ANT 570 Principles of Physical Anthropology

History of Physical Anthropology
Studies of Human Variation and Human Evolution

A Cultural Construction of the History of Physical Anthropology
 Since

7 Periods of Development
 Ancient  The

Physical Anthropology as currently known is less than 200 years old, depiction of its early roots depends on how we characterize the modern day science.  Two basic themes underlie most current definitions of Physical Anthropology:  Human Variability  Human Origins


Differences and Origins

Renaissance and Eighteenth Centuries

Empiricism and Science
 Seventeenth

N a t u r a l i s ma n dMa n ’ s P l a c ei nN a t u r e

Homer (fl. 1200 - 850 B.C.) Periods of Development
 PrePre-Darwin  Iliad

and Odyssey acknowledge variability
race divided, whom with sloping rays The rising and descending sun surveys

Nineteenth Century Nineteenth Century

Aethiopians: the most remote of men

Racial Origins
 PostPost-Darwin  1900  1950

CubitCubit-men: African pygmies
 Cubit

Evolution and Racial Origins

- 1950 -

Description and Discovery The New Physical Anthropology

was the distance from finger tip to elbow, about 17 - 2 2 ”  Said to be responsible for sending back the migrating cranes each summer  To warmer seas the cranes embodied fly, With noise, and order through the midway sky; To pigmy nations wounds and death they bring


 Humans

are depicted as the result of degeneration from an earlier, bigger, stronger race
References to a former age when giants populate the earth
 Then

Herodotus, Democritus
 Herodotus

(fl. 5th Century B.C.)

Historiae argues environmental cause of variability between groups of men

Observed skulls of Egyptians and Persians fallen in battle
–Egyptians, who shave their heads from birth, have strong skulls due to exposure –Persian skulls are brittle due to the constant wearing of felt hats

fierce Tydides stoops; and from the fields Heaved with vast force, a rocky fragment wields. Not two strong men the enormous weight could raise, Such men as live in these degenerate days  The giant myths appear to be related to the appearance of Old world Megalithic sites

 

Dark skin of Aethiopians due to their habitual exposure Listed three different groups of Aethiopians

 Democritus

(fl. 5th Century B.C.)

Origin of men from water and mud

Hippocrates (c. 460 - 377 B.C.)
 Early

Hippocrates, 2
 Airs,

medical practitioner and teacher  Corpus Hippocraticum, 70 treatises
Viewed the body as an organism and claimed that it could not be understood without an understanding of the relationship between the environment, behavior, and the body Humoral system accounted for disease

Waters, Places, treatise on influence of the environment on health and temperament
Provides comparisons of the peoples of Asia Minor with Europe and Egypt
 Recognized

two fundamental somatotypes (body build or habitus types)
–Phthisic: Phthisic: long, thin, and choleric (Easily angered; badbad-tempered; showing or expressing anger) –Apoplectic: short, squat, and phlegmatic (Having or suggesting a calm, sluggish temperament; unemotional)

Health was a function of the balance between blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile in the body

These ideas resurfaced in the 18th and 19th centuries

Aristotle (384 - 322 B.C.)
F i r s t u s eo f t e r m“ a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ” i nEthics

to d e s c r i b eama nw h ow a s “ n o t ag o s s i p , n o t a t a l k e r a b o u t h i ms e l f ”  Historia Animalium describes similarities between man, apes, and monkeys, but does not attribute these to common ancestry  Environmental causes of variation
Wooly hair of Aethiopians due to arid climate Straight hair of Scythians due to moist air

St. Augustine (354(354-430)
 De

Civitate Dei Contra Paganos emphasizes both monogenesis and the Scala Naturae
All men born everywhere, no matter how strange they appear to us, are descended from Adam Man is midway between angels and beasts

 He

reckoned that 6,000 years had elapsed since the creation of Adam


Leonardo da Vinci (1452(1452-1519) Renaissance
 14th  In

Notebooks he questions the environmental hypothesis in accounting for human variation
The black races in Ethiopia are not the product of the sun; for if black gets black with a child in Scythia, Scythia, the offspring is black; but if black gets a white woman with child the offspring is grey

- 17th Centuries: Transition from medieval to modern philosophy
From interpretations of natural phenomena based on the bible to science and empiricism

 Rise

of commercial capitalism

 Supports

Voyages of exploration and discovery lead to the discovery of vast cultural and physical differences between human populations Perceptions of categorical differences rather than continuous differences between groups

an early hereditarian argument based o nt h ep o w e r o f t h emo t h e r ’ s s e e d
And this [above] shows that the seed of the mother has power in the embryo equally with that of the father

Leonardo da Vinci (1452(1452-1519)
 Interested

in human growth and development

Magnus Hundt (1449 - 1519)
de hominis dignitate…, published in 1501 was one of the first books of the Renaissance to be published with anatomical woodcut illustrations  First anatomical text to use the term anthropology in the context of human anatomy
 Antropolgium

Studied changing proportions of both sexes at different stages from infancy to maturity
 He

noted the similarity between living and fossil shellfish and argued that the fossils were of organic origin, not supernatural

Andreas Vesalius (1514(1514-1564)

Andreas Vesalius (1514(1514-1564)
 Notes

modern human anatomy text: De humani corporis fabrica libri septem
This is the first widespread anatomical work based on the empirical method Vesalius produced the first detailed and naturalistic drawings based on human dissection

an environmentallyenvironmentally-mediated relationship between race and the shape of the skull
It seems that certain nations have something peculiar in the shape of their head. The Genoese, and more particularly the Greeks and Turks, almost exhibit a round shape. To this also (which not a few of them think elegant and consider well adapted to turbans which they use various ways) the midwives sometimes contribute at the urgent request of the mother. The Germans, indeed, have a very flattened occiput and a broad head, because the boys always lie on their backs in their cradles.


Edward Tyson, 1650 - 1708
   

T y s o n ’ s Wo r k
 OrangOrang-Outang, Outang,

British Father of “ P r i ma t o l o g y ” Renowned Comparative Anatomist Systematic, detailed anatomical study Debunked myths about “ Wi l dMe n ” a n d “ P y g mi e s ”

sive Homo sylvestris: or the anatomy of a pygmy compared to that of a monkey, an ape, and a man. (1699)
To which is added a philological essay concerning the pygmies, the cynocephali, the satyrs, and sphinges of the ancients.

 Work

based on a dissection of the first recorded anthropoid ape imported into England

18th Century-Enlightenment Century--Enlightenment
 Monogenism:

18th Century-Enlightenment Century--Enlightenment
 Differential

All humans had a single origin from Adam and Eve.
The origin of the the different races is seen as being environmentally determined through a process of degeneration from Europeans


 Polygenism:

Different races are descendants of different Adams, separate creations, separate species
Rejects B u f f o n ’ s criterion of interfertility for species

Many polygenists, polygenists, especially in America, maintained that the races did not successfully interbreed

Races ranked on various criteria, usually assertions about behavior or personality, judged to assess intelligence or moral standards The rankings are used either to bolster the Scala Naturae or protoproto-evolutionary relationships Such rankings are highly subjective and loaded with potential for ethnocentric abuse, with the highest rank always being reserved for the race of the anthropologist doing the ranking

Carolus Linnaeus, 1707 - 1778
 Swedish  Father

 Systema  By

Botanist of Taxonomy  Viewed the task of classification as one of attempting to understand the pattern of the Scala Naturae

Naturae (1735 - 1766)

Original and ten revised editions

1758 edition, man is considered to be a separate species (sapiens) within the genus Homo, of the order Primates.  Man is divided into four geographic varieties
Variety is a group with many deviations from the species type in both heritable and nonnon-heritable characteristics


Varieties of Linnaeus
 Linnaeus

ranked the four geographic varieties of man along the Scala Naturae with Europeans at the peak and Africans farthest from the angels
Homo sapiens europaeus: White, sanguine, active, acute, a discoverer, muscular Homo sapiens asiaticus: Sallow, melancholy, stiff Homo sapiens americanus: Red, choleric, erect Homo sapiens afer: Black, phlegmatic, crafty, lazy, choleric, relaxed

George Louis Leclerc, Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, 1707 - 1788
 French

 NonNon-geographic


Homo sapiens ferus: Wild man, all fours, hairy Homo sapiens monstrous: Giants, mutants Homo sapiens troglodytes: ape rumors?

naturalist and author  From 1739 he was keeper of the Jardin du Roi in Paris  His monumental compendium on natural history, Histoire Naturelle (44 vols., 1749– 1804)

 Saw

 While

classification as sterile work range of variation, subscribing to the Scala Naturae, as the pattern of life  Debunked macroevolution which he saw as i n h e r e n t i nL i n n a e u s ’ h i e r a r c h i c a l s y s t e m  Varieties of the Human Species (1749) described physical and cultural variation of many different human groups
 Described

denying the existence of macroevolution, supporting fixity of species, he espoused microevolution
The differences between populations of a species (including humans) were the result of their accommodation to local environmental conditions He explained dark skins of Africans as a result of exposure to the intensity of the sun in the tropical climates He felt that Africans showed little genius Argued that slavery was morally wrong

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, 1752 - 1840
 German

 While

Anatomy Professor  Father of Physical Anthropology  Father of Craniology  Founder of Anthropology in Germany

inheriting the mantle of human classifier from Linnaeus, he also diverged:
Classified man as separate from non human primates (Order Bimanus vs. Quadrumana) Quadrumana) On second attempt (1781), he divided man into five races versus the four of Linnaeus

S p l i t L i n n a e u s ’ A s i a n s i n t oMo n g o l i a n s f o r mo s t o f A s i a and Malayans for Southeast Asia

R e f u t e dt h ee x i s t e n c eo f “ w i l dme n ” a n d “ t r o g l o d y t e s ” o f e a r l i e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s


Blumenbach Position
 

 

B l u m e n b a c h ’ s skull collection

Blumenbach related skull shape to racial classification He did so by placing a skull between his feet and looking down at it This became known as the "Blumenbach position" He used this technique to classify his skulls into five categories One is still in relatively general use: "Caucasian."

How Blumenbach coined t h et e r m“ C a u c a s i a n ”
 Caucasian

variety. I have taken the name of this variety from Mount C a u c a s u s …b e c a u s et h i s neighbourhood … p r o d u c e s t h emo s t beautiful race of men, I mean the Georgian; and ... in that region, if anywhere, it seems we ought with the greatest probability to place the original forms of mankind

 In

19th Century
 PrePre-Darwinian

On the Natural Variety of Mankind (1775; 1781; 1795)
Advocates Monogenism Points out that the varieties blend into one another in imperceptible ways Felt that differences in skull shape and skin color (among other traits) had been caused by the environment D e b u n k e dL i n n a e u s ’ r a n k i n g s o f t h er a c e s w h i l e explaining racial origins as degeneration from the Caucasian type

(1859) arguments about the origin of races of man  PostPost-Darwinian developments in the origin and evolution of the races of man  Separate schools of anthropology develop in the England, U.S., Germany, and France

Took special exception to arguments about mental limitations of Africans

James Cowles Prichard, 1786 - 1848
 Researches

Samuel George Morton, 1799 - 1851
 Physician

into the Physical History of Man (1836)  British physician who made a study of anthropology by meeting sailors of many different races as they came to port in his hometown of Bristol.  Strongest British spokesman for monogenism, coco-founder of the Ethnological Society of London

from Philadelphia convinced of inferiority of African populations  Measured cranial capacity (volume of braincase) to assess differential worth  Very careful technician, published extensive list of measurements of cranial capacities
 Polygenist,


Mo r t o n ’ s R a c i a l R a n k i n g s
Racial Category Caucasian Mongolian Malay American Ethiopian

Rudolph Virchow, Virchow, 1821 - 1902
 German

Mo r t o n ’ s Averages (inches3) 87 83 81 82 78

G o u l d ’ s Averages (inches3) 87 87 85 86 83

N os i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b y G o u l d ’ s r e -calculations

physician, Father of Pathology for scientific development of the field of anthropology in Germany in the latter part of the 19th Century  He was a grudging evolutionist, having diagnosed the original Neanderthal fossils (1856) as being a modern human that had experienced pathological skeletal changes
 Responsible

Pierre Paul Broca, 1824 - 1880
 Founder

 Attempted

of French Anthropology  First Society of Anthropology (1859)  First School of Anthropology (1876)  Instigated the study of Craniometry

to quantify differential worth

Ratio of radius to humerus: a high ratio is apeape-like, hence lower worth.
 Found

Caucasians scored higher than Hottentots, Eskimos, and Australians and discarded the ratio in favor of measures with whites furthest from the apes > Women; Eminent Men > Mediocre Men; Superior (Caucasian) > Inferior (Other races)

Larger brain indicates more intelligent
 Men

Robert R. Marett (1866 - 1943)
 Primarily

Franz Boas, 1858 - 1942
 German

of interest because his tutelage of Hooton in 1912 - 1913  Working on the palaeolithic cave site of La Cotte, Cotte, St. Brelard, Brelard, Jersey in the Channel Islands from 1910 - 1914
Recovered some hominid teeth and some archaeological remains

Physicist of Columbia Department of Anthropology  Responsible for growth studies being incorporated into anthropology
 Founder


 Boas

Ales Hrdlicka, 1869 - 1943
T r a i n e da t B r o c a ’ s

was a strong opponent of hereditarian arguments about the difference between races
Undertook migrant studies that documented anatomical plasticity in traits that had long been viewed as quintessential components of race: skull measurements

 First

anthropology PhD in the US was a growth study done by one of his students

institute in Paris in 1896 B r o u g h t B r o c a ’ s ideas to the U.S.  Directed anthropology at the Smithsonian 1903 1943

 Trained

Sir Arthur Keith, 1866 - 1955
 Scottish

physical anthropologists in careful scientific tradition at the Smithsonian, but did not have a cadre of students because he was not situated at a university  Launched the American Journal of Physical Anthropology in 1918  Founding member of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in 1930


Keith was awarded a copy of The Origin of Species for his distinctive work in anatomy during his first year of medical studies
 First

medical post was with a a mining company in Siam
Dissected monkeys in a malaria study, but became fascinated by the comparative anatomical aspects of his studies

Sir Arthur Keith
 His

Sir Arthur Keith
 Became

dissection of primates (those from Siam and others he arranged to receive from the London Zoo) and of human fetuses formed the basis of his doctoral dissertation on the e v o l u t i o no f ma n ’ s e r e c t p o s t u r e  Met Dubois in 1895 and examined the r e ma i n s o f “ J a v a ” ma nt h a t w e r eb r i e f l y ma d e available
He was convinced that it was a primitive human

conservator at the Royal College of Surgeons in London, 1912  Ancient types of Men published in 1911, addressed the significance of the known hominid fossils to date  Became strongly embroiled in Piltdown, its most influential spokesman not i n v o l v e di nt h e“ d i s c o v e r i e s ” a t P i l t d o w n


Sir Arthur Keith
K e i t h ’ s l a b o r a t o r y i nt h ee a r l y p a r t o f t h i s

Earnest Albert Hooton (1887 - 1954)
Trained in classics:
 BA at Lawrence College in 1907  PhD at Wisconsin in 1911

century was a hotbed of training and influence for anthropologists, especially in the areas of African Paleoanthropology and American Physical Anthropology:
Raymond Dart Edward Albert Hooton Louis S.B. Leakey

Studied anthropology as a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford
 Diploma in 1912  B.Litt . In 1913 B.Litt.

E.A. Hooton
 While

 Among

at Oxford, Hooton became involved in the Channel Island project of Marett
Introduced to Keith by Marett and a lifelong friendship ensued Published The Ancient Inhabitants of the Canary Islands based on work with Keith in 1915

the first anthropologists trying to establish physical types of the races by measuring thousands of individuals
Whereas previous workers had focused on minutiae of the skull, Hooten and colleagues added the body: constitution Hooten was especially interested in associations between constitution and criminality Advocated eugenic sterilization to prevent criminal behavior as late as 1937

 Hired

at Harvard in 1913 to resuscitate the program in Physical Anthropology

At the same time he denied racial classification as a valid criterion for eugenic action

“ T h e r ei s n oa n t h r o p o l o g i c a l g r o u n dw h a t s o e v e r f o r selecting any soso-called racial group, or any ethnic or national group, or any linguistic or religious group for preferment or for condemnation. Our real purpose should be to segregate and to eliminate the unfit, worthless, degenerate and antisocial portion of each racial and ethnic strain in our population . . By the sterilization of its insane, diseased, and criminalistic elements. The candidates for such biological extinction would not be selected on the basis of Aryan or Semitic descent, blond hair or black skin, but solely on the score of their individual physical, mental and mo r a l b a n k r u p t c y . ”

E.A. Hooton
 Graduated  Produced

his first doctoral student in 1926 many students that went on to foster academic physical anthropology:
Shapiro, Washburn, Howells, Brues, Coon, Birdsell, Birdsell, Garn, Hunt, Lasker, etc.

H o o t o n ’ s w o r kw a s a c c e s s i b l et ot h el a y

public in books like Up from the Ape and Apes, Man and Morons


American Physical Anthropology in the Academy after World War II
 In

William W. Howells
 PhD

under Hooton in 1934

addition to Harvard, Departments of Anthropology like Arizona, Berkeley, Chicago, Columbia, UCLA, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin were the locus of activity in physical anthropology  All of these programs were headed by H o o t o n ’ s s t u d e n t s o r s t u d e n t s o f h i s students

The Peopling of Melanesia As Indicated by Cranial Evidence from the Bismarck Archipelago
 Established

the strong presence of physical anthropology in the department at the University of Wisconsin  Returned to Harvard faculty to replace Hooton on his death in 1954  Renowned as a generalist and specialist
Writings accessible to the public like Hooton Mankind So Far (1944), The Heathens (1948), and Back of History (1954)

Sherwood L. Washburn
 Trained

Sherry Washburn
 With

heavily in anatomy with LeGros Clark, among others  PhD under Hooton in 1940
A Preliminary Metrical Study of the Skeleton of Langurs and Macaques
 Taught

at Columbia University Medical School

Theodosius Dobzhansky, important evolutionary geneticist, Washburn organized the influential international symposium on the "Origin and Evolution of Man" held at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York, in the summer of 1950, which served to redefine the field of physical anthropology  Taught at University of Chicago and later at U.C., Berkeley  In addition to reshaping physical anthropology, he was instrumental in establishing primate studies as an integral part of academic anthropology

Paul T. Baker

Paul Baker
 As

Undergraduate at New Mexico, accepted at Harvard as one of H o o t o n ’ s l a s t s t u d e n t s Completed his PhD under H o w e l l s a f t e r H o o t o n ’ s d e a t h (1956) Research Professorship at Penn State in 1957
 Became anchor of strong physical program at Penn State

influential as Paul is his wife Thelma, who a c t e da s t h eg o o dc o pt oP a u l ’ s b a da n da l s o helped to polish students much like Reiter had for Paul at New Mexico  Paul went on to direct two of the most influential studies in the field of Human Biology, each lasting more than a decade and involving dozens of students
High altitude adaptation: Man in the Andes (1976) Modernization, Migration and Health: The Changing Samoans (1986)
 Elected

to the National Academy of Sciences

Served as chair of Anthropology Section 1983 1986


My Academic Genealogy
Sir Arthur Keith Earnest A. Hooton Sherwood Washburn William W. Howells Janet Sawyer Stanley M. Garn Paul T. Baker M.A., Ph.D., Penn State B.A., U.C., Berkeley Jim Bindon Edward E. Hunt, Jr. Robert R. Marett

T h e “ N e w ” P h y s i c a l Anthropology
 Physical

Anthropology up to 1950 was very descriptive: Careful measurements and anatomical details  Resembled in most aspects a science of the early 19th century-pre-Darwin century--pre  In the 1930s and 40s, a host of biologists, paleontologists and others contributed to the synthetic theory of evolution

T h e “ N e w ” P h y s i c a l Anthropology
 At

Biological Anthropology Today
 The

the instigation of Washburn and Dobzhansky, anthropologists got together with biologists in 1950 at the symposium on “ O r i g i na n dE v o l u t i o no f Ma n ” h e l da t C o l d Spring Harbor, New York.  Many articles and books emanated from this symposium, including the piece by Washburn assigned for class.

field of biological anthropology today is embraces a broad diversity of topics, perhaps best illustrated by the range of papers presented at the annual meetings of the American Association of Physical Anthropology  Ma n y o f t h e“ n e w ” p h y s i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y directions are finally being followed

 Brace,

 Slotkin, Slotkin,

C.L. and M.F.A. Montagu. 1965. Ma n ’ s E v o l u t i o n . New York: Macmillan.  Penniman, Penniman, T.K. 1965. A Hundred Years of Anthropology. Anthropology. 3rd Revised Edition. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co.  Schiller, F. 1979. Paul Broca. Berkeley: U.C. Press.

J.S. 1965. Readings in Early Anthropology. Anthropology. Chicago: Aldine.  Spencer, F. (editor). 1982. A History of American Physical Anthropology, 193019301980. 1980. New York: Academic Press.  Spencer, F. 1986. Ecce Homo. Homo. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.


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