## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

of water in a pipe

Thermal Boundary Layer • A temperature profile similar to velocity profile. Temperature of pipe surface is kept constant. At the end of the thermal entry region, the boundary layer extends to the center of the pipe. Therefore, two boundary layers: hydrodynamic boundary layer and a thermal boundary layer. Analytical treatment is beyond the scope of this course. Instead we will use an empirical approach. Drawback of empirical approach: need to collect large amount of data.

Reynolds Number: Nusselt Number: it is the dimensionless form of convective heat transfer coefficient. Consider a layer of fluid as shown If the fluid is stationary, then

And

Dividing

Replacing l with a more general term for dimension, called the characteristic dimension, dc, we get

N Nu ≡

hd c k

Nusselt number is the enhancement in the rate of heat transfer caused by convection over the conduction mode. If NNu =1, then there is no improvement of heat transfer by convection over conduction. On the other hand, if NNu =10, then rate of convective heat transfer is 10 times the rate of heat transfer if the fluid was stagnant. Prandtl Number: It describes the thickness of the hydrodynamic boundary layer compared with the thermal boundary layer. It is the ratio between the molecular diffusivity of momentum to the molecular diffusivity of heat.

N Pr = N Pr =

kinematic viscosity υ = thermal diffusivity α μcp k

If NPr =1 then the thickness of the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers will be the same. For gases NPr = 0.7 and for water it is equal to 10. Experimental Approach: Consider fluid flowing in a heated pipe. We are interested in convective heat transfer from the inside heated surface of the pipe to the fluid. Carry out the experiment with fluid entering at velocity of u1 at a temperature Ti. Measure the electric current passing through to determine the rate of heat transfer, q. Thus, we determine q, A, Ti, and Ts. Then using Newton’s law of cooling we calculate h.

1

Thus a convenient expression is of the form. It has been experimentally shown that for a given fluid. rectangular duct. Identify flow geometry Is it a pipe. or different temperature of the pipe surface. . we plot Nusselt Number vs Reynolds number for different values of Prandtl number. A.66 2. plate? Is the fluid flowing inside or outside the pipe 2. density. 4. determine the Reynolds number.7 ( f / 8 ) ( N Pr − 1) 2 . with a fixed Prandtl number. This can result in a large amount of data. we get a straight line plot between log NNu and log NRe.14 Transition flow in Pipes N Nu = where ( f / 8 )( N Re − 1000 ) N Pr 1/ 2 2/3 1 + 12. sphere. and thermal conductivity (from Appendix tables). characteristic dimension. such as viscosity. Thus perform a series of experiments to determine h values as a function of operating variables. 3. transitional. Determine if the flow is laminar. T∞ T∞ = Ti + Te 2 Use the average fluid temperature to determine the physical and thermal properties of the fluid. and determine new h value. q. In some cases. Identify the fluid. Ti and Ts. in that case calculate the average fluid temperature.36 N Nu D ⎞ ⎛ = 1.33 N Nu = 4. air or a liquid food? Determine the average fluid temperature far away from the solid surface. Select an appropriate empirical correlation and determine h. Fully developed condition with constant surface temperature N Nu = 3. By substituting experimentally obtained coefficients in above equation. Empirical Correlations Forced Convection Laminar Flow in Pipes 1. we calculate the dimensionless numbers and using a log-log plot.86 ⎜ N Re × N Pr × c ⎟ L ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ μb ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ μw ⎠ 0. 3.Now repeat the experiment for different diameter of pipe. Different correlations have been obtained for laminar and turbulent conditions Methodology to solve problems involving convection heat transfer: A suggested methodology to solve problems requiring calculations of convective heat transfer coefficient using empirical correlations is as follows: 1. Calculate Nusselt number and then h value. fluid properties. but we organize data using the three dimensionless numbers. Calculate the Reynolds number Using the velocity of the fluid. For each experimental set. we obtain empirical correlations. or turbulent. the average inlet and outlet temperatures may be different. Fully developed condition with uniform heat flux For both entry region and fully developed flow conditions 0. and determine its properties Is it water. Select an empirical correlation from the following.

Grashof number and Prandtl number.790 ln N Re − 1. Δ T is temperature difference between wall and the surrounding bulk (°C). NRa is the Rayleigh number.64 ) 0. -1 ρ is density (kg/m3).80665 m/s2).14 De = 4 × free area wetted perimeter Calculate an equivalent diameter for use as characteristic dimension Flow past Immersed Objects For example.60 N Re × N Pr for ⎧1 < N Re < 70.6 < N Pr < 400 Fluid properties are evaluated at Ts + T∞ 2 Free Convection Tf = N Nu = Fluid flow due to natural buoyancy of fluid. g is acceleration due to gravity (9. 3 . N Ra = N Gr × N Pr The Grashof Number is defined as N Gr = Dc3 ρ 2 g βΔT μ2 where dc is characteristic dimension (m).5 1/ 3 N Nu = 2 + 0. The empirical expression is of the form hDc m = a ( N Ra ) k where a and m are constants. flow past a single sphere 0. The fluid properties are determined at the average film temperature. Grashof number is a ratio between the buoyancy forces and viscous forces. 000 ⎨ ⎩0.023 N × N × ⎜ b ⎟ ⎝ μw ⎠ Convection in Noncircular ducts 0.8 Re 0. and μ is viscosity (Pa s). Rayleigh number is a product of two dimensionless numbers.33 Pr 2 Turbulent Flow in Pipes ⎛μ ⎞ N Nu = 0.f = 1 ( 0. β is coefficient of volumetric expansion (K ).

- Convective Heat Transfer (Natural).Doc
- Convection Heat Transfer
- ME3122-2 Lab Forced Convection Heat Transfer
- Steady and Oscillatory Opposing Mixed Convection in a Symmetrically Heated Vertical Channel With a Low-Prandtl Number Fluid
- Validation Fluent
- Heat-Mass Transfer Analogy
- ME 320 Lab 4
- Convective Heat Transfer Analysis
- heatexchanger 22222
- Convective Heat Transfer
- Heat Transfer Coefficient
- HEAT TRANSFER
- Chiang 1989
- Chapter 8
- Sample of Report for Reference
- Incompressible, laminar couette flow
- All Unit Marks
- FM 2 Q&A
- 18
- Flow Past a Sphere Ch3
- Dimple Tubes JSOse
- Friction and Head Transfer Characteristics of Laminar Swirl Flow
- Wakefield Heat Sink
- 1-s2.0-S1877705816311997-main
- Fluid mechanics IMP Theory Questions
- 0910SEM2-ME2135
- Analysis of Transport Phenomena(BookZZ.org) - William M. Deen
- Aero ME
- Heat 4e SM Chap08
- art%3A10.1134%2FS0869864313060061

Skip carousel

- Extended Surface & Analysis for Different Extrusions on Rectangular Fins
- Experimental and CFD Analysis of Helical Coil Tube Heat Exchanger
- Comparison of CFD Analysis of Heat Transfer Augmentation & Surface Heat Transfer Co-efficient of I. C. Engine Fins at Different wind Velocities with Experimental Investigation
- SENATE HEARING, 109TH CONGRESS - NASA BUDGET AND PROGRAMS
- Development and Performance Measurement of Chiller Tank by Nano Fluid
- Convective Thermal Analysis of Rectangular Fins
- Mechanical Aspects of High Power Wave Guide Structure
- Review on Enhancement of Convective heat transfer using Nanofluids and Insert
- tmpA98.tmp
- Effect of Atmospheric Air Pressure Plasma on Polyester Fabric meant for Transfer Printing
- CFD Analysis of Enhancement of the Forced Convection Heat Transfer over the Pin Fin with Trapezoidal Fin and Flow Structure Analysis Using "ANSYS" Fluent 15.0
- Evaluation of Heat Transfer and Friction Factor on Wavy Fin Automotive Radiator
- An Overview of Vortex Tube on CFD with Straight and Helical Nozzle
- tmp9215.tmp
- ANALYSIS OF A TWO DIMENSIONAL RECTANGULAR FIN USING NUMERICAL METHOD AND VALIDATING WITH ANSYS
- Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
- A Retrospect on Thermal Enhancement of Flat Plate Solar Collector with Nanofluid
- Heat transfer analysis of an array of different fin configuration under forced convection
- Estimation of Snow and Glacier Melt Runoff in Chenab Basin, Himachal Pradesh, India
- Methods of Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Different Surfaces Inserts
- Tmp 8899
- Review on Heat Transfer Characteristics for Corrugated tube in a Double pipe Heat Exchanger
- Heat
- Numerical Study and Thermal Performance of Rectangular Heat Sink
- tmp5F03
- Computational analysis of heat transfer through four-stroke S. I. engine fins
- tmpCF9E.tmp
- Improvement in Heat Transfer Rate of Rectangular Fin by Geometrical Modification
- 55958_1940-1944
- Efficiency and Performance Improvement by New Development in Solar Liquid Flat Plate Solar Collector

- PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK TERMAL
- Sistem Start & Governor
- Pengoperasian PLTD
- Kuliah Turbine Gas Stt
- Desalination Fig 1.2
- DIKWAR 007 1
- Engineering Mechanics Dynamics, 6th Edition - OCR
- Refrigeration and Air Conditioning 2nd Ed. - W. Stoecker, J. Jones WW
- 3d Model in Simulation of Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Wet Cooling Towers
- Soal & Penyelesain-BeerJ-Meketek-3ed (Mekanika Kekuatan Material)
- Soal & Penyelesain-Gere-Mektek-(Mekanika Kekuatan Material)
- Massey, Bernard & John Ward-Smith - Mechanics of Fluids (2006)

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Close Dialog## This title now requires a credit

Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

Loading