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- 6

You are on page 1of 61

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.1.1 GENERAL:

In this project a Higher secondary school building of G+3 floors has taken.In this building there are

three floors.. Total build up area is 98425.5 sq.ft.In this higher secondary school building there are

24 class rooms , four labs and one principal and office room.Separate toilet facilities for both staffs

and students are provided. Two Dog legged Staircase are provided in this building for easy

assessable of various floors.

A structure is an assembly of number of members such as slabs, beams, columns, walls, etc,

proportioned to resist the loads and forces, changes in climate conditions such as temperature, rain

fall, etc.

Design of a structure includes assessing the loads and providing members of sufficient proportions to

resist the assessed loads with a sufficient margin of safety.A structure is said to be efficiently design

if all the members are so arranged that they transit their self weight and other imposed loads to

foundation and supporting structures by cost effectively, so as to satisfy the requirement of

architecture, structural stability and the nature of the site with sufficient safety.In addition to

engineering calculation, experience and good judgment may also do much towards safety and

economy of the structure.

The plan is for implementing in the Higher secondary school system with all services for

accommodating Three floors. The vertical circulation between different floors is achieved by the

provision of staircase

SLAB:

Slabs are plate elements forming floors and roof of building and carrying loads by flexure. A

slab is supported by T-beam in this project.

FRAMES:

Structurally, building may consist of load bearing walls and floors. The floor slabs may be

supported on column. The frame is designed for all the vertical loads and also horizontal loads. A

frame consist of columns and beams built monolithically, forming a network of three dimensions.

The loads are evenly distributed to the structure is not only safer but also economical.

COLUMNS:

The column is an element used primarily for axial compressive loads, with a height of the least

three times its lateral dimension. All columns are subjected to some moments, which may be due to

accidental eccentricity or due to the end restraint imposed by monolithically placed beams or slabs.

In this project columns are designed as short columns with axial load and biaxial bending.

FOUNDATION:

Foundations are structural elements that transfer loads from the columns to the subsoil. In this

project foundation are designed as mat foundation.

STAIRCASE:

Staircase consists of steps arranged in a series for purpose of giving access to the different floors

of buildings. In this project the staircase is designed as a dog legged staircase.

1.1.3 PLAN :

ELEVATION

Fig 5.Elevation

CHAPTER 2

2.2 DESIGN OF SLAB

2.1.1 GROUPING OF SLABS:

TYPE

S1

DIMENSION

(m)

9X8

CONDITIONS

Two adjacent edges

discontinuous

S2

9 X 10

discontinuous

S3

7X8

S4

3X3

S5

5X8

S6

7X3

DETAILING OF SLAB

Using Datas:

Lx=9m

Ly=8m

M20 Grade concrete fCk=20 N/mm2

Fe415 Grade Steel

Ly/Lx=9/8=1.125<2

Then the slab is 2-way slab.

Slab is continous slab.

Span/Depth=40

8000/d=40

D= 8000/40=200

Assume effective depth,d=200mm

Overall depth D=d+cover+/2

=200+20+10/2

D=225mm

Effective Span=Clear Span+effective depth

=8+0.2

L=8.20m

Self Weight=5.62kN/m

Live Load=4kN/m

10

fy=415N/mm2

Total load W=10.62 kN/m

Factored Load=1.5x10.62kN/m=Wu=15.93 kN/m

X

1.1

=0.040

1.2

=0.045

0.035

1.125 = X

X =0.04125

(Mu)X=X WUlx2

=29.45kN-m

(Mu)y=Y Wulx2

=24.99kN-m

(xu max/d value is given on pg no-70 IS 456-2000)

Mulim=0.138 fck bd2=0.138*20*1000*200

=55.18 kN-m

MU lim >Mu x Hence Safe.

STEP6:TENSION REINFORCEMENT

SHORTER DIRECTION :

(Page No-96 IS 456-2000)

Mu x=0.87fy Astx d (1-Astx fy/bd fCK)

29.45*10^6=0.87*415*Astx *200(1-Astx*415/1000*200*20)

29.45*10^6=72210 Astx-7.492Astx2

Astx=424mm2=450mm2

11

Spacing in shorter direction=1000*ast/Ast=290mm =300mm

Provide 12mm bars at 300mm spacing in shorter direction

LONGER DIRECTION:

Mu y=0.87fyAstyd(1-Ast fY/bd fck)

24.99*10^6=0.87*415*Asty*200(1-Asty*415/1000*200*20)

Asty=359mm2

Assume 10 mm bars

Spacing=1000*ast/Ast

=218=250mm

Provide 10mm at 250mm spacing in longer direction

(TABLE 19 IS 456-2000)

TV=VU/bd

=wl2/bd

=15.93*8.2/2/1000*200=0.64

USING IS 456:2000

0.5 -0.48

0.75-0.56

0.64 - X

Tc=0.52N/mm2

Hence Safe.

STEP8:TENSION REINFORCEMENT

Tension reinforcement=0.75*Ast x

=0.75*450

=340mm2

Assume 8mm dia bars spacing at 175mm c/c.

(PG NO-38 IS 456:2000)

(l/d)max=(l/d)basic*kt*kc*kf

Pt=0.564%

kc=1,kf=1, kt=1

(l/d)max=28*1*1*1=28

(l/d)pro =8200/165=49.49

12

13

SLAB NO

SPAN

W

KN/m2

SIZE

m

SHORT

S1

12.56

9x8

LONG

SHORT

S2

12.562

9x10

LONG

SHORT

S3

12.562

7x8

12.562

5x3

LONG

SHORT

S4

LONG

SHORT

S5

12.562

5x8

LONG

SHORT

S6

12.562

LONG

7x3

B.M.

KN.m

24.99

29.45

24.99

29.45

16.63

45.04

16.63

45.04

18.11

31.04

18.11

31.04

9.42

24.83

10mm 250mm c/c

12mm 270mm c/c

10mm 250mm c/c

12mm 300mm c/c

10mm 250mm c/c

12mm 160mm c/c

19.68

14.89

9.42

24.83

9.42

24.83

16.2

58.01

16.2

58.01

14

SPACING

2.2.1 GROUPING DIAGRAM OF BEAMS

15

CROSS SECTIONAL DIMENSION:

For continuous beam span/depth ratio is 26(IS456:2000 cl,23.2.1)

Span/Depth = 26

8000/d = 26

Take d = 550mm.

Overall depth,D = d+25+20/2

D=585mm.

Assume b = 400.

EFFECTIVE SPAN:

Clear span+d = 10+0.4 = 10.4m

C/c of support = 10+0.2 = 10.2m

L = 10.2m

LOAD CALCULATION:

Self wt. of beam = b*d*25 = 0.4*0.585*25

= 6.35 kN/m

Live load

= 3kN/m

W = 9.35 kN/m

Factored load,Wu = 1.5*9.35

=14.025 kN/m

service load=43.17 kN/m

Mu= Wu*l2/8 = 43.17*82/8 =345.36kNm

Vu = Wu*l/8 = 43.17*8/8 =172.68kN

Mu lim=0.138fckbd2

345.36*106 = 0.138(20)(400) d2

16

d = 529.3mm <585mm

Hence safe.

TENSION REINFORCEMENT:

Mu=0.87fyAstd(1-(Ast*fy)/bdfck)

Ast=1909mm2

Assume 16mm dia. Bars

No. of bars,n= Ast /ast

=6 no.

Provide 6 bars of 16mm dia.

SHEAR STRESS:

Tv=vu/bd = 172.6*103/(400*585)

=0.51N/mm2

Pt=100 Ast /bd = 0.75

From table 19,IS456:2000

Tc=0.605N/mm2

Tv c Hence safe.

SHEAR REINFORCEMENT:

Asv/bsv=0.4/0.8fy

Asv=2 legged 8mm dia bars = 100mm2

sv=207.5mm or 208mm

As per IS code

sv =0.75d=450mm

sv =300mm

Provide 2 legged 8mm dia bars @210mm spacing.

17

18

TYPE

DIMENSIONS

FACTORED

LOAD

TENSION

COMPRESSION

KN/m

REINFORC

EMENT

REINFORCEME

NT

SHEAR

REINFORCEMENT

B1

400*585

43.175

6-16mm

2-12mm

8mm @210mm

c/c spacing

B2

400*585

28.88

4-16mm

4-12mm

8mm @150mm

c/c spacing

B3

400*585

36.78

6-16mm

4-12mm

8mm @150mm

c/c spacing

B4

400*585

46.31

4-16mm

4-12mm

8mm @170mm

c/c spacing

B5

400*585

49.84

2-16mm

2-12mm

8mm @200mm

c/c spacing

B6

400*585

56.17

2-16mm

2-12mm

8mm @200mm

c/c spacing

19

20

2.3.1 GROUPING OF COLUMNS:

21

Data:

Column size

=400*600mm

=1200kN

Length,L

=4m

Fck

=20 N/mm2

Fy

=415 N/mm2

Solution:

Here b=400mm,D=600mm,Pu=1800kN

Kx=lex/D=4000/600=6.67<12

Ky=ley/b=4000/400=10<12

Hence the column is designed as short column

Ex,min=[le/500 +D/30]

=[4000/500 +600/30]

=8+20=28

Ey,min=[le/500 +b/30]

=[4000/500 +400/30]

=8+13.33

=21.33

Conditions:

0.05D=0.05*600=30

0.05b=0.05*400=20

22

Pu=0.4fck*Ac+(0.67fy*Asc)

1800*10^3=0.4*20*400*600+(0.67*415Asc)

Asc=2323mm2

Assume diameter of bars=25mm

ast=(*25^2)/4=490mm2

number of bars=3323/490

=8 bars

Provide 8 number of bars of 25mm diameter

Check for minimum reinforcement=0.8%

Asc,min =0.8/100*(400*600)=1920mm2

Here we take Asc=2323mm2

Diameter=1/4 of diameter of bars

=1/4*25

=6.25mm

Use 8mm diameter ties

Pitch or spacing

(i)ties spacing,b=400mm

(ii)16 times the smallest diameter=16*25=400mm

(iii)300mm

Take only the least value for spacing

Spacing=300mm

Provide 8mm diameter ties @300mm c/c distance

23

24

2.4 ANALYSIS

2.4.1 ANALYSIS OF FRAMES

4kN/M

7m

MFAB=MFBA=0

MFCD=MFDC=0

MFBC=-wl2/12=-4*72/12=-16.33kN-m

MFCB=+wl2/12=+4*72/12=+16.33kN-m

STEP 2:SLOPE DEFLECTION EQUATION

MAB=MFAB+2EI/l[2A+ B]

=2EI/4[B]

=0.5EI B

MBA=MFBA+2EI/l[2B+ C]

=2EI/4[2B]

=EIB

MBC=MFBC+2EI/l[2 B+ C]

=-16.33+2EI/7[2B+ C]

=-16.33+0.57EI B+0.29EIC

MCB=MFCB+2EI/l[2 C+ B]

=16.33+2EI/7[2C+ B]

=16.33+0.57EIC+0.29EIB

MCD=MFCD+2EI/l[2 C + D-3]

=2EI/4[2 C]

25

=EI C

MDC=MFDC +2EI/l[2 D+ C -3]

=2EI/4[C]

=0.5EI C

(i)MBA+MBC=0

(ii)MCB+MCD=0

(i)1.57EI B+0.29EI C =16.33

(ii)0.29EI B+1.57EI C=-16.33

Solving the above equations

B =12.76/EI

C = -12.76/EI

MAB=0.5*12.76

=6.38kN-m

MBA=1*12.76

=12.76kN-m

MBC=-16.33+0.5*12.76-0.29*12.76

=-12.76kN-m

MCB=16.33-0.57*12.76+0.29*12.76

=12.76kN-m

MCD=1*(-12.76)

=-12.76kN-m

MDC=-0.5*12.76

=-6.38kN-m

26

27

MFAB=MFBA=0

MFCD=MFDC=0

MFBC=-wl2/12=-4*52/12=-8.33kN-m

MFCB=+wl2/12=+4*52/12=+8.33kN-m

STEP 2:SLOPE DEFLECTION EQUATION

MAB=MFAB+2EI/l[2A+ B]

=2EI/4[B]

=0.5EI B

MBA=MFBA+2EI/l[2B+ C]

=2EI/4[2B]

=EIB

MBC=MFBC+2EI/l[2 B+ C]

=-8.33+2EI/5[2B+ C]

=-8.33+0.8EI B+0.4EI c

MCB=MFCB+2EI/l[2 C+ B]

=8.33+2EI/5[2B+ C]

=8.33+0.8EI B+0.4EI c

28

MCD=MFCD+2EI/l[2 C + D-3]

=2EI/4[2 C]

=EI C

MDC=MFDC +2EI/l[2 D+ C -3]

=2EI/4[C]

=0.5EI C

STEP 3:EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS

(i)MBA+MBC=0

(ii)MCB+MCD=0

(i)1.8EI B+0.4EI C =8.33

(ii)0.4EI B+1.8EI C=-8.33

Solving the above equations

B =5.95/EI

C = -5.95/EI

STEP 4:MOMENT CALCULATIONS

MAB=0.5*5.95

=2.975kN-m

MBA=1*5.95

=5.95kN-m

MBC=-8.33+0.8*5.95 +0.4(-5.95)

=-5.95kN-m

=5.95kN-m

MCD=1*(-5.95)

=-5.95kN-m

MDC=-0.5*5.95

=-2.975kN-m

29

30

MFAB=MFBA=0

MFCD=MFDC=0

MFBC=-wl2/12=-4*62/12=-12kN-m

MFCB=+wl2/12=+4*62/12=+12kN-m

STEP 2:SLOPE DEFLECTION EQUATION

MAB=MFAB+2EI/l[2A+ B]

=2EI/4[B]

=0.5EI B

MBA=MFBA+2EI/l[2B+ C]

=2EI/4[2B]

=EIB

MBC=MFBC+2EI/l[2 B+ C]

=-12+0.67EI/6[2B+ C]

=-12+0.67EI B+0.33EI c

MCB=MFCB+2EI/l[2 C+ B]

=12+2EI/6[2B+ C]

=12+0.33EI B+0.67EI c

MCD=MFCD+2EI/l[2 C + D-3]

=2EI/4[2 C]

=EI C

31

=2EI/4[C]

=0.5EI C

STEP 3:EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS

(i)MBA+MBC=0

(ii)MCB+MCD=0

(i)1.67EI B+0.33EI C =12

(ii)0.33EI B+1.67EI C=-12

Solving the above equations

B =8.95/EI

C = -8.95/EI

STEP 4:MOMENT CALCULATIONS

MAB=0.5*8.95

=4.48kN-m

MBA=1*8.95

=8.95kN-m

MBC=-12+0.67*8.95 +0.33(-8.95)

=-8.95kN-m

=8.95kN-m

MCD=1*(-8.95)

=-8.95kN-m

MDC=-0.5*8.95

=-4.48kN-m

32

33

MFAB=MFBA=0

MFCD=MFDC=0

MFBC=-wl2/12=-4*32/12=-3kN-m

MFCB=+wl2/12=+4*32/12=+3kN-m

STEP 2:SLOPE DEFLECTION EQUATION

MAB=MFAB+2EI/l[2A+ B]

=2EI/4[B]

=0.5EI B

MBA=MFBA+2EI/l[2B+ C]

=2EI/4[2B]

=EIB

MBC=MFBC+2EI/l[2 B+ C]

=-3+1.33EI/3[2B+ C]

=-3+1.33EI B+0.67EI c

34

MCB=MFCB+2EI/l[2 C+ B]

=3+2EI/3[2B+ C]

=3+0.67EI B+1.33EI c

MCD=MFCD+2EI/l[2 C + D-3]

=2EI/4[2 C]

=EI C

MDC=MFDC +2EI/l[2 D+ C -3]

=2EI/4[C]

=0.5EI C

STEP 3:EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS

(i)MBA+MBC=0

(ii)MCB+MCD=0

(i)2.33EI B+0.67EI C =3

(ii)0.67EI B+2.33EI C=-3

Solving the above equations

B =1.8/EI

C = -1.8/EI

STEP 4:MOMENT CALCULATIONS

MAB=0.5*1.8

=0.9kN-m

MBA=1*1.8

=1.8kN-m

MBC=-3+1.33*1.8 +0.67(-1.8)

=-1.8kN-m

=1.8kN-m

MCD=1*(-1.8)

=-1.8kN-m

MDC=-0.5*1.8

=-0.9kN-m

35

36

MFAB=MFBA=0

MFCD=MFDC=0

MFBC=-wl2/12=-4*82/12=-21.33kN-m

MFCB=+wl2/12=+4*82/12=+21.33kN-m

STEP 2:SLOPE DEFLECTION EQUATION

MAB=MFAB+2EI/l[2A+ B]

=2EI/4[B]

=0.5EI B

MBA=MFBA+2EI/l[2B+ C]

=2EI/4[2B]

=EIB

MBC=MFBC+2EI/l[2 B+ C]

=-21.33+0.5EI B+0.25EI c

MCB=MFCB+2EI/l[2 C+ B]

=21.33+0.25EI B+0.5EI c

MCD=MFCD+2EI/l[2 C + D-3]

37

=2EI/4[2 C]

=EI C

MDC=MFDC +2EI/l[2 D+ C -3]

=2EI/4[C]

=0.5EI C

STEP 3:EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS

(i)MBA+MBC=0

(ii)MCB+MCD=0

(i)1.5EI B+0.25EI C =21.33

(ii)0.25EI B+1.5EI C=-21.33

Solving the above equations

B =17.06/EI

C = -17.06/EI

STEP 4:MOMENT CALCULATIONS

MAB=0.5*17.06

=8.53kN-m

MBA=1*17.06

=17.06kN-m

MBC=-21.33+0.5*17.06 +0.25(-17.06)

=-17.06kN-m

=17.06kN-m

MCD=1*(-17.06)

=-17.06kN-m

MDC=-0.5*17.06

=-8.53kN-m

38

39

MFAB=MFBA=0

MFCD=MFDC=0

MFBC=-wl2/12=-4*102/12=-33.33kN-m

MFCB=+wl2/12=+4*102/12=+33.33kN-m

STEP 2:SLOPE DEFLECTION EQUATION

MAB=MFAB+2EI/l[2A+ B]

=2EI/4[B]

=0.5EI B

MBA=MFBA+2EI/l[2B+ C]

=2EI/4[2B]

=EIB

MBC=MFBC+2EI/l[2 B+ C]

=-33.33+0.4EI B+0.2EI c

MCB=MFCB+2EI/l[2 C+ B]

=33.33+0.2EI B+0.4EI c

MCD=MFCD+2EI/l[2 C + D-3]

40

=2EI/4[2 C]

=EI C

MDC=MFDC +2EI/l[2 D+ C -3]

=2EI/4[C]

=0.5EI C

STEP 3:EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS

(i)MBA+MBC=0

(ii)MCB+MCD=0

(i)1.4EI B+0.2EI C =33.33

(ii)0.2EI B+1.4EI C=-33.33

Solving the above equations

B =27.77/EI

C = -27.77/EI

STEP 4:MOMENT CALCULATIONS

MAB=0.5*27.77

=13.88kN-m

MBA=1*27.77

=27.77kN-m

MBC=-33.33+0.4*27.77 +0.2(-27.77)

=-27.77kN-m

=27.77kN-m

MCD=1*(-27.77)

=-27.77kN-m

MDC=-0.5*27.77

=-13.88kN-m

41

42

2.5.1 DESIGN DETAILS:

TYPE OF FOUNDATION-ISOLATED FOOTING

DESIGN OF FOOTING

SIZE OF FOOTING

Total load = column load + 10% of the same for s.w of footing

=1200+120

Total load =1320kN

Area=Total load/SBC

=1320/ 250

Area=5.28m2

Breadth to length ratio B/L = 400/600

=2/3

L=3B/2

B*L=5.28 m2

B=3.52m

L=5.28m

Provide size of the footing is 3.52mx5.28m

UPWARD PRESSURE

qu =

=

qu = 97kN/m2 < SBC

43

BENDING MOMENT

X = 1.56m

Mx1 = qu x shaded Area x C.G

=97x1.56x5.28x(1.56/2)

Mx1=623.19 kNm

Mx2=97x2.34x3.52x(2.34/2)

=934.79kNm

DEPTH OF FOOTING

Mulim = 0.138fckbd2

934.79x106 = 0.138(20)(1560)d2

D=465mm

Assume,D=500mm

d = D-50-(20/2)

= 500-50-10

=440mm

REINFORCEMENT

Mx1 = 0.87fyAstd(1- (ASTfy / bdfck))

934.79x106 = 0.87(415)(AST)(440)(1 (415AST/5280(440)(20)))

AST1 = 4070mm2

No. of bars = AST1/ast = 4070/(490) = 8rods

934.79x106 = 0.87(415)(AST)(440)(1 (415AST/3520(440)(20)))

AST2 = 6437mm2

44

Vu = quxshaded area

=97x1.9x3.52

Vu=648.74kN

=Vu/bd

=648.74x103/(3520x440)

v

= 0.42 N/mm2

pt = 100AST/bd

pt = 100(4070)/3520(440)

pt=0.26

= 0.45 N/mm2

Ks=1

<Ks.

Design is safe

Vu=qu x shaded area

Vu=97((5.28x3.52)-(0.84x1.04))

Vu=1718kN

=Vu/bd

=1718x103/(5280x440)

45

=0.6

Ks=0.5+c

=0.5+(0.4/0.4)

Ks=1.5

K s should be always <1

K s =1

=0.25 fck

=0.25 20

=1.12

<Ks.

Hence safe

46

47

2.6.1 DESIGN DETAILS:

DATA

Height between the floors=4m

Tread=300mm

Rise=200mm

Width of flight = Landing width =1.25m

Masonry wall =230mm

EFFECTIVE DEPTH:

No. of steps=Height b/w floors

Rise

=4/0.2= 20

10 no. of steps are used for first flight & other 10 no.s for second flight.

Length of staircase = 1.25+(0.3*9)+1.25+0.23

= 5.43m

Assume l/d =20

5.43/d=20

48

d=0.27m

d=271mm.

Overall depth,D=271+20+10/2

D=296mm

LOAD CALCULATION:

1)Load on going

Self wt. of Waist slab=25t 1+(R/T) 2

=8.89 KN/

Self wt. of steps= 25*R/2

=25*0.2/2

=2.5KN/m

Assume F.F.=0.6 KN/

L.L =5 KN/

Total load =(8.89+2.5+0.6+5)

=16.99KN/

Self wt. of slab =25*0.296=7.4 KN/

Total load =(7.4+0.5+5)=13 KN/

MOMENT CALCULATION:

49

v=0

RA+RB=81.36

Moment about B

RA*5.43-(13*1.365)*(1.365/2+4.065)-(16.99*2.7)*2.7/2+1.36513(1.365)*1.365/2=0

5.43 RA-84.24-124.5-12.11=0

RA=40.67KN.

WE KNOW THAT:

RA+RB=81.36

40.67+ RB=81.36

RB=40.67KN.

Maximum Bending Moment@centre

=(16.99*1.35)*1.35/2+(13*1.365)*(1.365/2+1.35)- RB*2.715

=15.48+36.06-11.04

M=58.88KN-m

Factored moment,Mu=1.5*58.88

=88.32KN-m

W.K.T Mu=0.87*fy*Ast d(1-Ast fy/bd fck)

Assume M20&Fe415 steel

88.32*10^6=0.87(415)Ast(271)(1-Ast(415)/1000(2 )(20))

88.32*10^6=97844.55Ast-7.5Ast2

Ast=975.6mm2

50

Spacing=1000*

Provide 12mm

/975.6=115.9_115mm

115c/c

DISTRIBUTION OF STEEL:

0.15% OF C/S AREA

=0.15/100*1000*296

AstD=444mm2

Spacing=1000ast/Ast

Assume 8mm

Spacing=1000*

bars

/444

=113.2_110mm

Provide 8mm bars@110c/c

VU/bd

V=

V=MAX REACTION=40.67 KN

51

VU=1.5*40.67=61KN

61*10^3/1000*271=0.22N/mm2

V=

1000Ast/bd=100*975.6/1000*271=0.36

0.25

0.5

0.36

=0.412N/mm2

>

Hence Safe.

52

AND SUNSHADE

53

LOAD CALCULATION

Self weight of beam = 0.3 x 0.2 X 25 =1.5 kN/m

Slab weight

= 13.5 kN/m

Live load

= 4 kN/m

Total load

= 19 kN/m

Factored load

= 1.5 x 19

= 28.5kN/m

BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE

Mu =Wul2 / 8

= 28.5 X 62 / 8

= 128.25 kN/m

Vu =Wul / 2

= 28.5 X 6 / 2

=85.5 kN/m

LIMITING MOMENT OF RESISTANCE

Mu lim =0.138 x 20 x 300 x 2002

= 33.2 kN.m

MAIN REINFORCEMENT

Mu Mu lim= 95.13 kN.m

Fsc = ( 0.0035 (Xu max d) / X u max ) x Es

= 0.0035 x ((0.48 x 300 ) 50) / 0.48 x 250) x ( 2x105)

= 268.33 N/mm2

Fsc>/ 0.87 fy = (0.87 x 415 )

=361 N/mm2

Asc = ((Mu Mu lim) / fsc(d- d))

= (95.13x 106 / 361 x (400 50))

= 1756.69 mm2

No. of bars = Asc /asc

=1756.69 / 314.16

= 5.59 ~ 6

Provide 6 bars of 20 mm on compression side

Ast2 =Asc. Fsc / 0.87 x Fy

= 1756.69 x 361 / 0.87 x 415

= 1756.45 mm2

Ast1 = 0.36 x fck x b x Xulim/ 0.87 x fy

= 0.36 x 20 x 300 x 0.48 x 200 / 0.87 x 415

= 574.32 mm2

54

= 2330.77 mm2

= 2330.77 / 491

= 4.75 ~ 6

Provide 6 no.of 25 mm dia on tension side

SHEAR STRESS

v = Vu / bd

=0.74 N / mm2

Pt = 100 Ast / d x b

= 100 x 3 x 491 / 300 x 200

= 1.23

c = 0.46 N /mm2

Vus= Vu - c b d

= 89.47 x 103 (0.46 x x300 x 200 )

= 34.27 kN

Vus = 0.87 x fy x Asv x d / Sv

34.27 x 103= 0.87 x 415 x (2 x 50 ) x 200 / Sv

Sv = 10831500 / 39200

= 231 mm

Asv / b sv = 0.4 / 0.87 x fy

= 0.87 x 415 x 2 x 50 / 0.4 x 300

= 300.88 mm

Sv = 0.75 x d

= 0.75 x 400

300 mm

Thickness of the sunshade:

Span /depth =12

55

450 /d = 12

d = 37.5 mm , but min d = 100mm

D = d + cover + /2

=100+20+10/2

D=125mm

effective span:

Le = length to the face of the support + d/2

Le = 0.45 + 0.100/2

Le = 0.5m

load calculation:

Self weight + b*d*25 = 1(0.125)(25)

= 3.125 KN/m

Live load

= 2 KN/m

Floor load

=1 KN/m

Total load(w)

= 6.125 KN/m

Factored load wu

Mu = wule2/2 = 9.19(0.52) / 2

Mu = 1.15 KN/m

56

Vu = 4.6 KN

check for depth :

Mu ,lim = 0.138(20)(1000)(1002)

Mu ,lim = 27.6 KN.m > Mu

Design is safe.

Tension reinforcement:

Mu = 0.87 fy Ast d [ 1 Ast fy / bd fck ]

1.15*106 = 0.87(415) Ast(100) [ 1 Ast(415) / 1000(100)(20) ]

1.15*106 = 36105 Ast 7.49 Ast2

Ast = 32.06mm2

Spacing = 100 ast / Ast

Assume 10mm of bar

Ast = 78.5 mm2

Spacing = 1000(78.5) / 120 =654.17mm

But maximum spacing provided is 300mm

Spacing =300mm

Ast(pro) = 1000 ast / spacing = 1000(78.5) / 300

Ast(pro) = 262mm2

Provide 10mm bars @ 300mm c/c on shorter direction only.

57

Distribution reinforcement:

Ast = 0.12/100 (1000)(100)

Ast = 120mm2

Assume 8mm bars

Spacing = 310mm2

Provide 8mm dia bars @ 310mm c/c.

check for shear :

v = 0.046

pt = 100 Ast / bd = 100(262) / 100(100)

pt = 0.262

0.25 0.36

0.50 0.48

0.26x = x

x = 0.37

v = 0.37 N/mm2

here v < c

Hence safe.

SUNSHADE:

58

CHAPTER 3

3.1 CONCLUSION

59

The proposed building is a framed structure. It has been Analysed and Designed

manually for various categories of loading over them. Finally the sectional details are

arrived by limit state method.

3.2 BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. IS 456:2000

FOR PLAIN AND REINFORCED CONCRETE

DESIGN

60

2. SP:16 - 1980

CONCRETE

Distributors,Delhi,2006

4.Varhese,P.C.,Limit state Design of Reinforced Concrete

StructuresPrentice hall of india Pvt Ltd New Delhi,2007.

61

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