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# http://physics-edu.

org/

## Structure of electron: An important scientific discovery!

Electron (charged particle) has a standing- electric field and magnetic field at right angle regardless of any kind of its motions. One Simple Discovery! But, One of the High Impact Discoveries! HIGH IMPACT ON: Explanation

of All Electric and Magnetic Phenomena, Explanation of the Structure of Atom and Many of the Current Beliefs in Theoretical Physics.

Since there is no orbital motion for electrons in atoms, it is clear that the magnetic field of a
magnetic domain is created by stationary positioned electrons (see Structure of atom). At Curie point, a magnetic material changes its magnetic property due to the misalignment of electrons by thermal vibration. These facts indicate that an electron has a standing magnetic field. Static electricity is created by stationary charges (negative/positive). This fact indicates that electron has a standing electric field too. Electric field can only be influenced (attract/repel) by electric field and magnetic field can only be influenced by magnetic field. But, electrons can be influenced by both electric field and magnetic field. This is another evidence for the standing electric field and magnetic field of electrons.
EVIDENCES FOR THE STANDING FIELDS ARE AT RIGHT ANGLE

The direction of the magnetic field created is perpendicular to the direction of an electric current. A radio transmitter creates radio waves that are perpendicular to the oscillating electrons in the transmitter antennae. The flow of electrons in a conductor is essentially caused by the attraction between the electric fields of mobile electrons and fixed positive charges in the conductor. When the electric field of an electron is 0 degree angle to a positive charge, the attraction between them will be maximum. When a mobile electron is located in a magnetic field, the magnetic field of the electron will be at 0 angle and the electric field of the electron will be at 90 angle to the applied magnetic field. If the magnetic field moves, the electron will also move with the moving magnetic field (for example, electromagnetic induction). When a magnetic field is applied parallel to the direction of an electric current, as the magnetic field of a mobile electron will be directed at 0 angle to an applied magnetic field, the electrons will rotate at 90 angle. Now the electric fields of the mobile electrons will be at 90 angle to the positive charge. This causes the attraction between mobile electrons and the positive charge in the conductor to decrease. This decrease in attraction causes Magnetoresistance (MR). But if the applied magnetic field is at right angle to the direction of the current, then the electric fields of the mobile electrons will be at 0 angle to the

direction of the positive charge in the conductor. This causes the resistance to decrease in the conductor. In Barnett effect, when a ferromagnetic body spun on its axis, the magnetization occurs parallel to the axis of its spin. When the body rotates, the mobile electrons move to the outer rim due to the centrifugal force and accumulate there. This separation of charges creates a potential difference between the axis and the outer rim. As the electric field of an electron will be directed to positive charge and the electron has electric field and magnetic field at right angle, the magnetic field is created parallel to the axis of the spin. IMPACT OF THE DISCOVERY
IMPACT ON THE CURRENT ATOM MODEL

Because of the attraction from the nucleus, the electric fields of electrons in an atom will be always directed to the nucleus and the magnetic fields of the electrons will be horizontal to the nucleus. In this circumstance, electrons can only oscillate (move vertically about the nucleus) in an atom and CANNOT make any other type of motions. Impact => Electrons in a perfectly isolated, non-excited atom have no any motions. Impact => Since there is no motion, there must be a force (an obstacle) which prevents the electrons from falling into the nucleus. Impact => The space inside of atom is not empty, but filled with a form of matter. I name this matter as space matter.
IMPACT ON THE BELIEF OF ELECTRON SPIN

The electron configuration in a hydrogen atom is determined by two factors. They are attraction from the nucleus and buoyant force exerted by space matter. The electron configuration in a multi-electron atom is determined by three factors. They are attraction from the nucleus, repulsion between electrons and buoyant force exerted by space matter. But by applying a static electric field or magnetic field, we can alter the electron configuration in an atom. When such an atom is excited, the atom can create different spectrum lines than its original spectrum lines. Also, absorption spectrum lines produced by atoms can also affected by external fields. This is the reason forZeeman effect, Inverse Zeeman effect, Stark effect and Inverse Stark effect . Interestingly, for explaining the phenomena like fine structure, Stern-Gerlach effect (a beam of silver atoms directed through an inhomogeneous magnetic field is forced into two beams), the so-called "spin property" of electron is not required. Also, evidently, a consistent spin of particles does not exist.
IMPACT ON THE THEORY OF ELECTRIC FIELD, MAGNETIC FIELD AND LIGHT

The magnetic field created by a permanent magnet is caused by the alignment of motionless electrons. When electrons are flowing through a conductor, they will be aligned. Flowing of electrons cause to align them and a collective magnetic field is created around the conductor. Otherwise there is NO any direct connection between electric current (electricity) and magnetism as current belief.

Impact => Electric field and magnetic field both are created only in the presence of charged particles. An oscillating magnetic field can create an oscillating electric field in a conductor. But, oscillation of one field (electric/magnetic) in space creates no other field as current belief. Impact => Maxwells electromagnetic wave theory of light is simply not currrect.

Oscillation of electrons in a conductor is caused by the alternation of electric polarity in the conductor. When oscillates, the electric field of an electron will be parallel to the oscillation and the magnetic field will be perpendicular to the oscillation. This oscillation of the electron creates a transverse wave on its magnetic field. So, an oscillating electron creates an oscillating magnetic line. The oscillating magnetic line is radiated right angle to the oscillating electron. Impact => Radio wave is oscillating magnetic line. Electric current creates magnetic field and oscillating electric current creates oscillating magnetic field and NOT electromagnetic wave as current belief.
HOW IS LIGHT EMITTED FROM AN ATOM?

We see that the electric field of an electron will be always directed to the nucleus. So when excited, the electric field of the electron will be parallel to the oscillation and the magnetic field will be perpendicular to the oscillation. So an oscillating electron creates a photon (tiny string) of oscillating magnetic line. The photon is emitted right angle to the oscillating electron. Impact=> Photon is neither wave nor particle. Photon is tiny string of oscillating magnetic line.
WAVE NATURE OF ELECTRONS

Because of the standing fields, an electron cannot travel in a straight line when it is accelerated. An uncharged particle like neutron has only a standing- magnetic field. So when accelerated, its magnetic field makes it to oscillate. Impact => a particle's standing fields is the reason for the wave nature when it moves at high speed.
OVERALL IMPACT

Proves the existence of another state of matter. And, Raise Question about the validity of wave particle duality, Quantum mechanics, Quantum electrodynamics (QED), Maxwell's equations etc.
MAIN POINTS COVER IN THIS WEBSITE:

1) The space inside of an atom is not empty, but filled with space matter. 2) Electron (charged particle) has a stationary electric field and magnetic field at right angle

regardless of any kind of its motions. 3) Wave nature of particles is not the property belong them, but it depends on the energy background that the particle exist. 4) In a perfectly isolated, non-excited atom, electrons have no any motions. 5) The magnetic field created by a permanent magnet is caused by the alignment of motionless electrons. 6) Oscillation of one field (electric/magnetic) in space creates no other field. 7) Light is oscillating magnetic lines and light travels as transverse wave in magnetic lines. 8) Matter and energy are not interchangeable: The releasing of energy in a nuclear reaction is due to the rapid-huge increasing of volume of ordinary matter to space matter. The missing mass (mass defect) in a nuclear reaction is converted into space matter. The releasing of energy in a chemical reaction is also due to the releasing of space matter. 9) Only bond making reactions release energy and all bond breaking reactions absorb energy. This principle is applicable for both chemical and nuclear reactions.

A charged particle can be accelerated in different ways. a) Attraction by opposite charge, b) repulsion by same charge, c) attraction or repulsion by a magnetic field, d) by incident photons and e) a radioactive nucleus can emit accelerated particles (both charged and uncharged). But today we know that in an isolated, non-radioactive atom there are two types of forces acting on its electrons. They are attraction from the nucleus and repulsion between electrons (in hydrogen atom attraction from the nucleus only). But these forces cannotmake the electrons in an atom in consistent motion. The matter wave experiments conducted by George. P. Thompson and Davisson and Germer are by artificially accelerated electrons. The electron beams are created by applying high voltages between the negative and positive terminals. But in an atom there is no force which can make its electrons in consistent motion and so the present wave mechanical model of atom is simply not correct. Since there is no motion, there must be a force which prevents the electrons from falling into the positive charged nucleus. Volume of atoms and elastic nature of atoms (for example, gas atoms move randomly in high speed and bounce back when they collide with other atoms or its container), indicate that the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by a form of elastic matter. I name this matter as space matter. So, there are three factors that determine the electron configuration in a multi-electron atom. They are a) attraction from the nucleus, b) repulsion between electrons and c) buoyant force exerted by space matter. Buoyant force is the only force that prevents the innermostelectrons of an atom from falling into the nucleus. For the electrons other than one nearest to the nucleus, repulsion with the electrons in the inner region as well as the buoyant force exerted by space matter keep the electrons in an atom in its respective positions. Since an atom of an element creates its own characteristic pattern of spectrum lines when excited and in cold state, the same atom creates absorption lines in the same frequencies that the atom creates its emission lines, we can conclude that the electrons in an atom are situated in resonant columns. When a low-energy electron collides with a multi-electron atom, the atom emits long wavelength radiations. But when a high-energy electron collides with the same atom, the atom can emit both shorter and longer wavelength radiations. As a low-energy electron can only excite an atoms outer electrons, a high-energy electron is capable of penetrating outer region of the atom and to excite inner electrons. So we can understand that, the space matter density in the inner region of an atom is greater and it decreases with the increasing of the distance from the nucleus and also, this difference in densities creates different resonant columns in an atom. As the density of space matter increases, the resonant frequency of that region is also increases. The shortest wavelength radiation that one atom can emit depends on its atomic mass. For example, heavy atoms like tungsten emithard x-rays when its innermost electrons are excited. But the shortest wavelength radiation that can be emitted by the lightest element hydrogen is in the shortest wave length lyman series. Since the density differences between inner and outer regions, when an electron is excited in an atom, for every oscillation towards the direction of the nucleus, the high-density space matter in the inner region of the atom expels the electron to an outer low-density space matter region. This is the reason for the jumping of an electron with the emission of a photon.

The New Atom Model An atom has a tiny, denser nucleus. Most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in its nucleus. The nucleus of the atom is surrounded by space matter. The density of space matter is greater at the near surface of the nucleus and it decreases with the increasing of the distance from the nucleus. Since each of the different space matter regions with precise radiuses from the centre of nucleus has unique densities, each of those regions act as resonant columns with unique natural frequencies. An atom has enormous number of resonant columns in it and the electrons in an atom are situated in resonant columns. We can call a resonant column in an atom as a shell. There are three types of shells in an atom. 1) Electron shells:- The electron shells in an atom are the regions in which the electrons are configured in an atom when the atom is in non-excited state. Hydrogen and helium have one electron shell. 2) Transitory shells: - Transitory shells are the regions in which the electrons can jump from the electron shells when the atom is in excited state. An atom has enormous number of transitory shells in it. For example, even though a hydrogen atom has only one electron shell in it, highly pressurised hydrogen can emit a nearly continuos spectrum of radiations when extremely excited. The radiations other than the shortest wavelength radiation that emitted by a hydrogen atom are emitted from its transitory shells. This fact also indicates that, the radius of a hydrogen atom is much greater than the radius of its electron shell (watch video line spectrum of hydrogen atom). 3) Inner transitory shells: - The inner transitory shells are the shells that inside of the innermost electron shell of an atom. In the pair production of one electron and one positron when a very high-energy photon is passed through near a heavy atomic nucleus, the innermost transitory shell plays the important role. That is, the density of space matter at the near surface of the nuclei of heavy atoms like tungsten is sufficient for the production of electron-positron pair when a sufficiently energetic photon is passed through it. So it is clear that, a heavy atomic nucleus can hold a greater amount of space matter than a low mass atomic nucleus. When a pair production occurs, the equal amount of space matter will be entered from outside of the atom and the space matter density in the shells of the atom will be always maintained. http://www.amazon.com/StructureAtom-Space-Inside-Empty/dp/1456424211

Space matter (or ether), the fifth state of matter and methods for detecting space matter.
Space matter is filled everywhere in the universe. All matter in the universe (in the ordinary world) is made of space matter. Since gravitational force is exerted on space matter, all massive bodies have a denser medium of space matter envelop. Bending of light when it passes through near massive objects like stars, lensing effect in some regions in the galaxies are because of the refraction of light by the denser space matter that present in these regions and are purely the demonstrations for the presence of space matter in the macro world. Increasing of the mass of a fast moving body, change in shape of a body resulting from its motion; the effect known as the Lorentz-FitzGerald contraction etc are also the evidences for the space matter in space. Also, electric field lines and magnetic field lines both are created by the alignment of space matter units. All form of energies (except gravitational potential energy) are released because of the explosion, expansion or releasing of space matter. For example, the releasing of energy in a nuclear reaction is due to the rapid-huge increasing of volume of ordinary matter to space matter. The missing mass (mass defect) in a nuclear or chemical reaction is converted into space matter. Since ordinary matter is an extremely compressed state of space matter, when it released, they will explode violently and release energy. Watch video: Space matter, Dark matter, Ether Magnetic Particle (EMP), Ether, Aether or ther http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UsUQL0KqWdw