Pumped-storage hydroelectricity

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Pumped-storage hydroelectricity (PSH) is a type of hydroelectric power generation used by some power plants for load balancing. The method stores energy in the form of potential energy of water, pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation. Low-cost off-peak electric power is used to run the pumps. During periods of high electrical demand, the stored water is released through turbines to produce electric power. Although the losses of the pumping process makes the plant a net consumer of energy overall, the system increases revenue by selling more electricity during periods of peak demand, when electricity prices are highest. Pumped storage is the largest-capacity form of grid energy storage available, and, as of March 2012, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reports that PSH accounts for more than 99% of bulk storage capacity worldwide, representing around 127,000 MW.[1] PSH reported energy efficiency varies in practice between 70% and 80%,[1][2][3][4] with some claiming up to 87%.[5]

Diagram of the TVA pumped storage facility at Raccoon Mountain PumpedStorage Plant

Contents
1 Overview 2 Worldwide use 3 Potential technologies 4 See also 5 References 6 External links
Shaded-relief topo map of the Taum Sauk pumped storage plant in Missouri

Overview
At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine, generating electricity. Reversible turbine/generator assemblies act as pump and turbine (usually a Francis turbine design). Nearly all facilities use the height difference between two natural bodies of water or artificial reservoirs. Pure pumped-storage plants just shift the water between reservoirs, while the "pump-back" approach is a combination of pumped storage and conventional hydroelectric plants that use natural stream-flow. Plants that do not use pumpedstorage are referred to as conventional hydroelectric plants; conventional hydroelectric plants that have significant storage capacity may be able to play a similar role in the electrical grid as pumped storage, by deferring output until needed.

These turbines could operate as both turbine-generators and in reverse as electric motor driven pumps. In certain jurisdictions. In some places this occurs naturally. The upper reservoir (Llyn Stwlan) and dam of the Ffestiniog Pumped Storage Scheme in north Wales. The only way to store a significant amount of energy generated. capital costs for purpose-built hydrostorage are relatively high.Taking into account evaporation losses from the exposed water surface and conversion losses. a second body of water. gas and oil. Green represents power raising the temperature of the same amount of water by only 0. enabling additional system peak capacity. electricity prices may be . The pumped storage provides a load at times of high electricity output and low electricity demand. For Power distribution.23 Celsius consumed in pumping. In the 1930s reversible hydroelectric turbines became available. using a large reservoir located near New Milford. approximately 70% to 85% of the electrical energy used to pump the water into the elevated reservoir can be regained.272 kW·h (capable of facility. over a day. pumping water from the Houstatonic River to the storage reservoir 230 feet above. These machines generate in synchronization with the network frequency. pumped storage systems help control electrical network frequency and provide reserve generation. The first use of pumped-storage in the United States was in 1930 by the Connecticut Electric and Power Company.42 Fahrenheit). red is power = 0. while reducing the need for "peaking" power plants that use the same fuels as many baseload thermal plants. The latest in large-scale engineering technology are variable speed machines for greater efficiency. Projects in which both reservoirs are artificial and in which no natural waterways are involved are commonly referred to as "closed loop". However. The relatively low energy density of pumped storage systems requires either a very large body of water or a large variation in height. of a example.[7] A new use for pumped storage is to level the fluctuating output of intermittent energy sources. potentially causing frequency and voltage instability. but operate asynchronously (independent of the network frequency) as motor-pumps. like other hydroelectric plants. Along with energy management. is by having a large body of water located on a hill relatively near. Connecticut. 1000 kilograms of water (1 cubic meter) at the top of a 100 pumped-storage hydroelectricity meter tower has a potential energy of about 0. can respond to load changes within seconds.[6] The technique is currently the most cost-effective means of storing large amounts of electrical energy on an operating basis. The first use of pumped storage was in the 1890s in Italy and Switzerland. but capital costs and the presence of appropriate geography are critical decision factors. Thermal plants are much less able to respond to sudden changes in electrical demand. in others one or both bodies of water have been man-made. but have been designed for flexibility rather than maximal thermal efficiency. permitting thermal power stations such as coal-fired plants and nuclear power plants and renewable energy power plants that provide baseload electricity to continue operating at peak efficiency (Base load power plants). The size of the dam can be judged from the road below. Pumped storage plants. but as high as possible above. The lower power station has four water turbines which generate 360 MW of electricity within 60 seconds of the need arising. This system may be economical because it flattens out load variations on the power grid.

[11] PHS generated (net) -5501 GWh of energy in 2010[12] because more energy is consumed in pumping than is generated.872 Ref [13] [14][15] [16][17][18][19] [20] [21][22] Note: this table shows Capacity in terms of MW (power) as is usual for power stations.5 GW of pumped storage generating capacity (20. Potential technologies The use of underground reservoirs has been investigated. which was to have used a former iron mine as the lower reservoir.932 1.[8] Worldwide use See also: List of pumped-storage hydroelectric power stations In 2009 world pumped storage generating capacity was 104 GW. on occasions that there is more electrical generation than load available to absorb it. increased wind generation may increase the likelihood of such occurrences. In the case of storage it would also be interesting to know the Capacity in terms of MWh (energy). It is particularly likely that pumped storage will become especially important as a balance for very large scale photovoltaic generation.003 2. . Cost estimates for these projects are higher than for surface projects. but their use might greatly expand the number of pumped storage sites.5 GW net capacity (24.3 GW net capacity (36.[9] In 2010 the United States had 21.5% of world capacity). Ohio. Recent examples include the proposed Summit project in Norton. Several new underground pumped storage projects have been proposed. which comprises the vast majority of all types of utility grade electric storage.8% of world capacity) out of a total of 140 GW of hydropower and representing 5% of total net electrical capacity in the EU.400 1.close to zero or occasionally negative (Ontario in early September. The five largest operational pumped-storage plants are listed below: Station Bath County Pumped Storage Station Guangdong Pumped Storage Power Station Huizhou Pumped Storage Power Station Okutataragi Pumped Storage Power Station Ludington Pumped Storage Power Plant Country United States China China Japan United States Location 38°12′32″ N 79°48′00″ W 23°45′52″ N 113°57′12″E 23°16′07″ N 114°18′50″E 35°14′13″ N 134°49′55″E 43°53′37″ N 86°26′43″ W Capacity (MW) 3.[10] The EU had 38. 2006).6% of world capacity).[9] while other sources claim 127 GW. although at present this is rarely due to wind alone.400 2. and the Mount Hope project in New Jersey. Japan had 25.

heco.[26] Two downsides are that the generator must be below sea level.pdf) Stucky.508576f78baa14340b4c0610c510b1ca/? . 2.duke. A further enhancement is to pump more water at high tide further increasing the head with for example intermittent renewables. ^ Levine. See also Compressed air energy storage Grid energy storage Hydroelectricity Hydropower List of energy storage projects List of pumped-storage hydroelectric power stations Small pumped-storage hydropower References 1. 2011-03-03. Such plants can be built to integrate at the regional level intermittent renewable energy sources. pumping air under water. ^ Jacob. Then water is released at low tide when a head of water has been built up behind the barrier.Packing some power" (http://www. The Economist. A 300 MW seawater-based project has recently been proposed on Lanai.[27] Instead of pumping water uphill. Thierry. the pumped storage idea can be inverted. ^ Energy Storage (http://www.colorado. 5. The result being that when the energy used to pump the water is recovered.com/node/21548495?frsc=dg%7Ca). This is not a major problem for the EDF La Rance Tidal power station in France.ch/en/contenu/pdf/Pumped_storage_in_Switzerland_Dr_Jacob. A potential benefit of this arises if seawater is allowed to flow behind the barrage or into the lagoon at high tide when the water level is roughly equal either side of the barrier. This could provide a more efficient process and usefully smooth out the variability of energy captured from the wind or sun.pdf) Duke University. when there is a far greater potential energy difference between the two bodies of water. and several seawater-based projects have recently been proposed in Ireland. ^ a b "Energy storage .economist. it will have multiplied to a degree depending on the head of water built up. Retrieved 2012-03-11. Hawaii. Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage and Spatial Diversity of Wind Resources as Methods of Improving Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources (http://www.an outlook beyond 2000 (http://www.edu/engineering/energystorage/files/MSThesis_JGLevine_final.[23][24] [25] One can use pumped sea water to store the energy. Pumped Hydroelectric Storage (http://www. and that marine organisms would tend to grow on the equipment and disrupt operation. Accessed: 12 February 2012. Small pumped-storage hydropower plants can contribute to distributed energy storage and decentralized peak and balancing electricity.A new concept is to use wind turbines or solar power to drive water pumps directly. December 2007.com/portal/site/heco/menuitem. Another potential example of this could be used in a tidal barrage or tidal lagoon. Accessed: 12 February 2012. Chi-Jen. 4.pdf) page 6. University of Colorado. Accessed: 13 February 2012. Jonah G.Pumped storage in Switzerland . in effect an 'Energy Storing Wind or Solar Dam'. The 30 MW Yanbaru project in Okinawa was the first demonstration of seawater pumped storage.stucky.edu/~cy42/PHS. 3. when the potential energy difference is close to zero. ^ Yang.

doe.6.Practical Proposals for Very Large Scale Photovoltaic Power Generation (VLS-PV) Systems (http://www. 9. PhD Thesis N° 5356.industcards. Ukraine (http://www.epri.pdf in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews ^ http://poppware.cn:8080/upload/news/n2008101309031157.shtml?apc=162059-1972478--1&s=1972478).pdf Table 1.cn:8080/upload/news/n2008101309124620.eia. Costs. Electric Energy Storage Technology Options: A White Paper Primer on Applications. 19.org/site/technologies/pumped_hydro/) ^ "A Ten-Mile Storage Battery.pdf in Enhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons ^ Crettenand. CA.com/books? id=sigDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA60&dq=1930+plane+%22Popular&hl=en&ei=zxiVTtztJPr0gGvtu2kBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDQQ6AEwATgU#v=onepage&q=1930%2 0plane%20%22Popular&f=true) Popular Science.com/ps-china.epfl.uk/sustainable/refs/tide/WindPumpedStor.com/portal/server. 20. (2012) "The facilitation of mini and small hydropower in Switzerland: shaping the institutional framework.com/files/Electricity%20Review%20Japan%202003-04. ISBN 1020676 ^ http://www. 27.cfm? tid=2&pid=82&aid=7&cid=regions&syid=2004&eyid=2010&unit=MK) ^ Rastler et al.uk/sustainable/book/tex/Lagoons.iea-pvps.inference. 16.net/alternative_energy.cam. ^ ESA . 18.inference.EN.pdf) ^ List of pumped-storage power plants in China 3 (Mandarin) (http://www.com/news/2009/12/23/162625.forua. retrieved 2010-09-01 ^ Tymoshenko launches the first unit of Dnister Hydroelectric Power Plant (http://en.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/iedindex3.gov/electricity/monthly/pdf/chap1.pdf) ^ Huizhou Pumped-storage Power Station (http://www.htm) ^ a b International Energy Statistics (http://www. vgnextoid=94600420af0db110VgnVCM1000005c011bacRCRD&vgnextchannel=ab020420af0db110VgnVCM1000 005c011bacRCRD&vgnextfmt=default&vgnextrefresh=1&level=0&ct=article) Hawaiian Electric Company.psp.html).phy.pdf) (PDF). ^ Summary Energy from the Desert .eia.cn:8080/upload/news/n2008101309103489. Retrieved 1 September 2010.gov/oiaf/servicerpt/stimulus/excel/aeostimtab_9. retrieved 201006-25 ^ "2003-2004 Electricity Review in Japan" (http://www.ac. Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). retrieved 2010-06-25 ^ Guangzhou Pumped-storage Power Station (http://www.Pumped Hydro Storage (http://www. 25. retrieved 2010-09-01 ^ http://www.japannuclear.php). 60. 17. ^ Dniester Pumped Storage Plant.chincold.eia.google.psp.de/Storage_for_a_secure_Power_Supply_from_Wind_and_Sun. 7.ch/record/176337?ln=en External links . (http://my. 14.com/about/stations/hydro/bath-county-pumped-storagestation. p.alstom.electricitystorage.pdf).solarnavigator.pdf ^ http://www.xls ^ http://www. 23. 10.dom.org. retrieved 2011-12-30 ^ Pumped-storage hydroelectric power stations in China (http://www. http://infoscience. Accessed: 30 September 2011. 22. and Benefits.jsp).org. Accessed: 13 February 2012.pt?Abstract_id=000000000001020676) (Free download) EPRI . 11.org/products/rep8_02s.htm). 26.power.bankwatch.phy. 21. 24. With a particular focus on storage and pumped-storage schemes". Japan Nuclear. retrieved 2010-06-25 ^ List of pumped-storage power plants in China 1 (Mandarin) (http://www. N.com/home/about_us/projects_under_execution/hydro/55239.psp.1 ^ Bath County Pumped-storage Station (http://www.ac.org/project. 13. 2010.org.cn/news/li080321-9-Guangzhou.org. 8.pdf) ^ List of pumped-storage power plants in China 2 (Mandarin) (http://www. July 1930. 15.htm ^ http://www.cam. Palo Alto. 12." (http://books.

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