The Impact of Jamaica Agricultural Sector on the Economy. Jessica Williams 18090560 Hylton Robinson 11090013 Shanor Outar 11075125 BSAD371: Business Research Methods Dr. Magilee Daley June 29, 2012 Northern Caribbean University




CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Background to the Study……………………………………………………..…………….….5 Statement of the Problem.....................................................................................................…...6 Purpose of the Study……………………………………………………………………..….…6 Research Questions……………………………………………………………………….........6 Conceptual Framework………………………………………………………………….……..7 Significance of the Study……………………………………………………….…….…..……8 Limitations……………………………………………………………………...…….….……..8 Delimitations……………………………………………………………………………………9 Definition of Key Terms…………………………………………………………………..……10

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………………..…...12

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY Research Design…………………………………………………………………………….......21 Population Selection………………………………………………………………….…………22 Sample Selection………………………………………………………………………...………22 Instrumentation…………………………………………………………………………...……..22 Data Collection Procedure………………..…………………………………………….……….23 Reliability and Validity…………………………………………………………………………23 Data Analysis Approach………………………………………………………………..……….24



Ethical Issues………………..……………………………………………………………….25 Timeline……………………………………………………………………………..…….…26 Budget……………………………………………………………………………………….27 CONCLUSIONS………………………………………………………………………..…...28 REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………... 29 APPENDIX………..…………………………………………………………….………….30

it is proven that 60% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) goes to debt and other liabilities that is owed by the country. Jamaica struggles economically due to its operations and activities that they have part take (International Monetary Fund. (http://www.29 in 2010. Thus provides us with prove to illustrate that agriculture plays a vital role in our economy. according to a World Bank report. published in 2010. Today. in which. . Agriculture can help to enhance the productivity of the country’s economy by providing a lot of contributions and improvement within the economy.18 in 2009. according to a World Bank report released in 2011. The Agriculture. IMF) that has help to destroy the economy. value added (% of GDP) in Jamaica was last reported at 6. The Agriculture. value added (% of GDP) in Jamaica was 6. They can assist in the development of the Agricultural Sector to provide benefits to the economic structure.tradingeconomics.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY Abstract 4 The Jamaican economy is evaluated and being overviewed as a dependent economy. value added (% of GDP) in Jamaica was reported at 5.39 in 2008.html). The according to the World Bank. Jamaica contains a low flow of inflow money sent due to the high rate of brain drain in Jamaica.

“Government has a responsibility to correct that.” Agriculture and Fisheries Minister Dr Christopher Tufton told greenhouse farmers at the Cecil Charlton Hall in Mandeville on Thursday. facing as it does. the agricultural sector continues to underperform. but to correct means that you have to standardize processes. soaring labor and energy costs. The limited access to financing. With the annual loss to praedial larceny put at a conservative J$5 billion in 2010.” Tufton continued. it begs the question as to whether agriculture needs a state of emergency. and loss to poor post-harvesting measures estimated at the same amount. are aware. deplorable road conditions and praedial larceny. the high cost of capital.000 Jamaicans. pest infestation. and doing so we are going to make some changes. even if they are unwilling to admit it. While agriculture accounting for almost six per cent of Jamaica’s gross domestic product and providing direct employment for some 228. inadequate research and development are just some of the problems facing farmers. A review of Jamaica’s trade deficit with its regional neighbours and North American partners would suggest that such a measure is long overdue and the powers that be. We waste approximately J$5 billion in value of agriculture every year due to post-harvest losses. . Then there is the devastating impact of natural disasters. significant challenges. “We want to cut down on waste. These are some of the many issues the farming sector says must be addressed and arrested urgently if Jamaica is to realise anywhere near its full potential.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY Chapter 1: Introduction Background to the Problem 5 According to an article by The Jamaican Gleaner it states that.

contribution and the many challenges that the Jamaica agricultural sector is facing. They are as follows: 1. an agronomist employed to the Ministry of Agriculture. Webster McPherson. This research will also outline some specific approaches to correct the difficulties that the sector is facing.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 6 Addressing the same function. What is the importance of the Jamaica agricultural sector? 2. What are challenges that the sector is facing? 3. What are the solutions/ cures to the challenges? 4. declared that the knowledge gap between technical experts and those in need of their expertise was largely responsible for the failure to maximize production and productivity levels. as individuals tends to move away from it. Agriculture is often stigmatized as a degrading profession by the Jamaican people) as a matter that requires urgent attention in order to remain alive hence increase production. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to identify the importance. What motivational techniques can be adopted encourage the younger generation in agriculture? . Research Questions Proceeding from the previously mentioned that the sector has being highlighted on numerous occasions (the sectors is often seen as a forgotten. Therefore there are four guiding questions that will be explored and answered in this research.

and an assortment of work styles make up what is really an effective agricultural sector. In order to achieve this goal every single Jamaican will have to be a part of the vision (patriotic to brand Jamaica. different perspectives. This simple means that the sector is facing very stiff competition from foreigners. diverse experiences. This speaks to the fact that there is a vast amout of importation of foreign agricultural products that are identical to that of which we produce here in jamaica. In an effort to combat this challenge refference were made . Between the period of 2010 and 2011 larceny has cost the country approximately 5 billion dollars. Similarly.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY Conceptual Framework 7 Over 60 years of knowledge. this was done in an effort to minimize or eliminate theft in agriculture. varying expectations. The study conducted by the Society for Jamaica Agricultural Sector (2008) described furthur more challenges that the section is facing. Former minister of agriculture Dr. It then went on to speak about the natural disaster. The sector has contributed to over 6% of Jamaica’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This then contributed to the decline in Jamaica collections of revenue from farmers. & Dalley (2009) added that without immediate and drastic plans the sector is on its way to failure. and report crime against praedial larceny). therefore keeping agriculture alive would have far way more benefits to the country’s economy hence foster growth and development. It speaks to the habit of jamaicans preffence of taste and that jamaican need to eat more locally proiduce. According to Jamaica Information Service (2012) more than 228. special skills. this factor has created alarming losses to jamaican farmers and the economy.000 families’ lives are affected each year through the act of larceny. Clarke. Chuck. Christopher Tufton had put into place some very stringent measures and fines for praedial. market regulation.

since the allotted time may be inadequate for the . Familiarizing oneself with the perspectives. where people are often your foremost differentiating asset. ensuring the success of your human capital strategy is essential to overall business success. According to Harrison (2007). The period designated to conduct the research will be a limiting factor. And.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 8 to plant belts of trees around crops. those who utilize foresight. Government will also be able to encourage individuals to cooperate in developing strategies and implementing changes that enhance the productivity of the sector. commoditized business world. The discoveries of this study will help in the development of visions and strategies to effectively restore the sector. Farmers are encouraged to build properly constructed coop and pens that will withstand wind or water in case of hurricane. the information found in this research can help government and farmers to create an environment where they can be profitable. If implemented. needs and influencers of the key generations can help in molding an effective country. The significance of the study is to provide Jamaica at large with a better understanding of the factors and trends impacting the upliftment of Jamaican farmers. Significance of the Study The agricultural sector is facing a turbulent time and it requires the attention of everyone in order to correct the current situation. Limitations of the Study The completion of this research may be challenged by a number of limitations. the trees will act as win break and as barriers should their be soil erossion. acknowledge the impending change and make timely adjustments will likely come out ahead. We may experience a few challenges in conducting a thorough research. in an increasingly transactional.

related problems that could have been chosen but were rejected or screened off from view. Although all possible human effort will be made to ensure that the sample is a true representation of the population. implicit are other. financial constraints may disallow us from extending our study to areas outside of our immediate geographical location. secondary data will be used. Among these are the choice of objectives and questions.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 9 nature and complexity of the study at hand. instead. misused procedures or unforeseen activities these may affect the degree to which the sample is correct. the entire population will not be studied. The first limiting step was the choice of problem itself. and may also restrict us from using various types of research methodologies and instruments that may be useful. Additionally. variables of interest. It is expected that another limitation of the study will be the sample size selected. instead a representative sample will be used. certain literature will not be reviewed because they are outdated and their validity is questionable. The delimitations of a study are those characteristics that limit the scope (define the boundaries) of the research as determined by the conscious exclusionary and inclusionary decisions that were made throughout the development of the proposal. and certain methodological procedures will . Delimitations The scope of the research will be narrowed down in an attempt to combat the limitations of the study. and alternative theoretical perspectives that could have been adopted. if there are any technicalities. Other delimiting boundaries that the researchers have set for the study are as follows: primary data collection will not be done because the scope of the topic is more expansive than we are able to do.

The concept that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender. and other diverse groups. race. 2008) 4. (Armstrong & Appelbaum. sex. Demographic .asp#ixzz1uaUafDhz) 5. but does not mean conformity. (Getten & Gardiner) 2. Definition of Terms 1. Sample . (Investopedia: http://www.Studies of a population based on factors such as age.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 10 not be used such as interviewing individuals from each generation because there is sufficient secondary data on that already. race. (Robbins & Judge. Compensation . 2010) 3. level of education. among others. The . age. A population can be defined as including all people or items with the characteristic ethnicity. sexual orientation.any reward or payment given to a person for services performed. opinions. (Watson.investopedia.Reliability is concerned with the accuracy of the actual measuring instrument or procedure and their ability to give consistent results over time. Population – the larger group from which individuals are selected to participate in a study.Connection and unity. economic status. Praedial Larceny – This is the stealing of agricultural product that is crops and animal. Diversification .A sample is a subset of a population that has attitudes. 2010) 6. (Colorado State University) 8. Reliability . income level and employment. habits or characteristics representative of the population that you want to study. Cohesion .

2010) . 10.The process of selecting a number of individuals for a study in such a way that the individuals represent the larger group from which they were selected. Validity – Validity refers to the degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concept that the researcher is attempting to measure. 11. Values – Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence (Robbins & Judge.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 11 representatives selected for a study whose characteristics exemplify the larger group from which they were selected (West Dunbartonshire Council. Sampling .Selection consists of the processes involved in choosing from applicants a suitable candidate to fill a post (Business Case Studies). Selection . (Colorado State University) 12. 2012) 9.

The agricultural sector currently contributes 5. Agricultural Sector plays a vital role which has create an impact on the Jamaican economy. this provides a local market within countries which can lead to international trade. thus result in the small labor force having to pay a large percentage of their income to tax. indicates the unemployment rate has increase from 2011 to 2012 from 12. fruits. Table below indicates the employment rate in Jamaica.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY Chapter 2: Literature Review 12 Agriculture is viewed as a practice of rearing animals and cultivation of the soil to produce crops. Farmers can employ individuals to assist in their work in case there is a deadline that must be met.8% October 2011 to 14.1% for January 2012 thus illustrates that through the contribution of agriculture providing employment can increase the employment rate and decrease the unemployment rate thus brings forth a productive contribution to the economy. fruits. how can the improvement of the agricultural sector impact on the lives of the citizens and the motivational techniques can be adopted to encourage the younger generation in agriculture. it has provide contribution towards the growth of the Jamaican economy. To what extent can agriculture contribute towards the growth of the economy? Agricultural sector allows agriculture to provide employment for unemployed individuals within the country. Local farmers are able to rear their animals and cultivate and reap their crops.6 per cent to the Jamaican economy and employs and . As the table in appendix table 01.. vegetables knowing that from their hard work they will receive their income. Employment rate in Jamaica is very low. it being faced with major challenges in the growth of the country. vegetables etc. The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of Jamaican Agricultural Sector on the economy.

THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 13 employs approximately 18. Being able to achieve the goal of having an increase of income per capita can result to contributing of increasing the standard of living within the economy. (According to JAMPRO. Thus allows individual to obtain whatever their heart desires. due to the rate Jamaica is surveyed as an economy with a low standard of living. Poverty is defined as . However there are tremendous opportunities to expand production in both domestic and export markets. agricultural sector ultimately contributes to the lowering of poverty level within the economy. Jamaica is known for having a low standard of living due to the poverty rate in the economy.asp#axzz1yP7qjqCT).investopedia. The contribution of agriculture providing employment helps to increase an individual’s per capita income. Agriculture having the advantages of providing employment and increasing one’s income per capita income can reduce the poverty level and increase the standard of living on an individual as well as the country’s economy. (http://www.9% of the Jamaican labour Lowering standard of living. Standard of living is define as having enough wealth available to supply any need or wants upon an individual or community. per capita income is a measure of the amount of money that is being earned per person in a certain area. It can be calculated for a country by dividing the country's national income by its population. Tom was unable to send his children to school but due to the advantage of earning a work that provides income his income per capita has increase allowing his children to attend school and supply to all needs that is needed for his family. he inherit the job of assisting the farming in cultivating soil to produce fruits and vegetables. region or country and is used as a means of evaluating the living conditions and quality of life in different areas. 2012). For example Tom lives with his baby mother of two children 7 and 11 years old. Income per capita can apply to the average per-person income for a city.

rural development such as fixing the road.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 14 being extremely poor. All of the following contributions of the Agricultural Sector contribution to employment. Things will be affordable allowing economy to be at a stable rate and can be in categorization of other country’s economy rates. increase in standard of living. fixing schools within the community that needs to be upgraded or fixed. contribute to homeless shelters etc. thus provide the contribution of environmental protection. if government were to invest in local farming the Agricultural Sector will be able to pool a large sum in contribution to the foreign exchange income within the economy of the country. Through the contributions of the Agricultural Sector poverty can be decreased to a very low rate thus helps individuals within the poverty life as well as the economy of the country. John is an unemployed individual that lives in a one bedroom. in which. When individuals are earning their income thus lowers crime within communities due to that fact that there is no need to rob individuals. Due to the low percentage of establishing and investing Agriculture in Jamaica it was evaluated that tourism in Jamaica provides the largest income of foreign exchange. he has three children. Within the community employed individuals are able to come together to assist in the rural development within the community. lowering poverty all allows the economy’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) came to a low percentage so that it can be suitable for every citizen within the economy. he cannot support to even provide food for the children when they are hungry. Having the opportunity of the Agricultural Sector providing employment helps individual to have financial independence thus provides the benefit of lowering poverty level. To illustrate. not enough wealth to supply or support and individual’s needs. increase in one’s income per capita. .

And these produce are those of the same kind that are grown and produced in Jamaica. The effect of the natural disaster is estimated to cost the country at least 0. chicken and pig farms structures are damaged and the washing away of crops from farms makes it very difficult for the farmer and also for consumers and the economy itself. land space.05% of the sector contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Natural disaster such as drought is really plagues that is affecting the sector and restrict its full potential to strive. These are challenges such as natural Disaster. This then resulted in an increase in the country’s importation bill. St.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 15 What are the major challenges that an Agricultural Sector may face in the growth of a country? There are quite a number of factors that are affecting the Jamaica Agricultural sector. Now this really makes life hard for Jamaican . poor market regulation. inflation (increase in farming supply cost). Farmers in that parish cannot rely on the water supply hence they are scared when planting. mismanagement and the number one killer praedial larceny. If you should check the Jamaican markets and super market you will be most frightened to see the amount of foreign agricultural produce that are there. Stiff foreign competition. When there is a national disaster island wide it then forces and foster the importation of foreign agricultural produces. Jamaica is a tropical climate country and we are just in the belt of the Gulf of Mexico which makes us pruned Natural disaster such as storm and hurricane. Another challenge that the sector of agriculture faces is stiff foreign competition. market scarcity. technological challenges. Every year Jamaica farmers suffer the loss of millions of dollars. Elizabeth which is labeled as the breadbasket parish is facing very difficult drought which present a barrier in them (farmers) producing at their peak. Animals are killed.

While farmers in Jamaica are faced with expensive farming operating cost and lack of proper equipment. Poor market regulation will only cause farmers pain and a fallen sector. If you should look at the food that are sold in the hotel industry you will realize that almost every bit are imported from overseas especially from Miami. Quite too often we see where there is shortage of a product in on side of the country which results in high price . For example a country like America have the resources. It is really difficult for farmers to compete with price against their foreign competitors.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 16 farmers and the agricultural. If the local investor could have access to these technologies then they will be able to be better reliable suppliers. The hotels here Jamaica rather to buy form the foreigners some will argue that it is cheaper than local. Lack of Technology is really a problem that the sector is experiences. technology and the land space to mass produce hence they are able to sell at lower rate. better quality while some will say that their foreign partners are more reliable suppliers than those of Jamaica so in the interest of their business and the hotel sector it is best. The cost to gather them might be just too high for the local investors. This posed stiff competition for the local market plus the prices are pretty much cheaper that local while at the same time the quality are pretty much impressive. Jamaica farmers are taking days to do the job that those of other country with technology is using hours to complete and done with more precision. in this day and age it is almost impossible to compete using just a few technology with someone who is using technology in every aspect of production. meet market demand hence competing in the market at a better stand. One of the problems with the sector and the technology is the cost to acquire the equipment. from planting to packaging.

while you have a buyer who will do anything to get some chicken to buy. However with that agency in place the buyer would make a request that chicken is needed and that seller would logged that chicken are available. This is so because there is no market regulation that will space the product.200 families are affected by praedial larceny. Every year over 228. calloo and yam. she might have that fridge loaded with chicken for week. approximately 5 billion dollars in loss accrues annual because of this . There should be a middle leg when there is a market regulation where persons that have produce will come and log in what they have. onion. Some cooked the books and some simple do not know how to balance the accounts. This is really one of the sector greatest problem. This is because she cannot find the market to dispose the chicken. Manager of quite a number of farms do not seek aggressively to find the right market for the produces and seek to be very reliable suppliers which resulted in their business not been productive enough. Those from western will plant something different. This leg/agency will make the available produce known to buyers and make buyers order known to farmers. a lot of managers mishandled the production in this sector. With market regulation what will happen is that farmers east will plant a certain type of crops example only only carrot. Mismanagement affects the sector today and has been over the years. Irish. ginger and those from the central will plant a different type such as cabbage. By doing this there will be some sort of equilibrium in the market. Such transaction to make between the two is impossible because they do not know about each other. I real life example of this is to look at your neighbor who rear chicken.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 17 and a glut in that same product on the other side of the island.

Three cows were stolen valued JMD2500. 000. it was calculated to be about six hundred thousand dollars in losses. Praedial larceny is really a menace to the sector as it ripping off the farmers and making some disheartened and don’t want to farm anymore. To make this clearer I want to use Hylgebinson Farm to explain. A lot of large farmers have to build very high fencing and cover on their pig pens. Lack of capital also plays a critical part in the challenges that the sector is facing. This is just the loss of one small farm. There are farmers who wants to mass produce or to improve on their farms however due to financial constrain they are unable to improve. and some have to employ security personnel to take care of their affairs. proper fencing from animals. it stifles the true potentials and hence minimizing its profitability. water supply and other security means to properly protect their investment. It was just of recent that it came on the news where a farmer was injury by praedials after he realizes that they were stealing his livestocks. For the financial year ending 2012 ten bore Ram was stolen from the farm prices ranges from twenty to eighty thousand dollars resulting in a JMD600. How can the improvement of the Agricultural Sector impact on the lives of the citizens? . Without the money farmers are not able to protect themselves from any mishaps. however with proper finance farmers can better able to compete with their foreign competitor with both price and quality. some install security cameras. They are not able to properly plant belts of trees to act as wind brakes.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 18 act.00 in totally. Because of this problem farmers are forced to take on excessive security cost. Without adequate financing then farmers can only produce within a certain limitation.00 losses. The lack of financing really hurts the sector.

Thus helps to build the standard of living within the economy having individuals living free and comfortable. Having a wide market pushes forth a marketing segment of production which indicates that suppliers will not put prices at high but to a low price that comforts both the suppliers and the customers within the market. It provides the improvement of community development knowing that individuals are able to provide financial aid to push forth any development or fixing of things.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 19 Government needs to invest more within the Agricultural Sector so that the sector there can be improvement within the economy. clothing and shelter. it provides the availability of individual’s obtaining financial independence meaning that they are able to supply their needs upon demand. What are the motivational techniques that can be adopted to encourage the younger generation in Agriculture? Government can implement a business plan for the Agricultural Sector which entails the steps prospective farmers can feel motivated to be a part of the Agricultural Sector. A business plan can include an acquired capital that can be utilized as collateral for the loan to help push forth farmers to produce goods and supply goods to the customers within the community or even within the country. increase in one’s income per capita allowing individuals to support their needs of food. roads or even school within the community. It provides improvement on employment. Improvement such as creating a competitive market thus provides employment and individuals being able to support their family. It provides the improvement of containing a wide market allowing customers the ability to chose any type of product from whom ever their heart desires. . thus can also leads to exporting of goods.

. due to high prices and increase in inflation and interest rate. These techniques includes lowering the prices so build customer list and provide more positive contribution to profit of the supplier.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 20 Government can provide access towards capital. After having the ability to provide access to capital can provide a competitive market through a competitive market suppliers are going to provide various sales techniques to contribute to the productivity. Providing access of capital to prospective farmers can push forth their business whether it’s the rearing of animals or growing fruits and vegetable to supply their customers. it is extremely hard to obtain loan from a bank or financial institutions to help push forth prospective farmers.

the accessibility and skills of the team conducting the research. these plans are further detailed and discussed. it provides the assistance of describing the system of a specific situations or problems. Research Design The research design was created in an effective manner that would provide the outcome of obtaining informative and beneficial information. enhance decision making. required methodology were utilized to gain effective and accurate required data. data collection and analysis procedures. strategy utilized in selection of individuals within the Agricultural Sector and sample from others that are prospective farmers (which are the population and samples). the way in which selected means of obtaining . it outlines the description of programs or services that the research is informing about. All requirements of research are entailed and operated by a specific plan. The research was designed to facilitate a straight forward aim that allows it to be flexible to grant opportunities in views of various different aspects of the problem. This chapter will elaborate on the abstract formation of the survey. the living conditions of a specific community as well as describing attitudes towards the Agricultural Sector in Jamaica. In conducting the research. The researcher measured the means of attaining the information. cost effective. instruments utilized. In conclusion of this research descriptive research approach was utilized. timeless and accurate information.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY Chapter 3: Research Methodology 21 Research is a methodical investigation that inquires about the appropriate collection of information that is utilized to solve problems. increase of one’s knowledge. ethical issues and timeline.

The findings of the research were the foundations on the type of information collected. Instrumentation The tools that are utilized in the collection of data and information for this research were instruments that are valid. a sample design was enforced to facilitate the researcher in attaining conclusions of the large group. Sample members are randomly chosen due to the observation of the main targets to be surveyed.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 22 information will be structured and the reasoning leading to the selection. reliable and sufficient to provide answers to the research questions. and the data collected was entirely dependent upon the questions asked. and the cost factor relating to research. Sample Selection Due to the determination of population and its relevance to the research. The research design preferred ensured that the evidence attained is enabled by the researcher to answer the initial research questions as unambiguously as possible. The main instruments used in . the time available for research. For this research the population was Government Agencies and local farmers of Jamaica. The research is a pure research since it involves developing and testing hypotheses that are intellectually challenging to the researcher but that may or may not have practical application at the present time. the finance available for the purpose. Population Selection There is a possibility that it can be assumed that in such investigation when all matters are enclosed no aspect of chances left and highest accuracy is achieved. participants to be surveyed and an evaluation of sample size. that is. Having a sample (sub-sets of a population) allows the researcher to obtain accurate evaluations of the impact of Agriculture of the larger population.

articles. defines reliability as the degree of consistency between two measures of the same thing. Data was obtain through data tools such as journals. Due to the format of the research outline it is recommended to utilized secondary data to obtain information.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 23 this study were the internet. interviews. It provides a wide pool of data collection providing reports. Government Agencies. journals along with other instruments that were utilized to assist us with informative information pertain to the objective of this research. this data will provide accurate information resulting a successful guide on the result of this research. time. contemplations are the nature of investigation. accurately of the data collection procedure. questionnaires and Northern Caribbean University Library. completion. objectives. challenges and its improvements on the economy. capacity of this investigation. Reliability and Validity Mechrens & Lehman. books. journals. reports. Secondary data is not only viewed as number but it includes information and factual evidences collected by organizations or individuals other than the users. successive steps were utilized to obtain the data from the implications have been take and provide conclusion for this study. financial aspects. 1987. book. the internet plays role due to the fact that it is the leader in the source of data. Therefore it is important to discuss the contributions. Data Collection Procedure The purpose of this research is to outline the impact of the agriculture sector on the Jamaican economy. newspaper articles. A ll of the following contemplations had to be overviewed by the researcher through the process of the research. Through the development of the research design. In other words reliability focuses on the defendant of research tools .

Borg. The research objectives and questions are the test of whether or not the research truly measured that which it was intended to measure. providing validity. data analysis contains numerous challenges contributions and improvements surrounding various techniques of facts and approaches to the objective of the research.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 24 to provide accurate information on the results. the data that was collected during the research was adequate to support and answer the research questions effective. Moreover. these tools includes questionnaires. interviews. The gathering of information was important as it stands to prove the importance of this study. 1993 defines validity as the degree to which they accomplish the purpose for which they are being used. Handling and analyzing data various closely related procedures were performed with indication of the . Data Analysis Approach The succeeding gathering of data provides the overall analysis of the data. With regards to validity. White & Worthern. Validity includes the overall experimental concept and establishes whether all results being attained is in coordination of the requirements of the scientific research method. hence. In our research. which an individual will not view as irrelevant to the research. which highlighted the specific concept that the researchers attempted to measure. Due to cautious investigation of data attained and the utilization of tools utilized it outlines the high level of confidence that our information obtained is reliable. surveys etc. The researchers are ignited with the success of the procedures and analysis approaches that was taken for the collection of data. the researchers can concluded that findings in data which was apart of the research were valid.

Ethical conduct must be performed by both respondent and the researcher. accurate and efficient. true and ethical conduct performed in conducting this research. For example through conducting this research many farmers were not comfortable in providing information on wealth.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 25 abridgment of gathering data and categorized in a way that answers are being provided upon each question that is being asked. through the demand of information by researcher this can create pressure or place anxiety on the participant. the expectation of the participation and the effect that can be placed upon them. The importance of placing the information that you are seeking directly to the objective of the research. Ethical standard of confidentiality to participants is placed into consideration in conducting this research. Ethical Issues The importance of ethics plays a vital role when carryout the performing of a research. Therefore. the purpose. we seek the approval from respondents due to the fact that it would be unethical to obtain data without the respondent having no knowledge of the research as well as the researcher. This excludes all unethical practices and unethical individuals from the operation of conducting the research. all the respondent to feel comfortable answering specific questions . In regards to the collection of data. Through analyzing this data of this research The Statistical initive of Jamaica was utilized through its beneficial statistical analysis on qualitative data. Participants can feel free to provide information on any requested questions. thus allows the researcher to obtain accurate information. It was very understandable. on the other hand they were other ethical issues in regards to the research. it is important that ethics is present. Providing the research with a fair. . with the knowledge of why the information is important to the research.

THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 26 their products therefore the researcher keeps it on a confidential revel and ask questions that will be relevant to the research. Plagiarism is strictly prohibited from this research. Due to the fact that it is unethical to identify one’s reponses along with their names and information obtained. Upon the approval we have selected the topic “The impact of Jamaica Agricultural Sector on the Economy.” . team was established in prior to the due date of this research for the purpose of being proactive in conducting this research in a manner able way within its completion time that was informed upon. whichever topic gathered the most information was chosen then seek the approval in selection of the topic. Timeline The completion of this research was conducted through a required timeline of (3-6) three to six weeks. all information obtained from secondary data informing the sources that information has been taken from. Bias plays a negative role on the ending results of the research therefore it is strictly prohibited from the research. it is recommended to keep on a strict confidential level. Ethical standard of avoidance of biased information was taken into consideration through conducting this research. Many view certain type of information confidential and if the researcher to ask certain questions it is viewed as an invasion of privacy. which also includes participants of the research to be kept anonymous. It conceals accurate information which contains a negative impact on the results. Therefore. It is unethical therefore researchers did their best in isolating themselves from this unethical practice. Upon the information of the group we decided on four topics that could be utilized then seek information on that specific topic. It is unethical therefore it is not practiced in this research.

THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 27 Upon the first week each member of the team was placed on the categorization of each obtaining a sub-topic that they will seek information on that specific subtopic. As a means of making availability of a estimate of expenditures and a framework within which to function for the research.Daley via email. All information was submitted to Dr. . each member was instructed to a sub-topic to complete thus provide a rapid completion within the week. survey. and obtain maximum output from our monetary input. phone cards to call participants to obtain approval to conduct research and a visit to government agencies. A total of $1. Second week involves placing all information together and categorizing all accurate information under their correct sub-heading or topic. After chapter one was completed. nature. each carries the responsibility of proof reading. a budget was established. limitations. food expenses. it was evaluated through fare expenses. The purpose of the budget was to establish the cost constraint for the research. interviews or the utilization of the internet). Budget The research’s budget occurred when the scope. editing and reviewing the assembled research to ensure that the research objectives have been met. Therefore it is within the budgeted objectives that were set by the team members to conduct the research. The objective was to gather all possible accurate through any tools (questionnaire. Third week involves the completion of chapter 2 (two) and chapter 3 (three) through each member being instructed to sub-topics of the chapters. Through information all sources were cited and reference and placed in their correct APA format that it must be corrected upon. and issues of the study were acknowledged. provide a basis for evaluating if we have used our financial resources prudently.500 was spent in the investigation of this research.

lack of competitive market can allow suppliers to place any high price on goods and services without the conscious effect of customers (market oriented employers). natural disaster destroying all products. Improvements and motivational techniques can be viewed and addressed in the growth of the economy. increase in the standard of living within the economy. There are various challenges that are being made. Jamaica can invest within their local market to help the productivity of the economy. such as Government policies. Various contributions can be made such as increase in employment rate. all includes the positive contribution to the economy’s GDP. local market such as the Agricultural Sector within the county. increase in one’s income per capita providing financial independence to support their family and needs upon demand.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY CONCLUSION 28 Jamaica is a third world country that contains a struggling economy due to poor leadership and wrong decisions being made to facilitate the country. theft of goods within the Agricultural Sector. Government need to seek the advantages of the Agricultural Sector along with its contributions and implement strategies to invest within the segment to provide productivity towards the country’s economy growth. lack of capital to push forth prospective farmers. lowering the poverty rate within the economy. These problems need to be addressed to help in the enhancement of the country’s economy growth. it provides environmental protection. .

Y.K. Using standardized tests in education. B. NY: Longman. New York: Longman. W. http://www. W. W. SAGE Mehrens. Harvard Educational center Review Fall. Maxwell J. S. Maxwell J.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY REFERENCES 29 Lincoln. and Guba E. R.(2006) Knowledge Base-Research Methods. Naturalistic Inquiry. and J. R. (1987). M (2008) Bobo Doll Experiment-Experiment Resource. Web Center for Social Research Methods. Shuttleworth.M.. A. (1992) Understanding and Validity in Qualitative Research.tradingeconomics. (1985). Measurement and evaluation in the school.(1996) Qualitative Research Design-An Interactive Approach. R. & Lehmann. (1993).html . Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Com Trochim.. Worthen. Borg. 1992. A. I. K.


800 680.8 974.0 26.8 25.5 6.5 62.0 62.9 6.2 85.800 284.700.705.708.800 Employment Rate 86.800 72.600 624.702.001.700 760.200 2.700 748.400 294.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 31 ITEM 2010 January April July October January 2011 July 2012 October January TOTAL POPULATION Population 14 years and 2.700 1.091.500 63.100 2.8 14.1 Job Seeking Rate 8.707.900 1.600 2.500 1.100 145.900 2.800 296.500 1.800 90.0 37.709.600 1.400 1.700 90.900 690.3 8.330.8 977.6 9.000 163.1 87.4 6.5 37.900 617.8 26.4 7.261.0 5.600 2.8 976.9 26.100 1.400 1.600 681.2 74.2 74.600 1.8 BOTH SEXES 2.5 87.000 772.200 Outside The Labour Force 740.600 618.100 2.009.8 976.8 25.0 62.9 46.9 37.100 2.8 974.8 975.800 89.002.000 1.0 12.088.4 88.200 1.1 26.100 287.2 74.500 65.1 46.7 Population 14+ MALE 1.8 63.800 1.5 6.0 26.109.1 8.2 74.9 12.8 under 14 years Percentage of Population 14 74.4 45.300 283.800 749.9 7.000 91.269.2 74.332.0 87.800 159.5 6.8 25.3 61.100 1.0 9.006.900 154.5 Total Population Labour Force as a % age of 63.000 91.3 + Outside LF Labour Force as a % age of 46.400 65.1 5.5 12.3 6.8 25.600 1.260.335.400 Unemployed Labour Force 169.004.9 8.9 45.600 2.7 46.400 over Labour Force 1.0 38.100 681.600 72.2 years & over Percentage of Population 14 37.300 1.704.333.331.005.000 634.4 38.9 Unemployment Rate 13.6 12.800 1.8 25.7 26.200 973.008.300 689.500 89.6 7.300 TOTAL POPULATION Population 14 years and over Labour Force Employed Labour Force Unemployed Labour Force Outside The Labour Force Employment Rate Unemployment Rate Job Seeking Rate Percentage of Population under 14 years .3 12.248.7 38.000 60.100 290.500 90.7 8.600 Employed Labour Force 1.100 1.400 686.500 737.800 620.2 74.334.000 765.700 689.087.2 74.5 10.800 2.700 1.9 Percentage of Population 25.9 26.700 1.000 290.500 1.100 292.330.009.8 25.4 11.7 9.300 149.100 2.7 87.335.255.600 177.900 614.6 88.8 977.600 620.2 36.0 8.900 1.500 151.900 10.000 760.200 685.6 61.6 46.800 2.400 620.2 26.500 2.0 46.200 61.106.900 9.8 25.200 55.7 6.698.1 62.

5 45.200 475.1 75.600 Unemployed Labour Force 97.300 464.300 1.027.0 51.900 573.1 69.7 Unemployment Rate 17.700 1.500 554.7 53.9 83.8 40.6 FEMALE 1.8 10.8 70.9 54.4 9.000 90.9 24.700 Employed Labour Force 474.600 558.900 1.031.1 45.100 87.2 56.4 41.9 24.000 469.8 54.200 1.6 83.000 over Labour Force 571.2 29.000 458.373.2 10.4 45.7 51.030.4 70.200 558.600 98.0 73.1 81.700 1.032.1 years & over Percentage of Population 14 44.100 MAIN LABOUR FORCE INDICATORS 2010-2012 .4 70.9 24.500 584.1 75.100 Outside The Labour Force 456.4 51.300 1.3 TOTAL POPULATION Population 14 years and 1.900 1.700 560.1 51.6 54.4 40.200 565.2 29.7 Total Population Labour Force as a % age of 55.028.9 41.9 75.0 69.1 84.2 73.3 51.9 73.9 70.600 464.200 476.4 9.2 29.9 24.2 29.372.9 73.100 471.2 29.3 46.030.369.500 105.000 1.1 75.029.1 75.9 15.9 18.700 473.6 40.500 1.4 16.2 70.500 91.7 16.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY Percentage of Population 14 years & over Percentage of Population 14 + Outside LF Labour Force as a % age of Total Population Labour Force as a % age of Population 14+ 32 73.400 468.373.500 446.1 75.9 24.5 54.300 Employment Rate 82.2 45.400 1.300 1.6 73.2 30.374.800 1.6 9.1 16.2 30.600 91.4 11.400 1. October 2011 and July 2011 have been compiled using new End of Year 2011 population estimates Last Updated May 8.7 42.9 under 14 years Percentage of Population 14 75.1 44.8 84.000 94.8 16.8 9.1 75.2 15.368.371.8 55.100 463.1 51.370.2 40.900 486.8 + Outside LF Labour Force as a % age of 41.8 51.3 Job Seeking Rate 10.2 51.9 24.8 43.2 83.2 30.8 73.031. 2012 TABLE 01 EMPLOYMENT RATE IN JAMAICA 24.7 70.4 Percentage of Population 24.2 Population 14+ Note: Data for January 2012.200 468.7 73.100 470.3 83.400 1.

The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). Jamaica has a mixed economy with both state enterprises and private sector businesses.This page includes a historical data chart. Most of the foreign trade comes from tourism (20% of the GDP). It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. value added (annual % growth) in Jamaica was 13. and bauxite/alumina production.60 in 2010. .tradingeconomics.04 in 2008. value added (annual % growth) in Jamaica was reported at -5. according to the World Bank. Annual growth rate for agricultural value added based on constant local currency. hunting. published in 2010. remittances (15% of the GDP). Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.71 in 2009. VALUE ADDED (ANNUAL % GROWTH) IN JAMAICA The Agriculture.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY 33 Retrieved from: http://www. as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. insurance services) which now accounts for more than 60% of GDP.S. The main sector of the economy is services (tourism. news and forecasts for Agriculture. according to a World Bank according to a World Bank report released in 2011. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. value added (annual % growth) in Jamaica was last reported at 0. dollars. The Agriculture. revision 3.html AGRICULTURE. Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry. value added (annual % growth) in Jamaica. The Agriculture. and fishing.

8 2.3 1.1 0.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY Fig 03 34 JAMAICA’S GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT RATE OF TEN YEARS GDP .8 -1.1 .4 1.9 1.2 -0.9 1.6 -2.5 0.2 1.real growth rate (%) Country 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Jamaica -0.

Most of the foreign trade comes from tourism (20% of the GDP). Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting. The main sector of the economy is services (tourism.70 in 2008. piece rates. according to the World Bank.20 in 2009. and bauxite/alumina production. remittances (15% of the GDP). forestry.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY Fig. published in 2010. 04 35 EMPLOYMENT RATE IN AGRICULTURE IN JAMAICA (% OF TOTAL EMPLOYMENT) The Employment in agriculture (% of total employment) in Jamaica was 20. and fishing. or pay in kind. insurance services) which now accounts for more than 60% of GDP. commission. according to a World Bank report. Jamaica has a mixed economy with both state enterprises and private sector businesses.This page includes a historical data chart. The Employment in agriculture (% of total employment) in Jamaica was reported at 18. news and forecasts for Employment in agriculture (% of total employment) in Jamaica. tips. Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages. salary. .

. insurance services) which now accounts for more than 60% of GDP. 27 (crude fertilizers and minerals excluding coal.80 in 2008. 05 36 AGRICULTURAL RAW MATERIALS IMPORTS (% OF MERCHANDISE IMPORTS) IN JAMAICA The Agricultural raw materials imports (% of merchandise imports) in Jamaica was last reported at 1. The Agricultural raw materials imports (% of merchandise imports) in Jamaica was 0.This page includes a historical data chart.03 in 2010. according to a World Bank report released in 2011. and 28 (metalliferous ores and scrap). Agricultural raw materials comprise SITC section 2 (crude materials except fuels) excluding divisions 22. Most of the foreign trade comes from tourism (20% of the GDP). published in 2010. and bauxite/alumina production. according to the World Bank. Jamaica has a mixed economy with both state enterprises and private sector businesses.THE IMPACT OF JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY Fig. The Agricultural raw materials imports (% of merchandise imports) in Jamaica was reported at 0. remittances (15% of the GDP).92 in 2009. The main sector of the economy is services (tourism. petroleum. and precious stones). according to a World Bank report. news and forecasts for Agricultural raw materials imports (% of merchandise imports) in Jamaica.



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