Sancluarios and ollor sacrod pIacos conslilulo an

invaIuabIo sourco of informalion on IlaIic commu-
nilios. Al Ioasl as imporlanl as llo sacrod pIacos
llomsoIvos, lovovor, is lloir roIalionslip lo ollor
oIomonls in llo cuIluraI Iandscapo, sucl as sollIo-
monls, nocropoIois and roads. Tlis 'Iandscapo of
llo sacrod' is ossonliaI for our undorslanding of
llo clanging funclions and cuIluraI moanings of
sancluarios.
A major probIom affocling llo sludy of llo
sancluarios of soullorn and conlraI IlaIy is llo fro-
quonl absonco of informalion aboul lloir spaliaI
conloxl. Il is llis Iacuna in llo arclaooIogicaI
rocord llal llo 'Sacrod Iandscapo Irojocl' aims lo
roduco and various inlonsivo fioId survoys around
soIoclod IlaIic sancluarios aro nov scloduIod.
1
In
Marcl 2004 llo firsl survoy vas conduclod around
lvo sancluarios in llo modorn rogion of MoIiso:
llo sancluarios of GiIdono (IocaIilà Cupa) and llo
sancluary of S. Giovanni in GaIdo (IocaIilà CoIIo
Rimonlalo), boll silualod in llo 'AIla VaIIo doI
Tappino' (|ig. 1). In anliquily llis liIIy parl in llo
soull-oaslorn MoIiso is llougll lo lavo boon
inlabilod by ono of llo fivo Samnilo lribos, llo so-
caIIod Samnilos Ionlri.
2
SAMNIUM
Ancionl aullors allribulo an imporlanl roIo lo llo
Samnilos Ionlri in IlaIic rosislanco lo Roman ox-
pansion, from llo Samnilo Wars in llo socond laIf
of llo 4
ll
conlury BC rigll up lo llo SociaI War in
llo oarIy firsl conlury BC.
3
Ono Iong dobalod aspocl
of Samnilo socioly is ils poIilicaI and sociaI orga-
nizalion, vlicl sooms lo lavo funclionod villin
a rallor do-conlraIizod lorriloriaI arrangomonl. In
llis conloxl, sancluarios aro oflon assignod a piv-
olaI roIo as conlraI pIacos vill poIilicaI and com-
morciaI as voII as roIigious funclions.
4
In our
viov, il is llis aggrogalivo quaIily llal maIos llo
anaIysis of sancluarios so vaIuabIo for llo sludy of
socio-poIilicaI clangos in Samnilo communilios.
Tlo Iavisl allonlion dovolod lo sancluarios by
Samnilo socioly, as rofIoclod in llo buiIding and
65
8A8csc| 80 (2005)
Samnilo Sancluarios Survoyod: IroIiminary
Roporl of llo Sacrod Iandscapo Irojocl 2004
1.D. Sic| c j. Pc|grcm
uii| c ccniri|uiicn |µ M. Rcccic
A|sircci
|n Mcrc| 2004, cn inicnsitc, smc||-scc|c, prc||cm-cricnic! surtcµ ucs ccn!ucic! in i|c crcc surrcun!ing iuc
Scmniic scnciucrics in i|c A|ic Vc||c !c| 1cppinc (C8), u|ic| |ics in i|c mc!crn rcgicn c| Mc|isc in ccnirc|-
scui|crn |ic|µ. 1|c scnciucrµ ci S. Gictcnni in Gc|!c, |ccc|iic Cc||c Rimcnicic, cn! i|c scnciucrµ ci Gi|!cnc,
|ccc|iic Cupc, ucrc c| c¡uc||µ mc!csi !imcnsicns cn! ucrc |rc¡ucnic! !uring i|c Hc||cnisiic cn! i|c Rcmcn
pcric!s. |n i|is s|cri prc|imincrµ rcpcri, i|c c|jcciitcs c| i|c surtcµ ui|| |c !iscussc! in i|c ccnicxi c| i|c i|cc-
rciicc| |rcmcucr| c| i|c prcjcci. 1|c |irsi prctisicnc| rcsu|is ui|| c|sc |c prcscnic!.
Iig. 1. 1cpcgrcp|ic mcp c| i|c Mc|isc, uii| in!icciicn
c| i|c scnciucrics c| S. Gictcnni in Gc|!c, |ccc|iic
Cc||c Rimcnicic (A) cn! Gi|!cnc, |ccc|iic Cupc (8),
in i|c A|ic Vc||c !c| 1cppinc crcc (c!cpic! |rcm Di
Nirc 1ºº3 |ig. 1).
omboIIislmonl aclivilios in llo 3
rd
and 2
nd
con-
lurios BC, is slriIing, ospociaIIy vlon lloy aro
comparod lo ollor pubIic buiIdings or domoslic
arclilocluro of llo poriod. Tlo arclilocluraI forms
closon and llo dodicalions mado suggosl llal in
lloso pIacos spocific group idonlilios voro boing
arlicuIalod. Tloso common idonlilios may lavo
assumod ollnic connolalions undor spocific lis-
loricaI circumslancos.
5
Tlis aspocl can bo graspod
mosl firmIy al llo sancluary compIox al Iiolrab-
bondanlo, in aII probabiIily llo focaI poinl of llo
Samnilo 'sacrod Iandscapo'.
6
Mucl Ioss is Inovn, lovovor, aboul llo Sam-
nilo sacrod Iandscapo on a IocaI IovoI: i.o. around
llo smaIIor sancluarios and slrinos. AIllougl llo
gonoraI assumplion is llal lloso musl bo 'ruraI
sancluarios', lloir 'ruraIily' cannol simpIy bo
assumod cx si|cniic. Tlo oxislonco of a major bias,
rosuIling from a scloIarIy lradilion llal paid dis-
proporlionalo allonlion on llo monumonlaI oIo-
monls of llo Iandscapo al llo oxponso of moro
modosl forms of sollIomonl, slouId bo laIon inlo
sorious considoralion vlon llinIing aboul llo
funclion of sancluarios. Al prosonl, llo dobalo on
forms of sollIomonl and llo roIo of sancluarios
villin llom las roaclod an impasso, vill llo
funclion of sancluarios apparonlIy boing inlor-
prolod in llo Iigll of idoas and proconcoplions
rogarding socio-poIilicaI configuralions. AIllougl
our InovIodgo of Samnilo sollIomonls las in-
croasod considorabIy in roconl docados,
7
llo issuo
las novor boon spocificaIIy addrossod from a dosiro
lo undorsland llo funclioning of llo 'sacrod Iand-
scapo'. Wlo visilod llo smaIIor sancluarios dis-
porsod ovor Samnilo lorrilory on a roguIar basis`
Il is llis basic quoslion llal musl firsl bo addrossod
if vo aro lo approacl llo moro difficuIl issuos,
sucl as llo inlonlions of llo visilors and lov (if
al aII) llo oxporionco of lloso communilios of
vorslippors roIalos lo llo conslruclion of a Iargor
'Samnilo' onlily.
Tlo aim of llo 2004 survoy las lloroforo boon
lo slod Iigll on llo roIalionslip of llo sancluarios
of CoIIo Rimonlalo and Cupa lo lloir dirocl onvi-
ronmonl, vlicl vas formorIy unInovn, aparl
from somo isoIalod finds.
8
Wo lavo dono llis by
lrying lo oslabIisl llo pallorn of sollIomonl inlo
vlicl llo rospoclivo sancluarios voro insorlod.
Moroovor, llrougl llo comparalivo sludy of llo
sollIomonl dala and llo maloriaI from llo sanc-
luarios llomsoIvos, from llo prosonl survoy as
voII as from llo oxcavalions, vo lopo lo gain
moro insigll inlo llo communilios llal inslaIIod,
monumonlaIizod, visilod and finaIIy abandonod
lloso sacrod pIacos.
9
THI SANCTUARIIS OI S. GIOVANNI IN GAIDO, COIII
RIMONTATO AND GIIDONI, CUIA
Tlo romains al S. Giovanni in GaIdo, IocaIilà CoIIo
Rimonlalo, provido a good visuaI improssion of
llo ancionl sancluary (|ig. 2). Tlo lompIo buiIding
roprosonls llo monumonlaIizod plaso (from llo
Ialo 2
nd
lo llo 1
sl
conlury BC) and las boon consid-
orod a 'lypicaI' Samnilo sancluary of llis poriod.
10
Tlo conloxl of llo sancluary is unInovn, oxcopl
for somo gravos in llo vicinily llal AngoIa Di
Niro las allribulod lo llo oarIy plaso of llo sanc-
luary.
11
Tlo sancluary al GiIdono, IocaIilà Cupa,
on llo ollor land, doos nol prosonl mucl arcli-
locluro in siiu, duo lo inlorvonlions mado in 1935-
1938 during llo conslruclion of a road. A rosom-
bIanco lo llo sancluary of CoIIo Rimonlalo las
soomod pIausibIo lo mosl aullors.
12
Somo of llo
lorracolla roof docoralion las boon prosorvod, as
voII as roIalivoIy opuIonl volivo gifls from a noarby
doposil.
13
In llo vidor aroa on llo sIopos of llo
Monlagna di GiIdono sovoraI arclaooIogicaI lracos
lavo boon documonlod, bul llo dirocl conloxl of
llo sancluary is unInovn.
14
SURVIY MITHODOIOGY
In ordor lo undorsland llo Iandscapos of llo sanc-
luarios of S. Giovanni in GaIdo and GiIdono, an
aroa of c. 1.5 squaro Im around oacl sancluary
vas invosligalod, culling llrougl difforonl goo-
morploIogicaI foaluros sucl as liIIlops, sIopos,
rivor vaIIoys and lorracos (soo |ig. 1, indicaling llo
Sacrod Iandscapo Irojocl survoy aroas).
Boll sampIo aroas voro survoyod in unils of
approximaloIy 50 by 100m (0.5 la) al 10m inlorvaIs
bolvoon parlicipanls (-20° covorago) (|ig. 3).
15
66
Iig. 2. 1|c scnciucrµ ci S. Gictcnni in Gc|!c, |ccc|i-
ic Cc||c Rimcnicic, uii| c ticu cn i|c 1cppinc Vc||cµ,
C8 (p|cic j. Wccgcn).
AII llo arclaooIogicaI maloriaI oncounlorod vas
coIIoclod, vaslod and sludiod. In pIacos vloro
lloro voro loo many liIos lo coIIocl, lloir numbors
67
Iig. 3. 1cpcgrcp|ic mcp c| i|c Scn Gictcnni in Gc|!c
rcgicn, uii| in!icciicn c| i|c surtcµ uniis (mcp gri!
is 500 x 500m) (j. Wccgcn).
voro counlod in smaII sampIo aroas of 1m
2
. Tlis
mado a rougl oslimalo of llo ovoraII quanlily
possibIo. Ior oacl unil llo Iand-uso, nolod orosion
procossos, liIIago and various visibiIily faclors
voro rocordod.
AII find conconlralions of moro llan fivo arlo-
facls por squaro molro voro subjoclod lo cIosor
oxaminalion. Aflor a firsl slandard sampIing (soo
abovo) aII llo ligl arlofacl-donsily aroas (aIso
caIIod 'silos') voro ro-sampIod in ordor lo quan-
lify llo donsily of maloriaI al various Iocalions
villin a conconlralion, as voII as lo coIIocl addi-
lionaI diagnoslic maloriaI for daling and func-
lionaI anaIysis. A GIS vas usod lo oslabIisl llo
coordinalos and conlours of llo oncounlorod find
conconlralions. Boll survoy unil boundarios and
silo conlours voro mappod on 1:10000 maps of
llo rogion.
Tlo sancluary of San Giovanni in GaIdo and
ils immodialo surroundings voro sampIod in a
moro dolaiIod mannor. Horo an inlonsivo silo-sur-
voy mollod vas usod. Tlo silo aroa (c. 2.5 la)
vas survoyod in unils of 10 by 10m (0.1 la) al 2m
inlorvaIs (-100° covorago).
16
Tlo main objoclivo
of llis vory limo-consuming silo survoy slralogy
is lo maIo an arlofacl donsily conlour map of llis
compIox arclaooIogicaI roaIily. On llo baso of llis
map vo viII lry lo drav up a lypollosis aboul
llo possibIo oxislonco of ollor slrucluros sur-
rounding llo sccc||um.
IIRST RISUITS
AIllougl sludy of llo survoy dala is sliII in prog-
ross, somo briof proIiminary romarIs viII bo mado
loro. Sinco llo main objoclivo of llo 2004 survoy
campaign is lo conloxluaIiso lvo sancluarios vill
a clronoIogy bolvoon llo 4
ll
conlury BC and 2
nd
conlury AD, llo focus in llis roporl viII bo on dala
concorning llis parlicuIar poriod.
17
In llo aroa of llo San Giovanni in GaIdo sanc-
luary al CoIIo Rimonlalo a fairIy cIuslorod sollIo-
monl pallorn is individualod. AImosl aII oncoun-
lorod 'silos' of llo Samnilo and Roman poriods aro
silualod lo llo oasl of llo sancluary (|ig 4). Tlis
so-caIIod Inguno aroa, ricl in naluraI springs and
lorracos, is doIimilod lo llo oasl and soull by vory
sloop sIopos, dosconding in llo oasl lo llo VaIIono
ViscigIiolo and in llo soull lo llo Torronlo Iiuma-
roIIo. In llo conlro of llis panoramic aroa, al IillIo
moro llan 500m from llo CoIIo Rimonlalo sanc-
luary a roIalivoIy Iargo conconlralion of arclaoo-
IogicaI maloriaI is individualod, consisling of
Iargo quanlilios of difforonl coarso varos, liIos and
somo fino varos, among vlicl fragmonls of bIacI
gIoss and rod sIip pollory. WoodIand maIos llo
prociso dimonsion of llis silo difficuIl lo oslabIisl,
bul il covors an aroa of al Ioasl 4 la. Tlo clronoI-
ogy of llis sollIomonl appoars lo corrospond vill
llal of llo sancluary (4
ll
conlury BC-2
nd
conlury
AD). Conconlralod around llis nucIous various
vory smaII silos aro individualod. Tloso compriso
Iimilod conconlralions of moslIy liIos, coarso and
pIain varos. RomarIabIy, fov ollor silos from llis
poriod lavo boon discovorod in llo rosl of llo aroa
invosligalod around llo sancluary. To llo norll of
llo CoIIo Rimonlalo, a Iargo viIIa of llo imporiaI
and Ialo Roman poriod is individualod. Tlis inlor-
osling silo posl-dalos llo sancluary, lovovor.
Tlo arclaooIogicaI silualion around llo GiIdono
sancluary al IocaIilà Cupa is quilo difforonl. Mosl
of llo oncounlorod silos of llo Samnilo and Roman
poriods aro silualod in llo cIoso vicinily of llo
modorn 'slrada slalaIo', vory probabIy an impor-
lanl ancionl roulo.
18
AIongsido llis road four fairIy
Iargo (> 1 la) bul disporsod silos lavo boon indi-
vidualod, al approximaloIy 200m dislanco from
ono anollor (|ig. 5). Ono of lloso silos is llo Cupa
sancluary ilsoIf, as vas confirmod by llo discovory
of a coIumn baso and Iargo quanlilios of fino varo.
Tlis Iocalion malclos voII vill llo rallor vaguo
and briof doscriplion givon by Vinconzo D'Amico,
a IocaI doclor and lislorian vlo documonlod llo
'oxcavalion' of llo sancluary during llo road
vorIs.
19
Iurllor on, lo llo norll of llo road, lvo smaIIor
silos lavo boon individualod. Wlal is vory dif-
foronl from llo San Giovanni in GaIdo aroa is llo
roIalivoIy Iargo numbor of silos prodaling llo
Samnilo/Roman poriod. Tlo pro-lisloric and
cIassicaI-arclaic Iandscapo in llis parl of llo AIla
VaIIo doI Tappino sooms mucl riclor, or al Ioasl
mucl moro visibIo.
CONCIUSION
Tloso firsl rosuIls suggosl llal llo 'ruraIily' of al
Ioasl llo San Giovanni in GaIdo, IocaIilà CoIIo Ri-
monlalo sancluary las lo bo rodofinod, as il doos
nol impIy compIolo isoIalion from luman sollIo-
monl. Tlo prosonco of a conlomporary silo of con-
sidorabIo sizo al a dislanco of circa 500m may, in
roIalion vill llo gravos alloslod noar llo sanclu-
ary,
20
indicalo llo oulIino of llo spaliaI and sociaI
organisalion of a smaII Samnilo communily. Iurllor
rosoarcl viII lloroforo focus on llis roIalionslip,
by sludying llo survoy maloriaI and sancluary
maloriaI in moro dolaiI and possibIy by a moro
llorougl oxpIoralion of llo silo. On llo ollor sido
of llo Tappino vaIIoy llo silualion sooms lo grav-
68
ilalo around llo ancionl roulo, and maybo llo
Iocalion of llo sancluary las lo bo soon in llis
Iigll as voII.
21
Tlo roIalion lo llo liII-forl on llo
Monlagna di GiIdono viII bo givon priorily in fu-
luro rosoarcl, by oxlonding llo survoy aroa in llis
diroclion as voII as moro dolaiIod lopograplic
rosoarcl on llo liII-forl ilsoIf. Tlo conloxluaIisalion
of sancluarios by inlonsivo fioId survoy las Ioarnod
us so far llal llo silualions in vlicl sancluarios
voro inslaIIod and froquonlod may vary groalIy
from pIaco lo pIaco, ovon villin slorl dislancos,
and llal lloir spocific funclions may nol bo
doducod from proconcoplions on IlaIic socioly.
OSSIRVAZIONI SUI MATIRIAII (M. Roccia)
Ia maggior parlo doIIo ovidonzo rogislralo noI corso
doI survoy consislo di frammonli filliIi, I'allribu-
ziono di ciascuna ovidonza ad una dolorminala
cronoIogia si basa ossonziaImonlo suII'anaIisi doi
maloriaIi rinvonuli, o dunquo, prossocló oscIusi-
vamonlo, suII'anaIisi doIIo coramiclo.
22
Ior quanlo concorno Ia possibiIilà di confronlaro
quanlo rinvonulo con osompIari già odili, va dollo
clo, roIalivamonlo ai conlosli arclooIogici doIIa
rogiono, Ia lradiziono di sludi ò ancora in coslru-
ziono, infalli, por moIlo cIassi coramiclo mancano
ancora sludi sislomalici o, dunquo, onlraro noI
dollagIio cronoIogico, lonlando un'anaIisi doIIo
singoIo formo, si rivoIa un'oporaziono piulloslo
compIossa.
In ogni modo, daI confronlo proIiminaro con i
conlosli di scavo disponibiIi,
23
possono ossoro
doIinoalo, por aIcuno soquonzo cronoIogiclo cru-
ciaIi, quaIi quoIIa sannilica, aIcuno londonzo gon-
oraIi, configurabiIi noIIa ripolilivilà noI roporlorio
coramico o noIIa scarsilà di imporlazioni.
NoI corso doI survoy si ò nolalo clo, roIaliva-
monlo a laIuno soquonzo cronoIogiclo, aIcuno
cIassi o formo di maloriaIi si prosonlano coslanlo-
monlo associalo, ad osompio, por I'olà sannilica,
lroviamo in associaziono Ia coramica a vornico nora
(s|µp|ci, coppo o paloro), conlonilori di Iiquidi in
coramica d'uso o in coramica fino acroma, logoIo
con IisloIIo profiIalo a quarlo di corclio, ombrici,
cpus !c|icrc, così por iI lardo anlico, Io formo aporlo
69
Iig. 5. Acric| p|cic c| i|c crcc crcun! i|c scnciucrµ
ci Gi|!cnc, |ccc|iic Cupc, uii| in!icciicn c| i|c >5
cric|ccis pcr m
2
crccs uii| c c|rcnc|cgµ |ciuccn i|c
|V ccniurµ 8C cn! i|c || ccniurµ AD. 1|c scnciucrµ
siic is in!iccic! uii| c grccn !ci. |n rc!. in!iti!ucic!
siics.
Iig. 4. Acric| p|cic c| i|c crcc crcun! i|c scnciucrµ
ci S. Gictcnni in Gc|!c, |ccc|iic Cc||c Rimcnicic, uii|
in!icciicn c| i|c >5 cric|ccis pcr m
2
crccs uii| c
c|rcnc|cgµ |ciuccn i|c |V ccniurµ 8C cn! i|c || ccn-
iurµ AD, ccrrcspcn!ing uii| i|ci c| i|c scnciucrµ.
1|c scnciucrµ siic is in!iccic! uii| c grccn !ci. |n rc!.
in!iti!ucic! siics. 1|c |ig rc! !ci in!iccics i|c |crgc
ccnccnirciicn c| crc|ccc|cgicc| mcicric| |cun! in i|c
|ngunc crcc.
doIIa sigiIIala africana, o Io Ioro imilazioni IocaI-
monlo prodollo, si prosonlano coslanlomonlo
associalo con Io formo, provaIonlomonlo cliuso,
doIIo coramiclo |urnis|c! o pcinic!, con i losli, olc.
Ia ricorronza coslanlo di laIi associazioni la
pormosso, già noIIo fasi proIiminari doIIa ricorca
suI campo, di assognaro a dolorminalo ovidonzo
una vaIonza cronoIogica roIaliva.
IarlicoIari probIomi prosonla I'anaIisi doIIo
coramiclo in impaslo. Non ossondo pubbIicali
conlosli rogionaIi,
24
Ia frammonlariolà doi pozzi
raccoIli o I'usura doIIo Ioro suporfici, non con-
sonlo, iI più doIIo voIlo, clo di riforirIi gonorica-
monlo ad ampio o ampIissimo cronoIogio.
Ior quanlo concorno i maloriaIi d'olà sannilica,
si puo diro, in gonoraIo, clo Ia maggior parlo doIIo
coramiclo sombrano prodollo IocaImonlo, noII'am-
bilo doIIa coramica fino o doIIa coramica d'uso,
slringonli appaiono i confronli morfoIogici con gIi
osompIari provonionli dai più vicini conlosli d'olà
oIIonislica.
25
DaI confronlo di quanlo rinvonulo con i con-
losli noli, o, in parlicoIaro, da quoIIo, ancora in
corso, con i maloriaIi provonionli daIIo scavo doi
duo sanluari, in buona parlo inodili, si vorrobbo
ollonoro un dollagIio cronoIogico, roIalivamonlo
aI poriodo grosso modo comproso lra iI IV socoIo
a.C. o iI II socoIo d.C., iI più possibiIo dollagIialo.
InoIlro, si vorrobbo conlribuiro, allravorso Ia com-
paraziono doI dalo maloriaIo provonionlo dai sili
doi duo sanluari con quoIIo riforibiIo ai nucIoi di
insodiamonlo sparso idonlificali suI lorrilorio ad
ossi circoslanlo, aIIa compronsiono più approfon-
dila doIIa nalura doIIo pocuIiari roIazioni clo
dovolloro slabiIirsi, di voIla in voIla, lra i sanluari
o Io divorso roaIlà insodialivo su di ossi lopogra-
ficamonlo gravilanli.
NOTIS
1
1|c Sccrc! Icn!sccpc Prcjcci (SII) is a cooporalion of
rosoarclors of llo Univorsily of Amslordam (UvA) and
llo Iroo Univorsily of Amslordam (VU) and is organ-
isod by llo aullors. Tlo roIo of 'sacrod Iandscapos' in
llo conslruclion and oxprossion of idonlilios of ConlraI
IlaIic communilios in roIalion lo llo Roman oxpansion
is subjocl lo a IlD rosoarcl by Tosso D. SloI. }oromia
IoIgrom invosligalos llo roIo of llo sacrod pIacos of
Iucania villin socio-poIilicaI lransformalion procossos
aflor llo Roman conquosl in llo conloxl of lis IlD llo-
sis. Tlo smaII survoy campaigns around difforonl sanc-
luarios aro organisod in ordor lo soIvo spocific probIoms
oncounlorod in lloso sludios. Tlo 2004 survoy vas co-
organisod by Doll. MicloIo Roccia, vlo is aIso rospon-
sibIo for llo sludy of llo survoy-maloriaI. His InovI-
odgo of llo IocaI lopograply and coramics las provod
invaIuabIo for llis campaign.
2
Tlo aullors vouId IiIo lo oxpross lloir graliludo lo llo
Soprinlondonza por i Boni ArclooIogici doI MoIiso, vlo
aclivoIy supporlod llo 2004 projocl vill advico and
gonorousIy gavo accoss lo roIovanl arclaooIogicaI infor-
malion, ospociaIIy Slofania Capini, VaIoria CogIia,
AngoIa Di Niro and Mario Iagano. Tlo advisory board
consisls of Horman A.G. Brijdor, G-}.I.M. Burgors,
MarijIo Gnado, Iric M. Moormann and Douvo G.
Ynloma (UvA and VU), vlo aro llanIod for lloir loIp
and commonls on llo loxl. Wo aIso llanI llo Rogiono
MoIiso for carlograplic and plolo maloriaIs.
Iurllormoro, vo vouId IiIo lo llanI Domonica
Iuciani, Bonno Riddorlof, llo famiIy Roccia and of
courso llo vory molivalod loam: Vanossa D' Orazio,
Sandra Ialica, MicloIo Iralino, Mario-Callorino
HouIos, Dobora Iagalla, Bruno SardoIIa, IIIon
Tliormann, vloso commonls on llo loxl voro aIso
liglIy approcialod, Barbara VaIianlo, Marlijn KaIIvarf,
}illo Waagon and }oroon Wolorings. Our spociaI llanIs
lo }. Waagon vlo vas aIso rosponsibIo for llo ACAD
dravings. Tlo 2004 survoy vas supporlod by a fund
from llo NollorIands Organisalion for Scionlific
Rosoarcl (NWO) and llo Inslilulo of CuIluro and
Hislory of llo UvA.
3
Tlo cIassic vorI on Samnium is SaImon 1967, soo nov
TagIiamonlo 1997.
4
Cf. Ia Rogina 1989 and BarIor 1995 on Samnilo socioly.
On llo roIo of sancluarios in llo ConlraI Apponinos soo
Iolla 1992, spocificaIIy on Samnium: Capini 1996.
5
Ia Rogina 1976 pcssim, Doncl 1995, osp. 139 and 175-
217, TagIiamonlo 1997, osp. 128-136 and 235-261.
6
Aparl from llo sumpluous arclilocluro, llo supraIocaI
funclion of llo sancluary al Iiolrabbondanlo bocomos
cIoar from llo socond-conlury sc|inim-dodicalion, vlicl
is llougll lo rofor lo llo Ionlri as an ollnic group and
may rofIocl a soIf-conscious appoaI lo lloir Samnilo lra-
dilion (Vollor 1953, 149). Cf. abovo n. 5, CoaroIIi/Ia
Rogina 1984, 230-256 osp. 236 for llo arclilocluro. Ior
a slorl ovorviov soo SloI |cri|ccming.
7
c.g. BarIor 1995, Do Bonodillis 1988 and 1990a, Di Niro
1993, Rainini 1996.
8
Cf. Di Niro 1980b, 271. Ior llo Iargor lopograplicaI
conloxl of boll sancluarios soo cc!. 1993.
9
Aparl from laIing inlo accounl llo pubIislod dala from
llo sancluarios, AngoIa Di Niro gonorousIy offorod llo
possibiIily lo soo llo unpubIislod maloriaI of llo San
Giovanni in GaIdo, IocaIilà CoIIo Rimonlalo sancluary.
Cf. foIIoving nolo.
10
Tlo sancluary of CoIIo Rimonlalo, aIllougl subjocl lo
privalo oxcavalions in llo 1930's by llo Iandovnor al
llal limo, vas oxcavalod proporIy by llo Soprinlondonza
por i Boni ArclooIogici doI MoIiso in 1974-1976: Ia
Rogina 1976, 237-241, Di Niro 1980b.
11
Di Niro 1980b, 271.
12
c.g. Di Niro 1993, 13, TagIiamonlo 1997, 193. Ior llo
documonlalion soo D'Amico 1997 |1953], 26-30, 1954
vill map, vill Di Niro 1980a, osp. 263 and 1993:
according lo D'Amico llo Cupa sancluary moasurod ca.
7,85 x 7,83 m., llal of llo CoIIo Rimonlalo moasurod ca.
7,80 x 8,40 m.
13
Ior llo finds soo Di Niro 1980a (aIso in Di Niro 1993,
figs. 3 and 4).
14
Soo Di Niro 1993.
15
Wo aro vory gralofuI lo dr. G-}. I. M. Burgors for lis
advico on llo loclnicaI and praclicaI aspocls of fioId
survoy. Wo usod a survoy mollodoIogy dovoIopod
villin llo framovorI of llo Rcgicnc| Pci|ucµs ic
Ccmp|cxiiµ Prcjcci: Burgors 2002, Burgors/van Iouson/
70
Alloma 2004, Van Iouson 2002.
16
Aflor Burgors 1998.
17
Tlo dala from llo provious and Ialor poriods viII bo
pubIislod in llo finaI survoy roporl.
18
Di Niro 1980a, 262.
19
D'Amico 1954.
20
Cf. abovo nolo 11.
21
Cf. Di Niro 1980a, 262.
22
Ior quanlo concorno Ia suddivisiono in cIassi, si ò corcalo
di faro riforimonlo aIIo principaIi cIassi bibIiografica-
monlo riconosciulo. Ior quanlo alliono aII'anaIisi di lipo
funzionaIo, si ò proforilo suddividoro i maloriaIi raccoIli
in pocli grandi raggruppamonli, clo pormollossoro una
Iollura immodiala doIIo funzioni svoIlo daIIo coramiclo
o dagIi ulonsiIi, ad osompio: impaslo, coramica fino, cora-
mica d'uso, anforo, bacini, cpus !c|icrc, ulonsiIi, maloriaIi
slrullivi, olc.
23
Cfr. in parlicoIaro, por I'olà sannilica, Capini 1984, Do
Bonodillis 1988, Di Niro 1989, BarIor 1995, Rainini 1996.
24
I'occoziono ò cosliluila daI compIosso di maloriaIi
doII'olà doI Bronzo modio di Ionlo Maggio, cfr. BarIor
1976.
25
Ad osompio, GiIdono (Morgia doIIa Cliusa), Campo-
cliaro (sanluario), Monlovairano (fornaco di Iorla
Villoria), cfr., rispollivamonlo, Di Niro 1989, Capini
1984, Do Bonodillis 1990b.
BIBIIOGRAIHY
BarIor, G. 1976, An Aponnino bronzo ago sollIomonl al
IolroIIa, MoIiso, 8SR 44, 133-156.
BarIor, G. 1995, A Mc!iicrrcnccn tc||cµ. Icn!sccpc crc|ccc|-
cgµ cn! Annc|cs |isicrµ in i|c 8i|crnc Vc||cµ, Iondon.
Burgors, G-}.I.M. 1998, Ccnsiruciing Mcsscpicn Icn!sccpcs.
Scii|cmcni !µncmics, sccic| crgcnizciicn cn! cu|iurc ccn-
icci in i|c mcrgins c| Grcccc-Rcmcn |ic|µ, Amslordam.
Burgors, G-}.I.M. 2002, Tlo aims of llo RIC Irojocl, in
Ncu Dctc|cpmcnis in |ic|icn Icn!sccpc Arcccc|cgµ (BAR
InlornalionaI Sorios 1091), Oxford, 7-13.
Burgors, G-}.I.M./I.M. van Iouson/I.A.}. Alloma 2004,
WaIIing llo Murgo: Inlorim roporl of llo Osluni fioId
survoy (ApuIia, Soullorn IlaIy), in Siu!i !i Aniic|iic 11
(1998), 257-282.
Capini, S. 1984, Ia coramica oIIonislica daIIo scarico A doI
sanluario di IrcoIo a Campocliaro, Ccncsccnzc 1, 9-57.
Capini, S. 1996, Su aIcuni Iuogli di cuIlo noI Sannio
Ionlro, in Ic ictc|c !i Agncnc nc| ccnicsic iic|icc
(Convogno di sludio, Agnono 13-15 apriIo 1994),
IIoronco, 63-68.
CoaroIIi, I./A. Ia Rogina 1984, A|ruzzc, Mc|isc, Roma.
D'Amico, V. 1954, II lompiollo ilaIico di RomuIoa o iI va-
Ioro doIIa sua scoporla, Scmnium 27, 193-208.
D'Amico, V. 1997 |1953], jc|si c! i| suc icrriicric !c||´cniic|iic
rcmcic c! cggi, Campobasso.
Do Bonodillis, G. 1988, Mcnic Vcircnc. Ic ccsc !i «IN».
CalaIogo doIIa moslra, Campobasso.
Do Bonodillis, G. 1990a, AIcuno rifIossioni suII'abilalo ila-
Iico di Monlo Vairano, in 8csi|iccic. I´cspcnsicnismc
rcmcnc nc| su!-csi !´|ic|ic. || ¡uc!rc crc|cc|cgicc (Alli doI
convogno, Vonosa 23-25 apriIo 1987), Vonosa, 253-255.
Do Bonodillis, G. 1990b, Monlovairano: Ia coramica a vor-
nico nora doIIa fornaco di Iorla Villoria, Ccncsccnzc 6,
29-72.
Doncl, I. 1995, Ircm |cr|cricns ic ncu mcn. Grcc|, Rcmcn
cn! mc!crn pcrccpiicns c| pccp|cs c| i|c ccnirc| Appcnincs,
Oxford.
Di Niro, A. 1980a, GiIdono, in Scnnic. Pcniri c Ircnicni !c|
V| c| | scc. c.C. (calaIogo doIIa moslra, Musoo nazionaIo
Isornia ollobro-dicombro 1980), Romo, 262-268.
Di Niro, A. 1980b, II sanluario di S. Giovanni in GaIdo, in
Scnnic. Pcniri c Ircnicni !c| V| c| | scc. c.C. (calaIogo
doIIa moslra, Musoo nazionaIo Isornia ollobro-dicom-
bro 1980), Romo, 269-281.
Di Niro, A. 1989, II sopoIcrolo sannilico di GiIdono,
Ccncsccnzc 5, 27-36.
Di Niro, A. 1993, Insodiamonli di opoca sannilica noI lorri-
lorio circoslanlo Ia VaIIo doI Torronlo Tappino (Campo-
basso, MoIiso) I. I'osompio di Corcomaggioro-GiIdono,
8SR 61, 7-32.
Ia Rogina, A. 1976, II Sannio, in I. ZanIor (od.), Hc||c-
nismus in Miiic|iic|icn, Gollingon, I, 219-254.
Ia Rogina, A. 1989, I Sannili, in G. IugIioso CarraloIIi (od.),
|ic|ic cmnium icrrcrum pcrcns, MiIan, 298-432.
Iolla, C. 1992, I sanluari ruraIi noII'IlaIia conlro-appon-
ninica: vaIori roIigiosi o funziono aggrogaliva, M|IRA
104, 109-124.
Iouson, I.M. van 2002, Pciicrn ic Prcccss, mci|c!c|cgicc|
intcsiigciicns inic i|c |crmciicn cn! inicrprciciicn c| |crgc-
scc|c pciicrns in crc|ccc|cgicc| |cn!sccpcs, IlD llosis,
Univorsily of Groningon.
Rainini, I. 1996, Ccprccciic. I´c|iicic scnniiicc !i Icnic !c|
Rcmiic, Romo.
SaImon, I.T. 1967, Scmnium cn! i|c Scmniics, Iondon.
SloI, T.D. |cri|ccming, Sacrod Iandscapo and llo conslruc-
lion of idonlily: Samnium and llo Roman vorId, in
Prcccc!ings c| i|c 6i| Sµmpcsium c| Mc!iicrrcnccn Arc|cc-
c|cgµ (Iondon 21-23 Iobruary 2003), Brilisl Arclao-
oIogicaI Roporls Inl. Sorios 2004, Oxford.
TagIiamonlo, G. 1997, | Scnniii. Ccu!ini, |rpini, Pcniri,
Ccrricini, Ircnicni, MiIan.
Vollor, I. 1953, Hcn!|uc| !cr iic|isc|cn Dic|c|ic, HoidoIborg.
}. IIIGROM
ONDIRZOIKSINSTITUUT IAIIAS
VAKGROII OUDI GISCHIIDINIS
DOIIINSTIIG 16
NI-2311 VI IIIDIN
}.IoIgrom©Iol.Ioidonuniv.nI
T.D. STIK
AMSTIRDAMS ARCHIOIOGISCH CINTRUM
NIIUWI IRINSINGRACHT 130
NI-1018 VZ AMSTIRDAM
T.D.SloI©uva.nI
71