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IPA, 2006 - Proceedings of an International Conference on Petroleum Systems of SE Asia and Australasia, 1997



BDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION Proceedings of the Petroleum Systems of SE Asia and Australasia Conference, May 1997
L.B. Magoon"

The petroleum system concept is used to investigate discovered hydrocarbon accumulations and provide a basis for proposing complementary plays and prospects, t h e undiscovered commercial accumulations. Characterization of a petroleum system includes the procedure to identify, map, and name the hydrocarbon fluid system and to summarize the results on a folio sheet. Plays and prospects described in the context of a petroleum system are complementary plays and prospects. The petroleum system folio sheet includes four figures, a table, m d text that best depict the geographic, stratigraphic, and temporal evolution of &e system. The figures and table include (1) a bunal history chart to establish the critical moment for the system, (2) a map and (3) a cross section, both drawn xt the cnticd moment to depict the hydrocarbon fluid system, (4) an events chart to summarize the formation and history of the petroleum system, and ( 5 ) a table of genetically related accumulations. The trapgeneration-migration-accumulation forming and processes and their temporal relationship to one another on the events chart provides the link between the complementary play/prospect and the petroleum system. Three independent variables comprise the link between the petroleum system and the complementary play/prospect: trap, petroleum charge, and timing. They are independent because each can occur without the other, and they represent three separate entities; rock, fluid, and time, respectively. The events chart shows the temporal link between the independent variables, whereas the map and cross section show the

spatial relationship. The relative ease with which this three-component link is made is a measure of exploration risk.

The reasons for carrying out oil-and-gas-related investigations in a petroleum province are to find undiscovered commercial quantities of petroleum and to determine the related risk. To objectively determine risk, what is known should be clearly separated from what is unknown. When the play concept includes both the known and the unknown, however, the explorationist may not always separate these two types of information clearly when discussing risk with management. In contrast, if the petroleum-system concept is used to present only the known, then the ?lay concept can be used to present the unknown. Thus, the play concept used in this manner complements the petroleum-system concept. The purpose of this paper is to describe the petroleum-system folio sheet, and to show how trap, petroleum charge, and timing link the petroleum system to the complementary play/prospect to better evaluate risk.

Petroleum System
The term oil system was first introduced by Dow (1974) and is based on the concept of oil-source rock correlation. The term petroleum system was first used by Penodon (1980). Independently, Demaison (1984) devised the generative basin, Meissner et al. (1984) described their hydrocarbon m achzne, and Ulmishek (1986) identified an independentpetroliferous system. All of these concepts are very similar to the oil system (Dow, 1974). Expanding upon previous work, Magoon (1987,1988,1989a,b. and 1992) and Magoon 25

U.S. Geological Survey

and Dow (1994a) formalized the criteria for identifying, mapping, and naming the petroleum. system. Magoon (1995) discussed the connection between the petroleum system and the complementaq play and prospect, The petroleum system is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon-fluid system in the geosphere. It encompasses a pod of active source rock (provenance) and all related oil and gas, and includes all the essential elements and processes needed for oil and gas accumulations to exist (Magoon and Dow, 1994b). The petroleum-system concept infers that by reason of the provenance of genetically related oil and gas accumulations, migration pathways must exist, either now or in the past, connecting the provenance with the accumulations. Using the principles of petroleum geochemistry and geology, this fluid system can be mapped in the geosphere to better understand how it evolved over time. One g o d of the petroleum geologist is to map the evolution of this natural fluid system, or petroleum system, over time to locate undiscovered hydrocarbons. As our ability to characterize and map a petroleum system improves, exploration risk decreases, and the probability of success increases. A petroleum-system case study provides an objective basis on which to determine exploration risk for a related or complementary play and prospect. The processes and their temporal relationship - trap, petroleum charge, and timing - provide the link between the complementary play and prospect and the petroleum system.

Geological Survey, 1995), but its underlying objective is to help find economically recoverable undiscovere petroleum accumulations. The use o petroleum geochemistry (Mackenzie 1988) with play an prospect. evaluation provides important volumetric information for economiG analysis, The play and the prospect are concepts used by explorationist to present a geologic argument OH idea so as to justify drilling for undiscovered commercial petroleum accumulations. Because geologists use these two concepts in many different ways when exploring for petroleum, numerous definitions of the terms "play" and "prospect" exist in the literature. l n this paper, I define a prospect'^ as a potentid tr that must be evaluated by drilling as to whether contains commercial quantities of petroleum, and a "playls as one or more geologically related fields and prospects. A prospect disappears when drilled because it becomes either a dry hole or a newly discovere field. The way in which a prospect is geologically related to a play, which can include oil and gas fields, is defined by the explorationist. For example, if a prospect is identified near three fields whose oil is trapped in anticlines, it might for example be argued, using geology, geophysics, and geochemistry, that the prospect is an anticlinal trap charged with oil. In this example, the play would include the three oil fields and the prospect. Because this play is based on trap type, other fields in the same province whose oil is stratigraphically trapped would be exempt from this designation. Other types of plays might require the same stratigraphic interval or a depositional setting, such as a carbonate reef. Depending on the objective of the explorationist, elements of a play can have any degree of geologic similarity. The plays described above use discovered accumulations as a basis for determining the exploration risk for undiscovered accumulations. Discovered accumulations used for field size distributions give an idea of the size of the undiscovered field. Evaluation of exploration risk using field, well, outcrop, and seismic data provide a basis for separately evaluating the risk or uncertainty in our knowledge of the source rock, seal, reservoir rock, and trap for the prospect (MacKay, 1996). Though these techniques are useful to evaluate risk,

Play and Pmspect

Prospects were first used by exploration geologists to describe present-day structural or stratigraphic features that could be mapped and drilled. A series of related prospects is a play. As information about petroleum geochemistry increased, the definition of a play became broader. For example, Bois (1975) defined a petroleum zone, which he considered similar to a play (Bois et al., 1982), to include, among other things, hydrocarbon mixtures of similar composition. More rigorous' definitions of a play and prospect included a source rock as well as a migration path (White, 1980, 1988, 1992; Bishop et al., 1983; Kingston et al., 1983; Sluijk and Nederlof, 1984; Dolton ei al., 1987; Bird, 1988; Podruski et al., 1988; Mast et d.,1989; U.S.


important improvements are achieved when the play is redefined to complement the petroleum system (Magoon, 1995). Creating the petroleum-system folio sheet is the first step in this process.


The petroleum-system folio sheet best depicts the geographic, stratigraphic, and temporal evolution of the system (Figure 1). The folio sheet includes: (1) a burial history chart to establish the critical moment for the system, (2) a map showing the geographic extent 3f the petroleum system, and ( 3 ) cross section drawn at the critical moment to show the hydrocarbon-fluid system, (4) a petroleum system events chart to summarize the formation and history of the petroleum system, and ( 5 ) a table of genetically related accumulations. The critical moment (Figures le, lf) is the snapshot of the petroleum system during its temporal evolution that best depicts the generationmigration-accumulation of hydrocarbons. This folio sheet summanzes the detailed work of many specialists, and provides the basis for evaluating the complementary play and prospect.

considerable impact on the geometry of the underlying migration path and trap. The cross section, drawn to represent the end of the Paleozoic (250 Ma), shows the geometry or structural style of the essential elements at the time of hydrocarbon accumulation and best depicts the stratigraphic extent of the system (Figure lb).

Table of Fields
The table showing all the oil and gas accumulations included in the petroleum system provides important information (Figure lc). First, the discovew dates and sizes of the fields are useful for field-size distributions and discovery-rate modeling. Second, the complexity of the hydrocarbon plumbing system is suggested by the number of reservoir rocks. One reservoir rock for all fields indicates a simple plumbing system, whereas many reservoir rocks indicates a complicated system. Three, the size of the petroleum system can be determined by using the total volume of recoverable oil and gas for all fields. For example, the DeerBoar(.) is a 1.2 billion barrel petroleum system with a simple plumbing system. The size of the system provides a basis for mass balance equations, and a measure of the field-size most likely represented by a certain sized prospect. Lastly, the reservoir rock with the highest percentage of oil or gas is to be used in the petroleum system name. For example, all the'oil is in the Boar Sandstone so it is included in the name (Figure Id).

Map and Cmss-Section

The map and cross-section (Figures 3a and Ib), best drawn at the critical moment, show the geographic and stratigraphic extent of the petroleum system. The geographic extent of the petroleum system at the critical moment is a line that circumscribes the pod of active source rock and includes all the known petroleum shows, seeps, and accumulations that originated from that pod. A plan map of the DeerBoar(.j pet oleum system drawn at the end of the Paleozoic time inciuaes a line that circumscribes the pod of active source rock and all related discovered hydrocarbons. This map best depicts the geographic extent or known extent of the petroleum system (Figure la). Stratigraphically, the petroleum system includes the following rock units or essential elements within the geographic extent: a petroleum source rock, reservoir rock, seal rock, and overburden rock at the critical moment. The function of the first three rock units are obvious. The function of the overburden rock is more subtle. In addition to providing the age and thickness of the overburden necessary to thermally mature the source rock, the overburden rock also can have

etmleum System Name

The name of a petroleum system labels the hydrocarbon-fluid system in the same way Colorado River names the river (Figure Id). The Grand Canyon labels the channel through which the river flows, and corresponds to the basin. The name of the petroleum system includes the source rock, followed by the name of the major reservoir rock, and then the symbol expressing the level of certainty (Table 1). For example, the Deer-Boar(.) is a hypothetical petroleum system consisting of the Deer Shale as the source rock and the Boar Smdstone as the major reservoir rock. The major rcservoir rock contains the highest percentage by volume of hydrocarbons in the petroleum system

A petroleum system can be identified at three levels >f certainty: known, hypothetical, and speculative

(Magoon and Dow, 1994b). At the end ofthe systems forming process must occur before or during the name, the level of certainty is indicated by (!) for generarion-migrabon-accumulation process in order for the timing to be correct. However, if this same known, (.) for hypothetical> and (?) for speculabve. The level of certainty indicates the confidence f o ~ events chart is constructe for a prospect, it then which a particular pod of active source rock has becomes a risk chart (Figwe 2j generated the hydrocarbons on the table d accumulations. In a known petroleum system, a good If an oi, or gas field is basically a successh geochemical match. exists between the source rock and prospect. then an events chart can be constructed f w ala accumulations included in the petroleum system tr the oil accumulations. In a hypothetical petrolem acquire expenence pnor to applying the nssk chart system, geochemical information identifies a source rock, but no geochemical match exists between thg, to other relatea prospects If all the events cR similar for each 02 or gas fie& indicating a sinaila? source rock and the petroleum accumulation in B speculative petroleum system, hydrocarbons are geologic history for each field, then a prospect dn shares ai similar history is more ~iiiely to contain 02 present, but the existence of either a source rock or petroleum accumulations are postulated entirely on the than one that has a dissimilar nistory Similmlyi, $ basis of geological or geophysical evidence. events chart is constructed for e Detroiem system: they should producing fields. This dissimilarity indicates where greater uncertainty lies. Used this way, the eve Included with the burial history curve, the essential chart 1s a useful analytacd tool to d e d with a system are shown to indicate the ursce&ain@ or SBS ach rock unit in the petroleum syste (Figure le). The start (S) and end (E) of generation- WOMPLEMENTARY PLAY AND PROSPECF migration-accumulation as well as the critical moment The relation of the complement are shown. In this example, using fictitous rock units, petroleum system is that in the pl the Deer Shale is the source rock, the Boar Sandstone is the reservoir rock, the George Shale is the seal accumulations are undiscovered rock, and all the rock units above the Deer Shale commercial, whereas, in the pe comprise the overburden rock. The burial history chart petroleum occurrences are already discovered but not necessarily commercial (Figure 2). Traditionally, B is located where the overburden rock is thickest, an indicates that the source rock started through the oil play includes commercial accumulations and is predicated without any particular petroleum system in window 260 Ma in Permian time (time scale is of mind; however, when a play is based on a particular Palmer, 1983) and was at maximum burial depth 255 Ma. Oil generation ended about 240 Ma. The critical petroleum system, it is a complementary play, as defined here. moment as judged by the investigator is 250 Ma and the time of generation-migration-accumulations ranges from 260 to 240 Ma, which is also the age of the Using the petroleum-system events chart, the link petroleum system. between the petroleum system and the complementary play is the three independent variables: trap formation to trap, generation-migration-accumulation to Events Chart petroleum charge, and time of occurrence of trap formation to generation-migration-accumulation to The events chart shows the temporal relationship of timing, respectively (Figure 2). the essential elements, processes, preservation, and critical moment (Figure If). On a relative scale, the In some combination, uncertainty or risk involves ages of the four essential elements are usually well three independent variables: the presence of a suitable established from paleontology or age dates. However, trap, the presence of a petroleum charge, and timing, the time over which the trap forms and hydrocarbons the formation of the trap before the charge arrives. are generated, migrated, and accumulate require These variables are all independent because each has considerable interpretation so they are the least different attributes and can occur in nature without the understood. Therefore, risk or uncertainty increases from the essential elements to the processes. The trap other two. A petroleum charge is a liquid or gaseous

fluid that OCCUTS at any time and in many places other than in traps, for example, as a seep. A trap involves rocks - reservoir rock and seal rock whose interface is a trapping geometry - that occur anywhere in the geologic column, and frequently lacks petroleum. Timing determines whether a trap formed before the petroleum charge arrived; these two events can occur in any order or simultaneously. The different attributes that can be evaluated for each independent variable are numerous (Figure 3). Each independent Yariable has one-third weight, because if any one of them IS absent (01, the prospect in the play 1s a failure; if all three variables are present (l.O), 'he prospect I S a geologic success i Figure 3). Therefore, each independent vanable can 5e evaluated on a scale of 0 to 1.8; for example, the ?robability of a trap being present may be 0 . 5 . ZxFloration risk is determined by multiplying together *he three independent variables. 'or a more detailed risk evaluation, each independent -1ariable can be subdivided. Thus, "trap" can be subdivided into reservoir fock, seal, zapping geometry, and volume formed by the reservoir-seal interface, and further into thickness, porosity, and Dermeability of the reservoir rock, and lithology and thickness of the seal, "Petroleum charge" is subdivided into source rock, pod volume, migration path, and characteristics of the oil and gas available to the trap, if it exists. "Source rock" ;an be further subdivided into thickness, richness (TOC), and quality (HI). Each of these subdivisions can be evaluated on a scale of 0 to 1.0 and multiplied together to compute the uncertainty or risk for a petroleum charge. As long as visions are consistently applied for all three independent variables, the precision and degree of these subdivisions are at the discretion of the explorationist. In order to keep computation simple use only the three independent variables as input Defining a play so that it complements the petroleumsystem concept allows statistics to be developed for the petroleum system that characterize the chance of success for a complementary play. The volume of recoverable oil and gas reported by province or basin in which a complementary play occurs now needs to be reported by petroleum system. Dry-hole ratios determined for petroleum systems, rather than for provinces, are used to define risk, especially if placed within a historical context of wells drilled to find a cumulative volume of petroleum. Field-size distributions, once reported by play, are now reported by petroleum system, so that the field size can be interpreted within the geologic context of the .=omplementary play@). These statistics provide a yardstick for measuring exploration risk. Even though this vardstick cannot necessarily be applied equally to all complementary plays for a given petroleum system, the statistics we, by definition, genetically rc Eated.

A petroleum-system map can be used to evaluate the

timing and volume of petroleum charge or to assign risk to a complementary play or prospect by using its >osition relative to the geographic extent of the system (Figure 4). Using this figure and stipulating that the complementary play is on the migration path for this petroleum system and that traps are present, a play located within or outside the geographic extent of the system may have, for example, the following levels of risk: (1) This complementary play or prospect has the least risk because accumulations surround this trap - and the highest chance of success; (2) this complementary prospect has some risk because accumulations are located on three sides; (3) this complementary prospect has more risk because accumulations are located on only one side; or (4) this complementary prospect has the least chance of success because accumulations are located at some distance from the geographic extent of the petroleum system.

The term "risk" has many definitions in exploration (Rose, 1992; White, 1992), but the main objective of its determination is to quantify and specify all the factors that affect the chances for discovering a commercial petroleum accumulation. Using the petroleum-system events chart as a risk chart to evaluate a prospect is an objective way to evaluate uncertainty. The complementary play and prospect can be the basis for evaluating the exploration risk of finding undiscovered hydrocarbons associated with a particular petroleum system. First, the petroleumsystem folio sheet is completed. As the folio sheet develops, an idea(s) or play(s) that involves this petroleum system will occur to the investigator. This

30 play complements this petroleum system because it could add hydrocarbons, if discovered, to the system. The events chart shows how the complementaxy play is related to the petroleum system vis-a-vis three independent variables: trap, petroleum charge, and timing. By using the petroleum-system concept to present known information and the complementaryplay concept to present unknown information, risk can be more objectively determined than by using the play definition that includes both the discovered and undiscovered accumulations. Kingston, D.R., C.P. Dishroon, and P.A. Williams, 1983, Hydrocarbon plays and global basin classification: AAPG Bulletin, v. 67, p. 2194-2198. MacKay, J.A., 1996, Risk Management in international petroleum ventures: Ideas from a Hedberg conference: AAPG Bulletin, v. 80, p. 18451849. Magoon, L.B., 1987, The petroleum system-A classification scheme for research, resource assessment and exploration Cabs.]: AAPG Bulletin, v. 71, no. 5 , p. 587. Magoon, L.B., 1988, The petroleum system-A classification scheme for research, exploration, and resource assessment, in Magoon, L.B., Petroleum systems of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1870, p. 2-15. Magoon, L.B., ed., 1989a, The petroleum systemStatus of research and methods, 1990: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1912, 88 p. Magoon, L.B., 1989b, Identified petroleum systems within the United States--1990, in Magoon, L.B., ed., The petroleum system-Status of research and methods, 1990: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1912, p.2-9. Magoon, L.B., ed., 1992a, The petroleum systemStatus of research and methods, 1992: U S . Geological Survey Bulletin 2007, 98 p. Magoon, L.B., 1992, Identified petroleum systems within the United States-1992, in Magoon, L.B., ed., The petroleum system-Status of research and methods, 1992: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2007, p. 2-11. Magoon, L.B., and Dow, W.G., eds., 1994a, The petroleum system-From source to trap: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 60, 655 p. Magoon, L.B., and Dow, W.G., 1994b, The Petroleum System, in Magoon, L.B. and Dow, W.G., eds., The petroleum system-From source to trap: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 60, p. 324. Magoon, L.B., 1995, The play that complements the petroleum system-a new exploration equation: Oil and Gas Journal, v. 93, no. 40, p. 85-87.

Bird, K.J., 1988, The geologic basis for appraising undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the National Petroleum Reserve of Alaska by the play-appraisal method, in Gryc, George, ed., Geology of ths National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1399, p. 81-116. ' Bishop, R.S., H.M. Gehman, Jr., Allen Young, 1983, Concepts for estimating hydrocarbon accumulation and dispersion: AAPG Bulletin, ,v. 67, p. 337-348. Bois, C., 1975, Petroleum-zone concept and the similarity analysis contribution to resource appraisal, in Haun, J.D., ed., Methods of estimating the volume of undiscovered oil and gas resources: AAPG Studies in Geology 1, p. 87-89. Bois, C., P. Bouche, and R. Pelet, 1982, Global geologic history and distribution of hydrocarbon reserves: AAPG Bulletin, v. 66, no. 9, p. 1248-1270. Demaison, G., 1984, The generative basin concept, in Demaison, G. and Murris, R.J., eds., Petroleum geochemistry and basin evaluation: AAPG Memoir 35, p. 1-14. Dolton, G.L., K.J. Bird, and R.A. Crovelli, 1987, Assessment of in-place oil and gas resources, in Bird, K.J. and Magoon, L.B., eds., Petroleum geology of the northern part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, northeastern Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1778, p: 277-298. DOW,W.G., 1974, Application of oil-correlation and source-rock data to exploration in Williston basin: AAPG Bulletin, v. 58, no. 7, p. 1253-1262.

31 Mast, R.F., G.L. Dolton, R.A. Crovelli, D.H. Root, E.D. Attanasi, P.E. Martin, L.W. Cooke, G.B. Carpenter, W.C. Pecora, and M.B. Rose, 1989, Estimates of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the United States-a part of the Nation's energy endowment: U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Minerals Management Service, 44 p. Mackenzie and Quigley, 1988, Principles of geochemical prospect appraisal: AAPG Bulletin, v. 72, p. 399-415. Meissner, F.F., J. Woodward, and J.L. Clayton, 1984, Stratigraphic relationships and distribution of source rocks in the greater Rocky Mountain region, in Woodward, J., F.F. Meissner, and J.L. Clayton, eds., Hydrocarbon source rocks of the greater Rocky Mountain region: Denver, Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists, p. 1-34. Palmer, A.R., 1983, The decade of North American geology 1983 geologic time scale: Geology, v. 11, p. 503-504. Perrodon, A,, 1980, Gtodynamique petroliere. Genese et repartition des gisements d'hydrocarbures: Paris, Masson-Elf-Aquitaine, 381 p. Podruski, J.A., J.E. Barclay, A.P. Hamblin, P.J. Lee, K.G. Osadetz, R.M. Procter, and G.C. Taylor, 1988, Resource endowment, in Conventional oil resources of western Canada: Geological Survey of Canada Paper 87-26, part 1, p. 7-125. Rose, P.R., 1992, Risk behavior in petroleum explore,ion, in Steinmetz, R., ed., The business of petroleum exploration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Treatise of Petroleum Geology Handbook of Petroleum Geology, p. 95-104. Sluijk, D., and M.H. Nederlof, 1984, Worldwide geological experience as a systematic basis for prospect appraisal, in Demaison, G. and Murris, R.J., eds., Petroleum geochemistry and basin evaluation: AAPG Memoir 35, p. 15-26.

U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Team, 1995, 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1118, 20 p.
Ulmishek, Gregory, 1986, Stratigraphic aspects of petroleum resource assessment, in Rice, D.D., ed., Oil and gas assessment--Methods and applications: AAPG Studies in Geology #21, p. 59-68. White, D.A., 1980, Assessing oil and gas plays in facies-cycle wedges: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 64, no. 8, p. 11581178. White, D.A., 1988, Oil and gas play maps in exploration and assessment: AAPG Bulletin, v. 72, no. 8, p. 944-949. White, D.A., 1992, Selecting and assessing plays, in Steinmetz, R., ed., The business of petroleum exploration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Treatise of Petroleum Geology Handbook of Petroleum Geology, p. 87-94. Wilkerson, R.M., and D.L. Reed, 1982, Oil and gas fields of the United States: Tulsa, PennWell, approximate scale 1:3,600,000.


Deer-Boar(.) Petroleum System Folio Sheet

8 Critical Moment
Critical moment: 250 Ma
Table of accumulations Field Name Ois date Res rock Boar Ss BoarSs BoarSs BoarSs BoarSs BoarSs BOW% BoarSs
AP! Cum oil Remain Gravity prod reserves API) (x106 bo) (x106 bo)

( 0

Bigoil Raven Owns just

Hardy ~ucky Marginal CTeapot

1954 1956 1959 1966 1989 1990 1990 1992

32 3 1 33 34
29 15

310 120 110 160 85 5 12 9



89 70
65 34

18 2 1



Plan map showing the geographic extent of the so-called Deer-Boar(.) petroleum system at the critical moment (250 Ma). Thermally immature source rock is outside the oil window. The pod of active source rock lies within the oil and gas windows. Geologic cross section showing the stratigraphic extent of the so-called Deer-Boar(.) petroleum system at the critical moment (250 Ma). Thermally immature source rock lies updip of the oil window. The pod of active source rock is downdip of the oil window. Oil and gas fields in the Deer-Boar(.) petroleum system, or the accumulations related to one pod of active source rock The name of the petroleum-fluid system. Burial history chart shows the critical moment (250 Ma) and the time of oil generation (260240 Ma) for the so-called Deer-Boar(.) petroleum system. This information is used on the events chart. All rock unit names used here are fictitous. Location of burial history chart is shown on Figures l a and lb. The events chart shows the relationship between the essential elements and processes as well as the preservation time and critical moment for the so-called Deer-Boar(.) petroleum system. The text needed to describe the petroleum system. Geologic time scale from Palmer (1983). Neogene (N) includes the Quaternary Period here.











Relation of essential elements on petroleum-system events chart to three independent variables on a risk chart for a complementary play and prospect. Geologic time scale from Palmer (1983); Neogene (N) includes the Quaternary Period.

w w


Thickness Poroslty Permeability Thickness Lithology


---Reservoir Rock /



Seal Rock Geometry Volume


Thickness Richness (TOC) Quality (HI) Thickness Thermal Maturity (%Ro)


Rock Pod Volume

Migration Path Petroleum Type

Time Trap Developed Time Charge Occurred Trap-to-Charge Timing



Relation of three independent variables-trap, petroleum charge, and timing-to their many components on a dendritic chart.

Geographic extent of petroleum system

Present Day Map

active source rock



Risk of four complementary plays or prospects relative to geographic extent of a petroleum system. Risk increases from 1 to 4,or with increasing distance from the pod of active source rock. Petroleum shows, seeps, and accumulations used to map extent of system are not shown.




Level of Certainty Known Hypothetical Speculative

Criteria Oil-source rock, or gas-source rock correlation



In absence of petrolem-source rock correlation, i l geochemical evidence indicates the origin of the o
and gas
Geological or geophysical evidence