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WOOD CARVING .
WOOD CARVING A CAREFULLY GRADUATED EDUCATIONAL COURSE FOR SCHOOLS AND ADULT CLASSES JOSEPH PHILLIPS (Medallist) INSTRUCTOR OF WOOD CARVING. 1896 s Ld. . Accepted as their Scheme of Wood Carving by the Educational Handwork Union. AND OTHER ART SUBJECTS IN CONNECTION WITH VARIOUS CLASSES IN THE COUNTIES OF LANCASHIRE. CHESHIRE. CUMBERLAND. AND NOTTS Approved by Committee of the Home A rts and Industries Royal Albert Hall. London. MODELLING. and by the Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes the Design Association^ LONDON: CHAPMAN AND HALL.
educational value is seldom because the student too frequently has no practical object in view. whilst ac- . but as generally taught to simply amounts a keeping students employed. perhaps consequence both as to of its apparent limitations. That it has such a value it is undoubted. material used and manual exercises involved. and as its consequence realised.INTRODUCTION \ 1 yOOD-CARVING ' ' as an educational to influence appears in be entirely ignored. He may become skilful in the if manipulation of tools and material the sufficiently persevering. but realisation of an end and aim in his work may not dawn upon him quiring that technical skill.
the outcome of personal observation of nature and works done in ancient and modern times. one of the pression. surrender our It own naturally affects follows that whatever in- fluence the its worker's expression mind . WOOD CARVING. must necessarily affect and thus . in or many means it of ex- In this sense is the expression material form of ideas... as What wood -carving distinguished It is. in which case we unfortunately individualism. The art of carving does not consist entirely in producing evidence of mastery over tools and material : this dexterity merely constitutes the means to an end therefore to elucidate the principles under- lying all good work would appear the most rational way is to approach the subject. or what we may see through the eyes of our favourite sculptor. from the art of wood-cutting? should be. etc.
and unsympathetic treatment. there would be little. to bring out natural beauty. with a its appreciation of its nature. may be seen a clear . character history. may be found a basis for much conjecture as to the nature of the Egyptians in the pure marble and its treatment. would-be in its imperishable granite they used. difficulty in tracing minutely. severe. working cHmes and so that in different states of if it were necessary for the purpose of this book. the material lation and its manipuages by different workers in the past may be of regarded as a compound expression : character in the cold. grey. and equally firm. which full all requires a delicacy of touch.. we have in the carvings of past ages re- flections in the concrete of people in various civilization. INTRODUCTION. during the various periods of Briefly stated. if any.
— Fusion of gold into th . Passing time. — Pure Transitional. Silver.' silver. Brick and victorious its limitation sufficed for earl until Rome an artificial refim ment demanded marble. did Money anything could an it supply this in abundance. over find in the this intervening space c we country that wooc its free-cutting stone. but wa th never stamped with but characteristics of the people. as historicall known.WOOD CARVING. — Intermingling — Silver. and may be Period classified as follows Norman —as Copper. fining influence Early English. reflection of the refinement of the Greek as expressed in all they thought and did. of a re Transitional. is still and freer rendering more clearly stamped with chc : racter.
and carving may claim to be . — Gold. On it a further examination of the subject. and so the work lost its charm. so is architecture — the smallest etc. interesting. " Architecture " still : possibly . Understood. Perpendicular. as a means of expression. then. things speaking loudest of power. the golden period. —M ixture. will be found that carving article is an applied decora- art —a building or more made more its tive. culminating in excess.INTRODUCTION. it is therefore conducive to mental development. demonstrating the lament- able fact that the people had ceased to think for themselves. by application. deteriorating into dross. a small but an important one is and as carving often the individual to to the nation. Decorated. and as such becomes part of a general scheme termed part.
or group of figures. refinement. educational only i. appre- . the former. however influenced." Carving may take a prominent place as In a branch of hand and eye training. the creation of visible evidence in material form of thought. see in every block of The but sculptor may stone a single figure. accuracy and precision . through the latter. when taught as such .lO WOOD CARVING. This demand upon the creative faculty common to all. and the power of concentrating thought is thereby cultivated. un- him to remove the superfluous to folding view the hidden evidence or concrete reflection of his imagination. artistic power.e. Michael Angelo said that the object of sculpture was "to let out the angel. it is the concentration of thought upon the group in his mind's eye that enables stone. becomes a direct appeal for mental development.
. beauty form this being imSecondly. whether seen detail. take is an ivy and not ask wherein in its beauty. Surely altogether that which may be seen at a first glance. beauty of outline. the stem. etc. I I ciation of the beautiful in nature. .INTRODUCTION. may be go cultivated and developed. features will still and those better remain as a skill example of technical than it is possible to produce in any other material. mass or leaf. our purpose. to To to qualify this generalising term. but press the leaf in a book. The is the oudine. Firstly. " It nature. in proved by the addition of colour." is would be well to ask what there in admire nature of for . generally noticed veins. Few nature indeed offers are the instances for where study feature no reward closer first than the passing glance. For instance.
its spirit. etc. it approaches perfection. from this point of view." it is unin- Seen. we cannot fail to appreciate the actual value of details. the technique. its life the graceful form has departed. 12 WOOD this CARVING. by no means beautiful with- seeing that a leaf may be out the clear outline. the latter a secondary position. .. a something it absent the pressure has robbed of its beauty. Would pressed leaf satisfactorily appeal to our intuitive ideals of its general appear- ance ? No . of beautiful forms emphasised by all must be the basis of being relegated to good work. then. remaining skeleton of flatness teresting. has been created. because is a void . whilst the same cannot be claimed for the pressed leaf. becoming monotonous is as all. and all the wonderfully minute details fail to clothe the " .. stem. Thus the creation details.
The necessary expense of tools being an important matter. particular style of carving. THE OBJECT OF THE BOOK. these principles being the basis and not the monopoly of any. To to teach carving is the least. have been selected. and calculated to inculcate. 7 between three . even It is if it be one. the most useful curves first I. with one of No. as Gothic. . may be worked with tools 2. which are but phases of in the abstract life ornament. etc. though to a limited extent. 5 .INTRODUCTION. fill issued a long-felt want these for a graduated course of exercises.. of the objects attempted. and the four plates 3. being suggested by a long and varied professional and teaching experience —a course that shall be at once practical. the principles evolved from a careful study of nature and good works of every.
complete course with 8. -the abstract form underlying natural leaves. conventionalized in the acanthus. The logical series of exercises also form the sequence of an attempt to develop stages principles by easy : of design. as in either when complete in the ivy. I. as careful observation will show. the students. the laurel.— 14 WOOD CARVING. the importance of which to apt be overrated is if . being developed. etc. as follows Fig. and. proficient the means of The actual idea expressed by the ground- . compound grouped in the rose. there good purpose in served by its becoming expression. is is As a working motive such an outline used. for if the imaginative is faculty little. treats upon the technical side of is the subject. not any. as given under the heading of tools.
.. is cut off at the and the square end turned under and roll over like a Figs. at any given place. similar forms to Fig. XII.5 INTRODUCTION. .. leaf form Fig. but treatments with different Figs. Figs. VII. the complete development. X. to produce a desired result. is the application of the important principle of continuity of thought in line and mass. XI. ii. but . to create a must be an attempt flat form more pleasing than the Fig. cut away. so the degree of success must be gauged.. Fig. III. is the application of this form of creative power.. is VI. II.. Fig. i. and according to the appreciation of the beautiful in form. Fig. similar forms to IX. ii. i. The point. tools. IV.. ing-out process 1 is. that at given points the is material not being required. of paper. Fig.
. same and as Figs.. : An and 2. treatments with different surface tools. 2.. Figs. . XVIII. xxiii. XVI. a scroll. in group of details Fig. .. useful details. XXV. viii. Figs. i.-xxii.. the interlacing of stems in design. Figs. any arrangement of first In this instance the centre leaf.. the XV.. with additions for space -filling purposes.. the same cuts emphasised with tool Figs.. XXVI. vi. Figs. a scroll. used instead of Fig. xii. xiii. XVII. cuted with tools I and Figs..6 1 WOOD CARVING. Fig. Figs. both upon the and outline. the latter the appli11. cation of principle inculcated in Fig. is a soulless renderis ing of Fig.. xxv. XIX. are exex. exercise in relative value of tool-cuts Figs. and xi. ix. An exercise concentration in of thought upon a given part design.. XXVI. I. XXIV..- but detail Figs.-xv. xiii. xx.
XXVI. XXX... Fig.. Fig. XXXII. etc. and xxxv. XXXV. details Figs.. a more decorative treatment of Figs. whose main stem is and clothed with . the grouping of details Figs. XXIX.7 INTRODUCTION. xxiv. XXXVI. The edges are broken Fig. Fig. B .. a design with XXVI. XVIII. also an exercise in confining the work within a border.... a more decorative treatment of Figs.. a design containing useful details for future use. XXVII. etc. VI. -XXX.. enlarged.. XXXIV. XII. a design Fig. up.. XXXIV.. IX. IX. 1 Figs. XXXIII. and details xxiii. XXXVII. XXVII. XXXI. Fig. VIII. XII. xxvii... Fig... xxix. the grouping of details Figs. it for application to furniture. main stem Fig. the clothing of stems at their juncture with each other.. thus preparing Fig.
-vii.. towards the production a fixed although he . Fig. Fig.. Each cut should of be one idea. xxxviii. the cultivation or recognition of a purpose at every stage of the work. he may go . asking the reason of every peculiarity he may have noticed . xxxix. Each exercise has a distinct purpose. Figs. design similar to Fig. and so being quite clear. XL. XXXVIII. based upon. If is two are placed together an oblong panel formed. Fig. and the student cannot be too strongly advised to master each step. and freer render- ing of design Fig. feeling assured of success the —the secret of which is combination of head and hand. but built up of details Fig.. i. elaborated as the development of Fig. xxxiv. xxxi.. XXXVIII. on.WOOD CARVING..
To prevent the natural inclinations for "niggling" and hesitancy on the part of the student. vigorous strokes have been employed . but. and bold. number of A details strictly will limited edition in of a similar natural scheme be issued. design first is The apparent sameness and of the outcome of compounding the restriction in the step throughout. tools. large tools. same but as working to nature is attempting an unattainable standard. it is not so much a matter of using small tools as the will it is of cutting wood properly down. which have been employed to express the ideas . in the cleaning of wood out of the corners. 1 should always be ready to modify any such purpose if occasion presents itself. wonders why the corners main so untidy. this. when jump the large tool the troublesome bit out.9 INTRODUCTION. Too often the student will not do to drag it proceeding re- out. any- .
ever asking. caricatures of the original and if not caricatures. Individual effort. Is this right I What do next ? therefore ever dependent upon his teacher. then conIf ventional treatments.! — 20 WOOD CARVING. however crude. is prefer- .. thing short of this standard "failure. who deny ? The must student working with fear ? and trembling. trying to carve like nature Most of the examples of such attempts are what may be termed ." may be counted How many workers have given up in despair because they discovered their inability to attain to the standard so foolishly fixed in their minds' eye. that of producing beautiful forms and will lines ? That it is fascinating. it. etc. not admit and derive the pleasure — "the why fun " of twisting and fighting the m. the latter. is more to be pitied than blamed.aterial with one object in view.
2 able to slavish attention to the material and its treatment. and any suggesto render calculated the course still more useful will be appreciated. mitted. with practical report upon work subvisits and pay periodical where In submitting his scheme he is not un- mindful of tions its shortcomings. . to lectures.1 INTRODUCTION. desired. instead of the thoughts it is but the medium author is for expressing. The prepared to- introduce his scheme by bench demonstration.
of 5 curvatures its and widths. Carver Street. supply one of their many reliable specialities few in number being the most desirable. yet sufficiently chisel. and the process they . Usually different is called gouges and' chisels. set as full course has been worked out first with the eight tools on set. as less to become acquainted for use with. curvature its is No. so their possibilities the sooner discovered. Sheffield. a gouge. The sharpening of tools is a very import- ant part of the work. slight as to permit of use as a thus serving the double purpose of gouge and chisel..TOOLS 'T^HE -^ called the Co. and "Ambleside The Sloyd Tool this ." list.
in preparation . thus follow the tool . sides. which quickly removes the thick material usually on 1 ^ a for new more tool. _ ^^_^ both sides gives a slight lever movement enabling in cutting. 23 undergo before being ready ing. to more easily the varying planes the outside tool done oh the nearly flat oilstone by holding the upon the face of the stone and . which 4 <« removes any roughness that __^ may be produced by the severe treatment on the p-rindstone.TOOLS. careful treatment in 2 V y the sharpening upon an ordi- 3 nary joiner's - oilstone. not as joiners' The treatment upon 9 . for use is grindis and stropping. The former done on a grindstone. whetting. Carvers' tools are rubbed on \/ 8 • both tools.
as the parts untouched will appear . or small pieces stone with curved edges. which brought about by i. but the curves at the figure allow the corners of the tool more than their share of friction. Olive or neat's-foot oil may be is used. at right angles. working it sideways from thus the curve end to end of the stone . The principal thing to avoid tools making the edges of the is dumpy. rubbing too much on the edge. If occasionally held it up to the light. The of inner sides of the gouges are rubbed by means of finger -slips. hold- ing the handle of the tool too high.24 WOOD CARVING. To make end of the the figure 8 on the oilstone has been suggested. it may be seen whether has been rubbed suf- ficiently. of the tool will come is in contact with the stone if the former turned from corner to corner in the distance.e. resulting in their being rounded too much.
felt if an arras. 25 bright in contrast to the dull parts already worked upon. buff for choice. upon a piece of old belts leather. the first The leather must be prepared upon one side by a mixture of crocus powder and tallow being well rubbed into its surface. the only require stropping to remove that and complete the process of whetting. The tool worked. Tools become dull soon enough without any assistance from the worker. for flexible. practical demonstration. clear only to the writer. as a barber does his razors.TOOLS. to fit carving purposes. edge. which. must be inside of the gouges. will Again. One sible. or rough tool may be after rubbing. Stropping is is the final touch. Soldiers' make excellent strops. where pos- in sharpening tools would serve the student better than many pages of confusing instructions. who by .
is when they scarcely their each and placed with edges towards the worker. and in fact any should not be gripped too firmly. the V tool at once the most awkward. if it it holding of this tool. Of is those used in this course. careless arrangement allows the edges to with each other.26 WOOD CARVING. "though but momentarily. come upon touch in contact The proper and safest position for tools the bench other." and the most useful of the carver's set. for does not retard the flow of one's ideas through the tool to the material. Its use tends to develop the much-desired power to produce and appreciate good sweeping curves. In the other. Hold to as near the sharp edge as convenient with. and the importance of general use cannot be overrated. work and sufficiently firm to prevent . either in abstract its or actual form. it certainly cramps the flow of lines which those ideas suggest.
until position. it may be it pushed.TOOLS. The top corners. Use it whenever even to removing as much ground at. The thickness of line producible by this tool de- pends entirely upon the angle held : at which it is if well up at the handle. or. V. may be difficulty forced along the line in of design. the line tool. as convenient to get Main lines and . it in that happy seems to have a most undesir- able knack of going in any but the right direction. may be as deep as the section of the It is very necessary to acquire early a thorough knowledge and one control is of this particular tool. as. and its possibilities for use when under control. 27 slipping . should always be in view. by means of a mallet. a itself using presenting it only A when the worker allows in to become embedded B the wood. are more than the original intention of possible. its maker.
you not ignore the so often many new cuts or ideas they suggest. seem to know to their their and let require forcing do work . so long as effects the object in view. Lastly.28 WOOD CARVING. or grounding-out tool. careful setting. Dexterity being the outcome of royal road. means to an end. can the subtle curves of stems. horses. racteristic in nature. Tools. Stems so produced are than those far more beautiful obtained by . and there being no especially are facts applicable to the learning of wood-carving. treat them as friends.. so will understanding them better.in with gouge and chisel by no other means etc. being gouges of different It curvatures. . practice. 9 and 10 are additional useful tools. so chawell. little it which side or size is used. be produced so The matters other tools. call for no further comment. them be as servants. the latter being called a bent gouge. that. like drivers.
ing it away. easy-cutting obtainable. virtue of to split. on the other hand. and the quick results so dear to the beginner. begins by worryresult. The knowing his material. can produce the desired average student. except Figs.WOOD T) EST *-^ pine-wood is suggested for all exercises. effect . xxxi. and therefore exactly his limitations. its is This particular wood. but partly because students will only learn by experience that the material they are to use has a nature requiring a certain amount of study or consideration. liability obviously best expert.-xxxvii. its suited for the purpose. its not entirely by reason of qualities.. with a rough and rugged . by freeness in the grain.
e. When the finish produced means of . and seems cutting. ways treatment of When cutting accurately. in forward. by slightly curving the tool its from side to progress is side. when possible. To is expect a beginner to master his first material and tools on the two or three models surely too much. Perfect smoothness initial stages. he should try to produce a low whistling sound. suggesting a reverse or sidecutting. to appreciate proper i. firm Whenever it is presenting a rough appearance. At every thought treated . unless he already possesses some knowledge is of by. In cutting.— — WOOD CARVING. point a little observation and will it suggest the way wood should be resents tearing or dragging away. material. of finish as it not required in the is the outcome of time and practice only. the student at once feels every assurance of the fact.
yet high finish should not obtained at the expense of frittering away a student's enthusiasm. for if the will be cut clean it one way. 3 a plane. a student may worry the wood away . every tool -cut less .1 WOOD. in obtaining his desired forms yet an intelligent appeal to . which. plane. some allowance must be made general It . I Whilst admitting that dexterity comes of careful practice. in its turn. Given an advanced copy. this material it may be not possible. about. produces own is more or and as sand -paper absolutely forbidden. does not necessarily follow that the experienced wood -worker has every ad- vantage over the beginner. its is but a matter of turning In carving. in fact. indicates command be of the means whereby we seek to express ourselves. tool-marks improve the effect.
very effective work. to cultivate and care but means of cultivating precision : and care majority has two disadvantages of cuts are ist. Granting. will have more to effect than out.. yet the habit acquired for niggling far outweighs any such advantages of being effective. etc. by the way. which. attractive. for the labour expended. several lessons devoted grounding in view. by carefully finishing the edges.WOOD CARVING. especially as a preparatory step. complete his success. apparently. with no tangible purpose cutting said this is Chip- a form of carving which precision may be . etc. are those cuts least demanding for their production any special consideration of the material. The excessive. The upon the slant. 2nd. use of evil in compass and rule creates "to an by training conforming hand and eye a dexterity . may be produced. therefore of relief little practical use in work.
The ers' is difference between South Sea Island- work and the best modern chip work easily seen — in the former examples much thing more freedom is is displayed. 33 to.— WOOD. and reliance upon.produced curves. become less interesting as they approach perfection in their execution. The same noticeable in the early Gothic tracery the subtle curves of which are not those pro- duced by the compass and stamped with accurate characteristics. The line suggestiveness of the hard pen or pencil is too slight to appeal to them . which artificially. but substitute means for another — "the supple brush" fingers — and they have within their a power —a means for expressing . writing of the its The drawing and nineteenth-century children very clearly shows the rigid grip they have of the unsympathetic means — " pen and pencil " — whereby those they express themselves.
34 feeling. Each model has been produced by most easy lowed to obtain in the material." an attention. It is quite possible to produce such beautiful forms as may require . but their early cultivation in carving should not be too much insisted upon. promptly in repay any want of confidence by acting accordance with estimated worth. his efforts must not be restricted too much. Too many are the ways and means for dwarfing the imaginative plant. give his ideas full play. —a freedom unlimited in possibilities. cuts if fol- carefully. WOOD thought. and also the hand. undue share of The eye. being very sensitive. creating copyists. Precision and care are very desirable features. by giving its co-partner in design. and. a high standard of techniqtie but at the expense of If the student is to may be obtained. " construction. life CARVING.
as in the laurel leaf. not compelled. in contradistinction to the developed hart's tongue fern. or for preference. xxxi. Exercises illustrations. 35 the experience of a professional to complete technically. walnut.. lime. kauri-pine. may be worked in oak. to see beauty in subtle forms. and remaining alder. oak . then the student should be encouraged.WOOD. mahogany.-xxxvii. If this should be the outcome of the freedom advocated.
B and C it rests upon the top G cramps are useful where screw- holes may not be put in the bench-tops. and : may be fixed as follows At A the clip is driven into the edge of the block to be carved. and sufficient for this course.HOLDING THE WORK OTU DENTS ^^-^ must not underrate the importance of making their work secure before beginning operations. Two such clips are required. Another method. at surface. the simplicity of which may recommend itself. of accidents The majority may be traceable to this want all- of care. are illustration of shown in the a block held firm by means of clips. The simplest methods. which may be made of iron or wood. is that of gluing .
glue about one inch round the edges of paper. sufficient to hold the edges of the block. not all over set. 39 the block to be carved on to a larger piece of wood. HOLDING THE WORK. becomes an easy matter. glue the paper down upon the larger piece of wood this done. separation.. . then hold the block until the glue has . the by means of inserting a First chisel. If paper is put between.
fix it — to occupy the with pins upon the wood. i. it will be seen has the wood about the leaf form been removed to a certain depth. from the i. MATERIALS required: Block of pinewood j^" 6" yy- 1" . . and drawing-pins. As a guide for the depth. not traced. and the drawing will be reproduced upon the wood. Having prepared the drawing — which should be sketched. mark along the edge of the wood to be operated upon a line. On that reference to Fig. working drawing.WORKING DIRECTIONS PLATE I. sheet of carbon or transfer paper. block. with carbon paper between. Fig.. then trace carefully over the lines with a hard pencil.
Plate I. .
and with it remove as much of the design as pos- the spare sible. but not quite up to Then take gouge No.-xxx. but this time quite up to the lines. square-down treatment of the edges." "grounding out and the It lower level being called background. is very important that this should be done accurately in the early stages of the as fairly work. The are technical terms for these setting processes in. be understood as applying to i. outline of design. I. a result brought about by half cutting the . depth Figs.. the success is partly measured by uniformity of ground depth. and xxxiv. which should be neither ragged nor uneven. proceed to trim or pare the edges perpendicular to the ground. with cut V tool round the it. wood about This done.-xxxvii. say f" will 43 this down from the face . and the sharp. inclusive.WORKING DIRECTIONS.
. and then the carving glued down upon wood Fig. XXXIII. tised. and fixed upon ? a different texture to its own The art of wood-carving. The claim in is favour of clearly defining the design weak. The ground been cut with been first must tools. edges down. A moment's reflection will suggest the remedy when the student finds his work rough and untidy at this point.44 WOOD CARVING. is bits of and about and B. show that it it has not as though had planed up perfectly smooth. Stamping. in it. why separate by suggesting that the carving had been fret-cut in the first instance. and then dragging or gnawing the remainder of the wood away. Tool marks are not the design. is the . as generally pracbut a means to its often disguise careless work. as Fig. at A. The ground and carving being one. briefly. xxxii.
B as at A. at A low at B and D high. at round the edge i. possible so much flat surface as may be avoided. thus producing light and shade with the material. C high. taken down. carefully leaf. introduced Variety may be by treating the opposite side Fig. (Fig. creation 45 this of beautiful forms. With gouge No. and may be illustrated upon the block of wood now prepared and standing up above the background. is say point A. The characteristic features of good woodContrast carving are contrast and variety. i book a beautiful a pleasing curved surface. ii. any part of the See that to the form Fig. the curve gradual and quite that as down ground. illustrates the carrying .) For the purpose of form denotes this true. as at low. may be high as obtained by keeping the parts as possible directly opposite those ..WORKING DIRECTIONS. I.
and a discord or harmony may In the attention first is be there. the added merging of one form iii. instance. the stepping outside of the subject for further illustrations to emphasise its importance is fully justified." may be well . into another. pleasing general by connecting the created forms by means of tool i.46 out of this WOOD CARVING. form-creation. to in give the individual possible . ideas. The or successful connection of these forms ideas being so important. Variety the and contrasts of form will make work look . as at Fig. In this effect is manner secured a good. touch a group. . So long as single keys are struck upon the for piano. generally to lumpy unless connected so that these two important principles must be continuity. at A and B one decided sweep or throw from end to end. "the sound emitted being termed all the purpose.
but just sufficient and well connected. book-writing. in the third instance. he has yet much to learn. the form may be made more interesting by the addition of . thus carving may be a book. iii. a scheme of colour. or more interesting to himself at least.. to The that student will do well remember it is not a matter of abundance of form. to render the flat surface more pleasing. . books to the mind.WORKING DIRECTIONS. second. a piece of music. This continuity etc. As harmony is to the colour to the eye. so is carving to the sense of love for the If the carver has failed to beautiful. they other. applies to colour. ear. lack 47 of sympathy of tone causes each note to claim attention at one and the same time to run . endow his work with a continuity of thought. Returning to Fig. the exact seem one into the joint being imperceptible.
and not to show how far under . able. Experience. the object of this being to produce a further light effect in the work. the wood may be cut away. the work a obtainpoints lightness. not otherwise at From underneath. and . which. say No. draw the relative uses of tools re- and more clearly to define already existing cuts.48 WOOD CARVING. use of a quicker gouge. slightly if for rounded it would if cut narrow. or No. to These additions are suggested attention to ferred to. At E and F an improvement may be made 2 by the 3. This done. hollow the same look heavy. a conventional stem. to although not necessary. yet impart crispness. the standing highest above the ground. the V tool only being used for the purpose. the outcome of observation. will develop the tastes for adding successthese final fully touches. weak.
The completed throughout its Fig. be influenced flat. the com- pletion of the top surface it as before stated. is but a means to improve existing work. may be as low as — merging into the ground.Working directions. In the majority of instances. development.. In fact. should. be bevelled. so one part kept up. there can be no reason why corresnot. or 4$ how thin and feathery the edges may be the latter should invariably thick..about f? of an inch The technical term for this operation it is "under. idea that the I. is cut." and " under-cutting ' important that no until be done . by the of Fig.. iv. To the do the most must be made of the full wood that if projecting above is ground.cutting. smooth surface produced by a soulless machine. demands a treatment artistic senses. that shall please the this. ponding possible parts in fact.this half- . exercise.
may be accidental off. but in utilizing slips which cuts or pieces broken secrets of success. being cheap enough. becomes the most honoured cut in the piece of work. cut. In working to a copy this may be possible. thought. "fear to. and confidence." fear to take off too much wood. Often the developed the apparently ruined corner. begin your work not in a niggling manner. encourage the develop- ment of these reliance. i. slips. Wood boldly. spoil.— 50 expression of WOOD CARVING. self- is fostered. thing is wrong with' their work and too often as a consequence they erect their own stumbling-block. is found one of the i.e. Dictate a and a check is placed upon the much- wished-for freedom . : always applying the following tests . slip.e. or purpose. is the actual cause of students feeling that some. twisting the unsatis- factory part into something else.
-vii. Fig. and quite up to the lines. Is the outline true ? 4. but not quite up to the lines as a first This done. v. Carefully ground out with gouge No. II. Material required. . Are the forms ? or ideas properly con- nected 3. i round the end A. 1. cut the edges clean. 5 I Are the forms or ideas properly carried out? 2. or. V. With gouge No. each occupying a block. i. not forgetting to take the V tool round. step. PLATE Figs. Is the detail sufficient or too little. too much.WORKING DIRECTIONS. as often. Mark design as already suggested. two pine- wood blocks 7^"x6"xi".
v. . G. Complete ends H. — The exercises' Plate show how pleasing forms may be createdv^ In ii. as Fig. Bevel edges. produce Fig. Remove facilitate a little material at i. Round of at i. Figs. Fig. as Cut ends B... Fig.. A to B. Fig.. /J i i Bevel the edges. v. ' ' ' '^" i. Round to ground Connect C to G. . 52 WOOD CARVING. VII.. I- Cut ends B. J Connect this will E to "A. as... . to completion df turnover //. - '' Remarks. . as A or B.. ' Round down II. at C. .. FigVI. '[ Jii. . ni. ' ' . . a-nd complete as. Fig..) these two exercises (Plate- we apply that power in producing at given points a . to -ground at E. r: Fig. ' viir. . as A to jB. Undercut. j9.. vi. VIII. _. Undercut.
obtain VI. CGI. casts. F. it surface will look little more is interest- matters which part thrown down .. EA B. Thus we Fig. remains for further treatment. a fixed for his guidance. coil will Nothing be satis- than a truly rounded factory.."WORKING DIRECTIONS. 55 definite idea. Knowing standard less a must be round. ii.. are suggested. a student capable of creating i. D. is otherwise the purpose or thought only half expressed. flat Seeing that any other form than a ing. and these separate . ideas. or photos. Such ideas may be If taken from is nature. and its lesson. C and three E Fig. that he is may be presumed able to combine these forms at given points. it the elementary forms safely as in Figs.-iv. this producing a given idea a scroll scroll : in instance that is or roll of paper. This done. Apply Fig. a quantity of material. forms or VIII.
Create F. Fig. IX. as per illustration. first form at D. forms require continuity to complete their success. hd. Connect these three forms. Two i". this being brought about as sug- gested at Fig. is i then treated. first form at A.-x. then B. i. afterwards XI. Fig. afterwards C. then E. PLATE Material : III. with tools and 4. as Figs.56 WOOD CARVING. or four blocks of pine- wood 7-^"x6"x Sketch design upon the wood. III. Ground Create out. one into/another. . instance with one clear outline.-xii. The surface of Fig. ix. Figs. ix.e. and xi.ve the same forms. merge !. in each ix. and XI.
xii. Fig. Make more stems. Figs. X. the least The additional lines. Undercut. 59 their and xii. may than those in carving yet nothing a beautiful form "completed" must be the basis of operation. I. xi. interesting by addition of &c. will be noticed that the small corners are rounded off. ' Remarks. cuts. must tend to radiate from or to the . stems. have had edges 2 broken and surface treated with gouges and 4 gouges treated . but not at the cost of in destroying the original form degree. the surface treated with 2. etc. edges and surface It with gouge No. 2. repeated —form lines. first. Fig. 4 . also notice the effects gained by vary- ing the width of bevel on the edges.. in — As less every leaf upon the tree so varies form. and it cannot be too often details afterwards... WORKING DIRECTIONS.
if -possible. Complete by merging the forms thus .. ..express the contour : . form.. V tool round the lines as before. :' . Mark Take design upon the wood. 'WOOD CARVING. In this exercise the student is givep scope for experimentirig. .as to the relative value of different rnenting will tools. various stages like ' .. iv. of the.. . The result of experi- be more pleasing than the ' working of Fig.. . IV. as at CC. . Materials: Block of pine-wood 7^"x6"x i". and.6o centre. has been. done. .. : throw or form. Free the leaf-form . A its \ by cutting some of the wood away. to Give the side leaves ' a" . as at B B. little more _ . PLATE ': IV. Treat the centre in Fig. < :^ . . then ground out.
Fig. — The in value of this exercise is" the combination of previous work. xiy. Playfully treat the surface. from a form point of view. many times with no appreciable it He in is too fond of touching up. the best plan to adopt in working any design feature. Generally speaking.WORKING DIRECTIONS. and undercut. and often he finds himself going over his work result.-xii. and over the . as shown in Bevel the edges. afterwards paying heed to the smaller features. Remarks. but of much more Importance is it one for developing concentration of thought upon a given feature in a design. produced. putting all a cut here and there. is to single out its main line or making that successful first. as shown E £". Figs. is The average very student wanting in method. ix. 63 at CD B.
etc.64 panel. requires more of. in and so on. and thrash features . down. perhaps. none other than taking up one after the in or main features have been roughed it "boasted." and with finish every putting cut it it may be capable of doing. This method. is The main next best method to begin out at its the root of the design. afterwards complete the^ smaller features. The is royal road to finishing carved. self-control than the amateur tion is is capable because the tempta- very great to pick up a tool just to take out one little bit. expressing want of continuity finishing. thus in wool) cArving. work tool. . method of working. only to take up another. etc. the next usefulness.
6"x6"xi". Sketch design upon
With gouge No,
gradually to B, and
then falling to
ing to this
hollow thus created, which
done by softening
the ridge between
them and the
Material, 7i"^7i"xi". as
Bevel the edges and undercut.
Figs. XVIII., XIX.
the addition at each corner,
above design (Fig.
a different effect
E F G,
repeat of cut
has been continued or run through
H H H,
very useful as a
building up designs
drawing depends upon
a true decided sweep-cut none
or cut, of a design suggests weakfinish
no amount of
for the defect.
preferable to the well-clothed but deformed
skeleton, from a designer's standpoint.
student's taste, in that he
his fancy suggests
reference to the illustrations, Figs.
be noticed that some of
the hard lines in Figs. xvi. and xviii. have
been retained, but so modified as to give
Their retention depends
upon the student's
as to appear part of the form.
not too obtrusive, these lines improve the
not by covering the
with lines and cuts that poor forms are
such treatment emphasises
in that respect.
A good form creates
the student will but
listen to its
appeal for just sufficient detail to
look interesting, and no more.
Notice that the lines are not continuous,
give you various treat-
each varying in strength
of tool marks.
Sketch design upon wood, and as large
Free the centre
by cutting the material
Treat each one exactly as Figs.
The same purpose
served and the same
instructions as for Plate
Figs, xxiii., XXIV.
Material: Pine- wood, 6"x6"xi".
With gouge No.
one cut from
to M. Remarks. Also notice that the touches upon the prominent are only sufficient for the purpose continuation. 2. xxv. B and D under A. AA is lowered to pass underneath C. JLMK. and xxvi. to 2. — In Figs. parts their and high at RPQNO. Notice the contrast : down at I G H. 73 With gouge No. Fig. With gouge No. with no corresponding advantage to the general effect.. The idea suggested is that of interlacing. Pine.wood. if any at all. may . to Z. PLATE Material : VII. one cut from J. one cut from J. XXV. M. would be troublesome at least. . to K. WORKING DIRECTIONS. from a technique point of view. 6" x 6" x 1" Sketch and ground out design as large as wood allows.
. Each form ii. down at G H. different mechanical latter In the former. K L. up. ornament goes make and what holds good in in flat also holds good principle is modelled ornament. XXV. has been added the principle evolved Fig.. of beautiful forms the creation subject to others in contact. far to The it interlacing of interesting. This i. central lines being most . i.74 WOOD the line CARVING. to /. in. is taken as Fig. gradually from G the same at MM. involved in this exercise.e. in.. and treated as Figs. II. be seen dividing the good and indifferent worker. In the may be seen the sympathetic worker and his treatment of the same design. The surfaces of these twisting forms are less as treated more or suggested on Plate in evidence. as a contrast. . the in- worker is seen. To in the mechanical interlacing of Fig.
A .Plate VII.
cut. is is a combination of Fig. . or lime. to which added open scrolls. suggests method of working. and not round cuts on the surface of the forms too much of each feature. out. XXVI. the continuity of forms in the interlace of the same. PLATE Wood — 7-^"x6"x Fig. with opposite will side L as high as the wood allow . The outer side of example being unfinished. XXVII. and this is not the purpose of details notice also the bevelled edges. Fig. XXXVI. .. Lower the wood at A. as it is quite possible to completely disguise those forms beyond recognition.WORKING DIRECTIONS. contrast. Undercut. VIII. the throw or spirit of the work. as on Plate II. i" — pine. Ground With at tool No 2 take one sweep as B. alder. Notice the combination of ']'] hollow .
Fig. Remarks. Free the corner at D. keeping the outer edge well up. The main stem down at J H I. with opposite sides contrasting. Merge XVI. Wood. 7"x5"x is i". Fig. Figs. leaves — These showing. gradually rising to K. Fig. cuts F and G may be Undercut. as in B D. produced. XXX. as a contrast to part going under at y^. Fig. With same gouge. self- they how and stems may break away from each other. From J.78 WOOD CARVING. must . Double arrangement of Fig. XXVII. examples as are do. XXVIII. cut B into C. Wood. Leaves. XXVIII. half clothed with a leaf. XXIX. is a broad stem A. 8"x6"xi".-XIX. explanatory. being details.
XXIX. which projects to the full extent of material. up at O. also the junction of two stems. about. at seen on Plate the main stem being taken to down E. XXVII. and the play of applied. J K.e. in.. partake of the same form at tion their carries junc- with the stem. which the design onward. as are completed. gradually springing specially away from articulated. the stem.. shows a double arrangement of Fig. Notice the throw of same. The forms tools. down at M and N. XXX. and and twisting a leaf thrown partaking of that same twist as at Fig.WORKING DIRECTIONS. shows stem bending over. XXVIII. i. unless when Fig. . as a contrast L. Fig.
). s^g" Wood kauri-pine . The is border. which themselves are smaller leaves or compounds of iv). the corner pieces. the former treatment. leaf forms.— 82 WOOD CARVING. This is a combination previous exercises. by application of details in (Plate viii.the surface. become groups (Fig. of all alder. opened and clothed . The main stem out the is Fig. other than suggestiveness of too much "frame. PLATE IX. or working within a margin. . -12" X 12" X — walnut. the latter for preference. xviii. it There is no objecto the its tion to being cut straight down ground at the margin line. and thereby brought up certainly looks better than to ." The ground. if curved. first introduced here.
This . as convenient with same do whilst admitting that tool 2 will it this quicker. Use the largest tools where In possible for cleaning up the ground. wherever until it will go.WORKING DIRECTIONS. No. 2. places where the design passes over other it portions. lines This done. in the cutting. Begin with 6. yet affords an opportunity for further practice. is not necessary to set in other to than deep enough retain the lines of pattern. then tool the and so on. removing much ground f" deep tool . the lines of design are clearly defined. notice that the forms have been produced by a cut with tool taken along the back or outside scroll edge of the or main stem. Proceed as before with as 85 V tool. Begin with the main feature first — the stem —and. by carefully setting cutting firmly down tool I to the depth required. trim up the in.
suggesting coming from underneath. . Wood oak. fully The inner edge of to up from beginning end. the Plate viii. No. calls for no further comment. Remove its the wood at points J. being much and in evidence. will supply other details for cutting.86 WOOD is CARVING. into and the remainder of centre softened it. other than no motive as is a scroll so useful to practise upon for the production of good sweeping cuts. at remembering the necessary contrast Reference to K. walnut. Being self explanatory. Notice that C D is taken down. down to the in ground each A CE to is gradually rising instance coil B D F H. — I 1 2" X 7!" X 5//' — kauri. cut varied at by being G. Side tool A is merely roughed in or boasted. PLATE X.
F?^ nxn ^ • > '''"1 "^^' 'f ^ /L^ \ ^ ^ \ PUATE X .
^'^5^^'"'""^ T'-K^TWR Plate XI. .
with as Figs. XXX. xxvi.WORKING DIRECTIONS. QX PLATE XI. in evidence at the root of pattern.. is built up of details in combination lengthened xxiii. Wood— At 1 2" X 1 2" X =//'— oak. Fig. B may be out the seen the earlier stage of design preparatory to boasting finishing. is Portion at A completed. and points C up. Notice points at at D are down. the main foliated stem. ends. . The design .-xxiv. Fig.
The conventional square leaf-forms cloth- ing the stems are but suggestions. singly and in com- pound. More elaborate details. 9"x6"x i". XII. the design under another is not The designer fixes those conditions. The student must accept them. The additional designs found in the set of working drawings may be worked : as the student feels inclined to do remembering. -XXXV.92 WOOD CARVING. and his beautiful set about to create forms under the given circum- stances of line arrangement. xxxvii. form Fig. xxxvi. that merely laying one piece of all. See Plate vii. etc.. . Within those outlines may be sketched and cut such elaborate details as the acanthus foliage. j". Fig. XXXVII. Fig. PLATE Figs. —wood. XXXIV. as he must. 9"x9"x Oak wood.
FtdXKAA^ ^_J Plate XII. .
: PLYMOUTH WILLIAM BRENDON AND SON. PRINTERS. .
in Fine. (MR. Panels. Sharpening Paste.— IV|anual Trailing Tool CCABVEB STREET. ground. . 5 -. ready for use. Brackets. Small Grindstones. Carving. Bookshelves and Racks. Set B. 15/-.— 24 Oak. — A handsome tool. SLIPS.—Mr. Corner Cupboard. round.L EIKDS OF MANTTAL WORE. PANELS. and carefully planed. SHEFFIELD.— Set Set of 4 Tools.— First 7 Casts.— Set of Objects Carving in preparation. Table Top. etc. 2/9. " Course of Wood ^y CASTS for same: Set a. Strops. V Tool. ^'' ^"^^^^^^- CARVING TOOLS.) Mr. Alder. GEM MALLET. Coal Box. polished head." J. Set of — 16 : Full Size of Casts. and Screws. PHILLIPS' SET. J. Carver's Clips. Stones. Chair Backs. 17/6. including 10 1/-. 20 Objects. Phillips' Set of 10 Tools. Wood well seasoned. BOOK. Shaded Workiiig Drawings. — CLASSES COMPLETELY FITTED FOR CARVING AND AI. to cover Phillips' Complete Course. 2/6. and specially sharpened. V 9 • CHIP CABVING. Cramps. Illustrated List on Application. sent out handled. Phillips' 3/6. Kauri. and Any Size Panel to Order. including Mirror and Photo Frames. for OBJECTS FOB CABVING. 5 Advanced Casts. of 4 Arkansas.
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