advised to obtain administrative and technical sanction from the competent authorities. The government has stipulated that the administrative sanction of the collector/inspector is required for particular scheme or particular fund above a particular limit. The Block Development Officers (BD0s) are the controlling mechanism below the district level. 13.2 LOCAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM OF GOVERNANCE Local Government is the lowest in the scheme and also the smallest in jurisdiction. Local Government is described as that under which the people of the locality possess a certain responsibility and choice in administration of local public affairs and in raising of required finance to meet their expenses.

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Local Self Government freely elected, which, while subject to supremacy of the National Government, are endowed in some respects with some power, discretion and responsibility and which they can exercise without control over their decisions by higher authority. 13.3 CUDDALORE DISTRICT ADMINISTRATIONS The Cuddalore district has 6 Taluks & 880 villages. It has the following administrative units • • • • • Corporation No. of Municipalities No. of Panchayat Unions No. of Town Panchayats Village Panchayats : : : : : Nil 5 13 16 681

13.4

RELEIF EFFORTS

Local Government is the lowest in the scheme and also the smallest in jurisdiction. Local Government is described as that under which the people of the locality possess a certain responsibility and choice in administration of local public affairs and in raising of required finance to meet their expenses. Local Self Government freely elected, which, while subject to supremacy of the National Government, are endowed in some respects with some power, discretion and responsibility and which they can exercise without control over their decisions by higher authority. Although the GOI and the State Government Administration were caught unawares by the Tsunami, they responded quickly.

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Village development plan Village development plan

13.4.1 • •

CENTRAL GOVERNMENT

Taluk development plan

Taluk development plan

The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) of the Government of India was designated the Nodal Agency for coordinating relief in the affected areas.

as

A National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) was established under the Cabinet Secretary to draw up an emergency relief plan and to review those efforts.

District development plan (Sectoral & Spatial integrations and spatial schemes)

Funds were allocated to the affected areas from the National Calamity Contingency Fund.

State scheme which are to be implemented/alloc ated to District

District development schemes directly decided by Zillah panchayat.

13.4.2 •

STATE GOVERNMENT

Revenue Department under the Relief Commissioner coordinated rescue and

relief

efforts through relevant district collectors with assistance from the police force, fire and rescue services, medical and health services and all other associated

Urban development

departments. • The district administration along with Local Self Government coordinated relief works at the local level.

Local administrative system of governance
Hierarchy of Existing Institutional

13.4.3

CATEGORIZATION OF RELEIF MEASURES

The Relief Measures are categorized into three... • • • Immediate short term Medium term Long term

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13.4.3.1 IMMEDIATE SHORT TERM MEASURES • • • • • • • Disposed dead bodies, moved obstacles and rescued People. Moved People to safer locations. Prevention of outbreak of epidemics. Construction of temporary Rehabilitation Shelters and toilets. Distribution of Food and Medicine to the affected populace. Restoration of crucial communication and infrastructure, power and water supply. Medical teams with paramedical staff working in the affected areas.

Chief Minister announced a relief of one lakh for every diseased person and to be paid to the next kin of the family. 13.4.3.2 MEDIUM TERM MEASURES • • • • • •

Commencement of the Trauma Management. Rehabilitation shelter and their associated infrastructures. Restoration of the Economic Activity. Reestablish the productivity of affected areas. Medical teams with paramedical staff working in the affected areas. Effective waste management and natural resource use.

13.4.3.3 LONG TERM MEASURES •

Permanent reconstruction and rehabilitation for the affected populace.

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• • • •

Sustainable strategies for long term ecological management and human welfare. Reestablish the productivity of affected areas. Medical teams with paramedical staff working in the affected areas. Effective waste management and natural resource use.

13.4.4 NON - GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATION/CBO's • • • • • •

Non-Governmental organizations across India and abroad responded immediately to the affected areas. They lived with one another to adopt entire settlement and people in their recovery process. They operated in sectors ranging from health, psycho social counseling, shelter, education, livelihood and environment. Community based networks and social hierarchies were already in existence in the affected areas were helpful during the calamity. Relief and Rescue operations were initialized and did not wait for the arrival of the outside help. The various NGO's and CBO's working for the relief and rescue operations in the study area are:

(i) MNTN (iii) Project Hope (v) Esha Yoga Center

(ii) CREED (iv) Alcom (v) Pondicherry Rotary Organization

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13.5

NGO’s OPERATIONS

The disasters local area specific dimension has more relevance to the NGO's. This is due to the fact that the grass root feel and the close contact they have with the lifestyle and ethos, of the affected lot. They initiated the following: • Immediate Rescue operations initialized. • Provision of Food, Clothing, Medicines and other basic amenities. • Aiding the construction of Temporary Rehabilitation Shelters. • Relocation of the affected populace in their own short stay homes/orphanages. • Psychological counseling to the affected lot. • Training SHG's to aid in the affected areas.

13.6

OBSERVATIONS • • • •

Relief measures were effective in the immediate short term ones. For the Medium and Long term measures, priority Action Plans were not crystallized Rapid Assessments and ongoing monitoring were not duly addressed during recovery phase. Identification of priorities and opportunities for environmental restoration and improved management of the coastal eco system to generate multiple benefits for different natural resource, user groups were not initiated yet.

The performance of the municipality was moderately fair along the stretch.

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13.7 ISSUES • • •

Lack of ascertained networks and institutional setup for the immediate relief and rescue operations. Distribution of immediate relief measures was not equitable along the stretch and even within the settlements. Institutional Networks for Planning, Execution and Management and Implementation for long term needs are to be identified.

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14. ACTION PLAN - PUDUKKUPAM
14.0 INTRODUCTION Pudukkupam – a shore side village located at about 3km from the revenue village. Kottadai belongs to the Parangipettai Block of Chidambaram taluk in Cuddalore district. Village extends an area of about 1 sq.km having the population of 1389 persons in the proportion of 55% of males and 45% females.

14.1

PHYSICAL ASPECTS 14.1.1 LOCATION Settlement starts about 150m from the high tide line. Settlement spreads in the southern and western parts. Vegetation concentrates along the canal even extends beyond that. Settlement has the composition of Residential Vegetation – 42% - 34%

Open space - 12% Commercial Public area 14.1.2 LINKAGES Its proximity to the near by villages are about 3km from the revenue village Kottadai, Parangipettai at 7km for emergency, Chidambaram & Pichavaram at 10km order facilities. and Cuddalore at 40km for higher 6% 6%

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14.1.3 GROWTH OF POPULATION :
25 20 15 10 5 0 population 1971 - 81 1981 - 91 1991 - 2001
19.96 16.64 14.6 Series 1

Growth of the settlement is fluctuating for the past 20 years. It was due to a disaster which occurred during 80’s. due to availability of economic opportunities in and around the country people try to migrate from the village.

Growth of settlement

14.1.4 LANDMARKS • Amman temple in this village has a regular fair & festival. • A fish processing factory inside the village. • Parangipettai light house located 7Km south of the village.

14.2

GEOGRAPHICAL DATA 14.2.1 TOPOGRAPHY: Village is comparatively a flat terrain with shallow slope towards the sea. A canal on the northern side of the village ends at the sea forming a natural border. Casuarinas belt along the sea shore followed by Palm trees are mainly spreads around the canal towards the settlement Physical features like sand dunes etc… are absent in this village. Loamy sand present suitable for coconut & palm trees. Some pockets have Cashew nut trees. Rainfall occurs in June to September & October to December. Predominant Wind direction is from North East to South West. Roads inside the village are of concrete are in stark difference to those of formed pathways to individual houses.

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Building wall type
Masonry 11% Mud 11% Brick Mud Masonry Brick 78%

14.2.2

HOUSING & LAND CHARACTERISTICS: About 50% of the households to the west of the main spine are patta lands. Land towards

the sea are of ‘Porampokku’ type occupied for many years. Houses of rich are flamboyant and are built with pucca RCC structures. Others followed a similar pattern which probably need driven for the fishing communities.

14.2.3 PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
c l

a

The village has an Over head Tank, a ration shop and Panchayat office concentrating the
o m u n a r ma e
a l

k i n g

core area
w

g

h

c

a

ss

r

l a nd

t

n

e

ng
p

m

t o w ar d s

l

e

Family Type

single, 4, 44%

Cluster, 5, 56%

78

s

s

w
e
c l l to d o

core area. The School and Temple is pushed further to west of the spine. There is a piped water supply system and almost each household has their individual source of water. Village is completely furnished with electricity.

o

l

h

14.2.4 PATTERN OF SETTLEMENT Settlement grows in an organic pattern following the main transportation spine. Growth of the village is spontaneous. The streets are arranged in a Grid –Iron pattern in the later stage this is because of relatively affluent families choose to live in a high lands. Access is from the Parangipettai – Cuddalore main road and Low lying area along the canal is covered with the belt of vegetation which is absent in front of the village.

i

g r

ow

i

14.2.5 SOCIO ECONOMIC PROFILE This village is a complex of all economic classes of people based on their income level. A
Cluster single

communal segregation can be clearly defined in this settlement.

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THATCH BRICK WALL THATCH MUD WALL

Settlement pattern clearly indicates the clustering of households. The lower strata of populace are
PAN TILE MANGALORE TILE

pushed towards the vulnerable coast forming a human shelter belt protecting from a the fury of cyclones and storm surge. Houses form as cluster within themselves as a social gathering.

25
20 15 10 5

RCC

14.2.6 HOUSING TYPOLOGY

Distinct segregation in housing typology with reference to economic classes. Thatched and tiled houses dominant the settlement with that of RCC houses. A typical house has a multipurpose room, bedroom & store in the main structure. Kitchen and bedroom are delinked from the main structure within the Homestead. A public toilet built at the shore side is used by the villagers but does not satisfy the population.

services 5% labourers 8%

others 3%

14.2.7 SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE

Facilities like primary school, ration shop, market are available inside the village. Weekly shanty and Health center are at Kottadai village, 3km from the settlement. For hospital, high school, community market, post office, police station is available at Parangipettai which is 5km
fishing 72%

agriculture 12%

away from the settlement. Chidambaram avails with hospital, post office and police station also with administrative buildings. Cuddalore being the district avails with many administrative buildings even with the collector’s office etc…

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14.2.7.1

COMMUNITY SPACES

Common area located near by the Ration shop congregate for day – today interaction. Communal facilities like Gym & Play area are used extensively by the villagers for recreation near the shore. Open spaces serve for net knitting, drying fish, boat docking, etc… Fish market and processing factory which was present before tsunami acts as a concave zone for other villages.

14.2.8 ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS It is predominantly fishing village. About 62% of males engaged in fishing and most of the females in allied activities. Pudukkupam has a High catchments area of fish in this stretch. A fish processing factory was present in this village. Agriculture and allied activities about 12% and service sectors about 11%.

14.2.9 FACILITIES NEEDED.

Internal drainage system should be developed. Public health center for the village should be available. Public Transport facilities should be increased. Increase in Marketing opportunities Provision of Public toilets.

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14.3

DAMAGE ASSESSMENT TO SETTLEMENTS Topography holds a major role in the intensity of devastation. Direct exposure of the settlement

low lying area heavily damaged

without any sand dunes and vegetation is one of the causes for heavy causalities. Damages are of two types• • Direct hit of wave Damages due to pulled in materials.

high lands partly damaged

14.3.1 DIRECT DAMAGE Removal of plantation at the mouth of the settlement near the sea cause intensive damages. Houses too close to the sea have been washed away and caused heavy causalities. Close to the shore, wave was of enormous height of more than 20’. However, with the distance away from the sea within the settlement; height of the water dropped appreciably. Water level stagnated was more than 6’ within the settlement made most of the children’s to get drowned.

14.3.2 INDIRECT DAMAGE Materials taken by the waves hitting through out its way has caused life lost as well a property loss. Intensity of the receding water accounts with the topography was high also causing certain damages. Pudukkupam lies in a low lying area portray a different degree of damages to the houses and public infrastructure. A fish market and fish processing industry near the sea got completely

washed away. `First wave loosen the soil and affects the foundation and consequent second wave collapses the existing structure

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14.4

INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES It is interesting that tsunami has changed the topography of the area and subsequent changes in the infrastructural facilities. The sand near the shore are scooped away deposited at a far away area. Some got deposited over agricultural fields destructing the existing vegetation. Roads got broken due to wave action. The ground water got depleted due to salinity.

14.5

SOCIOECONOMIC PROFILE Pudukkupam seems to be busy market place and high catchments area in the stretch, now follows a deep silence after tsunami. No economic activity takes place. Socio culture of the village has hanged. Need to develop the economic activity for the villages.

14.6

ANALYSIS For the existing intensity water level has come up to 500m, in case of a future tsunami with a intensity more than 1.5 times that of the existing may destruct up to 600m also for this flat terrain. So rehabilitation site should be 750m away from the sea. Population for the past decades is fluctuating and may also decrease for the search of employment opportunities. Good water points should be declared as to supply the village.

14.7

PROPOSALS: • • • • • Site should be located preferably at high lands either at 350M from the HTL or +3M lvl. It should be placed away from the CRZ zone -500M. Settlement pattern should be perpendicular to the coast line. Orientation of houses should be across the coast. Restriction of kutcha houses near the coast.

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• • • • • • • • •

Artificial barriers to be created along the coast. Casuarinas should be planted as it could reduce the wave intensity. An elevated work space about 10’ high which could with stand the wave erosion. Can be used for net knitting, drying fish and other purposes. Boats docked under the stills. Strong concrete Catch poles for holding in case of tsunami. Creepers spread over the sand stretch as to provide grip for the sand. Creation of vegetation and sand dunes as the natural barriers. Gravels dumped through out the stretch as barriers.

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Planning project, SAP, Chennai

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