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Simple Switch Mode Power Supply

The SMPS described here is suit-able for high-wattage stereos and other similar equipment. The circuit employs two high-voltage power transistors (BU208D) which have built-in re-verse-connected diodes across their collectors and emitters. It can supply about 250-watt out-put. The circuit uses a ferrite core transformer of 14mm width, 20mm height, and 42mm length of E-E cores. An air gap of 0.5 mm is required between E-E junctions. Good insulation using plastic-insulating sheets (Mylar) is to be maintained between each layer of winding. Circuit diagram:

Simple Switch Mode Power Supply Circuit Diagram

The number of primary turns required is 90 with 26 SWG wire. The secondary winding employs 17 SWG wire (for 4A load current). Each turn of the secondary develops approximately 2 volts. The reader can decide about the output volt-age and the corresponding secondary turns, which would work out to be half the desired secondary voltage. The volt-age rating of capacitors C7 and C8 should be

at least twice the secondary output of each secondary section. BY396 rectifier diodes shown on the secondary side can be used for a maximum load current of 3 amperes.

Two feedback windings (L1 and L2) using two turns each of 19 SWG wire are wound on the same core. These windings are connected to transistors T1 and T2 with a phase difference of 180o, as shown by the polarity dots in the figure. First wind the primary winding (90 turns using 26 SWG wire) on the former. Then wind the two feedback windings over the secondary (output). Ensure that each winding is separated by an insulation layer. Two separate heat sinks are to be pro-vided for the two transistors (BU208D).

The filter capacitor for mains should be of at least 47F, 350V rating. It is better to use a 100F, 350V capacitor. If the output is short-circuited by less than 8-ohm load, the SMPS would automatically turn off because of the absence of base current. The hfe min (current amplification factor) of BU208D is 2.5. Thus, sufficient base current is required for fully saturated operation, otherwise the transistors get over-heated. At times, due to use of very high value of capacitors C7 and C8 (say 2200mF or so) on the secondary side or due to low load, the oscillations may cease on the primary side. This can be rectified by increasing the value of capacitor C6 to 0.01mF.


Author : Deepu P.A.- Copyright : Electronic for you

Dual Mode Battery Charger There are two main types of battery charger constant voltage and constant current. Both have their advantages and disadvantages. For constant voltage, the battery cannot be overcharged but the charging rate is slow. Constant current mode can charge batteries more swiftly but there is the danger of overcharging them. The dual mode battery charger circuit featured here was designed to combine both modes, but without their disadvantages, for use with a 6V sealed lead-acid battery. The main players of the circuit are voltage regulator IC1, which is used for constant current mode, and precision adjustable shunt regulator IC2, which is used for constant voltage mode. In constant current mode, resistor R4 sets the current at 370mA, according to the equation:

R4 = (1.25/I) x 1000

where I = the constant current required, in milliamps. Battery charger circuit diagram

Diode D3 prevents the battery from discharging back into IC1 if the input supply is disconnected. Resistor R3 provides current to switch one transistor TR1 when the input supply is present. Shunt regulator IC2, resistors R6, R7 and preset potentiometer VR1 form the network which determines whether on not the battery has reached its required voltage. When the voltage at IC2s reference input reaches 2.5V, IC2 switches on its internal transistor, connecting IC1s ADJ (adjust) pin to 0V. In this condition, IC2 holds IC1 in constant current supply mode. Capacitor C3 helps to stabilise the switching of IC2.

Capacitor C1 and C2 decouple the DC input supply voltage. Light emitting diode D1 is a power-on indicator, and LED D2 is turned on when constant voltage mode is activated. A heatsink may be needed with IC1. In use, adjust preset VR1 so that the voltage at the output suits the peak voltage required by the sealed lead-acid battery, which is usually printed on its body. Once adjusted correctly, it should not need further adjustment.

The authos used a 12V 600mA DC adapter for powering the dual mode battery charger circuit. The battery with which it is used has a peak voltage range of 6.9V to 7.12V.