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All for one: A parable of spirituality and organization

Jeanie M Forray; Diana Stork Organization; Aug 2002; 9, 3; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 497

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Organization 9(3) Connexions Yet, the particularities of such transformations, qualities, and possibilities are elusive. Referring to the body of work represented in books and articles concerned with spirituality and organization as a discourse focuses on its literary nature as text. As with all text, in the spirituality discourse there is a subtext of multiple meanings that coexist with but are suppressed by the dominant narrative (Derrida, 1976). Here we consider a subtext of the discourse of spirituality and organizations by using a fictional device: two 'tellings' of an annotated parable. As scholars such as Jermier (1992) and Czamiawska-Joerges and Guillet de Monthoux (1994) note, the use of fiction or fictional accounts in the examination of organizational phenomena may provide a unique insight, as stories and other works of fiction have a distinctive ability to capture emotional, sensual, and subjective features of organizational life. They provide 'a phenomenological type of knowledge' that can 'move people emotionally and even morally as both empathy and imagination expand' (Jermier, 2000: 63). It is these qualities of fiction that draw us to its use with respect to the spirituality discourse. A parable, in particular, is fashioned to teach a moral lesson. As Conger (1994: 205) notes, 'In all spiritual traditions, parables and stories are a common means for sowing insights, ideas, and lessons about spirituality and our roles in the cosmic scheme.' Thus, we draw on the parable form as a method of deconstructing this discourse 'in the same voice', invoking a strategy consistent with the emotional and moral tone of the spirituality literature. Annotation provides 'critical or explanatory notes for a literary work' [New World Dictionary, 1974). As a literary approach, annotation affords us the opportunity for 'inserting' spirituality discourse into the flow of the story. It provides the reader with theoretical connections between our tale and two discourses of spirituality and organization. In the two tellings of our parable, we draw on a representative sample from two apparently distinct literatures of spirituality and organization to link the narrative we have fashioned with the discourse we claim to examine. In so doing, we 'open up' complexities and issues present in these texts but which have been previously ignored or suppressed (Kilduff, 1993). In particular, we wish to give voice to alternative narratives, meanings that exist withinbut are unacknowledged bythe current mainstream spirituality and organizations literature. In the first telling of our parable, we meet Jeremy, a bright and successful individual who has found work that is personally fulfilling to him with Orazone, an organization that accomplishes its mission in service to society. We draw from a representative sample of the managerial literature to exemplify the discourse of spirituality and organizations; Jeremy has entered a Utopian universe of spirituality and organization.

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All For One Jeanie M. Forray & Diana Stork All For One: The First Telling
Jeremy was a well educated man with skills and talents that would have made him attractive to many organizations. Although he had a promising career elsewhere, Jeremy felt drawn to Orazoneone of the few truly global enterprises that offered inspiring work and opportunities for personal growth that he valued. With that in mind, a year earlier Jeremy had moved his wife and children to their new home so that he could take a position at Orazone. It was 7.30 in the morning when Jeremy left home for work that day. Jeremy often used his morning commute as a time for quiet reflection. Today he thought about his whole life and how fortunate, if not honored, he felt to have found such meaningful work with people whose values he shared. Like others he worked with, he saw himself as belonging to more than an organizationhe was in the vanguard of a movement whose values he could promote through his work. He had worked hard trying to find some place where he would feel connected to work that was important and connected to other people at work. He had been looking for greater meaning at work, and he had found it. Until a year earlier, Jeremy had worked at Enozaro, a company the opposite of Orazone in many ways. He had always been successful, but what he missed was a sense of fulfillment. His work at Enozaro had been just a job; now his work was a calling. He felt he had finally found a job in an organization where he felt at home. It was also a place his family felt taken care of; Orazone offered good pay, perks, even family events. Jeremy felt a sense of purpose and meaning in his work. For him, his work wasn't about what he actually

'. . . it is also becoming necessary for sustainable company growth to offer employees inspiring work and to help employees grow in ways that are best for them.' (Tischler, 1999)

'. . . employees appear to be searching for greater meaning in their workplaces.' (Cash, 2000) 'The purpose of spirituality is not to serve work. The purpose of work is to serve spirituality.' (Rosner, 2001)

'Spirituality at work has appeared in part because people want to feel connected to work that is important, and they want to feel connected to each other at work.' (Ashmos and Duchon, 2000)

'Spirituality has to do with how you feel about your workwhether it's just a job or is a calling.' (Thompson, 2001)

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'It is about experiencing a sense of purpose and meaning in . . . work

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Organization 9(3) Connexions


did, but rather that he saw what he did as contributing to the larger community. It was a strange combination, feeling that he could be himself in a place where others shared his values, beliefs, and deep commitments and feeling that he could grow and do more. He loved it. There were times when Jeremy talked with former colleagues and friends at the company he had left a year earlier. He had mixed emotions when he did. He was glad he was out, but he felt bad about what they were feeling. For them work was still just a job; for Jeremy work was a mission, about the fulfillment of devotion to a higher power. Of course, both Orazone and his old company had problems and challenges, but somehow it felt different at Orazone. He remembered back to when he joined Orazone and how Duncan had talked about his being selected in part because of his commitment to the spiritual culture Duncan was working hard to sustain. Jeremy thought a lot about how Orazone was special. He attributed much of this to the CEO, Duncan. Duncan was from a prominent family, had studied business administration, and, before founding Orazone, had experience in the construction industry. It was there that he became involved in projects that both served company interests and improved the quality of life in the community. Jeremy valued Duncan's service leadership style, the beliefs he held about what work should mean, and his devotion to their purpose. Duncan gave people decision-making authority and didn't feel the need to give directives or orders. He had created a community where people lived their values at work. As a result, Orazone operated with little need for hierarchy, authority, or extensive staff. Orazone could be a sleek and beyond the performance of tasks . and a sense of contributing to the greater community.' (Ashmos and Duchon, 2000)

'Workers will begin to move from the it'sjust-a-job perspective to the this-is-mymission view of their work.' (Laabs, 1995) 'It does not matter what kind of work a person does when we choose to see our work as our service to the Divine.' (Neal, 2000) 'In spiritually-based firms there is a pronounced emphasis on selecting persons who are most likely to be comfortable and productive in a spiritual corporate culture. . .' (Wagner-Marsh and Conley, 1999)

'. . . leaders with ... a sense of genuine humility and a sense of higher purpose without "ego" or pride. . .' (Wagner-Marsh and Conley, 1999) 'It's not just giving people decisionmaking authority, it's allowing people to live their values at work.' (Laabs, 1995)

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All For One Jeanie M. Forray & Diana Stork organized company where people were empowered to implement their piece of the mission. For Duncan, it was important to bring life and livelihood together in the service of something bigger. At Orazone, Duncan not only preached his values, he lived them. He was a great boss. Duncan had also created the company in a very special way. Headquarters served only as an umbrella, linking various distant operations. It was a flat organization, with several sites that operated very independently. But, regardless of where they were, people were connected through the mission and their shared values. Personal contacts, and certainly contact with Duncan, were often brief, transitory, and, at times, even non-existent. Trust assumed an enormous importance because individuals and small groups worked together and collaboratively, but often in isolated teams, with very little if any knowledge of other teams working elsewhere. Jeremy worked very hard. He worked long hours; he gave of his time and energy willingly. He wasn't alone in these efforts. It seemed to him that 'the Orazone way' released people's energy, and everyone worked hard and invested themselves deeply in the work they did. Like many others, Jeremy had willingly honed skills he already had and developed new ones. He'd gone to the long training program at Yensid and had come back certain that he had even more ways to help Orazone make a difference. Although a truly global company in reach, like other organizations Orazone faced resource constraints, although less so at headquarters. That seems not to have diminished the commitment of individuals and groups. Regardless of where they

'What brings life and livelihood together again is a sense of having our work contribute to the greater good in some way . . . [being] of service to something greater than ourselves.' (Neal, 2000)

'A new role for spirituality . . . organization types are emerging which are much flatter . . . and which emphasize increasingly empowered and collaborative employment relationships. Personal contacts among employees and between employees and managers are often brief, transitory, or even non-existent . . . Trust . . . assumes a new and critical role.' (Burack, 1999)

'. . . organizations viewed as more spiritual get more from their participants, and vice versa.' (Mitroff and Denton, 1999) 'Spirituality represents a specific form of work feeling that energizes action ... a subconscious feeling that energizes individual action in relation to a specific task . . . internalized as a form of intrinsic motivation and experienced as a flow experience.' (Dehler and Welsh, 1994)

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Organization 9(3) Connexions were, people were connected through the mission and their shared values. Anyway, back to Jeremy and his morning ride to work. As Jeremy pulled into the parking lot, he was filled with joy and a sense of purpose. It was his belief in the Divine and the 'Part of what gives our lives spiritual values of Orazone that helped him meaning is knowing that our lives overcome whatever hesitation he made the world a better place in some might have felt. He knew he would small way. . .' (Neal, 2000). contribute to the greater good and make the world a better place. Our parable describes an individual and his organization based on what is 'spoken' in the discourse of spirituality. In it, we find our central character, Jeremy, reflecting on his work, his organization, and their meaning to him as he drives to work one day. Jeremy works for Orazone, an organization with a sense of purpose that goes beyond profit. It has a structure that empowers people to contribute their whole selves to the work. People make decisions and guide their actions based on their common values. Although Jeremy has met and shares the ideals of Duncan, the leader of the organization, Jeremy's involvement is based on the fulfillment of his own personal values. He is able to contribute, to provide a service to a divine or higher power in ways that he finds personally meaningful. What's more, he knows that others with whom he works share that commitment and he values this connection with them. Jeremy's experience conforms in part to what has been described as 'new age corporate spiritualism' (Nadesan, 1999). His experience in the workplace is selffulfilling and productive, it represents the notion that 'a spiritually therapeutic workplace environment enhances productivity by facilitating employees' commitments to organizational goals, which are seen as the route for individual self-actualization' (Nadesan, 1999: 14). Further, the line between his personal needs and the needs of his organization are blurred; Orazone provides him with a means and an environment for realizing his needs (e.g. belongingness or connection) and for self-actualizing by giving to others. His efforts are directed toward the accomplishment of community (i.e. organizational) goals. There are also elements of what Pratt (2000) describes as an 'ideological fortress'. In our second telling, we illuminate the 'unspoken' in the spirituality and organizations discourse by annotating Jeremy's thoughts and reflections with material descriptive of a different sort of spiritual and organizational experience. Thus, Jeremy's involvement in Orazone is 'read' differently in the- second telling of this parable.

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All For One Jeanie M. Forray & Diana Stork All For One: The Second Telling
Jeremy was a well educated man with skills and talents that would have made him attractive to many organizations. Although he had had a promising career elsewhere, Jeremy felt drawn to Orazoneone of the few truly global enterprises that offered inspiring work and opportunities for personal growth that he valued. With that in mind, a year earlier Jeremy had moved his wife and children to their new home so that he could take a position at Orazone. It was 7.30 in the morning when Jeremy left home for work that day. Jeremy often used his morning commute as a time for quiet reflection. Today he thought about his whole life and how fortunate, if not honored, he felt to have found such meaningful work with people whose values he shared. Like others he worked with, he saw himself as belonging to more than an organizationhe was in the vanguard of a movement whose values he could promote through his work. He had worked hard trying to find some place where he would feel connected to work that was important and connected to other people at work. He had been looking for greater meaning at work, and he had found it. Until a year earlier, Jeremy had worked at Enozaro, a company the opposite of Orazone in many ways. He had always been successful, but what he missed was a sense of fulfillment. His work at Enozaro had been just a job; now his work was a calling. He felt he had finally found a job in an organization where he felt at home. It was also a place his family felt taken care of; Orazone offered good pay, perks, even family events. Jeremy felt a sense of purpose and meaning in his work. For him, his work wasn't about what he actually 'the conspirators were mature professionals with valuable skills, with promising careers, with wives and families.' (www.ict.org.il/ spotlight/det.cfm?id = 673) 'With branches and related businesses around the globe, the group . . . operates like a multinational corporation.' [Boston Globe, 15 September 2001)

'True believers, they imagined themselves at the vanguard of their own.' [Newsweek, 24 September 2001)

'Bin Laden told Al-Fadl: "Our agenda is bigger than business.'" [LA Times, 24 September 2001) 'Al Qaeda offered good pay, company perks, even family outings, just like any big and benevolent corporation. . .' [Newsweek, 14 January 2002)

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did, but rather that he saw what he did as contributing to the larger community. It was a strange combination, feeling that he could be himself in a place where others shared his values, beliefs, and deep commitments and feeling that he could grow and do more. He loved it. There were times when Jeremy talked with former colleagues and friends at the company he had left a year earlier. He had mixed emotions when he did. He was glad he was out, but he felt bad about what they were feeling. For them work was still just a job; for Jeremy work was a mission,about the fulfillment of devotion to a higher power. Of course, both Orazone and his old company had problems and challenges, but somehow it felt different at Orazone. He remembered back to when he joined Orazone and how Duncan had talked about his being selected in part because of his commitment to the spiritual culture Duncan was working hard to sustain. Jeremy thought a lot about how Orazone was special. He attributed much of this to the CEO, Duncan. Duncan was from a prominent family, had studied business administration, and, before founding Orazone, had experience in the construction industry. It was there that he became involved in projects that both served company interests and improved the quality of life in the community. Jeremy valued Duncan's service leadership style, the beliefs he held about what work should mean, and his devotion to their purpose. Duncan gave people decision-making authority and didn 't feel the need to give directives or orders. He had created a community where people lived their values at work. As a result, Orazone operated with little need for hierarchy, authority, or extensive staff. Orazone could be a sleek and organized company where people 'Some recruits would best serve the cause by forging documents or moving money. Others might be good with guns or at making bombs. Only a few would be trained ... to blow themselves to bits. . .' [Newsweek, 24 September 2001)

'For this and other acts of aggression and injustice, we have declared jihad against the US, because in our religion it is our duty to make jihad so that God's word is the one exalted to the heights. . .' (Quote from Osama bin Laden, CNN interview) www.adl.org/ terrorismamerica/bin 1 .asp 'At his sentencing, Yousef declared, "Yes, I am a terrorist, and I am proud of it."' [Newsweek, 1 October 2001)

'Born to wealth, bin Laden studied business administration. . .' [Newsweek, 24 September 2001) 'The young bin Laden, who worked for the family's [construction] company in his youth, [had] used road construction to improve the quality of life. . .' [Engineering News Record, 1 October 2001) 'Operatives are initiated into the doctrine of the international Jihad, but are not given any direct orders by Al Qaidah's leader on how to implement their terrorist missions.' www.ict.org.il/articles/ artiledet.cfm? articleid = 375

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All For One Jeanie M. Forray & Diana Stork were empowered to implement their piece of the mission. For Duncan, it was important to bring life and livelihood together in the service of something bigger. At Orazone, Duncan not only preached his values, he lived them. He was a great boss. Duncan had also created the company in a very special way. Headquarters served only as an umbrella, linking various distant operations. It was a flat organization, with several sites that operated very independently. But, regardless of where they were, people were connected through the mission and their shared values. Personal contacts, and certainly contact with Duncan, were often brief, transitory, and, at times, even non-existent. Trust assumed an enormous importance because individuals and small groups worked together and collaboratively, but often in isolated teams, with very little if any knowledge of other teams working elsewhere. Jeremy worked very hard. He worked long hours; he gave of his time and energy willingly. He wasn't alone in these efforts. It seemed to him that 'the Orazone way' released people's energy, and everyone worked hard and invested themselves deeply in the work they did. Like many others, Jeremy had willingly honed skills he already had and developed new ones. He'd gone to the long training program at Yensid and had come back certain that he had even more ways to help Orazone make a difference. Although a truly global company in reach, like other organizations Orazone faced resource constraints, although less so at headquarters. That seems not to have diminished the commitment of individuals and groups. Regardless of where they 505 'The international group that prosecutors say is run by Osama bin Laden . . . [is] a sleek and highly organized outfit in fairly good corporate trim.' [NY Times, 13 February 2001) 'And bin Laden? "He was a great boss," she says.' (Quote from April Ray, wife of Wadih El-Hage, convicted of conspiracy to commit terrorism. Newsweek, 14 January 2002) 'In 1998, bin Laden announced the establishment of ... an umbrella organization linking . . . extremists in scores of countries around the world.' www.adl.org/terrorism_america/bin_ l.asp 'Once the trainees leave . . . their contacts with bin Laden are sporadic' (Wall Street Journal, 14 September 2001) '. . . the suicide pilots-in-training probably worked in isolated teams, with very little, if any, knowledge of other teams working elsewhere.' www.ict.org.il/spotlight/ det.cfm?id = 673

'[that] for at least three years . . . two of the Osama bin Laden associates had trained. . . as airline pilots' [Boston Globe, 15 September 2001)

'Despite their global reach, many of these cells aren't always very sophisticated or even well-financed . . . What marks them instead is their dedication . . .' [Wall Street Journal, 14 September 2001)

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Organization 9(3) Connexions were, people were connected through the mission and their shared values. Anyway, back to Jeremy and his morning ride to work. As Jeremy pulled into the parking lot, he was filled with joy and a sense of purpose. It was his belief in the Divine and the values of Orazone that helped him overcome whatever hesitation he might have felt. He knew he would contribute to the greater good and make the world a better place.

'We went to the jihad filled with joy, and I would go again tomorrow.' (Quote from Ijaz Khan Hussein. NY Times, 27 January 2002) '. . . my life and my death belong to Allah, master of all worlds.' (Quote from the writings of Mohammed Atta, Newsweek, 1 October 2001)

Although it is the same Jeremy and the same Orazone as in the first telling, the annotations of the second telling drawn from material describing the Al Qaeda network make it clear that Jeremy is about to go off to engage in an act of terrorism. We retell the parable using material from this experience not because we are in sympathy with terrorism, but because the Al Qaeda actions are, in our view, an outcome consistent with unspoken or suppressed aspects of the discourse of spirituality and organization. In our deconstruction, the 'goodness' of spirituality coexists and is a part of the 'evil' of terrorism. This move illuminates how such controls of spiriteither through physical manifestations such as those of terrorist acts or in ideological frameworks such as the use of spirit for managerial purposes are manifestations of the same practices. Further, we acknowledge that our 'reading' decontextualizes the acts of the terrorists by ignoring many aspects of history, political economy, and global politics that are clearly relevant to understanding them. We do not intend to suggest that we view the terrorist acts as some sort of 'misguided spirituality'. Such a position implies that we agree with the position of the spirituality discourse viewing individuals as independent, autonomous agents, fully responsible for shaping their destiny and devoid of material interests. We use these examples to argue that the Al Qaeda subtexta spirituality clearly linked to historical, economic, and political circumstanceshas no voice in the current literature. In fact, not unlike the valorization of 'executives who rescued ailing companies' (see Czarniawska-Joerges and Wolff, 1991), we are urged to see the activities of Al Qaeda as the result of leadershipqualities of 'the mesmerizer' (cf. Newsweek, 24 September 2001, p. 44)rather than as a possibility embedded in the relationship between spirituality and organization. Our intent was to deconstruct the discourse of spirituality and organization, which, like other managerialist discourses, cloaks its possibilities in the rhetoric of organizational goodness. As the ideal 'spiritual organization', Orazone is the environment within which Jeremy finds personal

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fulfillment as his individual needs are met while he contributes to the goals of the organization and to society. Nevertheless, as our second telling of the parable suggests, it seems clear that the members of the Al Qaeda organization may also find themselves personally fulfilled as they contribute to the goals of their organization and to society. Thus, one potential subtext of 'spirituality and organization' also represents a compelling framework for the possibility of global terrorism. Both are possibilities that coexist within the contemporary discourse of spirituality and organizations. The power of the organizational spirituality discourse is that its control is 'extrarational'. That is, it avows a shift 'to spirit' as an enhancement in organizational endeavor and, in so doing, embraces a move from organizational rationality into the 'mind-less'. Yet, fanaticism is also 'mind-less' in that it represents devotion 'beyond the bounds of reason' [Webster's, 1993). It is not simply that the spirituality of Al Qaeda is 'bad' while the spirituality of 'regular' organizations is 'good' for, as our deconstruction demonstrates, the spirituality discourse and fanaticism coexist. It is that in any commitment to spirit, reason is silenced. Without reason, it is impossible to question the aims of terrorism in the very same way that, without reason, it is impossible to question organizational goals of profitability or efficiency. Any devotion to 'that which is unseen' masks the very material and negative consequences of those aims as they become manifest in our everyday lives.
Acknowlegement

Our thanks go to Ali Mir for his thoughtful comments and questions during the development of this paper.
References

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Czarniawska-Joerges, B. and Wolff, R. (1991) 'Leaders, Managers, Entrepreneurs On and Off the Organizational Stage', Organization Studies 12(4): 529-46. Dehler, G. and Welsh, A. (1994) 'Spirituality and Organizational Transformation', Journal of Managerial Psychology 9(6): 17-26. Derrida, J. (1976) Of Grammatology. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Frost, P. J. and Egri, C. P. (1994) 'The Shamanic Perspective on Organizational Change and Development', Journal of Organizational Change Management 7: 1-23. Jermier, J. M. (2000) 'Storytelling and Organizational Studies: A Critique of "Learning about Work from Joe Cool'", Journal of Management Inquiry 9(1): 62-5. Jermier, J. M. (1992) 'Literary Methods and Organization Science: Reflection on "When the Sleeper Wakes'", in P. Frost and R. Stablein (eds) Doing Exemplary Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Kilduff, M. (1993) 'Deconstructing Organizations', Academy of Management Review 18(1): 13-27. Klein, E. and Izzo, J. B. (1998) Awakening Corporate Soul: Four Paths to Unleash the Power of People at Work. New York: Fairwinds. Laabs, J. (1995). 'Balancing Spirituality and Work', Personnel Journal 74(9): 60-76. Lee, C. and Zemke, R. (1993) 'The Search for Spirit in the Workplace', Training 30(6): 21-8. Lofland, J. (1966) Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Lofland, J. and Stark, R. (1965) 'Becoming a World Saver: A Theory of Conversion to a Deviant Perspective', American Sociological Review 30: 862-74. Mitroff, I. and Denton, E. (1999) 'A Study of Spirituality in the Workplace', Sloan Management Review 40(4): 83-92. Moxley, R. S. (2000) Leadership and Spirit: Breathing New Vitality and Energy into Individuals and Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Neal, J. (2000) 'Work as Service to the Divine: Giving Our Gifts Selflessly and with Joy', American Behavioral Scientist 43(8): 1316-33. Nadesan, M. H. (1999) 'The Discourses of Corporate Spiritualism and Evangelical Capitalism', Management Communication Quarterly 13(1): 3-43. Pratt, M. G. (2000) 'Building an Ideological Fortress: The Role of Spirituality, Encapsulation and Sensemaking', Studies in Cultures, Organizations &- Societies 6(1): 3553. Rosner, B. (2001) 'Is There Room for the Soul at Work?', Workforce 80(2): 82-3. Thompson, W. (2001) 'Spirituality at Work', Vital Speeches of the Day 67(16): 501-2. Tischer, L. (1999) 'The Growing Interest in Spirituality in Business: a Long-term Socio-economic Explanation', Journal of Organizational Change Management 12(4): 273-79. Wagner-Marsh, F. and Conley, J. (1999) 'The Fourth Wave: The Spiritually-based Firm', Journal of Organizational Change Management 12(4): 292-301. Weber, M. (1930) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, trans. T. Parsons. London: Routledge. Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, Second College Edition (1974). Cleveland, OH: William Collins and World Publishing Co.

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All For One Jeanie M. Forray & Diana Stork Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Jeanie M. Forray completed her PhD studies of human resource managers and organizational justice in 1998 at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. She is now an Assistant Professor of Management at the School of Business, Western New England College where she teaches in the areas of organizational behavior and theory, team leadership, and organizational development and change. Her current research interests include narratives of justice and the political in organizational life, alternative perspectives on human resource management practice, and management education and development. She recently co-edited a special issue of the Journal of Management Education with Ann Cunliffe and David Knights on critical management studies and management education, and is currently coediting a special issue of the Journal of Organizational Change Management with Yvonne Benschop on human resource management and organizational change. Address: School of Business, Western New England College, 1215 Wilbraham Road, Springfield MA 01119, USA. [email: jforray@wnec.edu] Diana Stork is on the faculty of the Simmons School of Management. She teaches organizational behavior and business ethics in the MBA Program, and she is Faculty Director of Strategic Leadership For Women in Human Resources, an Executive Education Program. Her research and writing interests include work and organizational relationships, management education, and ethics in organizational behavior and human resource management. Her book, Leading Biotechnology Alliances: Right From The Start (with Alice Sapienza) was published in 2001 by fohn Wiley. She was recently appointed to the Strategic Human Resources Management's (SHRM) newly established Ethics Advisory Council. She earned a BA from Oberlin College, an MBA from Boston University, and a PhD in Management of Organizations from Columbia University. Address: Simmons School of Management, 409 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA. [email: diana.stork@simmons.edu]

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