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CHAPTER 1

1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.1.1 GENERAL:
In this project a Higher secondary school building of G+3 floors has taken.In this building there are
three floors.. Total build up area is 98425.5 sq.ft.In this higher secondary school building there are
24 class rooms , four labs and one principal and office room.Separate toilet facilities for both staffs
and students are provided. Two Dog legged Staircase are provided in this building for easy
assessable of various floors.
A structure is an assembly of number of members such as slabs, beams, columns, walls, etc,
proportioned to resist the loads and forces, changes in climate conditions such as temperature, rain
fall, etc.
Design of a structure includes assessing the loads and providing members of sufficient proportions to
resist the assessed loads with a sufficient margin of safety.A structure is said to be efficiently design
if all the members are so arranged that they transit their self weight and other imposed loads to
foundation and supporting structures by cost effectively, so as to satisfy the requirement of
architecture, structural stability and the nature of the site with sufficient safety.In addition to
engineering calculation, experience and good judgment may also do much towards safety and
economy of the structure.

1.1.2 PLANNING OF BUILDING:


The plan is for implementing in the Higher secondary school system with all services for
accommodating Three floors. The vertical circulation between different floors is achieved by the
provision of staircase

SLAB:
Slabs are plate elements forming floors and roof of building and carrying loads by flexure. A
slab is supported by T-beam in this project.

FRAMES:
Structurally, building may consist of load bearing walls and floors. The floor slabs may be
supported on column. The frame is designed for all the vertical loads and also horizontal loads. A
frame consist of columns and beams built monolithically, forming a network of three dimensions.
The loads are evenly distributed to the structure is not only safer but also economical.

COLUMNS:
The column is an element used primarily for axial compressive loads, with a height of the least
three times its lateral dimension. All columns are subjected to some moments, which may be due to
accidental eccentricity or due to the end restraint imposed by monolithically placed beams or slabs.
In this project columns are designed as short columns with axial load and biaxial bending.

FOUNDATION:
Foundations are structural elements that transfer loads from the columns to the subsoil. In this
project foundation are designed as mat foundation.

STAIRCASE:
Staircase consists of steps arranged in a series for purpose of giving access to the different floors
of buildings. In this project the staircase is designed as a dog legged staircase.

1.1.3 PLAN :

Fig 1.plan of ground floor

Fig 2.plan of first floor

Fig 3.plan of second floor

Fig 4.plan of third floor

ELEVATION

Fig 5.Elevation

CHAPTER 2
2.2 DESIGN OF SLAB
2.1.1 GROUPING OF SLABS:

Fig 6.Grouping of slabs

2.1.2 SLAB CONDITIONS:

TYPE
S1

DIMENSION
(m)
9X8

CONDITIONS
Two adjacent edges
discontinuous

S2

9 X 10

Two adjacent edges


discontinuous

S3

7X8

One edge discontinuous

S4

3X3

One edge discontinuous

S5

5X8

One edge discontinuous

S6

7X3

One edge discontinuous

Table 1.Slab conditions

DETAILING OF SLAB
Using Datas:
Lx=9m
Ly=8m
M20 Grade concrete fCk=20 N/mm2
Fe415 Grade Steel
Ly/Lx=9/8=1.125<2
Then the slab is 2-way slab.
Slab is continous slab.

STEP 1:THICKNESS OF SLAB


Span/Depth=40
8000/d=40
D= 8000/40=200
Assume effective depth,d=200mm
Overall depth D=d+cover+/2
=200+20+10/2
D=225mm

STEP 2:EFFECTIVE SPAN


Effective Span=Clear Span+effective depth
=8+0.2
L=8.20m

STEP 3: LOAD CALCULATION


Self Weight=5.62kN/m
Live Load=4kN/m

10

fy=415N/mm2

Floor finish Assume =1kN/m


Total load W=10.62 kN/m
Factored Load=1.5x10.62kN/m=Wu=15.93 kN/m

STEP4:CALCULATION OF BENDING MOMENT & SHEAR FORCE


X

1.1

=0.040

1.2

=0.045

0.035

1.125 = X
X =0.04125
(Mu)X=X WUlx2
=29.45kN-m
(Mu)y=Y Wulx2
=24.99kN-m

STEP5:LIMITING MOMENT OR CHECK FOR DEPTH


(xu max/d value is given on pg no-70 IS 456-2000)
Mulim=0.138 fck bd2=0.138*20*1000*200
=55.18 kN-m
MU lim >Mu x Hence Safe.

STEP6:TENSION REINFORCEMENT
SHORTER DIRECTION :
(Page No-96 IS 456-2000)
Mu x=0.87fy Astx d (1-Astx fy/bd fCK)
29.45*10^6=0.87*415*Astx *200(1-Astx*415/1000*200*20)
29.45*10^6=72210 Astx-7.492Astx2
Astx=424mm2=450mm2

11

Assume 12mm dia bars


Spacing in shorter direction=1000*ast/Ast=290mm =300mm
Provide 12mm bars at 300mm spacing in shorter direction

LONGER DIRECTION:
Mu y=0.87fyAstyd(1-Ast fY/bd fck)
24.99*10^6=0.87*415*Asty*200(1-Asty*415/1000*200*20)
Asty=359mm2
Assume 10 mm bars
Spacing=1000*ast/Ast
=218=250mm
Provide 10mm at 250mm spacing in longer direction

STEP7:CHECK FOR SHEAR


(TABLE 19 IS 456-2000)
TV=VU/bd
=wl2/bd
=15.93*8.2/2/1000*200=0.64
USING IS 456:2000
0.5 -0.48
0.75-0.56
0.64 - X
Tc=0.52N/mm2
Hence Safe.

STEP8:TENSION REINFORCEMENT
Tension reinforcement=0.75*Ast x
=0.75*450
=340mm2
Assume 8mm dia bars spacing at 175mm c/c.

STEP9:CHECK FOR DEFLECTION


(PG NO-38 IS 456:2000)
(l/d)max=(l/d)basic*kt*kc*kf
Pt=0.564%
kc=1,kf=1, kt=1
(l/d)max=28*1*1*1=28
(l/d)pro =8200/165=49.49

12

2.1.4 DETAILING DIAGRAM OF SLAB:

Fig 7.Detailing of slabs

13

2.1.5 REINFORCEMENT DETAILS OF SLABS:


SLAB NO

SPAN

W
KN/m2

SIZE
m

SHORT
S1

12.56

9x8

LONG
SHORT
S2

12.562

9x10

LONG
SHORT
S3

12.562

7x8

12.562

5x3

LONG
SHORT
S4
LONG
SHORT
S5

12.562

5x8

LONG
SHORT
S6

12.562
LONG

7x3

B.M.
KN.m
24.99
29.45
24.99
29.45
16.63
45.04
16.63
45.04
18.11
31.04
18.11
31.04
9.42
24.83

12mm 300mm c/c


10mm 250mm c/c
12mm 270mm c/c
10mm 250mm c/c
12mm 300mm c/c
10mm 250mm c/c
12mm 160mm c/c

19.68
14.89

10mm 230mm c/c

9.42
24.83
9.42
24.83

12mm 200mm c/c

16.2
58.01
16.2
58.01

12mm 250mm c/c

Table 2.Reinforcement detail of slabs

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SPACING

10mm 250mm c/c

10mm 200mm c/c

2.2 DESIGN OF BEAMS


2.2.1 GROUPING DIAGRAM OF BEAMS

fig 8.Grouping of beams

15

2.2.2 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF BEAMS:


CROSS SECTIONAL DIMENSION:
For continuous beam span/depth ratio is 26(IS456:2000 cl,23.2.1)
Span/Depth = 26
8000/d = 26
Take d = 550mm.
Overall depth,D = d+25+20/2
D=585mm.
Assume b = 400.

EFFECTIVE SPAN:
Clear span+d = 10+0.4 = 10.4m
C/c of support = 10+0.2 = 10.2m
L = 10.2m

LOAD CALCULATION:
Self wt. of beam = b*d*25 = 0.4*0.585*25
= 6.35 kN/m
Live load
= 3kN/m
W = 9.35 kN/m
Factored load,Wu = 1.5*9.35
=14.025 kN/m
service load=43.17 kN/m

BENDING MOMENT & SHEAR FORCE:


Mu= Wu*l2/8 = 43.17*82/8 =345.36kNm
Vu = Wu*l/8 = 43.17*8/8 =172.68kN

CHECK FOR DEPTH:


Mu lim=0.138fckbd2
345.36*106 = 0.138(20)(400) d2

16

d = 529.3mm <585mm
Hence safe.

TENSION REINFORCEMENT:
Mu=0.87fyAstd(1-(Ast*fy)/bdfck)
Ast=1909mm2
Assume 16mm dia. Bars
No. of bars,n= Ast /ast
=6 no.
Provide 6 bars of 16mm dia.

SHEAR STRESS:
Tv=vu/bd = 172.6*103/(400*585)
=0.51N/mm2
Pt=100 Ast /bd = 0.75
From table 19,IS456:2000
Tc=0.605N/mm2
Tv c Hence safe.

SHEAR REINFORCEMENT:
Asv/bsv=0.4/0.8fy
Asv=2 legged 8mm dia bars = 100mm2
sv=207.5mm or 208mm
As per IS code
sv =0.75d=450mm
sv =300mm
Provide 2 legged 8mm dia bars @210mm spacing.

17

2.2.3 DETAILING DIAGRAM OF BEAM:

Fig 9.Detailing of beam

18

2.2.4 REINFORCEMENT DETAILS OF BEAM:


TYPE

DIMENSIONS

FACTORED
LOAD

TENSION

COMPRESSION

KN/m

REINFORC
EMENT

REINFORCEME
NT

SHEAR
REINFORCEMENT

B1

400*585

43.175

6-16mm

2-12mm

8mm @210mm
c/c spacing

B2

400*585

28.88

4-16mm

4-12mm

8mm @150mm
c/c spacing

B3

400*585

36.78

6-16mm

4-12mm

8mm @150mm
c/c spacing

B4

400*585

46.31

4-16mm

4-12mm

8mm @170mm
c/c spacing

B5

400*585

49.84

2-16mm

2-12mm

8mm @200mm
c/c spacing

B6

400*585

56.17

2-16mm

2-12mm

8mm @200mm
c/c spacing

19

Table 3.Reinforcement details of beams

20

2.3 DESIGN OF COLUMNS


2.3.1 GROUPING OF COLUMNS:

fig 10.Grouping of columns

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DESIGN OF RECTANGULAR COLUMN


Data:
Column size

=400*600mm

Axial service load P

=1200kN

Length,L

=4m

Fck

=20 N/mm2

Fy

=415 N/mm2

Solution:
Here b=400mm,D=600mm,Pu=1800kN

STEP1: SLENDERNESS RATIO


Kx=lex/D=4000/600=6.67<12
Ky=ley/b=4000/400=10<12
Hence the column is designed as short column

STEP2 :MINIMUM ECCENTRICITY


Ex,min=[le/500 +D/30]
=[4000/500 +600/30]
=8+20=28
Ey,min=[le/500 +b/30]
=[4000/500 +400/30]
=8+13.33
=21.33
Conditions:
0.05D=0.05*600=30
0.05b=0.05*400=20

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STEP3 :LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT


Pu=0.4fck*Ac+(0.67fy*Asc)
1800*10^3=0.4*20*400*600+(0.67*415Asc)
Asc=2323mm2
Assume diameter of bars=25mm
ast=(*25^2)/4=490mm2
number of bars=3323/490
=8 bars
Provide 8 number of bars of 25mm diameter
Check for minimum reinforcement=0.8%
Asc,min =0.8/100*(400*600)=1920mm2
Here we take Asc=2323mm2

STEP 4: LATERAL TIES


Diameter=1/4 of diameter of bars
=1/4*25
=6.25mm
Use 8mm diameter ties
Pitch or spacing
(i)ties spacing,b=400mm
(ii)16 times the smallest diameter=16*25=400mm
(iii)300mm
Take only the least value for spacing
Spacing=300mm
Provide 8mm diameter ties @300mm c/c distance

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2.3.3 DETAILING DIAGRAM OF COLUMN:

Fig 11.Detailing of column

24

2.4 ANALYSIS
2.4.1 ANALYSIS OF FRAMES

4kN/M
7m

STEP 1:FIXED END MOMENTS


MFAB=MFBA=0
MFCD=MFDC=0
MFBC=-wl2/12=-4*72/12=-16.33kN-m
MFCB=+wl2/12=+4*72/12=+16.33kN-m
STEP 2:SLOPE DEFLECTION EQUATION
MAB=MFAB+2EI/l[2A+ B]
=2EI/4[B]
=0.5EI B
MBA=MFBA+2EI/l[2B+ C]
=2EI/4[2B]
=EIB
MBC=MFBC+2EI/l[2 B+ C]
=-16.33+2EI/7[2B+ C]
=-16.33+0.57EI B+0.29EIC
MCB=MFCB+2EI/l[2 C+ B]
=16.33+2EI/7[2C+ B]
=16.33+0.57EIC+0.29EIB
MCD=MFCD+2EI/l[2 C + D-3]
=2EI/4[2 C]
25

=EI C
MDC=MFDC +2EI/l[2 D+ C -3]
=2EI/4[C]
=0.5EI C

STEP 3:EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS


(i)MBA+MBC=0
(ii)MCB+MCD=0
(i)1.57EI B+0.29EI C =16.33
(ii)0.29EI B+1.57EI C=-16.33
Solving the above equations
B =12.76/EI
C = -12.76/EI

STEP 4:MOMENT CALCULATIONS


MAB=0.5*12.76

=6.38kN-m

MBA=1*12.76

=12.76kN-m

MBC=-16.33+0.5*12.76-0.29*12.76

=-12.76kN-m

MCB=16.33-0.57*12.76+0.29*12.76

=12.76kN-m

MCD=1*(-12.76)

=-12.76kN-m

MDC=-0.5*12.76

=-6.38kN-m

26

27

FOR FRAME CONTAINING THE BEAM B1(5m)

STEP 1:FIXED END MOMENTS


MFAB=MFBA=0
MFCD=MFDC=0
MFBC=-wl2/12=-4*52/12=-8.33kN-m
MFCB=+wl2/12=+4*52/12=+8.33kN-m
STEP 2:SLOPE DEFLECTION EQUATION
MAB=MFAB+2EI/l[2A+ B]
=2EI/4[B]
=0.5EI B
MBA=MFBA+2EI/l[2B+ C]
=2EI/4[2B]
=EIB
MBC=MFBC+2EI/l[2 B+ C]
=-8.33+2EI/5[2B+ C]
=-8.33+0.8EI B+0.4EI c
MCB=MFCB+2EI/l[2 C+ B]
=8.33+2EI/5[2B+ C]
=8.33+0.8EI B+0.4EI c
28

MCD=MFCD+2EI/l[2 C + D-3]
=2EI/4[2 C]
=EI C
MDC=MFDC +2EI/l[2 D+ C -3]
=2EI/4[C]
=0.5EI C
STEP 3:EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS
(i)MBA+MBC=0
(ii)MCB+MCD=0
(i)1.8EI B+0.4EI C =8.33
(ii)0.4EI B+1.8EI C=-8.33
Solving the above equations
B =5.95/EI
C = -5.95/EI
STEP 4:MOMENT CALCULATIONS
MAB=0.5*5.95

=2.975kN-m

MBA=1*5.95

=5.95kN-m

MBC=-8.33+0.8*5.95 +0.4(-5.95)

=-5.95kN-m

MCB= 8.33+0.8*(-5.95) +0.4(5.95)

=5.95kN-m

MCD=1*(-5.95)

=-5.95kN-m

MDC=-0.5*5.95

=-2.975kN-m

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30

FOR FRAME CONTAINING THE BEAM B2 (6m)

STEP 1:FIXED END MOMENTS


MFAB=MFBA=0
MFCD=MFDC=0
MFBC=-wl2/12=-4*62/12=-12kN-m
MFCB=+wl2/12=+4*62/12=+12kN-m
STEP 2:SLOPE DEFLECTION EQUATION
MAB=MFAB+2EI/l[2A+ B]
=2EI/4[B]
=0.5EI B
MBA=MFBA+2EI/l[2B+ C]
=2EI/4[2B]
=EIB
MBC=MFBC+2EI/l[2 B+ C]
=-12+0.67EI/6[2B+ C]
=-12+0.67EI B+0.33EI c
MCB=MFCB+2EI/l[2 C+ B]
=12+2EI/6[2B+ C]
=12+0.33EI B+0.67EI c
MCD=MFCD+2EI/l[2 C + D-3]
=2EI/4[2 C]
=EI C
31

MDC=MFDC +2EI/l[2 D+ C -3]


=2EI/4[C]
=0.5EI C
STEP 3:EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS
(i)MBA+MBC=0
(ii)MCB+MCD=0
(i)1.67EI B+0.33EI C =12
(ii)0.33EI B+1.67EI C=-12
Solving the above equations
B =8.95/EI
C = -8.95/EI
STEP 4:MOMENT CALCULATIONS
MAB=0.5*8.95

=4.48kN-m

MBA=1*8.95

=8.95kN-m

MBC=-12+0.67*8.95 +0.33(-8.95)

=-8.95kN-m

MCB= 12+0.33*(-8.95) +0.67(8.95)

=8.95kN-m

MCD=1*(-8.95)

=-8.95kN-m

MDC=-0.5*8.95

=-4.48kN-m

32

33

FOR FRAME CONTAINING THE BEAM B3 (3m)

STEP 1:FIXED END MOMENTS


MFAB=MFBA=0
MFCD=MFDC=0
MFBC=-wl2/12=-4*32/12=-3kN-m
MFCB=+wl2/12=+4*32/12=+3kN-m
STEP 2:SLOPE DEFLECTION EQUATION
MAB=MFAB+2EI/l[2A+ B]
=2EI/4[B]
=0.5EI B
MBA=MFBA+2EI/l[2B+ C]
=2EI/4[2B]
=EIB
MBC=MFBC+2EI/l[2 B+ C]
=-3+1.33EI/3[2B+ C]
=-3+1.33EI B+0.67EI c
34

MCB=MFCB+2EI/l[2 C+ B]
=3+2EI/3[2B+ C]
=3+0.67EI B+1.33EI c
MCD=MFCD+2EI/l[2 C + D-3]
=2EI/4[2 C]
=EI C
MDC=MFDC +2EI/l[2 D+ C -3]
=2EI/4[C]
=0.5EI C
STEP 3:EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS
(i)MBA+MBC=0
(ii)MCB+MCD=0
(i)2.33EI B+0.67EI C =3
(ii)0.67EI B+2.33EI C=-3
Solving the above equations
B =1.8/EI
C = -1.8/EI
STEP 4:MOMENT CALCULATIONS
MAB=0.5*1.8

=0.9kN-m

MBA=1*1.8

=1.8kN-m

MBC=-3+1.33*1.8 +0.67(-1.8)

=-1.8kN-m

MCB= 3+1.33*(-1.8) +0.67(1.8)

=1.8kN-m

MCD=1*(-1.8)

=-1.8kN-m

MDC=-0.5*1.8

=-0.9kN-m

35

36

FOR FRAME CONTAINING THE BEAM B5 (8m)

STEP 1:FIXED END MOMENTS


MFAB=MFBA=0
MFCD=MFDC=0
MFBC=-wl2/12=-4*82/12=-21.33kN-m
MFCB=+wl2/12=+4*82/12=+21.33kN-m
STEP 2:SLOPE DEFLECTION EQUATION
MAB=MFAB+2EI/l[2A+ B]
=2EI/4[B]
=0.5EI B
MBA=MFBA+2EI/l[2B+ C]
=2EI/4[2B]
=EIB
MBC=MFBC+2EI/l[2 B+ C]
=-21.33+0.5EI B+0.25EI c
MCB=MFCB+2EI/l[2 C+ B]
=21.33+0.25EI B+0.5EI c
MCD=MFCD+2EI/l[2 C + D-3]

37

=2EI/4[2 C]
=EI C
MDC=MFDC +2EI/l[2 D+ C -3]
=2EI/4[C]
=0.5EI C
STEP 3:EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS
(i)MBA+MBC=0
(ii)MCB+MCD=0
(i)1.5EI B+0.25EI C =21.33
(ii)0.25EI B+1.5EI C=-21.33
Solving the above equations
B =17.06/EI
C = -17.06/EI
STEP 4:MOMENT CALCULATIONS
MAB=0.5*17.06

=8.53kN-m

MBA=1*17.06

=17.06kN-m

MBC=-21.33+0.5*17.06 +0.25(-17.06)

=-17.06kN-m

MCB= 21.33+0.25*(17.06) +0.5(-17.06)

=17.06kN-m

MCD=1*(-17.06)

=-17.06kN-m

MDC=-0.5*17.06

=-8.53kN-m

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39

FOR FRAME CONTAINING THE BEAM B6(10m)

STEP 1:FIXED END MOMENTS


MFAB=MFBA=0
MFCD=MFDC=0
MFBC=-wl2/12=-4*102/12=-33.33kN-m
MFCB=+wl2/12=+4*102/12=+33.33kN-m
STEP 2:SLOPE DEFLECTION EQUATION
MAB=MFAB+2EI/l[2A+ B]
=2EI/4[B]
=0.5EI B
MBA=MFBA+2EI/l[2B+ C]
=2EI/4[2B]
=EIB
MBC=MFBC+2EI/l[2 B+ C]
=-33.33+0.4EI B+0.2EI c
MCB=MFCB+2EI/l[2 C+ B]
=33.33+0.2EI B+0.4EI c
MCD=MFCD+2EI/l[2 C + D-3]

40

=2EI/4[2 C]
=EI C
MDC=MFDC +2EI/l[2 D+ C -3]
=2EI/4[C]
=0.5EI C
STEP 3:EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS
(i)MBA+MBC=0
(ii)MCB+MCD=0
(i)1.4EI B+0.2EI C =33.33
(ii)0.2EI B+1.4EI C=-33.33
Solving the above equations
B =27.77/EI
C = -27.77/EI
STEP 4:MOMENT CALCULATIONS
MAB=0.5*27.77

=13.88kN-m

MBA=1*27.77

=27.77kN-m

MBC=-33.33+0.4*27.77 +0.2(-27.77)

=-27.77kN-m

MCB= 33.33+0.2*(27.77) +0.4(-27.77)

=27.77kN-m

MCD=1*(-27.77)

=-27.77kN-m

MDC=-0.5*27.77

=-13.88kN-m

41

42

2.5 DESIGN OF FOUNDATION


2.5.1 DESIGN DETAILS:
TYPE OF FOUNDATION-ISOLATED FOOTING
DESIGN OF FOOTING
SIZE OF FOOTING
Total load = column load + 10% of the same for s.w of footing
=1200+120
Total load =1320kN
Area=Total load/SBC
=1320/ 250
Area=5.28m2
Breadth to length ratio B/L = 400/600
=2/3
L=3B/2
B*L=5.28 m2
B=3.52m
L=5.28m
Provide size of the footing is 3.52mx5.28m

UPWARD PRESSURE
qu =

=
qu = 97kN/m2 < SBC
43

BENDING MOMENT
X = 1.56m
Mx1 = qu x shaded Area x C.G
=97x1.56x5.28x(1.56/2)
Mx1=623.19 kNm
Mx2=97x2.34x3.52x(2.34/2)
=934.79kNm

DEPTH OF FOOTING
Mulim = 0.138fckbd2
934.79x106 = 0.138(20)(1560)d2
D=465mm
Assume,D=500mm
d = D-50-(20/2)
= 500-50-10
=440mm

REINFORCEMENT
Mx1 = 0.87fyAstd(1- (ASTfy / bdfck))
934.79x106 = 0.87(415)(AST)(440)(1 (415AST/5280(440)(20)))
AST1 = 4070mm2
No. of bars = AST1/ast = 4070/(490) = 8rods

Mx2 = 0.87fyAstd(1- (ASTfy / bdfck))


934.79x106 = 0.87(415)(AST)(440)(1 (415AST/3520(440)(20)))
AST2 = 6437mm2
44

No. of bars = AST2/ast = 6437/(706) = 10rods

CHECK FOR ONEWAY SHEAR


Vu = quxshaded area
=97x1.9x3.52
Vu=648.74kN
=Vu/bd

=648.74x103/(3520x440)
v

= 0.42 N/mm2

pt = 100AST/bd
pt = 100(4070)/3520(440)
pt=0.26
= 0.45 N/mm2

Ks=1
<Ks.

Design is safe

CHECK FOR TWO WAY SHEAR


Vu=qu x shaded area
Vu=97((5.28x3.52)-(0.84x1.04))
Vu=1718kN
=Vu/bd

=1718x103/(5280x440)

45

=0.6

Ks=0.5+c
=0.5+(0.4/0.4)
Ks=1.5
K s should be always <1
K s =1
=0.25 fck

=0.25 20
=1.12

<Ks.

Hence safe

46

2.5.2 DETAILING DIAGRAM OF FOUNDATION:

Fig 12.Detailing of footing

47

2.6 DESIGN OF STAIRCASE


2.6.1 DESIGN DETAILS:
DATA
Height between the floors=4m
Tread=300mm
Rise=200mm
Width of flight = Landing width =1.25m
Masonry wall =230mm

EFFECTIVE DEPTH:
No. of steps=Height b/w floors
Rise
=4/0.2= 20

10 no. of steps are used for first flight & other 10 no.s for second flight.
Length of staircase = 1.25+(0.3*9)+1.25+0.23
= 5.43m
Assume l/d =20
5.43/d=20
48

d=0.27m
d=271mm.
Overall depth,D=271+20+10/2
D=296mm

LOAD CALCULATION:
1)Load on going
Self wt. of Waist slab=25t 1+(R/T) 2
=8.89 KN/
Self wt. of steps= 25*R/2
=25*0.2/2
=2.5KN/m
Assume F.F.=0.6 KN/
L.L =5 KN/
Total load =(8.89+2.5+0.6+5)
=16.99KN/

2)Loading on landing slab:


Self wt. of slab =25*0.296=7.4 KN/
Total load =(7.4+0.5+5)=13 KN/

MOMENT CALCULATION:
49

v=0
RA+RB=81.36

Moment about B
RA*5.43-(13*1.365)*(1.365/2+4.065)-(16.99*2.7)*2.7/2+1.36513(1.365)*1.365/2=0
5.43 RA-84.24-124.5-12.11=0
RA=40.67KN.

WE KNOW THAT:
RA+RB=81.36
40.67+ RB=81.36
RB=40.67KN.
Maximum Bending Moment@centre
=(16.99*1.35)*1.35/2+(13*1.365)*(1.365/2+1.35)- RB*2.715
=15.48+36.06-11.04
M=58.88KN-m
Factored moment,Mu=1.5*58.88
=88.32KN-m
W.K.T Mu=0.87*fy*Ast d(1-Ast fy/bd fck)
Assume M20&Fe415 steel
88.32*10^6=0.87(415)Ast(271)(1-Ast(415)/1000(2 )(20))
88.32*10^6=97844.55Ast-7.5Ast2
Ast=975.6mm2

50

Assume 12mm bars

Spacing=1000*

Provide 12mm

/975.6=115.9_115mm

115c/c

DISTRIBUTION OF STEEL:
0.15% OF C/S AREA
=0.15/100*1000*296
AstD=444mm2
Spacing=1000ast/Ast
Assume 8mm

Spacing=1000*

bars

/444

=113.2_110mm
Provide 8mm bars@110c/c

CHECK FOR SHEAR:


VU/bd

V=

V=MAX REACTION=40.67 KN
51

VU=1.5*40.67=61KN
61*10^3/1000*271=0.22N/mm2

V=

1000Ast/bd=100*975.6/1000*271=0.36

0.25
0.5
0.36
=0.412N/mm2

>

Hence Safe.

2.6.2 DETAILING DIAGRAM OF STAIRCASE:

52

Fig 13.Detailing of staircase

2.7 DESIGN OF LINTEL BEAM


AND SUNSHADE
53

2.7.1 DESIGN OF LINTEL BEAM:


LOAD CALCULATION
Self weight of beam = 0.3 x 0.2 X 25 =1.5 kN/m
Slab weight
= 13.5 kN/m
Live load
= 4 kN/m
Total load
= 19 kN/m
Factored load
= 1.5 x 19
= 28.5kN/m
BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE
Mu =Wul2 / 8
= 28.5 X 62 / 8
= 128.25 kN/m
Vu =Wul / 2
= 28.5 X 6 / 2
=85.5 kN/m
LIMITING MOMENT OF RESISTANCE
Mu lim =0.138 x 20 x 300 x 2002
= 33.2 kN.m
MAIN REINFORCEMENT
Mu Mu lim= 95.13 kN.m
Fsc = ( 0.0035 (Xu max d) / X u max ) x Es
= 0.0035 x ((0.48 x 300 ) 50) / 0.48 x 250) x ( 2x105)
= 268.33 N/mm2
Fsc>/ 0.87 fy = (0.87 x 415 )
=361 N/mm2
Asc = ((Mu Mu lim) / fsc(d- d))
= (95.13x 106 / 361 x (400 50))
= 1756.69 mm2
No. of bars = Asc /asc
=1756.69 / 314.16
= 5.59 ~ 6
Provide 6 bars of 20 mm on compression side
Ast2 =Asc. Fsc / 0.87 x Fy
= 1756.69 x 361 / 0.87 x 415
= 1756.45 mm2
Ast1 = 0.36 x fck x b x Xulim/ 0.87 x fy
= 0.36 x 20 x 300 x 0.48 x 200 / 0.87 x 415
= 574.32 mm2
54

Ast =ASt1 +A st2


= 2330.77 mm2

No.of rods = 2330.77/2 / 4


= 2330.77 / 491
= 4.75 ~ 6
Provide 6 no.of 25 mm dia on tension side
SHEAR STRESS
v = Vu / bd
=0.74 N / mm2
Pt = 100 Ast / d x b
= 100 x 3 x 491 / 300 x 200
= 1.23
c = 0.46 N /mm2
Vus= Vu - c b d
= 89.47 x 103 (0.46 x x300 x 200 )
= 34.27 kN
Vus = 0.87 x fy x Asv x d / Sv
34.27 x 103= 0.87 x 415 x (2 x 50 ) x 200 / Sv

Sv = 10831500 / 39200
= 231 mm
Asv / b sv = 0.4 / 0.87 x fy
= 0.87 x 415 x 2 x 50 / 0.4 x 300
= 300.88 mm
Sv = 0.75 x d
= 0.75 x 400
300 mm

2.7.2 DESIGN DETAILS OF SUNSHADE:


Thickness of the sunshade:
Span /depth =12
55

450 /d = 12
d = 37.5 mm , but min d = 100mm
D = d + cover + /2
=100+20+10/2
D=125mm
effective span:
Le = length to the face of the support + d/2
Le = 0.45 + 0.100/2
Le = 0.5m
load calculation:
Self weight + b*d*25 = 1(0.125)(25)
= 3.125 KN/m
Live load

= 2 KN/m

Floor load

=1 KN/m

Total load(w)

= 6.125 KN/m

Factored load wu

= 6.125(1.5) = 9.19 KN/m

maximum B.M and S.F:


Mu = wule2/2 = 9.19(0.52) / 2
Mu = 1.15 KN/m
56

Vu = 4.6 KN
check for depth :
Mu ,lim = 0.138(20)(1000)(1002)
Mu ,lim = 27.6 KN.m > Mu
Design is safe.
Tension reinforcement:
Mu = 0.87 fy Ast d [ 1 Ast fy / bd fck ]
1.15*106 = 0.87(415) Ast(100) [ 1 Ast(415) / 1000(100)(20) ]
1.15*106 = 36105 Ast 7.49 Ast2
Ast = 32.06mm2
Spacing = 100 ast / Ast
Assume 10mm of bar
Ast = 78.5 mm2
Spacing = 1000(78.5) / 120 =654.17mm
But maximum spacing provided is 300mm
Spacing =300mm
Ast(pro) = 1000 ast / spacing = 1000(78.5) / 300
Ast(pro) = 262mm2
Provide 10mm bars @ 300mm c/c on shorter direction only.
57

Distribution reinforcement:
Ast = 0.12/100 (1000)(100)
Ast = 120mm2
Assume 8mm bars
Spacing = 310mm2
Provide 8mm dia bars @ 310mm c/c.
check for shear :
v = 0.046
pt = 100 Ast / bd = 100(262) / 100(100)
pt = 0.262

from table 23 of IS:456 -2000

0.25 0.36
0.50 0.48
0.26x = x
x = 0.37

v = 0.37 N/mm2

here v < c
Hence safe.

8.3 REINFORCEMENT DETAILS OF LINTEL BEAM AND


SUNSHADE:

58

Fig 14.Detailing of lintel and sunshade

CHAPTER 3
3.1 CONCLUSION
59

The proposed building is a framed structure. It has been Analysed and Designed
manually for various categories of loading over them. Finally the sectional details are
arrived by limit state method.

3.2 BIBLIOGRAPHY:
1. IS 456:2000

: INDIAN STANDARD CODE OF PRACTICE


FOR PLAIN AND REINFORCED CONCRETE
DESIGN
60

2. SP:16 - 1980

: DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED


CONCRETE

3. Krishna Raju,N.,Design of RC Structures,CBS Publisers and


Distributors,Delhi,2006
4.Varhese,P.C.,Limit state Design of Reinforced Concrete
StructuresPrentice hall of india Pvt Ltd New Delhi,2007.

61