Grid energy storage

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Grid energy storage (also called large-scale energy storage ) refers to the methods used to store electricity on a large scale within an electrical power grid. Electrical energy is stored during times when production (from power plants) exceeds consumption and the stores are used at times when consumption exceeds production. In this way, electricity production need not be drastically scaled up and down to meet momentary consumption – instead, production is maintained at a more constant level. This has the advantage that fuel-based power plants (i.e. coal, oil, gas) can be more efficiently and easily operated at constant production levels. As of March 2012, pumped-storage hydroelectricity (PSH) is the largest-capacity form of grid energy storage available; the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reports that PSH accounts for more than 99% of bulk storage capacity worldwide, around 127,000 MW.[1] PSH energy efficiency varies in practice between 70% to 75%.[1] In particular, the use of grid-connected intermittent energy sources such as photovoltaics and wind turbines can benefit from grid energy storage. Energy derived from photovoltaic and wind sources is variable by nature – the amount of electrical energy produced varies with time, day of the week, season, and random factors such as the weather. In an electrical power grid without energy storage, energy sources that rely on energy stored within fuels (coal, oil, gas) must be scaled up and down to match the rise and fall of energy production from intermittent energy sources (see load following power plant).

Simplified electrical grid with energy storage.

Simplified grid energy flow with and without idealized energy storage for the course of one day.

Thus, grid energy storage is one method that the operator of an electrical power grid can use to adapt energy production to energy consumption, both of which can vary over time. This is done to increase efficiency and lower the cost of energy production, or to facilitate the use of intermittent energy sources. An alternate approach to grid energy storage is the smart grid. The current power grid is designed to have generation sources respond on-demand to user needs, while a smart grid can be designed so that usage varies ondemand with production availability from intermittent power sources such as wind and solar. End-user loads can be actively shed by the utility during peak usage periods, or the cost per kilowatt can dynamically vary between peak and non-peak periods to encourage turning off non-essential high power loads.

Contents
1 Forms 1.1 Batteries 1.2 Electric vehicles

6.6. as well as to start an engine to operate a generator to run the lamps and to recharge the batteries.[4] Battery systems connected to large solid-state converters have been used to stabilize power distribution networks. power was produced within a few kilometers of where it was needed.1 Load leveling 2.1 Pumped water 1. Before the development of the transformer and alternating current.3 Portability 2. For example in Puerto Rico a system with a capacity of 20 megawatts for 15 minutes (5 megawatt hour) is used to stabilize the frequency of electric power produced on the island. direct-current generators produced electricity at "utility voltage" of 120-240 volts.75 megawatt hour) nickel-cadmium battery bank was installed at Fairbanks Alaska in 2003 to stabilize voltage at the end of a long transmission line. It is difficult to send power long distances at utility voltage due to the high amperage and large expensive conductors required.8 Thermal 1.7 Superconducting magnetic energy 1.[5] Many "off-the-grid" domestic systems rely on battery storage. A 900 watt direct current light plant using 16 separate lead acid battery cells (32 volts).6 Hydroelectricity 1. .1.3 Compressed air 1. and did not use thousands to millions of volts for transmission.2 Energy demand management 2. Instead.9 Liquid air 2 Economics 2. or directly on-site in a "light plant" owned by a wealthy homeowner or business.4 Flywheel 1. A 27 megawatt 15 minute (6.4 Reliability 3 See also 4 References 5 External links Forms Batteries Main article: Battery (electricity) 50 .2 Hydroelectric dams 1.>85% efficient [2][3] Battery storage was used in the early days of direct current electric power (1860-1930).5 Hydrogen 1. A bank of lead-acid batteries in glass jars both supplied power to illuminate lamps. but storing large amounts of electricity in batteries or by other electrical means has not yet been put to general use.

[12] Another available way to store electric energy in batteries is to use lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery. have high maintenance. and short out individual cells. A further 12 MW·h flow battery is to be installed at the Sorne Hill wind farm (Ireland). These crystals usually can not be re-dissolved back into the electrolyte. and have limited lifespans. Alaska. mainly due to pure chemical crystals that form inside the cells during the charge and discharge cycles.[9] Rechargeable flow batteries can be used as a rapid-response storage medium.[11] These storage systems are designed to smooth out transient fluctuations in wind energy supply. One possible technology for large-scale storage is the use of specialist large-scale batteries such as flow and liquid metal[6] and Sodium-Ion. Battery storage has relatively high efficiency. Sodium-sulfur batteries could also be inexpensive to implement on a large scale and have been used for grid storage in Japan and in the United States. They can be used for different purposes.[8] Vanadium redox batteries and other types of flow batteries are also beginning to be used for energy storage including the averaging of generation from wind turbines. The world's largest battery is in Fairbanks. bulge battery casings. which represents under an hour of electrical flow from this particular wind farm (at 20% capacity factor on its 30 MW rated capacity). Units could be connected in parallel. as well as in other non-wind farm applications. based on theories developed by Donald Sadoway of MIT.Traditional batteries are generally expensive.[10] Vanadium redox flow batteries are currently installed at Huxley Hill wind farm (Australia). Available power per unit changes between 100 kW·h up to 2 MW·h. Hydrogen Bromide has been proposed for use in a utility-scale flow-type battery. They can grow large enough to apply significant mechanical pressure to interior structures inside the battery to bend plates.[7] Magnesium-antimony batteries are also being developed for use in large scale storage. composed of Ni-Cd cells. The redox flow battery mentioned in the first article cited above has a capacity of 6 MW·h. so there is no upper limit for capacity. Tomari Wind Hills at Hokkaidō (Japan). as high as 90% or better.[citation needed] Technology comparison for Grid-Level applications Moving Room Toxic Flammable Parts Temperature Materials Yes Yes No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Technology flow[13] liquid metal Sodium-Ion Lead-Acid[14] Sodium-sulfur batteries Ni-Cd Lithium-ion In production No No Yes No No No No Rare metals Yes No No No No No Yes Electric vehicles Main article: Electric vehicle .

and so have much longer lives.newer li-ion batteries do not break down significantly with each cycle. the compressed air is heated with a small amount of natural gas and then goes through turboexpanders to generate electricity. The ranges of power and energy storage technically and economically achievable. These figures can be achieved even in home-made electric vehicle conversions. This is often achieved by placing the flywheel in a vacuum and using magnetic bearings.[22] Flywheel Main article: Flywheel energy storage Mechanical inertia is the basis of this storage method. tending to make the method expensive. slowing down the disc and producing electricity.[16] Conventional (cobalt-based) lithium ion batteries break down with the number of cycles . they are probably best suited to load-leveling applications on railway power systems and for improving power quality in renewable energy systems. such as a diesel generator. Flywheel storage is also currently used to provide uninterruptible power supply systems (such as those in large datacenters) for ride-through power necessary during transfer[23] – that is. assuming annual consumption of 3650 kW·h. This quantity of energy is equivalent to between 40 and 300 miles (64 and 480 km) of range in such vehicles consuming 0.16 kW·h per mile.Companies are researching the possible use of electric vehicles to meet peak demand. Larger flywheel speeds allow greater storage capacity but require strong materials such as steel or composite materials to resist the centrifugal forces. a large disadvantage of using vehicle to grid energy storage is the fact that each storage cycle stresses the battery with one complete charge-discharge cycle. Electricity is stored as the kinetic energy of the disc. A heavy rotating disc is accelerated by an electric motor. A parked and plugged-in electric vehicle could sell the electricity from the battery during peak loads and charge either during night (at home) or during off-peak. . Vehicle-to-grid technology can be employed. which is usually stored in an old mine or some other kind of geological feature. Friction must be kept to a minimum to prolong the storage time. Applications that use flywheel storage are those that require very high bursts of power for very short durations such as tokamak and laser experiments where a motor generator is spun up to operating speed and is partially slowed down during discharge.[15] Plug-in hybrid or electric cars could be used [16][17][18] for their energy storage capabilities. turning each vehicle with its 20 to 50 kW·h battery pack into a distributed loadbalancing device or emergency power source. When electricity demand is high. which acts as a generator on reversal. however.90% efficient[21] Another grid energy storage method is to use off-peak or renewably generated electricity to compress air. tend to make flywheels unsuitable for general power system application.5 to 0. Some electric utilities plan to use old plug-in vehicle batteries (sometimes resulting in a giant battery) to store electricity[19][20] However. Compressed air Main article: Compressed air energy storage 60 . This represents 2 to 5 days per vehicle of average household requirements of 10 kW·h per day. the relatively brief amount of time between a loss of power to the mains and the warm-up of an alternate source.

Biohydrogen is a process being investigated for producing hydrogen using biomass. A system installed in Coral Bay. . Hydrogen Main article: Hydrogen economy Hydrogen is also being developed as an electrical energy storage medium. Compared to pumped water storage and batteries. Hydrogen is produced. As the description suggests.[16] See hydrogen storage. It can be stored in natural gas pipelines. allowing re-use of existing infrastructure. Western Australia. then compressed or liquefied. uses wind turbines coupled with a flywheel based control system and LLDs to achieve better than 60% wind contribution to the town grid. Reforming natural gas produces carbon dioxide as a by-product. and could never be used to cope with an outage of couple of days or more. High temperature electrolysis and high pressure electrolysis are two techniques by which the efficiency of hydrogen production may be able to be increased. these systems are again designed to smooth out transient fluctuations in supply. High temperature (950 to 1. The AC-to-AC efficiency of hydrogen storage has been shown to be on the order of 21 to 43%. The Gerald R. and storage tanks. and then converted back to electrical energy or heat. Some nuclear power plants may be able to benefit from a symbiosis with hydrogen production.[citation needed ] Powercorp in Australia have been developing applications using wind turbines. which imposes economic constraints. Ford class aircraft carrier will use flywheels to accumulate energy from the ship's power supply.000 °C) gas cooled nuclear generation IV reactors have the potential to electrolyze hydrogen from water by thermochemical means using nuclear heat as in the sulfur-iodine cycle. Hydrogen can be produced either by reforming natural gas with steam or by the electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen (see hydrogen production). This system uses an 18 megawatt-second flywheel to improve power quality and thus allow increased renewable energy usage. Hydrogen is then converted back to electricity in an internal combustion engine. Hydrogen fuel cells can respond quickly enough to correct rapid fluctuations in electricity demand or supply and regulate frequency. flywheels and low load diesel (LLD) technology to maximise the wind input to small grids. for rapid release into the Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System. stored. hydrogen has the advantage that it is a high energy density fuel. or a fuel cell which converts chemical energy into electricity without combustion. similar to the way the human body burns fuel. The first commercial reactors are expected in 2030. The most powerful flywheel energy storage systems currently for sale on the market can hold up to 133 kW·h of energy. hydrogen compressors or liquifiers. Micro combined heat and power (microCHP) can use hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be used as a fuel for portable (vehicles) or stationary energy generation.[25] The price ratio between purchase and sale of electricity must be at least proportional to the efficiency in order for the system to be economic. The shipboard power system cannot on its own supply the high power transients necessary to launch aircraft. The equipment necessary for hydrogen energy storage includes an electrolysis plant.This potential solution has been implemented by EDA[24] in the Azores on the islands of Graciosa and Flores.

using the excess base-load capacity from coal or nuclear sources.[30] In many places. Before switching to natural gas.[27] Pipeline storage of hydrogen where a natural gas network is used for the storage of hydrogen.[16] Large quantities of gaseous hydrogen have been stored in underground caverns by Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) for many years without any difficulties. or about 2% of China's daily electricity consumption. the German gas networks were operated using towngas. Another example is the Tianhuangping Pumped-Storage Hydro Plant in China. by pumping water to a high storage reservoir during off-peak hours and weekends. the capacity of all German pumped storage power plants amounts to only about 40 GW·h.[34] which has a reservoir capacity of eight million cubic meters (2. Underground hydrogen storage is the practice of hydrogen storage in underground caverns.[35] .[31] The chief problem with pumped storage is that it usually requires two nearby reservoirs at considerably different heights.[33] and are used to smooth out demand variations. and often requires considerable capital expenditure.S. a small Norwegian island municipality. which for the most part consisted of hydrogen. Pumped water storage systems. pumped storage hydroelectricity is used to even out the daily generating load.000 GW·h which is enough for several months of energy requirement. which is about 3% of instantaneous global generation capacity.all other types combined are some hundreds of MW.1%) than in a power network (8%). The storage capacity of the German natural gas network is more than 200.[32] Pumped water systems have high dispatchability.A community based pilot program using wind turbines and hydrogen generators was started in 2007 in the remote community of Ramea. typically within 15 seconds. There is over 90 GW of pumped storage in operation around the world.[33] which makes these systems very efficient at soaking up variability in electrical demand from consumers. which comprises the vast majority of all types of grid electric storage . Pumped storage recovers about 70% to 85% of the energy consumed.[29] while other sources claim 127 GW. meaning they can come on-line very quickly.[26] A similar project has been going on since 2004 on Utsira. Newfoundland and Labrador. such as the Dinorwig storage system. The use of the existing natural gas pipelines for hydrogen was studied by NaturalHy[28] Fuel cell maker Hydrogenics and natural gas distributor Enbridge have teamed up to develop such a system in Canada. hold five or six hours of generating capacity. and is currently the most cost effective form of mass power storage. often as a high value rapidresponse reserve to cover transient peaks in demand. salt domes and depleted oil and gas fields.1 billion U. gallons or the volume of water over Niagara Falls in 25 minutes) with a vertical distance of 600 m (1970 feet). By comparison. During peak hours. The reservoir can provide about 13 GW·h of stored gravitational potential energy (convertible to electricity at about 80% efficiency).[25] Hydroelectricity Pumped water Main article: Pumped-storage hydroelectricity In 2008 world pumped storage generating capacity was 104 GW. The transport of energy through a gas network is done with much less loss (<0. this water can be used for hydroelectric generation.

only increased losses to evaporation and leakage. because it has no pumping losses to fill its reservoir. the round-trip efficiency is greater than 95%.incoming river water . Once the superconducting coil is charged. the uprated dam is one of the most efficient forms of energy storage. the Hoover Dam was built in the 1930s).during periods of high output from other generating units.A new concept in pumped-storage is utilizing wind energy or solar power to pump water. the current will not decay and the magnetic energy can be stored indefinitely. For superconducting magnetic energy to become practical the technical challenges have to be solved. by raising and lowering its reservoir level a few meters. SMES is currently used for short duration energy storage. The stored energy can be released back to the network by discharging the coil. Hydroelectric dams Hydroelectric dams with large reservoirs can also be operated to provide peak generation at times of peak demand. Superconducting magnetic energy Main article: Superconducting magnetic energy storage Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems store energy in the magnetic field created by the flow of direct current in a superconducting coil which has been cryogenically cooled to a temperature below its superconducting critical temperature. or seasonal load following. A dam which impounds a large reservoir can store and release a correspondingly large amount of energy. A typical SMES system includes three parts: superconducting coil. While an uprated hydroelectric dam does not directly store excess energy from other generating units. A hydroelectric dam originally built to provide baseload power will have its generators sized according to the average flow of water into the reservoir. Such systems can only increase kinetic water volume during windy and daylight periods. charged from base load power at night and meeting peak loads during the day. SMES systems are highly efficient. The high cost of superconductors is the primary limitation for commercial use of this energy storage method. weekly. Uprating such a dam with additional generators increases its peak power output capacity. . The net effect is the same as pumped storage. SMES loses the least amount of electricity in the energy storage process compared to other methods of storing energy. power conditioning system and cryogenically cooled refrigerator.[36][37] The United States Bureau of Reclamation reports an investment cost of $69 per kilowatt capacity to uprate an existing dam. If SMES were to be used for utilities it would be a diurnal storage device.[36] compared to more than $400 per kilowatt for oil-fired peaking generators. it behaves equivalently by accumulating its own fuel . SMES is most commonly devoted to improving power quality. Wind turbines or solar cells that direct drive water pumps for an energy storing wind or solar dam can make this a more efficient process but are limited. but without the pumping loss. Functioning as a virtual grid storage unit in this way. and the limits in the total energy able to be stored. Many existing hydroelectric dams are fairly old (for example. The power conditioning system uses an inverter/rectifier to transform alternating current (AC) power to direct current or convert DC back to AC power. Due to the energy requirements of refrigeration. thereby increasing its capacity to operate as a virtual grid energy storage unit. Therefore. The inverter/rectifier accounts for about 2–3% energy loss in each direction. Depending on the reservoir capacity the plant can provide daily. Water is stored in the reservoir during periods of low demand and released through the plant when demand is higher. and their original design predated the newer intermittent power sources such as wind and solar by decades.

the marginal cost of electricity varies because of the varying operational and fuel costs of different classes of generators. which can be stored. At one extreme. The next day. thereby shifting that demand off-peak. all of the stored energy can be sold at the peak hours for $40 per MW·h. generally when energy demand peaks.200 MW·h pumped 50 were lost due to evaporation and seeping in the reservoir. turning it into liquid air. 1. while peak power generators are dispatched only when necessary. at a total cost of $18. or the intake air of a gas turbine generator. At the other extreme.albeit significant usage is made of existing Norwegian Hydro. then releasing it to the grid during the peak periods of the day when it is more valuable.[38] Off-peak electricity can be used to make ice from water. . for a final profit of $28. Instead the use of existing hot water storage tanks connected to district heating schemes. with a storage efficiency of up to 70%.000.Thermal Main article: Thermal energy storage In Denmark the direct storage of electricity is perceived as too expensive for very large scale usage. Increasingly.000.200 MW·h during the night. base load power plants such as coal-fired power plants and nuclear power plants are low marginal cost generators. heated by either electrode boilers or heat pumps. However. Demand for electricity from the world's various grids varies over the course of the day and from season to season. Thermal efficiencies over one year of 99% have been predicted. and expanded when needed. when it is used to cool either the air in a large building. operate and maintain. The second prototype of Isentropic Pumped Heat Electricity Storage System was a success proving the electricityin to electricity-out (round trip efficiency) in the range of 72 to 85%. thus increasing the on-peak generation capacity. This is called "economic dispatch". The stored heat is then transmitted to dwelling using district heating pipes. To minimize the total operational cost of generating power. as they have high capital and maintenance costs but low fuel costs. peaking power plants such as gas turbine natural gas plants burn expensive fuel but are cheaper to build. Molten salt is used to store heat collected by a solar power tower so that it can be used to generate electricity in bad weather or at night. base load generators are dispatched most of the time. and the ice can be stored until the next day. For the most part. energy storage is economical when the marginal cost of electricity varies more than the costs of storing and retrieving the energy plus the price of energy lost in the process. The isentropic PHES system utilises a highly reversible heat engine/heat pump to pump heat between two storage vessels. turning a turbine. variation in electric demand is met by varying the amount of electrical energy supplied from primary sources. operators are storing lower-cost energy produced at night. for $15 per MW·h. generating electricity.[39] Economics Generally speaking.150 MW·h are sold for $46. is seen as a preferable approach.000. however. but from the 1. For instance.[40] In areas where hydroelectric dams exist. Liquid air Main article: Cryogenic energy storage One electricity storage method is to compress and cool air. assume a pumpedstorage reservoir can pump to its upper reservoir water equivalent to 1.

Optimal supply-demand leveling strategies depend on the supply-demand mismatch: daily (diurnal) storage must be high efficiency. This is termed 'spinning reserve'.although without the efficiency losses. Power plants are able to run closer to their peak efficiency for much of the year. Typically. Energy demand management Main article: Energy demand management The only way to deal with varying electrical loads is to decrease the difference between generation and demand. with the facility to increase the amount they generate almost instantaneously. Minor variations in load are automatically smoothed by slight variations in the voltage available across the system. but the net effect is the same . For decades. broadly within the following categories: Seasonal (during dark winters more electric lighting and heating is required. The problem with relying on these last two methods in particular is that they are expensive. Additional power plants can be brought online to provide a larger generating capacity. Power plants can be run below their normal output. Load leveling The demand for electricity from consumers and industry is constantly changing. This is not storing "surplus" energy produced elsewhere. while in other climates hot weather boosts the requirement for air conditioning) Weekly (most industry closes at the weekend. High Voltage Direct Current allows for transmission of electricity costing only 3% per 1000km. in . Renewable supplies with variable production. If this is done by changing loads it is referred to as demand side management (DSM).release can be delayed until demand is greater. lowering demand) Daily (such as the peak as everyone arrives home and switches the television on) Hourly (one method for estimating television viewing figures in the United Kingdom is to measure the power spikes during advertisement breaks or after programmes when viewers go to switch the kettle on [41]) Transient (fluctuations due to individual's actions. to encourage these users to shift their loads to off-peak hours. utilities have sold off-peak power to large consumers at lower rates. while seasonal storage would need very low storage costs. tend to increase the net variation in electric load. commonly 110–120 V or 220– 240 V. rather than try and store it in low AC to AC efficiency batteries. like wind and solar power. differences in power transmission efficiency and other small factors that need to be accounted for) There are currently three main methods for dealing with changing demand: Electrical devices generally having a working voltage range that they require. this form of storage is common and can make use of existing reservoirs. these would be combustion gas turbines. because they leave expensive generating equipment unused much of the time. and because plants running below maximum output usually produce at less than their best efficiency. It may be more economical to find an alternative market for unused electricity. which can be started in a matter of minutes. Grid energy storage is used to shift load from peak to off-peak hours. increasing the opportunity for grid energy storage.

Because the transport sector uses the energy from petroleum very inefficiently. These synthetic pathways may attract attention in connection with attempts to improve energy security in nations that rely on imported petroleum. For example. Usually. as well as to reduce the winter electricity demand compared to conventional air-sourced heat pumps or resistive heating. trains. Energy demand management includes more than reducing overall energy use or shifting loads to off-peak hours. as well as alcohols (methanol. or use more efficient processes to produce products. the underlying energy requirements for transportation remain much higher than for information and entertainment applications. for example. Reliability . Portability This is the area of greatest success for current energy storage technologies. however. and appliances and light bulbs that are energy efficient. In an attempt to save more money. Advances in battery technology have generally been slow. refrigerators. Portable consumer electronics have benefited greatly from size and power reductions associated with Moore's law. Liquid hydrocarbon fuel (such as gasoline/petrol and diesel). buses. many utilities give rebates for the purchase of insulation. Non-fossil sources of carbon dioxide include fermentation plants and wastewater treatment plants. weatherstripping. A particularly effective method of energy demand management involves encouraging electric consumers to install more energy efficient equipment. but have or can develop large sources of renewable or nuclear electricity. with much of the advance in battery life that consumers see being attributable to efficient power management rather than increased storage capacity. and butanol) and lipids (straight vegetable oil. these time-dependent prices are negotiated ahead of time. Unfortunately. Some utilities subsidize the purchase of geothermal heat pumps by their customers.[42] Companies with factories and large buildings can also install such products. without the difficulties of dealing with hydrogen or another exotic energy carrier. Companies may get incentives like rebates or low interest loans from utilities or the government for the installation of energy efficient industrial equipment. These uses require far more energy density (the amount of energy stored in a given volume or weight) than current battery technology can deliver. Single-use and rechargeable batteries are ubiquitous. Battery capacity has become an issue as pressure grows for alternatives to internal combustion engines in cars. In residential and small business applications. some utilities are experimenting with selling electricity at minute-by-minute spot prices. as well as to deal with possible future declines in the amount of petroleum available to import. and other devices during these periods by turning them off for some portion of the peak demand time or by reducing the power that they draw. and then reducing carbon dioxide with excess hydrogen in variations of the reverse water gas shift reaction. ships. and airplanes.the same way that telephone companies do with individual customers. like boilers. There are synthetic pathways for using electricity to reduce carbon dioxide and water to liquid hydrocarbon or alcohol fuels. appliance control modules can reduce energy usage of water heaters. trucks. biodiesel) have much higher energy densities. replacing petroleum with electricity for mobile energy will not require very large investments over many years.[43] These pathways begin with electrolysis of water to generate hydrogen. and provide power for devices with demands as varied as digital watches and cars. Moore's law does not apply to hauling people and freight. and shift demand to save both the user and the utility money. ethanol. Demand side management can be manual or automatic and is not limited to large industrial customers. but they can also buy energy efficient industrial equipment. to reduce electricity demand during the summer months by making air conditioning up to 70% more efficient. Converting electrical energy to carbon-based liquid fuel has potential to provide portable energy storage usable by the large existing stock of motor vehicles and other engine-driven equipment. air conditioning units. which allow those users with monitoring equipment to detect demand peaks as they happen.

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org/wind/documents/107.com/2007/10/07/therenewable-electron-economy-part-vii-stationary-energy-storage%E2%80%A6key-to-the-renewable-grid/) Retrieved from "http://en. a non-profit organization. Inc. . additional terms may apply.pdf)..wikipedia.abb.wordpress. ^ Bradley.org/wind/documents/107.org/ESA/technologies/) Technology page from the Electrical Storage association includes graphical comparisons of different energy storage systems. David (2004-02-06). By using this site.archive.org (http://www. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.cfm) by Sean Davies in The E&T Magazine Vol 5 Issue 9 from the www.php?title=Grid_energy_storage&oldid=550998207" Categories: Energy storage Power engineering This page was last modified on 18 April 2013 at 16:29.org/magazine/issues/1009/windless-day-1009. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Archived from the original (http://greengold.electricitystorage.com/cawp/seitp202/0B6D46A05BBC3A27C1256FF2002FD2A0.org/web/20090325012758/http://greengold.aspx) Stationary Energy Storage…Key to the Renewable Grid (http://terraverde.43. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.theiet.pdf) on 2009-03-25.org) External links Electricity storage technologies comparison (http://www.org/w/index. "A Great Potential: The Great Lakes as a Regional Renewable Energy Source" (http://web. Saving For a Windless day (http://kn. Retrieved 2008-10-04.IET.IET. A large grid-connected nickel-cadmium battery (http://www.

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