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CYME 7.

0 Industrial and Transmission

CYME 7.0 Industrial and Transmission Power Engineering Software New Features and Modules

New Features and Analysis Modules

CYME 7.0 Industrial and Transmission

New Features and Analysis Modules

CYME 7.0 Industrial and Transmission

Table of Contents
Chapter 1 General Enhancements .............................................................. 5 1.1 Keywords Units ......................................................................................... 5 1.2 System Parameters .................................................................................... 5 1.3 Induction Motors ........................................................................................ 6 1.3.1 Locked Rotor Current Entry in p.u .......................................................... 6 1.3.2 Computation of the Power Factor .......................................................... 6 1.4 Transformer Loading (ANSI / IEC)................................................................... 6 1.5 Customer Types ........................................................................................ 7 Chapter 2 Load Flow Analysis .................................................................... 8 2.1 Tolerance on Impedances ............................................................................ 8 2.2 Include DC Network .................................................................................... 9 2.3 Line Charging ........................................................................................... 9 Chapter 3 Short Circuit Analysis ............................................................... 10 3.1 Tolerance on Impedances .......................................................................... 10 3.2 All Duty Type Analysis ............................................................................... 11 3.1 ANSI / IEC Report Enhancements................................................................. 12 3.1.1 Available reports ............................................................................ 12 3.1.1.1 ANSI & IEC Summary on all Buses ............................................................... 12 3.1.1.2 Fault Flow at a Bus ........................................................................................ 12

3.1.2 Sample Reports ............................................................................. 13 3.1.2.1 IEC Initial Duty Report ................................................................................... 13 3.1.2.2 3.1.2.3 3.1.3 IEC Peak Duty ............................................................................................... 14 ANSI Short Circuit Duties .............................................................................. 16 One Line Diagram Results ................................................................. 18

Chapter 4 Transient Stability Analysis...................................................... 19 4.1 Frequency by Zone .................................................................................. 19 4.1 Global Settings........................................................................................ 21 4.1 Over Current Relay .................................................................................. 23 4.1.1 General Settings ............................................................................ 23 4.1.2 Controlled Breakers ......................................................................... 24 4.1.3 TCC Settings ................................................................................. 25 Chapter 5 Motor Starting Analysis ............................................................ 26 5.1 Locked Rotor Analysis ............................................................................... 26 5.1.1 Analysis Settings ............................................................................ 26 5.1.2 Flicker Table Tab ............................................................................ 28 5.1.3 Locked Rotor Analysis Sample Output .................................................. 29 5.1.4 Display: Color by Voltage Level ........................................................... 30 5.2 Maximum Start Size Analysis ...................................................................... 31
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5.2.1 5.2.2

Analysis Settings ............................................................................ 31 Running the Analysis and Viewing the Results......................................... 31

Chapter 6 DC Analysis .............................................................................. 33 6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 33 6.2 DC Equipment ........................................................................................ 33 6.2.1 DC Bus ........................................................................................ 33 6.2.2 DC Cable ..................................................................................... 34 6.2.3 DC Impedance ............................................................................... 34 6.2.4 DC Load ...................................................................................... 35 6.2.5 DC Motor ..................................................................................... 35 6.2.6 Protective Devices .......................................................................... 37 6.2.7 Charger ....................................................................................... 38 6.2.8 Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) .................................................... 40 6.2.9 DC-DC Converter ........................................................................... 40 6.2.10 DC Battery.................................................................................... 41 6.2.10.1 Nominal Rating from Battery Data Sheet ...................................................... 42 6.2.10.2 6.2.10.3 Nominal Rating from Cell Data Sheet (IEEE 946 STD) ................................. 43 Station Battery Data ....................................................................................... 44

6.3 DC Load Flow Analysis .............................................................................. 46 6.3.1 Analysis Parameters ........................................................................ 47 6.3.2 Solving the Power Flow .................................................................... 48 6.3.3 Power Flow Reports ........................................................................ 49 6.4 DC Short Circuit ...................................................................................... 50 6.4.1 Analysis Parameters ........................................................................ 50 6.4.2 Solving the Sort Circuit ..................................................................... 51 6.4.3 Short Circuit Reports ....................................................................... 53 6.4.3.1 Summary on all bus report ............................................................................. 53 6.4.3.2 Fault a Bus report .......................................................................................... 54

6.5 Interface to AC System .............................................................................. 55 6.5.1 AC Power Flow .............................................................................. 55 6.5.2 Harmonic Analysis .......................................................................... 56 Chapter 7 CYMPROTEC ............................................................................. 59 7.1 New Features and Enhancements ................................................................ 59 7.1.1 Protective Device Analysis ................................................................ 59 7.1.2 TCC Library .................................................................................. 60 7.1.3 Device Settings Dialog Box ................................................................ 60 7.1.4 Live Preview Mode .......................................................................... 62 7.1.5 Device Reports .............................................................................. 62 7.1.6 General Enhancements .................................................................... 63 7.2 New Analysis Modules .............................................................................. 63 7.2.1 Sequence of operations .................................................................... 63 7.2.2 Minimum Fault Analysis .................................................................... 65

New Features and Analysis Modules

CYME 7.0 Industrial and Transmission

Chapter 1 General Enhancements


1.1 Keywords Units

Once a Keyword is created the associated unit is displayed next to the key word in order to avoid any erroneous errors on the one line diagram display.

1.2

System Parameters

This now includes the KW tolerance for DC Networks.

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1.3
1.3.1

Induction Motors
Locked Rotor Current Entry in p.u

The locked rotor current of the motor in the database settings can now be entered in p.u of the rated current.

1.3.2

Computation of the Power Factor

The induction motor Power Factor can now be estimated give the loading factor of the motor.

1.4

Transformer Loading (ANSI / IEC)

In File Preferences Simulation you now specify the Transformer loading criteria on either ANSI or IEC standards.

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ANSI Loading Criteria is based on the Secondary Side MVA.

IEC Loading Criteria is based on the Transformer Primary Side MVA.

1.5

Customer Types

The Customer Type addition now includes the option to include DC load types.

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Chapter 2 Load Flow Analysis


2.1 Tolerance on Impedances

CYMFLOW and CYMFAULT now include the capability to apply tolerances on Transformer, Line and Cable lengths for maximum and minimum analysis. These tolerances are either User Defined or as per IEC 60076 or IEEE C57.12 default values.

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2.2

Include DC Network

The Charger and UPS are operating as sources to the DC system drawing power from the AC system. The values of the Input Active and the Reactive power to the Charger or UPS are computed from the efficiency and operating power factor specified for each device To include the results of the DC system you need to access the CYMFLOW analysis Controls menu and activate the option in the AC load flow analysis. You can also access the DC Load Flow parameters with the button.

2.3

Line Charging

The option to include or not Line charging effects in the power flow analysis is now available. The default option is to include line charging effects.

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Chapter 3 Short Circuit Analysis


3.1 Tolerance on Impedances

CYMFAULT now include the capability to apply tolerances on Transformer and Synchronous Generator Impedances, Line and Cable lengths for maximum and minimum analysis.

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3.2

All Duty Type Analysis

Summary short circuit analysis for all ANSI or IEC duty types in a single run.

Display on the one line diagram the summary of results for any duty selected via the Short Circuit monitor for all fault types.

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3.1

ANSI / IEC Report Enhancements

Reports layout for all ANSI or IEC duty types have been modified especially when faulting a desired bus

3.1.1

Available reports

The Short Circuit Reports that the user can display on screen are now dependent on the type of fault applied. The following are examples of the reports available for IEC short circuit analysis. 3.1.1.1 ANSI & IEC Summary on all Buses

3.1.1.2 Fault Flow at a Bus IEC Initial Duty

IEC Breaking, Peak and Steady State Note : The Fault Flow reports at a bus for the initial current and system wide contributions and voltage profiles are provided in detail. For all other duties fault level and first ring contributions are provided along with the IEC multiplying factors for the initial current..

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ANSI all Duty Types

3.1.2

Sample Reports

3.1.2.1

IEC Initial Duty Report

IEC Short-Circuit - Faulted Bus Summary

Parameters
Study Name Date Time Project Name Coopr-Cyme-Variable-Frequency-Drive-Network-7.0.sxst Mon Feb 04 2013 12h11m55s New

Faulted Bus Duty Type Fault Type Faulted Phases

V-SB-012-A Initial All Default

Fault Summary (Pre-Fault) Voltage Phase


A B C

Voltage Deg
0 -120 120

kV
6.6 6.6 6.6

Fault Summary (During Fault) Fault Type


LLL LL LLG LG

Amp
16262 14083 14951 11902

Deg
-84.89 -174.89 166.82 -84.02

Thevenin Impedances at Faulted Bus


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R + jX pu
Z1 Z0 0.0527 + j0.5894 0.1472 + j1.2336

R/X
0.089 0.119

First Ring Contributions Device Number


V-EHP-1005 6.6KV_B_TIE V-EHP-1007 V-EHP-1008 V-EHP-1009 V-EHP-1010

Type
Cable Switch Cable Cable Cable Cable

LLL
10165.7 0.0 3143.5 2661.3 215.1 82.5

LG
4967.5 0.0 5494.3 1298.2 104.7 40.2

LL
8803.7 0.0 2722.4 2304.7 186.3 71.4

LLG
8925.7 0.0 4414.0 2325.0 187.9 72.1

First Ring Transfer Impedance Device Number


V-EHP-1005 V-EHP-1007 V-EHP-1008 V-EHP-1009 V-EHP-1010

Type
Cable Cable Cable Cable Cable

Z1
0.0520 + j0.5876 0.0454 + j0.5828 0.0467 + j0.5836 0.0522 + j0.5889 0.0527 + j0.5893

Z0
0.1473 + j1.2336 0.0297 + j1.1649 0.1473 + j1.2336 0.1473 + j1.2336 0.1472 + j1.2336

3.1.2.2

IEC Peak Duty

IEC Short-Circuit - Faulted Bus Summary

Parameters
Study Name Date Time Project Name Faulted Bus Duty Type Fault Type Faulted Phases Method Coopr-Cyme-Variable-Frequency-Drive-Network-7.0.sxst Mon Feb 04 2013 12h08m28s New V-SB-012-A Peak All Default B

Fault Summary (Pre-Fault) Phase Voltage Voltage


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kV
A B C 6.6 6.6 6.6

Deg
0 -120 120

Fault Summary (During Fault) Fault Type


LLL LL LLG LG

Amp
45995 39832 42287 33663

Thevenin Impedances at Faulted Bus R + jX pu


Z1 Z0 0.0527 + j0.5894 0.1472 + j1.2336

R/X
0.089 0.119

IEC Factors Device Number


V-EHP-1005 6.6KV_B_TIE V-EHP-1007 V-EHP-1008 V-EHP-1009 V-EHP-1010

Type
Cable Switch Cable Cable Cable Cable

K
2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 2.000

First Ring Contributions Device Number


V-EHP-1005 6.6KV_B_TIE V-EHP-1007 V-EHP-1008 V-EHP-1009 V-EHP-1010

Type
Cable Switch Cable Cable Cable Cable

LLL
28753.8 0.0 8892.6 7526.4 608.1 231.9

LG
14048.8 0.0 15539.4 3671.3 297.0 113.1

LL
24901.5 0.0 7699.0 6519.5 526.1 200.8

LLG
24864.7 0.0 12264.1 6542.2 528.9 203.6

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First Ring Transfer Impedance Device Number


V-EHP-1005 V-EHP-1007 V-EHP-1008 V-EHP-1009 V-EHP-1010

Type
Cable Cable Cable Cable Cable

Z1
0.0520 + j0.5876 0.0454 + j0.5828 0.0467 + j0.5836 0.0522 + j0.5889 0.0527 + j0.5893

Z0
0.1473 + j1.2336 0.0297 + j1.1649 0.1473 + j1.2336 0.1473 + j1.2336 0.1472 + j1.2336

3.1.2.3

ANSI Short Circuit Duties

ANSI Short-Circuit - Faulted Bus Summary

Parameters
Study Name Date Time Project Name Coopr-Cyme-Variable-Frequency-Drive-Network-7.0.sxst Tue Feb 05 2013 13h21m22s New

Faulted Bus Duty Type Fault Type Faulted Phases Breaker Speed Contact Parting

V-SB-011-B Contact Parting All A 2 cycles 1.5 cycles

Fault Summary (Pre-Fault) Voltag Voltag e e Phase


A B C

kV
19052.56 19052.56 19052.56

Deg
0 -120 120

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Fault Summary (During Fault) Fault Type Voltage Phase


A B LLL C A B LG-A C

Voltage Deg
90 -30 -150 0 -138.55 133.55

Current kA
16.63 16.63 16.63 10.14 0 0

Current Deg
-80.01 159.99 39.99 -72.89 0 0

kV
0 0 0 0 22.75 24.75

Thevenin Impedances at Faulted Bus R + jX ohms


Z1 Z0 Z1 (ANSI) Z0 (ANSI) 0.1989 + j1.1281 1.2616 + j3.1322 0.1975 + j1.1281 1.2476 + j1.5308

R + jX pu
0.0183 + j0.1036 0.1158 + j0.2876 0.0181 + j0.1036 0.1146 + j0.1406

2X1+X0 X/R
5.673 2.483 5.711 1.227 0.495 0.495

2R1+R0 pu
0.152

pu

(2X1+X0)/ (2R1+R0)
3.247

0.151

2.305

ANSI Factors
LLL Fault Local ANSI Standard ANSI C37.010 ANSI C37.5 Multiplier (LM) 1 1 Remote Multiplier (RM) 1 1.105 kA 16.63 16.63 Fault I Sym RM only kA 16.63 18.38 I Sym Weighte d kA 16.63 18.33 LG Fault Local Multiplier (LM) 1 1 2.883% 97.117% Remote Multiplier (RM) 1 1.063 kA 10.13 10.13 Fault I Sym RM only kA 10.13 10.78 I Sym Weighted kA 10.13 10.76

Local Source Contribution Remote Source Contribution

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3.1.3

One Line Diagram Results

For the IEC Breaking, Peak and Steady State duties IEC Factors are applied on the initial current. Therefore the faulted bus short circuit level will automatically be displayed on screen corresponding to the duty type selected.

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Chapter 4 Transient Stability Analysis


4.1 Frequency by Zone

This is an optional part of the study, which is particularly useful when interconnected systems with different frequencies are to be included in the transient stability study. After specifying the zones of the network you can specify the desired frequency of any zone in the Frequency by Zone dialog box of the transient stability program. Check Specify Frequency by Zone and then select the User defined settings to enter the desired frequency. The default frequency is the system nominal frequency entered in the parameters tab of the study.

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4.1

Global Settings

In the absence of data for controller models, or in the interest of saving time, it may be necessary to perform simplified stability simulations. That is why, in the Global Settings tab, you have the option to run your simulation with no Turbines, Exciters or Stabilizers, even if some have already been defined.

Note:

If a Generator has a synchronous machine stability model assigned to it, but no Turbine model is used, then the mechanical power input to the Generator is held fixed at its initial value throughout the simulation. Similarly, if no Exciter model is used, the field voltage of the Generator is held constant.

For Synchronous Generators, you have the option to simplify matters by applying the same synchronous machine model type to all Generators, or to utilize the models you have selected on an Individual basis. You can overwrite the individual generator control model specified at the network level with the following selections.

Note:

Make sure that sufficient data has been entered in the Generator database for each machine to be able to use the selected model type. (See Section Error! Reference source not found. Error! Reference source not found.)

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The Exclude all Controls option disables all controls on all Generators. Alternatively, you may use the Exclude All option for each type such as Turbines, Stabilizers and Exciters with or without saturation modeling.

Wind Turbines and Photovoltaic can be assigned Use Individual Settings or apply a particular wind or solar model on all. In addition the constant power model is also available for the user at this level.

Induction motors can be assigned different models

Running Induction Motors

Starting Induction Motors

Apply Skin Effect on Running and Starting Motors

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Synchronous Motors have the same options as Generators.

4.1

Over Current Relay

The Over Current relay now includes the Transient Stability Functionality.

4.1.1

General Settings

The Over Current Relay network settings dialog box includes two tabs: General and Controlled Breakers. The settings at the General tab include the bus Number, the relay Status and the Text displayed in the relay one line diagram symbol. In addition, it includes the Time Current Settings, Relay Operating Time and Observation Delay. The Observation Delay in seconds is included in the total response of the system to account for the fact that the current may recover to within acceptable limits before the breaker trip signal is initiated.

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4.1.2

Controlled Breakers

The Controlled Breakers tab is used to select the circuit breakers that are to trip due to an over current in the protected branch.

The Breaker Operating Time in seconds represents the delay of the breaker trip mechanism to trip or close the contacts. This delay is entered in the Network Settings of the desired breaker.

The Total Breaker Operating Time in seconds is the sum of all three namely. Observation Delay + Relay Operating Time + Breaker Operating Time

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4.1.3

TCC Settings

User defined Definite Time or directly from the device Time Current curves for either Definite Time or relays with time dial functionality. User Defined Definite Time Settings The Relay Current Pick Up, Operating and Observation Delay times can be entered by the user.

Note

The Relay Pick Current is used to calculate the branch current threshold that will activate the trip signal.

Example Relay Pick up is 10 A The CT Ratio is 200:5 The Branch Current trip threshold is

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Chapter 5 Motor Starting Analysis


The Dynamic Motor Starting Analysis now includes the A. Locked Rotor Analysis (LRA) to calculate the voltage dip of induction and synchronous starting motors on the network. B. The Maximum Start Size to estimate the maximum motor size that can be started on a given bus given the allowable voltage drop.

5.1

Locked Rotor Analysis

To access the Locked Rotor Analysis, go to Analysis > Motor Start > Locked Rotor . You can also choose Motor Start Locked Rotor Analysis from the Simulation Toolbar and click on the Run Simulation button.

5.1.1

Analysis Settings

Locked Rotor Analysis calculates the voltage dip starting motors will cause on a network. This calculation assists in determining the proper motor size for installation. Specify the Status (Off, Running, Locked Rotor) of the motors and the starting mode of each Starting motor. At least one motor in the network should be at Starting status to perform a Locked rotor analysis. To change and/or to view the current settings of a motor, click the Modify hyperlink.

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Under the During Motor Start group box, you define if the equivalent source, regulators, generators and capacitors are locked or un-locked. For each class of devise, click to place a check mark in the selection box to lock.

Enable these options to calculate the voltage drop at the moment of motor start before regulators, generators or switched capacitors have time to react. In the Output Options group box, you can choose whether to display outputs automatically: summary report, detailed report. Check-mark Color by Voltage Dip to color-code the One Line diagram by voltage dip levels, based on the limits as defined in the Color by Voltage Dip tab% (see View > Display Options, Layers tab, select Analysis layers as the Category). Hint: Run a Locked rotor analysis with different starting modes to see the decrease of the voltage dip in the network. The acceleration of the motor over time is not simulated.

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5.1.2

Flicker Table Tab

This Table defines the allowed voltage dip depending on the number of starts per day. These are used to compare with the real values obtained from the simulation. This comparison is included in the summary report. Voltage dip values greater than the maximum allowed setting will be displayed in red.

Starts/day (minimum), Starts/day (maximum): define the range of starts/day of motors. Motors with a starts/day value falling within a specific range will be subjected to that ranges allowed voltage dips.

Section Properties dialog box with Starts /day field. Each motor installed has a Starts/day value. This value has been introduced to help the users to find out if the actual voltage dip after a Locked Rotor Analysis is under the maximum allowed voltage dip limits.

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5.1.3

Locked Rotor Analysis Sample Output

Locked Rotor Analysis Summary


Motor Location:
Input Summary: Nameplate HP Number of Phases Rated Voltage Applied Voltage Starts/Day Starting Assist Efficiency Power Factor Locked Rotor PF NEMA Code kVA/HP Ratio V-K-001C 6500 HP 3 6.60 kV 6.60 kV 1 Starts/Day Variable Frequency Starter 95.0% 89.0% 15.0% D 4.30

Flicker Curve Table: Minimum No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Starts/Day 1 6 96 1440 14400 144000 Maximum Starts/Day 6 96 1440 14400 144000 1440000 At Substation (%) 3.00 2.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 At Upstream Section (%) 7.00 5.00 3.50 1.50 0.80 0.50 At Motor Terminal (%) 9.00 7.00 5.00 1.50 0.80 0.50 At Maximum Voltage Dip (%) 9.00 7.00 5.00 1.50 0.80 0.50

Output Summary: Current At Motor Terminal Nominal Locked Rotor Full Load Steady State Actual Current Voltage Dip: At Substation Maximum Starting Dip Allowed Actual Starting Dip Calculated Actual Starting Voltage Pre-Start Voltage (%) 3.00 0.00 At Upstream Section (%) 7.00 7.69 91.62 99.25 At Motor Terminal (%) 9.00 8.39 91.62 100.00 At Maximum Voltage Dip (%) 9.00 8.64 91.27 99.90 Current (A) 2444.99 501.69 459.71 Impedance(Ohms) R1 0.23 6.76 1.14 +jX1 1.54 3.46 7.51

Maximum motor starts/day that satisfies the Flicker Table: 0 per day Highest Constraint Location: At Upstream Section

Worst voltage Sections & Values: Phase A B C Section Id V-K-001A V-K-001A V-K-001A Value (%) 91.27 91.27 91.27

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The detailed report is very similar to the power flow report. You can customize the report output. To do this, select the Report > On calculation menu option to display the Reports dialog box; locate your report in the list and click on the Properties hyperlink. This will display the corresponding Report Properties dialog box, where you can edit the parameters of your report.

5.1.4

Display: Color by Voltage Level

To define the color-coding used by the One Line diagram after a Locked Rotor Analysis, go to View > Display Options > Layers tab. Select the category Analysis Layer and select the layer Voltage Level Color (%).

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5.2

Maximum Start Size Analysis

To access the Motor Start Maximum Size Analysis, go to Analysis > Motor Start > Locked Rotor. You can also choose Motor Start Maximum Start from the Simulation Toolbar and click on the Run Simulation button.

5.2.1

Analysis Settings

This type of analysis is used to estimate the maximum motor size that can be started on a given section.

Select Network(s): select the feeder(s) to be considered by the analysis. Parameters: define the value for Maximum voltage dip allowed and Motor kva/hp Ratio. Options: place a check mark next to the output you want to be displayed automatically once the analysis is completed Display the report automatically and / or Display the result box.

5.2.2

Running the Analysis and Viewing the Results

Click Run to start the analysis. Depending on the options selected, either or both the Maximum Motor Size Result Box and the Maximum Start Size Analysis detail report(s) will be displayed automatically.

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The Motor Size Result Box displays the same information as the detail report but displays the information one section at a time. Hint: If you did not check the Display the result box option, generate it by running the analysis again. Un-check the detail report so you will not get double reports. Hint: Select a section from the detailed report and both the result box and the One Line will highlight the same section and vice versa.

Maximum Motor Size Result Box at Bus 266 The Maximum Start Size Analysis Detailed Report displays a detailed report on all theb sections of the feeder.

Maximum Motor Start Sample Report

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Chapter 6 DC Analysis
6.1 Introduction

DC Analysis is limited to networks that contain safe power supplies to critical equipment such as DC Motors, Valves and other loads that are required when the DC battery is supplying power to these loads due to a loss in the supply voltage to the Charger. The equipment library has now been enhanced with the addition of DC equipment such as Station Batteries, Charger, Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) and DC / DC Converter. In addition DC Cables, Impedance branch, protective devices, loads and machines are now included in the library which allows the user to build any DC network with all the necessary network components.

6.2

DC Equipment
Sources Loads Branches Protective Devices

DC Bus

6.2.1

DC Bus

Depending on the network topology the DC Bus base voltage will be automatically propagated by the software. As an example the Charger Rated output DC Voltage will be selected as the base voltage. Only DC equipment can be connected to a DC bus and all other AC network components will be blocked from connection to a DC bus.

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6.2.2

DC Cable

In DC circuits it is assumed that the two identical cables are connected between the positive and negative terminals of the devices.

This includes the General Data including the construction details of the cable, loading limits and symbol dialog boxes.

In the absence of the electrical parameters data the program can compute the electrical parameters of the Cable from the geometrical construction of the cable.

6.2.3

DC Impedance

The DC Impedance from an electrical stand point is treated exactly as a cable with the only difference being that the impedance value R + jX is entered as a total resistance and inductance of the cable.

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6.2.4

DC Load

DC loads are commonly rated based on their operating voltage and power.

The Rated voltage (V) of the load is specified along with either its Power (KW) or Current (A) and the other is computed since the power equation always should hold true.

6.2.5

DC Motor

The DC motor is very similar to an induction motor and is represented by the following equivalent circuit. Rs L Vg RL Note Motor Resistance Winding Inductance Back e.m.f Magnetic Losses The value of RL is typically large and can be ignored, as can the inductance L which is generally small.

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Mechanical Power

This value may be entered in HP or KW. This power represents the mechanical power developed at shaft of the motor.

Rated Power

In KW is the electrical input power of the motor governed by the following relationship.

Rated Voltage Efficiency Speed

Motor nameplate voltage in Volts (V) In % to quantify the electrical power losses in the motor. The rated rpm of the motor at normal operating conditions

Load Factor Short Circuit contribution

The following is the short circuit contribution of the motor at its terminal:

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6.2.6

Protective Devices

The protective devices follow a common format as far as the data entry and settings in both the equipment and network properties of each device.
Fuse Switch LVCB

Nominal Rating

. Rated current Rated Voltage Interrupting Rating In Amps. Different limits may be defined for equipment in the Loading Limits tab. In kV. In Amps.

In the short-circuit results, the Withstand Rating is used by the program to check if the short circuit current exceeds the withstand rating of the device.

However, you must enter non-zero value for withstand rating. If this value is zero no check will be made.

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6.2.7

Charger

A charger is a constant voltage source, maintaining its terminal bus voltage at the desired control value as specified in the network settings. Whenever the terminal bus voltage drops below the desired regulated voltage of a charger, it will try to raise the voltage to the regulated value until the charger current reaches Imax. On the other hand if the terminal bus voltage is higher than the charger regulated voltage, the charger becomes inactive and is switched off from the system. However, when the current drawn from the charger is greater than Imax, the maximum current it can provide while keeping its terminal voltage constant at the same time, it becomes a constant current source. The current drawn from the charger is then kept at Imax, while the terminal voltage drifts, depending on the system loading and sources such as batteries or a UPS

Nominal Rating Nominal Voltages

In KW or Amps. Input AC Voltage in Kilo Volts (KV) Output DC Voltage in Volts (V)

Efficiency

In % to quantify the electrical power losses in the Charger.

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Power Factor

The operating power factor of the charger is used to calculate the AC reactive power component.

Maximum Output Current

Imax entered in % of Rated Current or in Amps. Once this threshold is reached the charger output current will be limited to Imax and the terminal voltage will drift, depending on system loading and the presence of other sources.

Control Type

Four Modes of Voltage Control are available Fixed Voltage is the desired control voltage at the terminals of the charger Fixed Power Factor in this option the program will compute the desired voltage at the charger terminal as per the following equation:

Float Voltage is the desired control voltage at the terminal of the charger to maintain a fully charged battery. Equalization Voltage is the desired voltage at the terminals of the charger to boost the battery charging voltage for a selected period of time.

Short Circuit contribution

Specify the Short Circuit Contribution factor (K) of the charger in either % of rated current or Amps.

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6.2.8

Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS)

A DC UPS is similar to a Charger since it is series component with AC and DC sides. A DC UPS which is a system by itself composed of a charger and a battery which are controlled to feed a dc network during a shutdown. The data and dialog boxes are pretty similar. The only difference is that theres only one type of DC UPS. The DC battery within the UPS is not modeled at the present time.

6.2.9

DC-DC Converter

A DC-DC Converter is a series component that is comparable to a transformer in DC. It has a DC primary and a DC secondary. The primary is modeled with a load and has no influence on the DC Load Flow calculation on the secondary side.

Nominal Data

Nominal Rating Nominal Voltages

In KW or Amps. Primary Input DC Voltage in Volts (V) Secondary Output DC Voltage in Volts (V)

Efficiency In % to quantify the electrical power losses in the Converter.

Maximum Output Current

Imax entered in % of Rated Current or in Amps. Once this threshold is reached the Converter current will be limited to Imax and the terminal voltage will drift, depending on system loading and the presence of other sources.
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Control Type

Operating output DC Voltage in % of rated secondary voltage or Volts

Short Circuit contribution

Specify the Short Circuit Contribution factor (K) of the Converter Secondary in either % of rated current or Amps.

6.2.10 DC Battery

Each Battery consists of a number of Cells with a typical value of 2.08 Volts connected in series for the desired Battery Voltage as an example 12 or 24 V.

Typical Battery specifications are shown below displayed below.

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These in turn are connected in Series and Parallel combinations to generate the required DC Station Voltage and AH Capacity. The voltage could be in the range of 120, 240 or 480 Volts.

The Battery equipment properties offer two choices of entering the nominal information Battery Type: Nominal Rating from Battery Data Sheet 6.2.10.1 Nominal Rating from Cell Data Sheet (IEEE 946 STD)

Nominal Rating from Battery Data Sheet

Nominal Data

Nominal Voltage Number of Cells Nominal Capacity Internal Resistance per Cell Maximum Discharge Current

For a Single Battery in Volts (VB) Number of Cells within a Battery (NC) In Ampere Hours (Ah) The Internal Cell Resistance. (RC) Total Battery Resistance RB in this case would be Similar to Imax entered in Amps. Once this threshold is reached the Battery output current will be limited to Imax and the terminal voltage will drift, depending on system loading and the presence of other sources. This can either be entered by the user or click on the to compute the battery short circuit current at its terminals as:

Short Current

Circuit

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6.2.10.2

Nominal Rating from Cell Data Sheet (IEEE 946 STD)

Nominal Data

Nominal Capacity Voltage Per Cell Number of Plates

In Ampere Hours (Ah). This should be equal to the Capacity of the battery. Nominal Cell Voltage (VOC) in Volts Number of Total Plates positive and negative (NT). This should be an odd number The Number of Positive Plates (NP) is therefore computed as follows:

Resistance Per Positive Plate

The resistance per positive plate in Ohms (RP) Note The positive plates are connected in parallel. Therefore the Internal Cell Resistance (RC) is now computed as follows:

Maximum Discharge Current

Short Current

Circuit

Similar to Imax entered in Amps. Once this threshold is reached the cell output current will be limited to Imax and the terminal voltage will drift, depending on system loading and the presence of other sources. This can either be entered by the user or click on the to compute the cell short circuit current at its terminals as:

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6.2.10.3

Station Battery Data

Battery Type

The type of battery data entry in the equipment dialog box is displayed for reference.

Series Connected Batteries Parallel Strings

This represents the Number of Batteries connected in series to obtain the desired station battery voltage output. (NB) This represents the number of parallel strings of batteries to provide the desired Station Battery Capacity in Ampere Hours. (NS). This the Station Battery Operating Voltage (VSB)

System Nominal Voltage System Nominal Capacity External Connections

This is the Station Battery Capacity ( AhSB) computed as follows:

The resistance of all external cables connecting the individual batteries per string (RX)
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Short Circuit Contribution

The SC Contribution of the battery can be defined in two methods: Voltage Source Behind and Impedance Constant Current Source

Voltage Source Behind an Impedance

This the simple case of representing the station battery VSB in series with the total internal resistance of the battery

The Total Impedance would be

Where

The short station battery short circuit current at its terminals:

Constant Current Source

The option represents the battery as a constant current source contribution irrespective of the fault location. The Short Circuit current can be entered as a % of the Station Battery Short circuit current or in Amps.

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6.3

DC Load Flow Analysis

The default calculation method in the DC Analysis module is the Newton Raphson Load Flow solution method. Select DC Load Flow Analysis from the list of available analyses. (See illustration.) You can also select it from Analysis > DC Load Flow Analysis.

Before accessing the Analysis dialog box go to File System Parameters to modify, if desired, the Base Power for solving the DC Networks.

Click on the Run Simulation icon

in the Simulation toolbar.

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6.3.1

Analysis Parameters

The DC Load Flow Analysis dialog box comprises configuration settings and four tabs that will allow you to set the: DC Load Flow analysis Parameters such as tolerance, number of iterations, Load or Motor Scaling Factors, Include batteries and motors in the analysis or not.

Remove All Constraints

If this option is checked then the load flow will be solved by relaxing all the constraints on Batteries, Chargers, UPS and Converters. This includes the limit on Imax and the detection of reverse power flow in devices. Note: This is useful for networks that have difficulty converging since the results of the load flow, with relaxed constraints, can provide useful tips as to where the problem may be.

Adjust Impedance

If this option is checked you can click on the button to apply some impedance adjustment factors as a function of Temperature and Tolerance on the Cable length.

The next three dialog boxes are similar to the AC Load Flow Analysis module: The Networks that the Load Flow is to be performed on. The Loading / Voltage Limits of equipment and bus voltage violations. The Output options for reports and one line Diagram. Notes:

You may select to analyze a network without analyzing all the other networks connected to this particular network. The DC Load Flow can simultaneously solve multiple networks and networks with multiple swing sources.

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6.3.2

Solving the Power Flow

Once the parameters for the DC load flow analysis have been set, you may click on the Save button if you wish to permanently save the parameters to your disk. This is only useful if you wish to re-use the same parameters as default parameters for future studies. Click on the Run button to start the analysis and display the results on the one line diagram, the results box and in the reports. The default layer for the DC Power Flow Results is provided with the program and can be accessed through the results layer tool bar.

After the analysis is completed you can display and color code the one line diagram with any abnormal condition such as overloaded equipment and bus violations by clicking on the of the analysis tool bar. . icon

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6.3.3

Power Flow Reports


icon of the Simulation

To select and display the DC Load Flow Results reports click on the toolbar or select Report > On Calculation from the menu.

. Lists of reports provided with the software are detailed below:

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6.4

DC Short Circuit

Select DC Short-Circuit from the list of available analyses. You may also select Analysis > Fault Analysis > DC Short-Circuit from the menu.

Click on the Run Simulation icon box.

in the Simulation toolbar to open the Short-circuit dialog

6.4.1

Analysis Parameters

The DC Short Circuit Analysis dialog box comprises configuration settings and four tabs that will allow you to set the: Calculation including type of analysis and location of fault.

There are two possible calculation modes: Short-Circuit Levels at all Buses and Nodes Fault Flow Currents and Voltages Compute the total short-circuit current at all buses and nodes. Compute the effect of a fault applied at one single location. The current and voltages on all sections/nodes of the respective network will be determined to illustrate the impact of the fault throughout the network.
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When the calculation mode Fault Flow currents and voltages is selected, the fault location group box is activated to allow users to specify the location at which a fault is to be applied. Location Allows the user to specify the location at which a fault is to be applied. The fault can be applied to bus or node. Depending on the selection, a list of all the available nodes and buses in the network will be listed for selection.

The next three dialog boxes are similar to the AC Short Circuit Analysis module: Parameters to specify the pre-fault voltage, security factors and DC equipment contributions. The Networks that the Short Circuit is to be performed on. The Output options for reports and one line Diagram.

6.4.2

Solving the Sort Circuit

Once the parameters for the DC short circuit analysis have been set, you may click on the Save button if you wish to permanently save the parameters to your disk. This is only useful if you wish to re-use the same parameters as default parameters for future studies. Click on the Run button to start the analysis and display the results on the one line diagram, the results box and in the reports. The default layers for the DC Short Circuit results provided with the program can be accessed through the results layer tool bar. DC Short Circuit Results layer to display the short circuit level when a Summary on all Buses and Nodes is performed. DC Fault Flow Results layer when you fault a single bus or node.

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Fault Level Summary on all bus and nodes

To fault a bus you can either specify the location in the fault analysis calculation dialog box or right click the mouse button followed by apply fault. The short circuit contributions of Batteries, Chargers, UPS, DC-DC converter and Motors are all displayed on the one line diagram along with the voltage of the healthy buses or nodes.

Fault at a bus

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6.4.3

Short Circuit Reports


icon of the Simulation toolbar

To select and display the DC Short Circuit Reports click on the or select Report > On Calculation from the menu.

. 6.4.3.1 Summary on all bus report

List of reports provided with the software for this are detailed below:

Here are is a sample of the summary report.

Detailed Bus Report

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6.4.3.2

Fault a Bus report

List of reports provided with the software for this are detailed below:

Here is a sample report in exported to MS Excel.

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6.5

Interface to AC System

6.5.1 AC Power Flow


The Charger and UPS are operating as sources to the DC system drawing power from the AC system. The values of the Input Active and the Reactive power to the Charger or UPS are computed from the efficiency and operating power factor specified for each device .

To include the results of the DC system you need to access the CYMFLOW analysis Controls menu and activate the option access the DC Load Flow parameters with the in the AC load flow analysis. You can also button.

By including the DC analysis keywords in ac power flow layer then the results of both analyses can be displayed on screen.
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Below is such an example:

Figure 6-1 : AC and DC Load Flow Results

6.5.2 Harmonic Analysis


Power Electronic Devices such as Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs), Chargers and UPS and FACTS devices now include a Harmonic Current Source Model.

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The Harmonic current source data can be entered in the database settings of the general Frequency Source included in the equipment library of harmonic devices.

The desired frequency source can then be associated to the particular device from the Harmonic Settings of that particular device in the Section Properties dialog box. An example illustrating the settings of the harmonic model for a Charger is shown below.

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To display the harmonic voltage and current distortion results simply activate the CYMHARMO analysis module, set the parameters, specify the location of the points of common coupling (PCC) between the AC and DC and display the results on the OLD, print reports and generate the charts.

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Chapter 7 CYMPROTEC
CYME 7.0 brings numerous enhancements and new features to its Network Protection Analysis module. The CYMPROTEC Module is an advanced protection analysis module that is now fully integrated within the CYME 7.0 software package. New Features Re-designed Protection Analysis Study Menu Device Library Editor Revamped TCC Settings dialog boxes Live Preview mode General Enhancements

New Analysis Modules Sequence of Operation Minimum Fault Analysis

7.1

New Features and Enhancements

7.1.1 Protective Device Analysis


The protective Device Analysis now includes the option to access the short circuit analysis parameters dialog box and

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7.1.2 TCC Library


To activate the TCC library functions go to Database > TCC Library menu, there are different options regarding the TCC Database. Library Editor To modify the TCC Library by accessing the Library Editor, click on View to arrange the list displayed on the left hand side to show Protective Devices, Manufacturers, Re-closer Control Types, Cable Insulations, Cable Sizes, Relay Tap Ranges, Device Tolerance and Transformer Inrush. The display of each of the above categories would give access to different data that is pertinent to the category chosen, and these data can be modified. Import and Export Device Settings Device settings as entered in the Library Editor can be imported, or exported to another TCC Library. Re-Index, Compact and Repair Online Update

7.1.3 Device Settings Dialog Box


The device settings now consist of Device Specific and General device Settings.

Relay Settings

General

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Common Pages that include information such as Clipping Coordination Curves, Drawing Options Short Circuit Arrows

Short Circuit and Full Load Current

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7.1.4 Live Preview Mode


This is a new option allows the modification of any device setting and visualize the change on the TCC curve interactively on-screen.

7.1.5 Device Reports


Over Current Relay example report
Feeder Id Section ID Device Number Relay Type Manufacturer Model Operating Voltage Short-Circuit Minimum Short-Circuit Maximum Setting Protection Type CT Ratio Operation Mode Time Dial Tap Range Tap Primary Pickup Short Time Instantaneous UTILITY-SUPPLY C-L1 C-L1 Electronic CUTLER HAMMER C-H FP5000 ANSI VERY 13.80 KV 921.00 A 14879.94 A Value Phase 70:1 Tap with Tap Range 0.05 0.05 / 2.4 0.65 45.50 A Off Off

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7.1.6 General Enhancements


The Network Protection module in CYME 7.0 can help verify network protection schemes User Defined SC Currents TCC View double click on the device click gives direct access to TCC Settings dialog TCC views are now saved with the study New TCC Keywords Customization (Global vs Local) Title Block Information (in Grid Options) Display Tool (TCC Toolbar) IntelliRupter Type re-closer for up to 25 Curves

7.2

New Analysis Modules

7.2.1 Sequence of operations


The Sequence of Operation analysis evaluates the impact of a fault on the network to provide the sequence of protective device operations triggered.

User-defined location.

fault

Simulation of any fault type. Calculation of the fault current and opening time of each protective device.
Device settings, including

delays and re-closer times of breakers are included in the analysis.

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Tracing of the protective devices triggered in the one-line diagram

Tabular report listing the sequence of device triggered, the opening time and fault current detected at each operation

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7.2.2 Minimum Fault Analysis

The Minimum Fault analysis is offered to assist engineers in the verification of whether the protective devices can adequately detect and clear the minimum faults seen in their respective protection zone. A detailed report is provided to list all areas that are inadequately protected. Those areas are also color-coded on the one-line diagram for easier visualization.

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