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What this handout is about
This handout will help you understand how paragraphs are formed, how to develop stronger paragraphs, and how to completely and clearly express your ideas.
What is a paragraph?
Paragraphs are the building blocks of papers. Many students define paragraphs in terms of length: a paragraph is a group of at least five sentences; a paragraph is half a page long, etc. In reality, though, the unity and coherence of ideas among sentences is what constitutes a paragraph. A paragraph is defined as "a group of sentences or a single sentence that forms a unit" (Lunsford and Connors 116). Length and appearance do not determine whether a section in a paper is a paragraph. For instance, in some styles of writing, particularly journalistic styles, a paragraph can be just one sentence long. Ultimately, a paragraph is a sentence or group of sentences that support one main idea. In this handout, we will refer to this as the "controlling idea," because it controls what happens in the rest of the paragraph.
How do I decide what to put in a paragraph?
Before you can begin to determine what the composition of a particular paragraph will be, you must first decide on a working thesis for your paper. What is the most important idea that you are trying to convey to your reader? The information in each paragraph must be related to that idea. In other words, your paragraphs should remind your reader that there is a recurrent relationship between your thesis and the information in each paragraph. A working thesis functions like a seed from which your paper, and your ideas, will grow. The whole process is an organic one—a natural progression from a seed to a full-blown paper where there are direct, familial relationships between all of the ideas in the paper. The decision about what to put into your paragraphs begins with the germination of a seed of ideas; this "germination process" is better known as brainstorming. There are many techniques for brainstorming; whichever one you choose, this stage of paragraph development cannot be skipped. Building paragraphs can be like building a skyscraper: there must be a well-planned foundation that supports what you are building. Any cracks, inconsistencies, or other corruptions of the foundation can cause your whole paper to crumble. So, let's suppose that you have done some brainstorming to develop your thesis. What else should you keep in mind as you begin to create paragraphs? Every paragraph in a paper should be
• • • •
Unified—All of the sentences in a single paragraph should be related to a single controlling idea (often expressed in the topic sentence of the paragraph). Clearly related to the thesis—The sentences should all refer to the central idea, or thesis, of the paper (Rosen and Behrens 119). Coherent—The sentences should be arranged in a logical manner and should follow a definite plan for development (Rosen and Behrens 119). Well-developed—Every idea discussed in the paragraph should be adequately explained and supported through evidence and details that work together to explain the paragraph's controlling idea (Rosen and Behrens 119).
How do I organize a paragraph?
There are many different ways to organize a paragraph. The organization you choose will depend on the controlling idea of the paragraph. Below are a few possibilities for organization, with brief examples.
The writer explains his/her thinking about the main topic. third. Step 1.) Description: Provide specific details about what something looks. spirituals referenced heaven." expressed in a topic sentence: Model controlling idea and topic sentence— Slave spirituals often had hidden double meanings. The model paragraph uses illustration (giving examples) to prove its point. or focus of the paragraph. Step 3. / I don't expect to stay. but it also expressed their desire to escape to the North. (See an example. second. Each step of the process will include an explanation of the step and a bit of "model" text to illustrate how the step works. Step 4. Jesus. and the soul. or feels like. (See an example. the controlling idea of a paragraph will appear in the form of a topic sentence. / Run to Jesus. Our finished model paragraph will be about slave spirituals. Here are two examples that we could use to illustrate the double meanings in slave spirituals: Model example A— For example. Decide on a controlling idea and create a topic sentence Paragraph development begins with the formulation of the controlling idea. sounds. The example serves as a sign or representation of the relationship established in the idea and explanation portions of the paragraph. tastes.) 5-step process to paragraph development Let's walk through a 5-step process to building a paragraph. or by topic. step by step. (See an example. (See an example. Often. (See the detailed example in the next section of this handout. idea. in order of appearance. Sweet Canaan" spoke of slaves' longing for heaven. Organize spatially.) Process: Explain how something works. according to Frederick Douglass. the original songs that African Americans created during slavery. forbidden meetings. Explain the example(s) . the song "O Canaan. shun the danger. Here is the controlling idea for our "model paragraph. you may need more than one sentence to express a paragraph's controlling idea. Step 2. Go chronologically. but on another level.) Classification: Separate into groups or explain the various parts of a topic. In some cases. Here's the sentence that would follow the controlling idea about slave spirituals: Model explanation—On one level.) Illustration: Give examples and explain how those examples prove your point." Model example B— Slaves even used songs like "Steal Away to Jesus (at midnight)" to announce to other slaves the time and place of secret. Give an example (or multiple examples) o Paragraph development progresses with the expression of some type of support or evidence for the idea and the explanation that came before it. from start to finish. This idea directs the paragraph's development. smells. Careful listeners heard this second meaning in the following lyrics: "I don't expect to stay / Much longer here. the songs spoke about slave resistance.• • • • • Narration: Tell a story. Perhaps follow a sequence—first. Explain the controlling idea o Paragraph development continues with an expression of the rationale or the explanation that the writer gives for how the reader should interpret the information presented in the idea statement or topic sentence of the paragraph.
and the soul. but it also expressed their desire to escape to the North. not to Jesus. / I don't expect to stay. you can remind your reader about the relevance of the information that you just discussed in the paragraph.The next movement in paragraph development is an explanation of each example and its relevance to the topic sentence and rationale that were stated at the beginning of the paragraph. slaves discerned as detailed messages. however. in your paragraph. / Run to Jesus. however. Jesus. forbidden meetings. however. NONE of your examples should be left unexplained. Sweet Canaan" spoke of slaves' longing for heaven. slaves discerned as detailed messages. On one level. What whites heard as merely spiritual songs. they could have been speaking of their departure from this life and their arrival in heaven. the songs spoke about slave resistance. you will need to explain that relationship in a separate sentence. shun the danger. The real content of the sandwich—the meat or other filling—is in the middle. But it gets kind of messy to eat a sandwich without any bread. not to Jesus. The hidden meanings in spirituals allowed slaves to sing what they could not say. The idea is that you continue to use this pattern until you have completely developed the main idea of the paragraph. Continue the pattern of giving examples and explaining them until all points/examples that the writer deems necessary have been made and explained. or focus. Troubleshooting paragraphs 1) Problem: the paragraph has no topic sentence. In includes all the evidence you need to make the point. Look at these explanations for the two examples in the slave spirituals paragraph: Model explanation for example A— When slaves sang this song. however. Here is a look at the completed "model" paragraph: Slave spirituals often had hidden double meanings. Model explanation for example B—[The relationship between example B and the main idea of the paragraph's controlling idea is clear enough without adding another sentence to explain it. spirituals referenced heaven. Complete the paragraph's idea or transition into the next paragraph The final movement in paragraph development involves tying up the loose ends of the paragraph and reminding the reader of the relevance of the information in this paragraph to the main or controlling idea of the paper. More often. At this point. Your readers don't know what to do with . You might be able to explain the relationship between the example and the topic sentence in the same sentence which introduced the example. Imagine each paragraph as a sandwich." When slaves sang this song. Here's an example of a sentence that completes the slave spirituals paragraph: Model sentence for completing a paragraph— What whites heard as merely spiritual songs. Notice that the example and explanation steps of this 5-step process (steps 3 and 4) can be repeated as needed.] Step 5. but on another level. The hidden meanings in spirituals allowed slaves to sing what they could not say. the song "O Canaan. they also could have been describing their plans to leave the South and run. they also could have been describing their plans to leave the South and run. This explanation shows readers why you chose to use this/or these particular examples as evidence to support the major claim. but to the North. according to Frederick Douglass. For example. simply transitioning your reader to the next development in the next paragraph. You might feel more comfortable. Careful listeners heard this second meaning in the following lyrics: "I don't expect to stay / Much longer here. Slaves even used songs like "Steal Away to Jesus (at midnight)" to announce to other slaves the time and place of secret. but to the North. they could have been speaking of their departure from this life and their arrival in heaven.
In the following paragraph. Their fear of humans makes sense. If the fish are well-fed. Far more piranhas are eaten by people than people are eaten by piranhas. Far more piranhas are eaten by people than people are eaten by piranhas. If the fish are well-fed. piranhas' first instinct is to flee. snakes. the bottom slice (the last sentence of the paragraph) tells the reader how the paragraph relates to the broader argument. Piranhas rarely feed on large animals. pirahnas are widely feared. the final two sentences branch off into a different topic. If a paragraph has more than one main idea. for the most part. for the most part. they eat smaller fish and aquatic plants. When confronted with humans. So. you may decide that the topic sentence for a particular paragraph really shouldn't be the first sentence of the paragraph. they won't bite humans. Original paragraph Although most people consider piranhas to be quite dangerous. for the most part. not attack. Original paragraph Piranhas rarely feed on large animals. notice how a topic sentence expressing the controlling idea tells the reader the point of all the evidence. like sharks. piranhas' first instinct is to flee. If the fish are well-fed. Revised paragraph Although most people consider piranhas to be quite dangerous. they eat smaller fish and aquatic plants. entirely harmless. not attack. Let's suppose that the previous paragraph was about all kinds of animals that people are afraid of. they eat smaller fish and aquatic plants. they are. When confronted with humans. . Piranhas rarely feed on large animals. not attack. Piranhas rarely feed on large animals. piranhas' first instinct is to flee. what's important is that it is in there somewhere so that readers know what the main idea of the paragraph is and how it relates back to the thesis of your paper. And. If the fish are well-fed. they won't bite humans. Far more piranhas are eaten by people than people are eaten by piranhas. In the original and revised paragraphs below. Their fear of humans makes sense. snakes. they eat smaller fish and aquatic plants. When confronted with humans. Piranhas rarely feed on large animals. and spiders. 2) Problem: the paragraph has more than one controlling idea. or end of a paragraph. they won't bite humans. each with only one main idea. Revised paragraph Although most people consider piranhas to be quite dangerous. Their fear of humans makes sense. and spiders. consider eliminating sentences that relate to the second idea. piranhas' first instinct is to flee. This is fine—the topic sentence can actually go at the beginning. Suppose that we wanted to start the piranha paragraph with a transition sentence—something that reminds the reader of what happened in the previous paragraph—rather than with the topic sentence. Their fear of humans makes sense. Far more piranhas are eaten by people than people are eaten by piranhas. Their fear of humans makes sense. When confronted with humans. for the most part. they are. middle. Once you have mastered the use of topic sentences. they won't bite humans. entirely harmless. entirely harmless. they eat smaller fish and aquatic plants. they are. or split the paragraph into two or more paragraphs. so. the revised paragraph eliminates them and concludes with a sentence that reminds the reader of the paragraph's main idea. they are. Our paragraph might look like this (the topic sentence is underlined): Like sharks. not attack. When confronted with humans. Far more piranhas are eaten by people than people are eaten by piranhas.all the evidence you've given them. entirely harmless. the top slice of bread (the first sentence of the paragraph) explains the topic (or controlling idea) of the paragraph. Although most people consider piranhas to be quite dangerous. not attack. piranhas' first instinct is to flee.
3) Problem: transitions are needed within the paragraph.com/trivia-quiz/Humanities/The-Four-Types-of-Writing-168224. The second is when the water level in pools where piranhas are living falls too low. they are. not attack. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. transitions are often single words or short phrases that help to establish relationships between ideas and to create a logical progression of those ideas in a paragraph. they eat smaller fish and aquatic plants. In this example. For guidance on formatting citations.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/paragraphs. Andrea and Robert Collins. A large number of fish may be trapped in a single pool. Martin's Handbook. But there are two situations in which a piranha bite is likely. Sometimes they are also helpful within the body of a single paragraph. Within a paragraph. as it may not match the citation style you are using. 5th Ed. Annotated Instructor's Edition. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list. Lunsford. Piranhas rarely feed on large animals. 2000. Works consulted We consulted these works while writing the original version of this handout. entirely harmless. The first is when a frightened piranha is lifted out of the water—for example. except in two main situations. The Allyn and Bacon Handbook. You are probably familiar with the idea that transitions may be needed between paragraphs or sections in a paper. Let's take a look at a version of our piranha paragraph that uses transitions to orient the reader: Although most people consider piranhas to be quite dangerous. they may attack anything that enters the water. When confronted with humans. 2003. http://www. and if they are hungry. and we encourage you to do your own research to find the latest publications on this topic.html for quizzes: http://www. please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. The St. Leonard and Laurence Behrens. Annotated Instructor's Edition. Rosen. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout's topic. Martin's.funtrivia.html . This is especially likely to be true within paragraphs that discuss multiple examples. piranhas' instinct is to flee. 4th Ed. New York: St. you can see how the phrases "the first" and "the second" help the reader follow the organization of the ideas in the paragraph. if it has been caught in a fishing net.
We naturally sense something is missing. phrases. all he has to do is ask for an explanation. Ask individuals to read word groups out loud to determine sentence or fragment. he doesn’t want to wait to find out. Incomplete thoughts should be completed. Until you see your friend. When we write. the “listener” would feel just like you—”what happened?” If it’s really something interesting or exciting. You would have to figure out a way to find the answer—guess. When we’re face to face it’s easy to communicate because if the listener doesn’t understand something. etc. Include several sentence types as well as fragments (clause. Ask for several responses for each to illustrate the different ways each group can be completed. we’re in a similar situation. and other ways to help us get our messages across. SKILL LESSON 1—What are sentences? What do they sound like? Teacher to Students: When we speak to each other. which serves as both a diagnostic and motivational device. Be sure to place both incomplete thoughts as well as complete sentences on board. What would you naturally want to know? You would be most curious and anxious to find out what had happened. go to his house. facial expressions. he wants to know right away. or wait until you saw him again. If we don’t write clearly. but what do sentences sound like? (Provide the class with some examples:) Although it was raining My best friend Joey A beautiful new car Because I was tired Ask: Are these word groups sentences? Why not? They aren’t sentences because they aren’t complete thoughts.). hand gestures. Activity: Dictate several groups of words to students.* What happened although it was raining? What about my best friend Joey? What about the new car? What happened because you were tired? Place several groups of words on the board for student examination. One way to make sure this doesn’t happen is to write complete sentences. But what would happen in this situation? Your best friend calls you on the phone and exclaims: “Guess what happened to me on the way home from school?” Just as you were ready to ask. tone of voice. Skill Lesson 1 can be taught. We can use body movement. we have at our disposal several ways to help us communicate. Students are to complete incomplete thoughts and label sentences. your phone went dead. All of us have learned the definition of what a sentence is.Expressing An Opinion—Introductory Lessons Upon completion of Level II. . Complete sentences should be punctuated. no communication has taken place.
See if you can help him to reorganize his paragraph. SKILL LESSON 2—Why do Writers Plan? Using posters or the following statements. what do I have to do? Secondly. Teacher to Students: Assume that all of these people have everything they need to complete the task (materials.). We need to have an idea beforehand as to what the writing will sound and look like when finished. etc. First. A builder wants to build a house. A driver wants to drive from New Haven to Los Angeles. are constructed this way. His sentences are not arranged in an easy-to-follow order. the emphasis here is on the sound of sentences. he plans. Student samples from previous writing exercises usually work best. how will I go about it? We can’t sit down. . He writes clearly and to the point. Teacher to Students: Regardless of their expertise and experience. all of these people need a plan to assist them. equipment. Me. grammatical theory about subjects and predicates can be discussed here. He molds and shapes. The baker needs a recipe. However. not the theory behind them.Reinforcement: Any textbook exercise dealing with sentence fragments can be assigned for homework or for reinforcement. (See Paragraph Model 1. ask students to consider these situations: A baker wants to bake a fancy cake. or examples. we must do the same. The experienced writer has lots of tools at his disposal. He doesn’t jump in and write. However. When he’s done.” He adds more sentences.) The statement is explained (Why?) The thought is concluded (What are you like?) All paragraphs. and experiments. manpower. different kinds of sentences. In simple terms we: Say what we’re going to say (Topic Sentence) . facts. always keeping his purpose in mind.” [Use the framed paragraph mode1. A statement is made (I’m special. write something and then see how it turned out. The driver needs a map. substitutes better words. What do you think it is? *Teacher Note: Depending on the class.) SKILL LESSON 3—The Structure of a Paragraph Ask students to take out their composition. Most paragraphs are arranged the same way. Activity Sheets.] Teacher to Students: Your paragraph has been arranged in a special way. He uses colorful words. thinks. Activity—The writer of this paragraph didn’t plan ahead. “A Very Special Person . When we write. But regardless of his experience or expertise. one important thing is needed by all. or leaves words out. All need to know what they have to do and how they will do it before they start. or”revises” which means “to improve. hoping for the best. . The builder needs a blueprint. regardless of their purpose. he writes again. and gives reasons. They can’t randomly go about their jobs without planning and thinking ahead.
” The word transition itself means to “change over. The beginning. SKILL LESSON 4—What are Transitional Words? Distribute Paragraph Model 3. if we have written very clearly. Go over and discuss the questions with your class. Students are to read it silently as you read it to them. With the first assignment the class will construct a paragraph very similar to the models examined. middle.” The paragraph. Activity—Distribute “Expressing an Opinion Model 2. This topic has worked well with my students. is simple but structurally sound. Does it sound better? Is the writer still communicating? Sometimes. read the same paragraph. Reinforcement: More samples can be examined and discussed. but student paragraphs usually are the best resource. stressing transitions. Those you see here are only some. Students are to read the paragraph and answer the corresponding questions. Textbook examples can be used. end construction is clearly evident. Each step outlined here is used for all following compositions at all levels.) Sample Lesson Plan Initial Lesson “Expressing An Opinion” . However it’s a good idea to start with them first and leave them out later. middle. Reinforcement Use any model which contains transitional words and ask your class to pick them out. the class has been exposed to several very simple paragraphs. Reinforce previous concept of beginning. a middle. Re-read omitting transitions to determine their necessity. written by a student. SKILL LESSON 5 At this point. Ask your students to consider the following: What “signals” were given which let you know when a new reason was given? In what order did they seem to appear? How did you know the writer’s strongest reason was given? Explain to class that the signals given are called “transitions. (See Advanced Plan Sheet Section. and an end. Read deliberately. transitions can be left out.We say it (Supporting Details) We say what we’ve said (Concluding Sentence) All paragraphs have a beginning.” A writer uses transitions to help the reader follow his thoughts. the topic can vary. The written language is filled with transitional words. A very simple topic to begin with is: “My favorite season of the year” (Depending on the level or nature of class.) Now. omitting the transitions. and end.
one being the weakest.) 6. After completion of this activity. 7. let your students see you writing too!) 3. When this is complete. Students now assign a number from 1-5 to their five strongest reasons. or board. ________C. Letter C has been provided for this. 11. * Objectives change with each subsequent activity. Students will develop a topic sentence. On overhead transparency. ________Furthermore. 8. On the lines provided. Remind them to punctuate each sentence. ________But most of all. not both. Summer is my favorite season of the year. ask students to write down their answer to this question. Some may be only examples of the general reason. and then picked baseball as another. Provide models if necessary. Distribute Plan Sheet #1. a transparency will eliminate the mass confusion. If you’d like. ask your students to consider the reasons they have chosen. “Opening Statement. “Reasons Why. 7. 5. Paragraph will contain no run-on sentences. write the first group of transitions* your students will use: ________For one reason. For example. ________For another. or just below. Paragraph will contain no misspellings. students are to “brainstorm. Students will use transitional words. Sample Sequence of Lesson: Expressing An Opinion: Plan Sheet #1 1. ____Instruct the student to copy these transitions on the left hand margin. write the following questions: What is your favorite season of the year? (Be sure to do the exercise yourself. 10.Behavioral Objectives* 1. 5. simple sentences are acceptable. Complete sentences. 12. Complete sentences will be used. next to each transition. Students will provide and use relevant ideas to support the topic sentence. 2. 9. Proper form will be used.” that is. 3. Direct students to Roman Numeral I. 4. Write this answer on line A. Now your students are ready for step three: ____Sentences and Transitions. or C: ____Example. Students will bring paragraph to a logical closing. A single word response is acceptable. Ideas will be in proper sequence.” They may use A or B. 4. ____Complete sentences now must be used. Instruct students to copy the question down next to the line labeled “Topic” on Plan Sheet.) Again. Paragraph will be indented. make a game out of it. Now. (Students may develop their own opening statements. Who can get the most in three (3) minutes? 9. ________B. Move now to Step II. and correct spelling are not necessary at this point. ____This is true for several reasons. However. students may have chosen sports as one reason. 10. jot down as many reasons as possible for choosing the seasons they did. 6. Ask students to put their original answers in a complete sentence. these initial objectives will be the foundation for future assignments. Tell your students to fill as many lines as possible under II. Remind your students that short. 2. exactly as you have written them (capitals and punctuation included. B. one to a Line. Example: Summer is my favorite season of the year. There are several reasons why summer is my favorite season. On the same line. direct your students to jot down the reasons chosen in Step II starting with number 1 this time through number 5. On your transparency. . A. Summer is the greatest season of them all. ________In addition. five being the strongest. NOTE: It might be necessary to check your students’ reasons. those remaining are no longer necessary.” 8.
in a few short weeks. There are several reasons why I like the summer. Provide models to imitate. not during. Some might be delighted to see they were right after all! Above all. and V. Use Steps I. At this point. ________I have saved Step VI for later assignments when students become confident about their writing. ____IV. Distribute Model 4.) Upon completion. papers should be collected and evaluated. Spelling checks should take place before transferral. most will be anxious. Under Step VI. SKILL 7—Sentence Expansion Distribute standardized Sentence Expansion Sheet. At this point. when they are working on their own. ________As one student in my remedial class exclaimed. or the next day. each reason (sentence) is written down. To round out the paragraph. neatness. SKILL 6—Sentence Expansion When students have completed draft 1. ________Students will be delighted that their “Paragraph” sounds very much like yours. Each expanded sentence can become a new paragraph. middle. However. Draft 2 is written. 14. students automatically going to the dictionary. III. and end. Although redundant. stress emphatic sentences. 17. “Did I write this?!” 15. remind them of “what paragraphs look like. You’ll find. *TEACHER NOTE: New transitions will be introduced as students master the original set. ____I. Check spelling and sentences. don’t give in to the “how can I find it if I can’t spell it” copout. ________Call upon individuals to read out loud. Next to the indicated numbers. remember. students can also consult a thesaurus for more explicit word choices. expansion takes place before Draft 2. your skill lesson can be introduced for the first revision. Discuss the Model with Class.13. read your “paragraph” to them. ________With each plan sheet on file. ________This can later be used as a vocabulary lesson. As a model. Do not point them out. it will develop the sense of finality and conclusion all paragraphs must contain. When found. Each is expanded by adding words and phrases to answer the questions given. The model is self-explanatory. be sure they do not skip any steps. (If space is not enough. end punctuation. Activity—Have students experiment with and expand example. Before students are ready to transfer the information to paper. ________As you read. Example. students are still confused as to what they have done. They simply record the vague word and next to it the explicit synonym. . I like the summer. students can work on regular paper. Upon completion of the first draft. and to eliminate the weak “that’s how I feel” conclusions. margins. Step II. Check students’ papers for misspellings. as students master the system. students are also building their vocabularies. 18. and perhaps not even necessary. proper form. the correct spelling should be recorded next to the misspelled word. 16. Reinforcement—Students Complete Fun Sheet 1. Have them jot down questionable words under Step V and consult the dictionary. they are ready to expand to make the composition more interesting. and the conclusion. Assure the students they will find the word if they look hard enough. direct your students to simply copy their original sentence from Step I to Step IV. transitions. only the number of errors. * This methodical approach becomes simpler with subsequent lessons.” Stress your rules: indentations. was only for idea arrangement. etc. However. Stress again beginning. Most students know the words which “don’t look right” or which they have guessed at. Put several on the board.
For obvious reasons. expansion sheets. and transferral. I have found that isolated grammar lessons are fruitless as there is little. a poor grade could shatter any confidence he may have mustered. use text models and definitions. With each topic. Teach grammatical concepts from your students’ writing. Then. . Repeat by assigning new topics. Introduce a new skill—movability of clauses and prepositional phrases. With subsequent compositions. The number of revisions students will have to make may vary. The skill lesson for the first revision consists in teaching students how to omit unnecessary transitions. (See Student Sample. a new skill is introduced. From experience. if the skill is Complex Sentences. provide models which can be directly incorporated into the assignment. carry over into students’ writing. Only assign grades when you feel the composition is at its best. if any. They do write them. Use your textbook as a supplementary text to your program. and expansions. Be sure these objectives have been met. drafts. a final revision is made. When introducing new topics and skills. Be sure to save all plan sheets. and eliminate the “there are several reasons why” lead. emphasis is placed on use of plan sheets. Not only will they understand the concept.With the initial exercises. they will remember it. I have included a list of both class and individual skills which I have stressed. a new skill lesson is introduced. For the reluctant writer. Provide models. These will be useful models for assignment two. However. and the redundant closing sentence. provide models and ask students to pick some out from their papers.) Assign Composition 2 at this point to reinforce the sequence. not vice versa. it is impossible to list all of the skills to be covered. I have found it takes about three assignments for students to understand the use of the plan sheets and expansion sheets. Following the lesson. For example.
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