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I FEAF. that the announcement of my intention to address yon on the subject of plastic art may have created no little surprise among some of my hearers. For I cannot doubt that many of you have had more frequent opportunities of viewing works of art, and have
have had personal experience in the practice of art, in which I am entirely wantI have arrived at my artistic studies by ing. a path which is but little trod, that i;by the
physiology of the senses and in referenoi to those who have a long acquaintance with, and who are quite at home in the beautiful fields of art, I may compare myself to a trav eller who has entered upon them by a stee and stony mountain path, but who, in doi so, has passed many a stage from whirV* good point of view is obtained. If ther I relate to you what I consider I ha 1C ae served, it in with the tmderstandiaf
more thoroughly studied its historical aspects, than I can lay claim to have done or indeed
and something different. In this sense. and what limits are assigned The to him by the nature of his method. whose taste in works of art has been more finely educated. but also because the investigation of the laws of the perceptions and of the observations ot the senses will promote the theory of art. a very prominent and important part of the physiology of the senses for just those cases in which external impressions evoke conceptions which are not in accordance witli reality are particularly instructive for discovering the laws of those means and processes by which . because the elementary ter is thereby altered. as regards beautiful forms. then. consciously or unconsciously. the especial mode of perception of that organ of sense by which the impression and is taken xip is not without importance a theoretical insight into its action. figures in a work of art must not bo the we see in photoevery-day figures. On a former occasion I endeavored to establish tiuch a relation between the physiology of the sense of hearing and the theory of music. . vhich the physiologist. complete. and into the principle of its methods cannot bo complete if this physiological element is not taken into account. but it is a mistaka which those very frequently mako who have only practical objects in view. far as lies within his power. like the birds who illusion pecked at the painted granes of Apelles. I. which have perhaps belonged to no living individuals. which in its optical properties is equivalent to a camera obscura. If. require something more. The more immediate object of the painter is to produce in us by his palette a lively visual impression of the objects which he has endeavored to represent. or indeed any individuals which over have existed. The complete and unhindered development. The first aim of our investigation nmst be to ascertain \vhnt degree and what kind of similarity he can expect to attain. they must have expression. on tho contrary. will seek to foster the former at the latter. a careful observation of the works of the great masters will bo ser\ u-cable.OG POPULAR RCIES'IIFIC I. tistic selection. The knowledge of the latter must. uneducated observer usually requires nothing juore than an illusive resemblance to nature the more this is obtained. We have not hero to do with a discussion of the ultimate objects and aims of art. in a certain sense. following as it does from what I have already said. and not a picture BO far that the artistic representation produces in us a conception of their objects as vivid and as powerful as if we had them actually before us. . forms a series of important and significant facts. The study of what are called illusions of the senses is. we are to suppose we have present the real obbut in jects themselves. An observer. he wi'l need artistic feat. I need scarcely lay stress on the fact. wish to regard myself us open to instruction by those more experienced than myself. but only to such a one as might exist. however. how impressions from without pass into our nerves. look upon artists as persons whose observation of sensuous impressions is particularly vivid and accurate. Next to music this seems to . form an indispensable basis for the solution of the deeper questions. and as must exist. and directly true delineation of that which wo\ild appear if it anywhere camo into being? Since the picture is on a plane surface. whether of man or of natural objects. that it is not my intention to furnish instructions according to which the artist is to work. and how the condition of the lat- many points of contact with the theory of the fine arts. and this is the reason why I have chosen painting as the subject of my present lecture. this faithful representation can of course only give a faithful perspective view of tho tady of works of art will throw great light the question as to which elements and reof our visual impressions are most iominant in determining our conception is seen. The physiological study of the manner in which the perceptions of our senses originate. the comprehension of its mode of action. cannot afford to neglect. predominate more particularly in painting. the artist is to produce an artistic arrangement of only idealized types. the well-known apparatus of the photograobjects. that is. . however. As : Yet our eye. and if possible they have found by innumerable experiments in 'the most varied directions. Those relations in that case are particularly 'lrur and distinct. if we are to understand the problems which the artist has to solve. of art. I consider it a mistake to suppose that any kind of aesthetic lectures such an these can ever do so . is to produce a kind of optical not indeed that. That which long tradition has handed down to the men most gifted in this respect. grouping.IXTUKES. to produce a vivid perception of any particular aspect of human existence in it* means and methods of representation. and even idealiza: The painter seeks We must normal perceptions originate. to produce mhispictnr* an image of external objects. The aim. and a characteristic development. but only with an examination of the action of the elementary means with which it works. and that which The human tion of the objects represented. presents f ir-ns of ninsi<> depend more closely on liie nature and on the peculiarities ot our perceptions than is the case in other arts in which the nature of the material to be used and of the objects to be represented has a far greater Yet even in those other branches influence. FORM. who has here to learn rom the artist. the more does ho delight in the picture. and the mode in which he attempts to attain his object. and whose memory for these images is particularly true. will. however. luunt not the picture be an actual. such as graphs . A faithful copy of crude nature he will at most regard as an arTo satisfy him. and what others are of lass ice. not only to physiological optics.
we make for each eye such a picture as that eye would perceive if itself looked at the object. perspective drawing we t tho o\c of an observer. For it must be observed th?. Che illusion is most striking and instructive dth figures in simple line . in which there is no other element of illusion. I could speak of only one eye for which equality of impression is to be esWe however see the world with tablished.. the former appear to recede. If we move toward the picture. the nearer objects are apparently displaced in comparison witli the more distant ones . although they correspond to ft point of Hero sight which does not in reality occur. t:ut a (Mrieot.e 007 the well-known increase in the vividness of a picture if it is looked at with only ono eye. Compared with a large picture at a greater distance. whereby his eye changes its position. which is different from that which the actual object would other eye. of expressing various distances by depth. Owing to the imperfec^ action of binocular vision. pTicr. partly of limited applicability. and of the background behind its left edges. and partly of slight effect. It is not unimportant to become acquainted with these elements. This incongruity may be lessened. which would be very different. The fact that perspective drawings which are taken from too near a point of view may easily produce a distorted impression. and which therefore show two different perspective views of objects before us. spot would ever afford us. tho frtia. like tbo (Tr. gives on the retina. and disregard f"r Li:* present any consideration of color. which occupy somewhat different positions in space. these are stationary. In moving. as far as form is concerned. as long as the standtbe eye is iiot altered. and of estimating depth. picture. than seeing with ono eye from one and the same. and if both pictures are combined in the stereoscope.iiio eye. what aro called geometrical projections. and this is what is wanting to the painter. only perspective views of the extf rnal world . and all objects represented as to the left eye. wo just as easily recognize that it is a representation on a plane surface. in fact. seem less.t as we use different pictures seen with the <tvro eyes for the perception of depth. is too marked On tho other hand. while tho impression on a stationary eye. in liko manner as the body moves from one place to a correctly chosen point of view. the pictures of both eyes for such an object.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. I For here tho think. whether on foot or riding. another. tho same impression is produced in the two eyes as the object itself produces. But if we look at a drawing or a pictxire with both eyes. Hence is . beween the aspect of a picture and the aspect of reality. The painter possesses a series of subordinate means. and while quito stationary. or between the aspect from adjacent points of view. Hence largo pictures furnish a less distorted aspect of their object than small ones. picture shows to the right eye absolutely tho fr>'-u .' point of view. which is its sensitive plate.i'orms of the visual image as the inspection of tho objects themselves would present to tii<. give in many cases a particularly favorable view of the object. In a painting close at hand the fact that it is a ilat picture two continually forces itself more powerfully and more distinctly on our perception. when viewed from the correKpoii'ihu. who . more of the left side of an object. /ic<> eyes. distant one. and also somewhat more of those behind it. If. is. than we do with the left eye and conversely we see with the left. that looking with two eyes we view the world simultaneous!}' from somewhat different points of view. of a small picture close at hand. so that each eyo sees its corresponding picture. or even turns against him since in binocular vision the picture distinctly forces itself on otir perception as a plane surface. This difference of the images of the two eyes forms ono of the most important means of estimating tho distance of objects from our eye.e restrict cmrselves in the first place to tao 1'orui of tho object viewed. through jv on a picture. And. then. but never entirely overcome. then. You must all have observed the wonderful vividness which the solid form of objects acquires when good stereoscopic images nro viewed in the stereoscope. ill >. models of crys. c:iu\ving : dark tube . because in very distant objects the differences between the images of the eyes. perspective drawings which represent a view taken from an infinite distance.. pamo upon it. Hence arises a far stricter distinction between is near and what is distant.) can previews it of its distance with that of adjacent objects in the room. and one which cannot bo got over. as arising out of theoretical considerations for in tho practice of the art of painting tiny Lave manifestly exercised . we thus exclude any comparison po "t oi! I . You will notice that in these respects thero is a primary incongruity. all those elements which depend on binocular what vision and on the movement of the body aro less operative. and thereby acquire two different perspective images. The reason cf this deception is. the pictures seen by the same eyo serve for the same purpose.' lint iipurt from the fact that any movement of (ho observer.. are the same. different when he stands before objects from those when he stands before the image. connected vilh this.als and the like. want of the second representation for the . the most important natural means is lost of enabling the observer to estimate the depth of objects represented hi the picture. will produce displacements of the visual iantgo. that is. might be just the samo as that of a lar^e. the sensuous impression that it is a flat picture hanging against the v/all forces itself more strongly upon us than if wo look at it while wo are stationary. the latter appear to move with ns. a kind of vividness in which either of the pictures is waiitng when viewed without the stereoscope.sf. show simultaneously to both ejes. and B\it a flat partially concealed by the edge. With the right eye we see somewhat more of the right side of objects before us.
with occasional circular or even . or destroys them alBetween these twu extremes there together. the forms of perspective projection arc. well as familiar trees. tance this is to photographers.ilicneoono c. for it is tho first condition by which the observer attains an intelligibility of expression. if his task t >| transitions of I light and shad. allows the shadows to bo more or less prominent according to the nature of the You must have seen of what imporobject. and thus their apparent magnitude furnishes a measure of the distance nt which they are placed. this gives at once a very certain gradation of far and near. are useful to the painter i:i this respect. masses of foliage. rough blocks of ice.icos at right angles to ouch otuer. which the illuminated masses of air. an intaglio of a medal may. wo know Kt tho outset that the forms nro for the iost part plane surf. such as ft cloudy sky. objects partially conceal more distant ones.^3. ho must take into account the extension or restriction of tho sources of light.ro not equally favorable for obtaining the full When the observer look'i effect of shadows. This mutual concealment may even preponderate over the binocular perception of depth. In the more distant centre of tho landscape they appear smaller than in the foreground. This in ulso tho case with the figures of iar to us. ore of great importance.liing.. or from rock arid the case of irregular shapes. depend . And in fact. v/1-ricii without them would often b* ctiSicult i:-i to represent. ground. If the object is between the source of light and the observer he only sees the shadows. If we look at house.j of expressing their modo. when wo know so much. or other results of man'. between the This. in bodies of regular or of known f rui. where the perspective and shading may be absolutely correct.l lateral illumination for a picturesque shading and over surfaces which. elements in tho productions oC th It i. This direct intelligibility is again the preliminary condition for an uuciistnvbed and vivid action of the picture on the feelings and mood of the observer. with all their fino changes of curvature . or by trees. of illumination r. denned by a window. observer and distant objects. at the objects in ihe name direction as that in which light fails upon them. . b. This rulo is so completely without exception. You all know how much more distinct is the impression winch & well-shaded drawing givea as distinguished a name. produce the impression of reliefs which aro only illuminated from the other side -doublo shadows. with a particular illumination. like those of plan 3 or hilly land. Lr. Men and animals. influence on rningompnt.l the most difficult. stereoscopic pictures are intentionally produced in which each counteracts the other. is what is of called arrial. groups liis objects. distinctness of vhat it* represented. Hence we iiee. ivnd in compariHou therewith tho inclination of the. Illumination from a very wide luminous surface?. give. which! nro his chief jiunin. seleotion. Of more importance for the representation d pch than the elements hitherto enumerated and which nro more or loss of local and accidental significance. While.no . so that the feature in question conies into play. . nativity. he sees only their illuminated sides und nothing of the shadow the whole relief which the shadows could give then disappears. The subordinate methods of expressing depth which have beo'i referred to.CTUr.'hosi. By this we understand the optical action of tho light.'. When human habitations aressen in a picture. but can never themselves be concealed by the If therefore the painter skilfully latter. on tho contrary.:t at tho samo time KIOSJ| effective. that even in stereoscopic views a falsely placed double shadow may destroy or confuse the entire draughtsman and painter. and tho mutual reflection of the surfaces ori oach other.) nrtisti . present in different parts of tho picture must also be taken into account. the modifications of tho lighting on the surface of bodies themselves! is often dubious for instance. we require light which is almost in the direction of the surface itself. and more especially double ones. who have to modify their light by all manner of screens and curtains in order to obtain well-mod. Tho forms of the landscape become more To this must also be added tho distinct. Shadows. arid the likethat this is so. Tho best perspective drawing is. perspective. for only such a one gives shadows. This is one of the reasons which makes illumination by the rising or tho setting sun so eifective.*. represented is indeed of subordinate impw tanco when considered in reference to tho ideal aims of art it must not however be depreciated. of but little avail in . they represent to the observer the direction of tho horizontal surfaces nt tho placo at which they stand . actual magnitude is known. men and moving figures. makes them confused. and modo of illumination of the objects '. are transitions illumination by a portion of the sky. -pth of tho object. Moreover. is best seen in photographs. and of aerial light. Tho apparent magnitude which objects. spheroidal surfaces. influence of color. . grunt. fho shading i. imitate tho fine gradation and 1 illusion.s Nearer in the first place oa perspective. which we shall subsequently discuss Direct illumination from the sun. however. a correct perspective drawing is sufficient to produce tho whole shape of the body. as v. etc. only present slightly all . and yet tho total impression indistinct anil confused. for tho most part characteristic for tho I.? on rounded surfaces. The various kinds animals which are familand whoso forms moreover show two symmetrical halves. Tho from an outl'. elled portraits. are undoubted indications that the body which throws tho shadow is nearer the source of light than that which receives the shadow.POPULAR SOISXTOIC 'v. makes tho shadows sharply denned and hard. which impresses itself without fatigue on the observer.
POPULAR scmrrriFic from a fine opacity in the atmosphere. this is the case in thfr lower layers cf nir. and a ray of sunlight is admitted through a narrow aperture. the *ea a block of wood wotld bo rocked about without the waves being thereby maNow terially disturbed in their progress. In hot countries. as we have observed. . distant objects are seen in sharp. In the open air. and therefore give a whitish Of this kind is tho celestial blue. while others form a fine homogeneous turbidity. In the ordinary air of our rooms this turbidity is very apparent when the room is closed. therefore.% partly because tho air at great heights is free* from turbidity. when a thick layer of illuminated air is between us and masses of deeply shaded or wooded hills. The clearness and the pure colors of Italian landscapes depend mainly on this fact. water. where the temperature of moist air sinks so far that the water retained in it can no longer exist as invisible vapor. and with dry air. will. the other hand. that is. partly from dust which the ascending currents of warm air whirl about and partly from the irregular mix. know whether ticles from suspended parof foreign substances. and is therefore whitish. so that it is whiter. and forms a finer or denser fog that is to say. and in states of weather in which the aqueous vapor in the air is near point of condensation. Part of the water settles then in the form of fine drops. Thus the sun and the moon t their rising . light is well known to be an undulatory motion of the ether which fills all space. as is seen in the tremulous motion of the lower layers of air over surfaces irradiated by the sun. in stsincc. partly by reflection and partly by refraction to use an optical . these by the floating wood as if it were a solid wall. large enough to be distinguished by the naked eye. appear colored. the latter when it is coarse. particularly in the morning. while at the same time a portion of the light which is deflected is distributed in the transparent medium as an opaque halo. the blue and violet the shortest. in. we must often also take into account the turbidity arising from incipient aqueous deposits. the denser turbidity consists . they scatter it in all directions. the former when the turbidity is fine. . 609 through such a medium. in so far as they aro struck by it. We see then some of these solar particles. for. and partly because there in less air above us. so that a great part of the light can pass through them without being deflected. tho color of the turbid atmosphere aV seen against dark cosmical space. which is seen against the dark celestial space. they deflect the light passing nrisos LTXTUIIES. the finer are the opaque particles i while tho larger particles of uniform light reflect all colors. . Tho red and yellow rays have the longest waves. the liqht which reaches the eye of the observer after having pnsscd through a long layer of nir. ns well cs tho mountains excepting that in tho forrart case it is pure. the aerial turbidity is also finer in the lower regions of the air. molecules of air themselves may not act as turbid particles in the luminous ether. the aerial turbidity is often no slight that the colors of the most distant objects can scarcely be distinguished from those of the nearest. has been robbed of part of its violet and blue by scattered re its ture of cold and warm layers of air of cliffer- On eat densitj'. Water rendered turbid by a few drops of milk shows this dispersion of the light and cloudiness very distinctly. there are fino transparent particles of varying density and varying refrangibility. which disturb the uniformity of the ether. The color of the light reflected by the opaque particles mainly depends on their magnitude. turbidity. In like manner it is bluer and darker -when we ascend high rcountain. The sky may then appear almost bluish-black. and setting. expression. Conversely. diluted milk. and ulso distiint brightly illuminated mountain-tops. especially snowmountains. as a kind of the very finest aqueous dust. The pure* and the more transparent the nir. The light of turbid media is bluer. but occur in all cases in which a transparent suVmtnnon is made turbid by the admixture of another transparent HBbWo HOC it. . while in the latter it is mixei? with the light from objects behind an<? moreover it belongs to the coarser turbidity of the lower regions of the atmosphere. cloud. But the same blue. nnd therefor* the blue in front of distant terrestrial objects is more like that of the sky. reflect the latter rays more markedly than the red and yellow rays. On high mountains. also occurs against dark terrestrial objects for instance. As a rule. But science can as yet give no explanation ot' the turbidity in the higher regions of the atmosphere which we do not produces the blue of the sky . which never entirely disappears. the air. These colorations are moreover not peculiar to the air. If the flame of a spirit lamp is placed directly below the path of these rays. well-defined outlines throxigh such a medium. The turbidity which forms in hot eunshino and dry air may arise. But even the latter must consist mainly of suspended particles of organic substances. If. ft transparent medium.rising from the flame stands out quite dark in the surrounding bright turbidity that is to say. Tho same aerial light makes the sky blue. or whether the it arises flections it therefore appears yellowish to reddish yellow or red. and in water to which a few drops of euu dc Cologne Lave been added. the bluer is the sky. When a block of wood floats on and by a succession of we produco small wave-rings near it. they can be burnt. But in the long waves of are repelled falling drops . accordingly. besides dust nnd occasional smoke. If the opaquo particles are sparsely distributed. Very fine particles. the air rising from the flame has been quite freed from dust. according to an observation of Tyndall. The light in this case is deflected by the microBcopic globules of butter which are suspended in the milk. mainly of coarser particles.
are seen to be faintly indicated in the darkness. An opaque body. from Lambert's observations even the whitest bodies only reflect abon two fifths of the incident light. as Tyndall has observed. and one which is exceedingly important for the perception of solid form. Part of thoir artistic skill consists la Uu> fact that bv a How is it. . position.t vorable case. if we did not know that the had been already overcome. and shadow in its field of view. it is not entirely wanting in front of the near objects of a room. if they are we. According to the weather the turbidity of the air mtvy be greater or less. and human forms. Goethe called attention to the universality of this phenomenon. when sunlight passes into n dark room through a hole in the shutter. when tht. can. are also difficult to turn to account in a picturesque manner. . It might at first sight appear that of the reqiiisite tmth to nature of ft picture. they greatly heighten the distinctness of his representation. shows their varying distance very definitely . and the high transparent landscapes of mountainous regions. makes the distant mountains appear small and near . source whatever. for the greater or less predominance of the aerial color above the color of the objects. bluer even than the air. ness. . and that which the picture givtM. only emit as much light as fall upon it. which is lighted from an. By aerial perspective we understand the artistic representation of aerial turbidity . are far better not only do they allow the various distances and magnitudes of what is seen to stand out. But of this there can be n idea.000 miles. and looked at it from a definite fixed point of view. . Excessively line blue elouds. It might seem to be ai object of pictorial skill to aim at prodxioing under the given limitations. If we proceed to examine whether. as sometimes met with after continued ruin. Here. when we Ktand before objects.000 times that of the brighter light of a full moon. Views from the valleys. also. which whil but slightly altered by admixtures the darkest parts are produced with the sain Both being hung on the same v/a black. The choice of the objects to be represented in pictiires is thereby at once much restricted. IL SHACK. . is also not quite wanting when the whole room is lighted. the aerial lighting must stand out against the background. suitable grouping. Let mo givo a case in point. Le there ba. which so often lead the Alpine climber to underestimate the distance and the magnitude of the mountain-tops before him. intensities. which proceed parallel from the SUH whose diameter is 83. Very clear air. and endeavored to base upon it his theory of color. a desert-Kcencin which a pjf>cession of Bedotiins. Yet. and ho\ far. they learn to overcome the unfavorable conditions whicl are imposed on them in this respect.610 POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. they appear large and distant. even in the most f. whereas wheii the air contains more vapor. and landscapes more especially acquire the appearance of depth. but they are on the other hand favorable to the artistic unity of coloration. w come upon diliiculties before which we shoulc perhaps shrink. also. although far more delicate than against the background of a landscape. the saim effcc as is produced by the object itself. nattire offers. color. and would pro duce in the interior of the eye exactly th same image on the retina as the Abject rep whereby the ethereal oils :ml resins dissolved by the latter. The circumstances which we have hitherto discussed indicate a profound difference. i . and groups of trees. and turn objects. seen from th proper point of view. marche under the burning sunshine close to it bluish moonlight scene. who compared their intensities wit' that of the light of candles of the same rn: He thus found that the luminosity o terial. between the visual image which our eyes give. are important for the historical. and of dark negroes. when the nun's light is allowed to exert its decomposing action on the vapors of certain carbon compounds. or portrait painter and when they are carefully observed and imitated. shroude in white. and from seas and plains in which the aerial light is faintly but markedly developed. with the actual degroo Tho relatioi of brightness represented ? between the brightness of the sun's light an that of the moon was measured by Wollas ton. The sun rays. You know from experience that both pictures. resented would do if we had it actually be fore us. Let us begin with the simplest case wit the quantitative relations between luminou If the artist is to imitate exnctl. he ought to be able to dispose o brightness and dar!iness equal to that whic. painting can satisf y such a condition. however. done. more white or more blue. separate ont and produce the turbidity. by a suitable choice of the point o view. and the brightest t well as the darkest parts of the two source! differ as concerns the degree of their brigh . "What is seen to bo isolated and well defined. sr much would remain that. are distributed uniformly over . share the same light. may bo produced. and by the mode of lighting. the sun is 800. the impression which the object produces or our eye. Although aerial color is most distinct in the greater depths of landscape. in a picture-gallery. where the moon i reflected in the water. can produce with surprising vividiiei the representation of their objects and yt in both pictures the brightest parts are prc duced with the same white-lead. This latter is decidedly better for the landscape painter. it would at least produc the same distribution of light. reach us. Artists are well aware that there is much which cannot bo represented by the means at their disposal. and must somewhat deaden the colors in comparison with those of nearer objects and these differences. genre.
solution it is the varying extent to which our senses aro deadened by light a process to which we can attach the same name. . and weak ones not at all. On the other hand. These. body. and at most you would only recognize the candle itself. with the exception of the lighf :>f a single candle. as we often enough know to our cost. Yoti would at first think ou were in absolute darkness. into the desert near the white there. And when the moon irradiates a body of the purest white on the earth. points to the most important element in the. and found its brightness to be about one hundredth that of white paper. which is always very imperf have to represent the glaringly lighted garments of his Bedouins with a white which. 611 appear exaggerated. Hence the painter of the desert. has only the one hundredthousandth part of the brightness of the The moon. raoon. If. Fatigue makes it dull and insensitive to new imlired . But now you see how different is the aim of the artist when these circumstances art taken into account. we can imagine there is any similarity between the picture and reality ? Our discussion of what we did not see at first. you would not recognize the slightest traco of any objects at a distance of 12 feet from the candle. but cou'. along with the actual luminous phenomena of the outer world. In any case. whose mean brightness is only about one fifth of that of the purest white. Accordingly. even if he gives up the representation of the sun's will disk. has been dulled to the last degree by the dazzling sunshine while that of the wanderer by moonlight has been raised to the extreme of sensitiveness. Now pictures which hang in a room are not lighted by the direct light of the sun. v/hich before v/as perfectly comfortable. Any activity of our nervous system diminishes its power for the time being. According to Wol- laston. Now assume a that yon suddenly r ssed from room in daylight to a vault per ctly daik. and you can control them by well-known observations. so that . when we wish to shut off I investigated a coating superfluous light. under such circumstances. strong upper light and bright light from the clouds. come accustomed to the darkness after some time. What he has to give is not a rnerti pressions. who is looking at the caravan. and only bo able to gaxo round with a painful glare. garments in moonlight. its brightness is only the hundred-thousandth part of the brightness of the moon itself hence the sun's disk is 80. Hence. and the more so the more powerful the light. the brain in . creates on the untired eye of its observer. you return to the daylight. If he could bring it. as that for the corresponding one in the muscle. black velvet. You know that we cannot read by the light of the full mocn. The eye of the truvellei in the desert. in the most favorable case. *-. however. the same impression as that which the desert. the darkest black which the artist could apply would be scarcely sufficient to represent the real illumination of a white object on which the moon shone. it appreciates strong ones only moderately. .'dter still less. when powerfully lighted appear gray. the painter must endeavor to produce by hi* colors. or marble surfaces. I found in fact. but by that which is reflected from the sky and clouds. and the moonlight. sphere 195 millions of miles in diameter. The brightest colors of a painter are only about one hundred times as bright as his darkest shades. by an experiment. or even less. The statements I have mado may perhaps .. But they depend upon measurements. will always be ten to twenty times as bright in his picture as they are in reality. differences. but estimates With may be made from known data. Its density r. however. is not less than half as bright as Bhaded white in the brighter part of a room. the light of the full moon is equal to that of a candle burning at a distance of 12 feet. How now is it possible that. though wej ian read at a distance of three or four feet frol a candle. For even the deadest black coatings of lampblack. and its reflection in the water although the real moon has only one fifth of this brightness. about without difficulty. tions by thinking. that lampblack. the different physiological conditions of the ey play a most important part in the work of the artist. rre the objects whose ilhirnination is the same as that which You would only bothe moonlight gives. but with colossal. On the picture of the moon. with its lighting unchanged. of lampblack. The muscle is tired by work. produces on the >. on the otuei hand. and its reHence white flection in v. The condition of one who is looking at a picture differs from both the above cases by possessing ^ certain mean degree of sensitiveness. is a gray sun's disk. the same white which has been used for depicting the Bedouins' garments must be used for representing the moon's disk. 011 the moderately sensitive eye of the spectator.000 million times brighter than a white which is irradiated by the full . on the ono hand. it would seem like a dark gray. fatigue. . and by mental operathe eye is tired by light.ncl illuminating power is here only the one forty-thousandth of that with which and Lambert's surface it left the sun's ember leads to the conclusion that even the brightest white surface on which the sun's rays fall vertically. it will appear so dazzling that you will perhaps liavo to close the eyes.d afterward see in the vault. now.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTUKES.aoaea. shows only the l-20th part of the brightness which corresponds to actual fact. even when the artist gives them a gray shade.-4. lighted by the sun. I do not know of any direct measurements of the ordinary brightness of the light in a picture gallery. You see thua that we are concerned here not with minute. and you would then find your way . the brightest white on a picture has probably l-20th of the brightness of white directly lighted by the sun it will generally be only l-40th.
Fechner' s law. notwithstanding the varying strength oJ: . as in Fig. as it appears on the rotating disk of Fig 1. wo got the fraction which the intensity of the by light in the white ground of the disk is diminished in the ring in question. for which Fechner' . adjacent one in Fig. that the distinctness of the rings is nearly constant for very different by strengths of light. If. In this way extremely delicat* rmg ill hv shades of brightness may bo obtained. and a gray body appears gray because it reflects a small fraction. the shutters are again paper. for the same position of the hand we can no same quantity which produce them. if longer recognize the shadow. we can discriminate without difficult}' the shadows. We exclude. so that it is quite dark. thrown by the candle on a sheet of whitu If. of course. when the strength of the illumination varies. I must lirst of all explain the law which Fechner discovered for the scale of sensitiveness of the eye. as a scarcely perceptible shade of the ground.i. we close the shutter of a room at daytime. Those rings in which are the black bands. This law may be expressed as follows Within very wide limits of : iriyhtness. provided that this strikes all parts of the white sheet uniformly.f. as in Fig. When the rotation is rjud each inating between various degrees ci' brightness of natural objects. is made to rotate very rapidly (that is. on the whole the painter can produce what appears an equal difference for the spectator of his pioture. which belongs to a different degree of impressibility of the observing eye.s. the inner rings appear darker than the outer ones. for instance. differ(f liyht compared. however. but a translation of his impression into another scale of sensitivenes. the cases of too dazzling or of too dim a In both cases the finer distinction* light. jnces in intensity of one hundredth of the fay form an lolal amount can be recognized without great trouble with very different strengths of light. the brightness always diminishes by the same proportion of its total Now it is found. The reader must aowever. provided wo do not approach too near to the upper or the lowei limit of the brightness. while the difference between candle-light and darkness can be easily perceived. whether the brightest daylight or the light of a good candle be used. Hence. and this method.TI: of the disk appears Illuminated. can be no longer recognized.ie ones. 2. A. can no longer be perceived by the aye. such as that of the hand. in accordance with value. The easiest method of producing accurately measurable differences in the brightness of two white surfaces. In order to understand to what conclunious this leads. as if the light which fell itpon it had been uniformly distributed over its entire surface. and now light it by a candle. 20 to 30 times in a second). differences in the strength of liyht are qu/itty distinct or appear equal in sensation. e somewhat loss light than the quite vr. For different intensities of illumination. This law is of gretit importance in discrim- equal fraction of the total quantity Thus. The case is quite different when for diffe ent strengths of illumination we produce differences which always co-respond to the of the object. like the rapidly rotating disks. the same excesn of candle-light as upon the pails shaded by But this small quantity of light the hand. depends on the \ise of If a disk. although ther falls on that part of the white sheet. 1. without exhibiting material differences in the certainty and facility of the osfcimate. white body appear! white because it reflects a large traction. in which the organ speaks a very different dialect in responding to the impressions of the onter world. which is a particular case of the more general psycho-physical la to of the relations of the various sensuous impressions to the irritations o of light. of incident light. so that daylight enters the room. it appears to the eye to be covered with three gray rings. nnd if the breadth of the marks is compared with the length of half the circumference of the corresponding ring. for instance.v law no longer holds. iigure to himself the gray of these rings. and daylight plu candle-light on the other. If the bands are all equally broad.12 SM:::. disappears in comparison with the newly ftdded daylight. You set then that. the equally great difference between daylight. which ia not struck by this shadow. 1. and hence will be equally perceptible to our eyes. on the one hand. opened. for in this latter case the same loss of light is distributed over a larger area than in the former. the difference of brightness between the two will always correspond to the same fraction of their total brightness.
or of . and not merely the pigments and only when we look at the object of pictorial representations from this point of view. these pictures give the impression of sunlight. If a body is so feebly illuminated that we scarcely perceive it. by their ities. the absolute brightness in which they apwide pear to the eyo varies within very limits. what. and which are only darker in the shaded parts. We find that tho older masters. est for understanding the principles of pic. is an extremely characteristic difference between the impression of very powerful and very feeble illumination. That which is constant is only the ratio of the various brightness iu which surfaces of to depth of color appear to us when lighted the same amount. yet none of you will ha^e noticed that. of the objects are given in these pictures in bright. for painting. we shall not bo able to perceive that its brightness is lessened by a shadow by the one hundredth or even by a tenth. are made Tho deviation from extremely prominent. and of shade. . on the contrary. which corresponds to that actually seen in moonlight landscapes and this in cases in which it is by no means wished to produce the impression of moonshine. Foi. if the artist reproduced the fully lighted parts of the objects which he has to represent with pigments. When painters wish to represent glowing sunshine. employ the same deviation. in like manner also. The light at tho edge of the sun is only about half as bright as that at the centre. than should be the case in accordance with the true ratio of the luminosIn both cases they express. . for a brightness which is too high or too low. become more like the brightest than should be the case in accordance with Fechner' s law. if you have not looked through colored glasses. nud tho very marked gradation of tho shadows. light in the gallery. material diff erences in their luminous intensity. These are. were equal to the colors to be represented. appreciable divergences are met with. and yet these pictures give particularly bright and vivid aspects of the Hence they are of particular interobjects. gradation of the lights. On the This is approximately the case. law. will it be possible to understand the variations from nature which artists have to make in the choice of their scale cf color ness is for . If. according to the intensity of tho light and tho sensitiveness of tho eye. this results. . particularly the reflection of moonlight on shining surfaces. that. darker objects become more like the darkest objects. which. With a weak light the eye is also less sensitive. and keep everything so dark as to thafc is to say. so that. but from the opposite reason. especially for objects of no great depth. they wish to represent moonshine. 613 provided he gives to his colors the same ratio of brightness as that which actually exists. in fact. to evoke in us tho same conception as to the nature of the bodies seen. us the perception. Very bright objects appear almost always to be equally bright even wnen there are. the painter chooses colored pigments which almost exactly reproduce the colors of the bodies represented. which holds From for mean degrees of illumination. with the samo light. . which has been described is necessary because the colors of the picture are seen iu the mean brightness of a moderately lighted room. nations in which painting has remained in a childish stage. be almost unrecognizable they make all dark objects more like the deepest dark which they can produce with their colors. such as portraits. The brightest parts a similar feeble light. *hey would not need to represent the gradatrou of light in their picture other than it is in nature the picture would then make tho same impression on the eye as is produced by equal degrees of brightness of actual obThe alteration in the scale of shade jects. due to the circumstance that Fechner' s law only holds for mean degrees of brightness wuile. At both extremes of luminous intensity the . . But this darkness is covered with the yellowish haze of powerfully lighted aerial masses. . torial illumination. notwithstanding their darkness. With a very Btrong light it is dazzled that is. which reduce the brightness to a convenient extent. . eminently Rembrandt. with moderate illumination. in the first case. If they could emplo] the color of the dazzling brightness of full RUP shine. Now this ratio can be imitated by the painter without restraint. But this ratio of bright- It follows from this. from which wo form our judgment as to tho lighter or darker color of the bodies we see. the insenritiveneaa of the eye for differences of too brieht or too feeble lights. and pre- eye is less sensitive for differences in light than is required by that law. and thus produce with their moderately bright colors the impression which the sun's glow makes upon the dazzled eye of the observer. whole. or of the actual dimness of moonlight. in fact. Perfect artistic painting is only reached when we have succeeded in imitating the action of light upon the eye. and in conformity with nature. for which Fechner' s law holds and therewith objects are to be represented whose brightness is beyond the limits of this . so that the darker objects are almost lost ia an impermeable darkness. while with greater illumination brighter objects. the contours of tho faces and figures. they only indicate the very brightest objects. its internal activity cannot keep pace with the external excitations the nerves are too soon tired.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. strict truth to nature is very remarkable in this shading. A truthful imitation in thas respect would be attained within the limits in which Fechner' s law holds. iii looking at natural objects. Children begin to paint on this principle they imitate one color by another and. luminous yellowish colors but the shades toward the black are made very marked. they make all objects almost equally bright.
acts as a color toward whose shades the eye is relatively less sensitive than toward that of blue. the objects about us we are not so readily conscious of this . so that in judging pigment-colors we havo learned to eliminate the influence of brightness. a difference of to -V. In bright white. previously discussed. they are only visible by a light which about corresponds to the illumination of a white paper on a bright day. by a not improbable supposition of Thomas Young. he can attain a hi^h degree of resemblance . Now the impression of white is made up of the impressions which the individual mer the blue appears We but is not diroctly struck by the sun. while yellow and red can only be seen as obscurations of the general bluish white or gray. and as tin I mylight is much strengthened. crease the brightness of white. ]f. be far brighter than the color to bo repIn moonshine scarcely any other resented. which. since moderately bright colors cannot produce them. The change of color. the strength of the sensation for the red and yellow rays will relatively be more increased than that for the blue and violet. By this term we understand cases in which the color or brightness of a surface appears changed by the proximity of a mass of another colox . the rod. or the same faintness. cording to an observation of Dovo. m. gard to the phenomena of Contrast. however. white irradiated by the sun. the deviations which arc so marked. as the intensity increases. ^ scape through a yellow glass. like the scale of shade. as we have seen. are caused by the fact that th e scale of sensitiveness is different for different colors. wheu their intensity is increased only moderately. and violet. physiologically. consider that while Fechner's law is approximately correct for those mean lights which lire agreeable to the eye. owing to the impression on the nerves. In agreement with this. and wo are accustomed to see in this alteration in the white the result of different illumination of one and the same white object. the impression of glare. therefore. which is however not detrimental to the object of the artist if the attention of the observer is to be directed to the brighter parts. To this independence of the different sensations of color corresponds their independence in the gradation of intensity. for the direct comparison of colors of very different shade is difficult. and thereby give it the appearance of a sunny light. as the light is made much dimbrighter. a faint white for the colors on the picture must. With these divergences in brightness are connected certain divergences in color. is a subjective action which the artist must represent objectively on his canvas. which pictures are looked ut is. green. on the contrary. It is found. wnite light. Recent measurements! have shown that the sensitiveness of our eye for feeble shadows is greatest in the blue and least in the red. to the painter is put the problem of imitating. depends altogether on the special reaction of that complex of nerves which are set in operation by the action of the light in question. and for a given intensity of light. the gradations of shade in the picture must bo somewhat stronger than corresponds to the exact luminous intensities. to explain these actions In order we must. and dull white appear* In our ordinary way of looking at bluish. . the former will produce a relatively stronger impression than the latter . Red. The great artistic effectiveness of this manner shows us that the chief emphasis is to be laid on imitating difference of brightness and not on absolute brightness and that the greatest differences in this latter respect can be borne without perceptible incongruity. with faint colors. The artist will. by the same fraction for both. Very bright white appears therefore yellowish. for too high or too low lights. that is. The strength of the If we inspectral colors make on our eye. have to observe more closely in order to perceive this influence. striking manner.S14 POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. . in dull white the blue and bluish colors will have this effect. Ac. can be apprehended quite independently of each other by three different systems of nerve-fibres. A difference of -j^ to -^-g of the intensity can be observed in the blue. The darkest objects of the picture thereby become unnaturally dark. as are actually shown by the bodies irradiated by the sun or by the moon. color can be recognized than blue the blue starry sky or blue colors may still appear distinctly colored. are not without some influence in the region of the middle lights. and. much feebler . I think. * namely. which. on the contrary. We observe something quite similar in re-. therefore. in the red and violet spectral colors. if only their gradations are imitated with expression. Now all our sensations of color are admixtures of three simple sensations . . for by an admixture of yellow in his white he makes this color preponderate just as it would preponderate in actual bright light. of red. and if we are to retain the same distinctness of the finest shadows and of the modelling of the contours which it produces. is feebler in red than in blue. It is the same impression as that produced if we lock at a clouded land- sensation produced by light of a particular color. give a bluish tint to moonlight. COLOU. self have found that the same differences ar> and even in a more seen. if a bio and a red paper be chosen which appear o equal brightness xinder a mean degree c. that when the very finest differences of shade are reproduced on a rotating disk. I Vfill again remind you that theso changes of color would not bo necessary if the artist had at his disposal colors of the same brightness. shades of -y^ or T ^ 5 of the total The light in intensity can bo recognized. With such a light. in fact. and with an untired eye of -fa in the red or when the color is dimmed by being looked at for a long time. which is lighted by the light of the sky.
is continually moving. . green a rose-red. for instance red paper. show that in the retina partial fatigue is possible for tha several colors. is inde- may be seen even after much more A longer moderate impressions of light. which becomes visible owing to the altered sensitiveness toward fresh light. it is dulled. but only remains stationary for a short time it is longer. which poworful . and the third violet. " successive Contrast. and occurs with surfaces where there are veryThis slight differences in color and shade. They are duo to the fact that only those parts of the retina which are actually struck by the image of the sun in the eye. 13y strong light." have already. and in the dark spots their action on the tired portions.'0 as distinctly a" poiuible. and is well known to painters. with green light. ens make upon tho untired parts of the retina. for us. time is required in order to develop such an impression. with an eye which is thus locally tired. bright like the sun. the impression which these * In order to nee thin kind of imn'. only thoso fibres of the retina which arc sensitive to .iitive to feeble lights which it had before perceived. trast. I will not. . as it were.* of which one set perceives red whatever the kind of irritation. tho sensation of green is enfeebled. which mixed let is vivid . and brighter by that of a darker shade . You must all have observed the dark spots which move about in tho field of vision. and yellow a blue. gives a pure green afterimage. however. have become insensitive to a new impression of light. but when only a small portion of this membrane is struck by a minute. " FaThis latter process is designated as tigue" of the retina an exhaustion of the capability of the retina by its own activity. and continuous after-images would with them. If. tint. in the bright parts of the sky. This kind of contrast is therefore essentially dependent on movements of the eye. The phenomena and depend of contrast are very vaon different causes. and a quadrangular i-lieet of paper <>f that C' lor whose after. produce negative after-images in tho most striking manner but with a little attention . when we have been looking for only a short time toward the setting sun. after-imago* are that the observer thinks he sees dark spots in the sky. bring Yet here also. blue a yellow. The second class of phenomena of conand one which. is mora important.l therefore the retinal image is also shifting about on tha retina. so that it may bo distinctly recthey ognized. the more powerful and durable was the action of light If the object viewed was colored. contrast appears both on the picture and in actual objects. tired. depicted on portions of the retina which directly before were struck by other faces. and has been called by Chevreul. We the object must bo stationary during the time of exposure in order that its image may not be displaced on the sensitive plate. and a definite point of the bright object must be fixed. I must here remark that the fatigue of the retina by light does not necessarily extend to tho whole surface . we look toward a uniformly bright surface. rross being steadilv viewed. The changes of color which are here met with are often very striking . seen that the retina is more sensitive in the dark to feeble light than it was before. so that its image may be distinctly formed on tho retina. we ara always turning it to new parts of the object as they happen to interest This way of looking. with tha rose-red. so unchanged white ground forms In the ordinary way of looking at light and colored objects. the centre of which ia steadily viewed. In place of the sheet removed the after imag tUcii on the dark ground. on the contrary. mentary rious.Aii sci:. According to Thoinan Young's hypothesis of tho existence of three systems of fibres in the visual nerves. and more especially between sur which there are great differences of As the eye glides over color. and were therefore changed in their sensitiveness to an impression. co that one of its corners touches the CIOKS.. and is less sen. bright and dark. such as the sky. just as the muscles by their activity become . tho tired parts of the retina aro more feebly and more darkly affected than the other portions. without moving the eye. in shade and of fiuvs. the second green. a photograph on the retina. denned picture it can also be locally developed in this part only. We have then in juxtaposition. has moreover the advantage of avoiding disturbances of sight. while that of red and vio- and predominant their sum gives tho sensation of purplo. without relaxing the view. for they produce no divergence between the picture and reality. On n large sheet of dark gray pa|er ft small bltick cross is draws. the tor it is colors and lights. and which physiologists call negative after-images of the sun. the. and only a limited portion of the retina be excited and tired. which move about with his sight. These phenomena.imitge is to be observed ia slid from the fide. green are powerfully excited and tired. while by a color of a different kind it tends toward the comple- LIXTUKES. One class. Their mixtures of colors on the palette often appear quite different to what they are on the picture. The after-image in the eyo is. Objects.:. an. it ia desirable tx> avoid all movements of the eye.i*ir:c or shade. on the contrary. just as in producing sharp photographic portraits pendent of the motions of the eyes. in which the eye us. and it is appears then drawn suddenly away. is met with in changes of direction of the glance. If this same part of the retina is afterward illuminated with white light. The cheet is allowed to remain for a minute or two. we arj not accustomed to for fix continuously 0110 and tho same point following with the gazo the play of our attentiveness. and in such a manner that the original color appears darker by the proximity of a brighter shade. Chevreul's ftirrmlianwus Contrast. or colored objects and surimpression of each color changes. the after-image is of the complementary color on a gray ground in this case of a bluish green.* Rose-red paper. enter upon them.
The luminosity in tb neighborhood of the flame is so intense thi its brightness can scarcely be distinguishe from that of the flame itself as is the c&f with all bright objects. of a rose-red tint daylight. grayer and duller than the pure color of which it is mixed. that the opacity by lumin ous air is stronger before distant object which have a greater mass of air in front oi they impinge on green. This also is a phenomenon which is produced more strongly by bright light and brilliant. and the halo is brightest ia the . With a little attention you will see that painters and draughtsmen generally make a plain. near a light object. and as if spreading over towar the adjacent dark objects. dark object on a colored glass plate which is held against the clear sky. compared with reddish-yellow candleIn this way they are represented by light. as strikingly as possible. a bright. while irradia- subjective phenomena. The phenomena over the neighborhood. at tl same time. howand duller colors. represents objectively. in fact. the edges of the gray will ueem as if struck by such an after-image of red. POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. because the scale of color and of brightness is different upon the latter. whh covers the whole neighborhood. in the structure of a transparent body can. any objects there may be in th dark part of the field of view are seen nioi distinctly. where it is close to a dark object. Ever inequality. as are observed in strongly colored and strongly lighted objects in nature. bluish But as the after-image rapidly disgreen. ex cepting that for the phenomena of aerial per spective the turbidity is to be sought in tht air in front of the eye. works for the most part with the latter. It is du< to a diffusion of light which arises fron the passage of light through dull media. arith the pigments at his command. rays passing through the green leafy shade of trees strike against the ground. . Hence such bright contrasts. only tbey are shadowy in tlieir of very short duration. uniformly lighted nurface brighter. while for true phc nomena of irradiation it is to be sought in tht transparent media of the eye. they both appeal whitish and as if rendered turbid by a tin Both are. however. Irradiation also belongs to the subjective phenomena of the eye which the artist. must be assojectively ciated certain phenomena of iivadiation. or a small. the painter. If. . misty halo appears. and will seem to be of a faint. appears it is mostly only those parts of the gray which nro nearest the red which show the change in a marked degree. however. are comparatively dark. and darker. brilliant and luminous as in the actual objects. and a rose-red tint where i:-? The causa of this phenomenon is quit similar to that of aerial pespective. entering through a slit. appears blue. tho contrasts in the former case would produce themselves as spontaneously as in the latter. the artist vishes to reproduce the impression which objects give. When ever the healthiest human eye is examined \>\ powerful light. and are not therefore so hoinogene ous as a pure liquid or a pure crystal. Here. Hence the phenomena of irradiation an very similar to those which produce tin opacity of the air. because painted lights and painted sunlight are not bright enough t? produce a distinct irradiation in the eye cf the observer. By this is imderstood cases in which any bright object in the fieH spreads its light or color tiuj To series of which artists are tion in the eyes sheds its halo uniformly ovei near and over distant objects. A darl. The representation which the painter ha * I cli*re?ard here tho view thfit irrndmtion in tlia ovu dependu on a diffusion of lh excitation in the substance of th nerve*." I. also. however small. tired with looking at the predomithe whole nant green. reflect some of the incident light that is. tho phc-noineua and not \vitli their cause. You will find where it that uniform gray surfaces are given a yellowish tint at the edye where there is a background of blue. most of his tints He produces by mixture ach mixed pigment is. it is seen that the sclerotici and crystalline lens are not perfectly clear If strongly illuminated. ored chalks are again comparatively white. they appear to the eye. structure. the sun. The pigments employed in water-colors and collight ever. them than before near ones . we are here concerned hypothetic. he _mst paint tho contrasts which they proIf the colors on the picture are as duce. since the colors of his pictures are not bright enough to reproduce the contrast without such help. tissues of fibrour mist. this appears jagged where the flan projects beyond it. the best being a pencil o sunlight concentrated on the side by a con densing lens. cannot be expected from their representation in the picture.616 not wanting contours. can diffuse it in all directions. appear as if the color of the adjacen': surfaco were diffused over them. If the flame is partly screened Vi a ruler. i ' . aperture in a sheet of paper illuminated b. und. the flame appeal magnified. If the view of the flame itself closed by a narrow dark object such as tl: ject. as this appears to me too Moreover. and eveu the few pigments of a highly saturated shade which oil-painting can employ. If a red surface be laid upon a gray ground. are the more marked the brighter is the radiating object. and if we look from the red over the edge toward the gray. compelled to represent obin their pictures. and immediate neighborhood o> tlio bright o but diminishes at a greater disumo These phenomena of irradiation nro :no striking around a very bright light on a d:u ground. therefore. provided that none of the light collected from the blue or green Where the sun's can fall upon the gray. The only essential difference lies in this. . saturated colors than by fainter ] The artist.* The phenomena of irradiation alr>o oocm with moderate degrees of brightness. finger. with. subjective phenomena of the eye must be objectively introduced into the picture.
in a picture. Their brightness is so great that we cannot look at them And what steadily for any length of time. such as those of tho new Pinakothek in Munich. earthly shadows in the representation of sacred objects. and uninfluenced by subjective impressions. to those conditions which are most favorable for perceiving the outer world. sunshine. In artistic productions many important points are left to the choice of the artist. which occur on looking at the object. but It is and a mass much Wo and and thereby evoke in the observer moods which depend on the illumination and on the state of the weather or by means of undisturbed . scale of brightness which the artist must apply in many cases is opposed to this. but the impres. Fresco painting would have led or the experiments of Munich's to this . to learn in what this advantage consists. It is not the colors of the objects. which is to be imitated. but still imperfect. Like the Dutch school. would not be isolated. stones. : here naturally raise the question If. art and nature are chiefly confined. ing light of the atmosphere. as have already seen. wero intended to represent bright sunlight. in all kinds of indirect ways. and of higher degrees of brightness. and far moro saturated colors in dioramas and in theatrical decorations wo may employ powerful artificial light. feathers. this inclination has . Nov. HABMONY OP COLOR. in fireworks. as a general rule. of light shed' over the picture. Like Ilembrandt. he may represent the vary. and which admit of tho finest discrimination and observation. without injury or tiring the eye by the nude The differences between lights of reality. to those matters which w* w can in reality only estimate in an uncertain manner. Frescoes are some. which representation. would it not be more convenient to seek for means of obviating these evils ? Such there are indeed. it will at once strike you that those works which we admire as the greatest masterpieces of painting. such as tho absolute intensities of light. I should liko to direct your attention to another point which has great importance in painting I refer to our natural delight in colors. he may exaggerate them in order to obtain strong relief or he may diminish them. and. the electrio But when I enumerate these branches light. Within certain limits he can freely select the absolute brightness of his colors. that is. owing to the small quantity of light and saturation of his colors. the artist seeks. '[ I I Here present themselves a series phenomena which are occasioned by the in which the eye replies to an exter[manner irritation and since they depend upon pal tint. sential. moderate extent. now bright sunny. celebrated optician Steinheil. corresponds in this case. the scale of light and color in which jchange he executes his picture. the feeling of comfort. duces all that is essential in the impression. and of the modelling which they express. 617 11 ! 'i 3 sion which they have given. it cannot give a The altered copy true in all its details.POPULAH SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. !j i is subject to manifold change according to the lighting. and attains full vividness of conception. in this case is so painful and so tiring to the eye. to give of the lights and colors of his object I have described as a translation. or would give. and now pale. in all translations. which he can decide according to his individual taste. that is. tho gradations of brightness thing which I . of art. would be wanting if the painter did not represent them objectively on his The fact that they are represented particularly significant for tho kind of problem which is to be solved by a pictorial canvas. Experiment seems therefore to teach that jective phenomena. so as to produce as distinct and vivid a conception as possible As the painter must '[of thoso objects. to produce oil paintings which should be looked at in bright . and the degree of He retains the more esffatigue of the eye. by imitating subjective impressions to attain resemblance to nature. . do not belong to this class but by far the larger number of tho great works of art are executed with tho comparatively dull water or oil-colors. In its simplest expression. the intensity of this irritation they are not directly produced by the varied luminous inThese obtensity and colors of the picture. as in others. he only alters some' * ! . would also operate in a smaller degree if. we should undoubtedly have pictures which took advantage of this. and Bengal lights. If higher artistic effects could bo attained with colors lighted by tho sun. or at any rate for rooms with softened light. and we need only look at frescoes in direct sunlight. the individuality of the translator plays a part. if need be. which has undoubtedly a great influence upon our pleasure in the works of the : painter. is the most delicate under a certain moan brightness. as well as the strength of the shadows. as pleasure in gaudy flowers." and indeed in their air purely pictorial elements. which ho made as a matter of science. and I have nrged that. or warm and cold. with Fra Angelico and his modern imiin order to soften tators. We That which is pleasant to the senses. the beneficial but not exhausting fatigue of our nerves. may therefore designate truth to nature of ft beautiful picture us an ennobled Such a picture reprofidelity to nature. or according to the requirements of his subject. easier to produce an accurate imitation of tho feeble light of moonshine with artificial light in dioramas and theatra decorations. times viewed in direct sunlight transparencies and paintings on glass can utilize far . brilliant colors wero used. By this means great variety is attained in what artists call " style" or" treatment. IV. as close as possible. even locally and to p. It has been mentioned above that the discrimination of the finest shadows. he may cause his figures to stand out objectively clear as it were. is moderation of light and of colors in pktures is ever advantageous.
We find thus th complementary color which we have mentioned. or by the juxtap sition of variously saturated colors. and on all surfaces of a different col surface. This effected either by introducing the promine color to a moderate extent upon a du slightly colored ground. and therel when makes its own color more saturated. violet gives greenish yellow bright purple gives green. damental color bears to small admixtures the same relation as a dark ground on which the Any of slightest shade of light is visible. excludes the possibility that in the majority of healthy individuals an instinct should be developed or maintain itself which did not nerve some definite purpose. any rising or falling in it is at once more distinctly recognized by the hearer than could be the case with a less regular sound and it seems also that the powerful excitation which it produces in the ear of the listener arouses trains of ideas and passions more strongly than does a feebler A pure. they are expressive in the artistic sense II. that toward red and violet. at the same time. whi produce a certain equilibrium of irritation the eye. yellow gives blue. Darkness owes the greater part of the terror v. have not far to seek for the delight in light and in colors. el is another circumstance which t has to consider. any tremulousness. wh In th this itself produces its full effect. and. which only retains the contrasts of picture retains the latlight and shade. and acquire a gray tint. and is thereby ij sensitive to slight degrees of shade. conversely. A whi We known and cannot be recognized. It only appears nn the nat\. It is more particular the material glistens that the refle tions of the bright places are preferably the color of the incident light. well-sounding tones of a beauSuch a one is more expressive tiful voice. ter. and t There artist the figures from each other. while colo which are very similar are detrimental to ea other. which nature shows the prismatic spectrum. must be sparing in *ho use of the pure colon otherwise they distract the attention. of great brightnes produces a dazzling effect. Even the natural pleasure in pure. they produce fatigue for the pron nent color. By fatigue toward purple. on the . mav thus acquire high degree of saturation. Stror colors thiis. pure. and yet be expressive for theslighte change of modelling or of illumination . by means of prominent colors. According to this theory. scarlet gives blu and. the perception of each of the three fundamental colors rises from the excitation of only one kind of sensitive fibres. In the dep of the folds. by the contrast in their af te images. owing to their different color. that is.-any slight interruption. This color then becomes mo gray. . that color is for him a important means of attracting the attentic To bo able to do this of the observer. and easier conception than a similarly executed drawing. richer. pure color produces a powerful stimulus. strengthen and increase each otlu A green surface on which the green afte imago of a purple one falls. A brilliant. in comparison with gray or grayish-brown materials. or at any rate are but feebly excited. even the smallest change of its pitch. or its quality. These relations of the colors to each oth have manifestly a great influence on the c of joleasure which different combinatio the other pairs of . way the sensation of green is purified fro any foreign admixture. while the two others are at rest. This also corresponds to the conclusions from Young's theory of colors. in those systems of nerve-fibres . and a diminution in sensitivene toward it. especial on gray or black surfaces. appears to be far purer green than without such an afte image. o the other hand. a great degree of sensitiveness to the admixture of other colors. to avoid a one-sided fatig of the eye by too prominent a color. can direct and enchain the attention of the observer upon the chief objects of the picture . the ladies present will have known how sensitive clothes of uniform saturated shades are to dirt. and for the dread of darkness . can enchain the eye of the ol server. funexcitation of the same kind. picture becomes glaring. picture gives a far A colored more accurate. The case is analogous to that in music.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES.ral pleasure of the perceptive organism in the varying and multifarious excitation of its various nerves. this coincides with the endeavor to Kee and to recognize surrounding objects. with the full. but has in addition the material for discrimination which colors afford by which surfaces which appear equally bright in the drawing. or of similar objects. on the contrary. th is. Even the purest an most saturated green. whatever their origin. which is necessary for its healthy continuBut the thorough ance and productivity. Hence thcrefo and more particularly curtain which are of too bright a single color. pr duce an unsatisfactory and fatiguing effee the clothes have moreover the disadvantaf for the wearer that they cover face and ban Blue pr with the complementary color. the colon surface reflects against itself. wo coat too larp surfaces. It is necessary. fitness in the construction of living organisms. are now assigned to various objects. any admixture of the two colors in the green is enfeebled. bnt little to do Tviih man's sense of art. rnako each oth more brilliant by their contrast. by the powerful irritation whic they produce. or again as alike in color are seen to be parts of the amc. strongly saturated colors finds its justification in this direction. clothes. the artist. In utilizing the relations thus naturally given. ored surface mainly depends upon the reflc tion of light of other colors which falls up< them from without. but complete each individual one in itself. the complementary tint appears. and by the variety of the garments he can discriminate A contrary. on the other hand. duces yellow. and yet.-hich it inspires to the fright of -what is un- which are The modelling of a e< at rest.
they make a motley iuid disturbing imand. on th'e other hand. the . or orange and straw-yellow. 619 nent colors and lights must also serve for directing the attention to the more important points of the representation. and that further. as a general rule. or verdigris and purple. upon scarlet the more shaded parts appear of a carmine. moreover. for. It is moreover often difficult to estabus a matter cf fact. which indeed are so similar as to look like varieties of the same color. for the appearance of a flood of light thrown over the objects is wanting. Hence. such as carmine and orange. pre-eminently the case with pictures the aerial color. produces its effect. The natural reason for this increase of aerial illumination lies in the fact that the lower nnd more opaque layers of air aro in the direction of the sun. In pictures. greenish blue. ribbons. without falling into the baldness of complementary tints. draperies. perhaps because we are prepared to expect the second color to appear as an afterimage of the first. the direct action of the color upon the eye is only a subordinate means . a representation of natural objects or of solid forms. the painter links the prinof recogin the field of view.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. or on a straw-color they appear of a golden yellow. these colors merge into yellow. picture. Tho same thing happens in front of red and green. what are the colors is falls into shadow. in the light of the setting sun. a cold pression one. wanting. as it shows unmistakably the flatness of tho picture how therefore the painter must carefully select. in so far as these can be prodticed by pigments . toward rose-red. and it does not sufficiently appear to be a new and independent element in the compound. Thus. which throws over the poorest regions a flood of light and color. and violet nese's purple. aerial light to the blue though to a less extent. the yellow . . To this belongs the combination which the Venetian masters used so much as well as Paul Verored. partly tho per. On the contrary. light. Thus. there is not. and harmoniously brightens them. the various colors are hard and crude and. too. which indeed is even turned against him.i has to traverse. yellow colors will appear brighter and more brilliant than blue ones for yellow bodies are those which preferably reflect yellow light while that of blue is only feebly reflected. without injury. . If we pass beyond these limits. the latter gives <he mixtures of each pair of fundamental colors. combinations of those pairs are most pleasin which the second color of the compleing mentary tint is near the first. of shaded and of non-shaded sur. the colored reflecrtion and shade. the combinapleasing. and is mainly absorbed. by the truthful imitation of physical circumstances. for instance. The ^distance of the colors must then be increased. We have a natural type of the harmony which a well-executed illumination of masses of air can produce in a. or yellowish green (sap green). they have something insipid but crude. green. This also is closely in accordance with the aesthetic requirements of artistic unity of composition in color. Two colors may. nnd point to it Where this distinctly in their shades. on the other hand. so as to create pleasing combinations once more. and in the former. This is caused by the fact that the divergent colors show a relation to the predominant color. as straw-color and ultramarine. Still more satisfactory com'binations are those of three tints which bring about equilibrium in the impression of color. j impression. or architectonic surfaces is there free scope for pure pleasure in tho colors. When these are combined. that it has not yet been possible to establish rules for the harmony of colors with the same precision and certainty as for the consonance of tones. In snoh cases. most faces. and only there can it develop itself according to its own laws. perfect equilibrium between the various colors. The combination produced when the greenish blue is allowed to glide either into ultramarine. in their shadows. but one of them preponderates to an extent which corresponds to the dominant This is occasioned.promi- which produce the harmonic This jn which In summing up once more thosa considerwe have first seen what limitations are imposed on truth to nature in artistic repations. Before the shaded parts of bluo bodies. a consideration of the facts shows that a number of accessory influences come into play. and imparts more or less of a gray tint. since each ono calls attention to itself. Only in the pure ornamentation on carpets. It is however to be observed. tion tends toward yellow. either wholly or in part. arid therefore reflect more powerwhile at the bnmo time the yellowish fully rod color of the light which has passed through the atmosphere becomes more distinct as the length of path increases which '. though with a distinct difference. considerations these as to the pleasing effect of the colors aro thrown into the background. be juxtaposed. Compared with more poetical and psychological elements of the representation. and. . of ealors afford. we arrive at unpleasant combinations. this coloration is more pronounced as the background is . or even if it only offers a resemblance with the representation of a relief. such. lish. when once the colored surface is also to produce. produced by varying degrees of light and shade. avoid a one-sided fatigue of the eye. resentation cipal how means which nature furnishes . namely nizing depths binocular vision. and yellow. . is still more In the latter case. If the illumination is rich in yellow light. The complementary colors are those which are most distant from each other. in the first case. scarlet and greenish blue are complementary. so variously alter the lint of oach single colored surface when it is not perfectly smooth. The former triad corresponds approximately to the three fundamental colors. on the whole. notwithstanding the great body of color. that it is hardly possible to give an indisputable determination of its tint. so that.
in the actual objects. in the mind. many may seem to you as a very subordinate point a point -which. Kronos who devou his children. Thus the imitation of nature in the picture is at the same time an ennobling of the impression on the senses. is an e pression of the interest. to the consideration of a work Tho of art. that indeed it is necessary to introduce important changes in the distribution of light and dark. It can bring forward a ful- ness of vivid fervent colors. to direct and enchain the attention it can use their variety to heighten the direct understanding of what ia represented. equivocably. to which physiolc optical investigations have led us. a host of slumbering conceptions and their corresponding feelings. not merely of the objects themselves. disturbing. wondrous pleasure which we feel in its f>i ence is essentially based on the feeling! an easy. malignant deities. but even of the greatly altered intensities of light under which we view them. and most accurate sensuous intelligi. IN 1871. or dreams. fearlessly apply the entire energy of powerful sensuous impressions. It seems as if wo can -only rofcr the freci preponderance. I. how here. the hypothesis of Kant and Lapla as to the formation of tho celestial bodi< especially of our planetary systei The choice of the subject needs no apo In popular lectures. and by skilful contrast can retain the sensitiveness of the It can eye in advantageous equilibrium. the color of the object cannot be simply represented by the pigment . giants.ECTT7BE most expressive. as it gets rid of everything which. than to that of a real object. its shape. It must act certainly. arouse in us. in spite of manifold chang flow toward a common object. rapidly. and partly the lighting and shading. the qua tion as to the origin of the world has. like the present. of yellowish and of bluish tints. Then the peculiarities of the paint technique (Technik). must be transformed in the picture to one differing sometimes by a hundredfold .I laws hitherto concealed. is treated as quite accessory I of think this is unjustly so. work of art can produce those gradations of light. finest. if mentioned at all by writers on aesthetics. is too dazzling. vivid stream of our ceptions. to the fact that the latter inixcn FCK thing foreign. sine remote antiquity. in these considerations. In this respect wo can often give ourselves up more calmly and continuously.' and imagination of man could turn. using this word in its highest sense ? should excite and enchain our attention. and allow them to without restraint. and even injnrk| while art can collect all the element:-! for desired impression. whose separate fragments lie scattered in our imagination and overgrown by the wild chaos of accident.| in the deepest depths of sensation of <l own minds. my having continually laid much weight on the lightest. and distance. The artist cannot transcribe nature he must translate her . in kno^ ing what is our own origin. harmonic. Niflheim. < tinctness is by no means a low or subordinate element in the action of works of art . ON THE ORIGIN OF THE TLANETAJ SYSTEM. The power of this pression will no doubt be greater the de' the finer. Tl essentially are the points which I have to comprehend under the name of int bility of the work of art. If. Of all the subjects to which the thong. that each people develops its own cosmog nies. bring to li. yet this translation may give us an impression in the highest degree distinct and forcible. The sensuous dis- and not unripe supposition hypotheses. are of closely connected with the highest problf of art. What effect is to be produced by a work of It art. I IT is you to-day which has been much discuss that is. and too fatiguing for the eye. Wo may perhaps think that even last secret of artistic beauty that is. and yet keep tho eye in a condition of excitation most favorable and agreeable for delicate sensuous impressions. its importance has forced itself the more strongly upon me the more I have sought to discover the physiological elements in their action. DELIVERED IN HEIDELBEEO AND COLOGNE. its position and its aspect. of art reality. and the complete results my intention to bring a subject bef r and more investigation. with the ice-giai Ymir. and those tints in which the modelling of tho forms is most distinct and therefore . and direct them toward a common object. so as to give a vivid perception of all the features of an ideal type. . and how a truthful representation of aerial light is one of the most important means of attaining the object. what is the ull mate beginning of the things about us. bility of artistic representation. Ai with the question of the beginning is close connected that of the end of all things f< that which may be formed may also pa . and the feeling of delight associated therewith. and with accuracy if it is to duco a vivid and powerful impression. and sometimes in great detail. t hearers may reasonably expect from the le turer. that he shall bring before them wo ascertained facts. and the truer to nature is the s( il ous impression which is to arouse the so of images and the effects connected thj Hpcctive arrangement ot bis subject. been the favorite arena Beneficent ai the wildest speculation. v/hich. as met with in the objects.C20 POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. in easy play. in order to give us a directly intelligible image of its magnitude. felt by all. with. The altered scale is indeed in many cases advantageous. who is killed by the celestial Asa? that out of him the world may be construct* these are all figures which fill the cosm gonic systems of the more cultivated of tl But the universality of the fac peoples. and allow us to g. We then saw that even the scale of luminous intensity.
Such direct confirmations of various kinds have. You see from tho as to the origin of and important question tho quesnamely.-} in reference to connectedly aa to endeavor to give. and this confidence hua hitherto boon uio morn /justified. considered as a question oi science.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES.l of things perhaps of greater practical interest than that of the beginning. new facts accrue to those already kn<\ . is based on our c mfidenco ia the unchangeable order of n iture. in connection with philosophical. action. of a so-called dedxactivo speculations method. this kind as a popular lecture. the deepei .s methods. and which deals with things in the rnost distant past. For her it ia a . and as to the ox tent to which existing laws ara valid. the final conclusion of his work on the mechanism of our system. kept him to philosophy. and the tone of thought prevalent at the time. Partly this fact. and partly like his introductory lecture. These apologies which I must premise. It may. to tell you anything substantially new it. but a question a? to the limits of it. It is in the nature of the case. Henco. no idle speculation.\. Even in the later periods of his life. by . executed with such gigantic industry and great mathematical acuteness. whom we meet as experienced and tried leaders in oxir course. which rule tho question all that now surrounds us . (1 tant from a destructive criticism. we find that they belong mostly to natural philosophy. to revert to the windy <. He was restricted in this to the scanty measure of knowledge and of appliances of his time. to recommend that natural philosophy shall leave the inductive method. in tho greatest as well as . that i. that in a view in which they both agree. only apply to t:io fact that I treat a theme 01 Science i. Marquis de Laplace. a. It and partially sarcastic cannot be denied that the Kant was n natural philosopher by inBtinct and by inclination nnd that probably only the power of external circumstances. having appeared in his thirty-first year. by onr position on thiibut as a grain of dusl little earth. t . by which it has become great. The work in which ho developed this.from everlasting to l>ut all our thought and oui everlasting. wo ba?e not to deal with a mere random. Immanuel Kant. on the supposition. . the reasons which for the "Kritik der reinen Vernunt't" appeared in his fifty-seventh year. names of these two men. period ar.i I intend to discuss to-day must premise that the theory which was first put forth man who is known as the most abstract . as to tho existence of limits t:: the validity of the laws of nature. mill of time. works. assumed to hav taken place in the formation of the heavenly bodies. in the circle of /~ur observations in space. Now. is. and have materially increased it: probability. between his great have led to and have confirmed it. It may perhaps apnour rash that wo. as possible. directly originating in some adventitious circumstance at the same time the matter they contain is comparatively without originality.bout the cn. . Simon. and like them are explained on the hy\ thesis and particularly if survivals of the ). imperatively lead to an impossible state of things. and of the out-of-theway place where he lived but with a large and intelligent mind he strove after such more general points of view as Alexander von Humboldt afterward worked out. ethical. in which it was only much later that he produced anything original and important of early life . cannot be verified by direct observation. when Kant's name is occasionally misused." No one would have attacked such A misuse more energetically nnd more incisively than Kant himself if ho were still tion. but apparently quite independently of Kant. It is exactly an inversion of the historical connecphilosophical . but ia indeed beholden. of an everlasting uniformity of natural laws^ oui conclusions from present circumstances. It formed. can bo proved to exist in tho present. and partly tho fact that the hypothesis in question has recently been mentioned ia popular and scientific books. to tha necessity of an infraction of. is The question I r. as tc the past. and me theological questions. which lasted to about his fortieth year. and whether they will always hold im the future or whether." is one of his first publications. to begin such an investigation as to the pos Bible or probable primeval history of oui present world. as it were. and aro far in advance of their times with a number of the happiest His philosophical writings at this ideas. receive direct confirmation. not only entitled. t j the whola rango of infidefinite tion. the want of the means necessary for independent scientific research. by the most celebrated of French astronomers. that ft hypothesis as to the origin of the world which wo inhabit.o but few. have emboldened I intend not so mucli to speak of it here. first Looking at the writings of this period of his scientific activity. restricted as we arc. in fact. whether they have always held in tho yast. been formed for the view we are about to disutv-w. the " General Natural Philosophy nnd Theory of the Heavons. guess. but with a careful and well-considered attempt to deduce conclusions as to tho Tinknown past from known conditions of tha present time. if. of philosophical thinkers the originator of transcendental idealism and of the Categorical Imperative. of a beginning which could not havt been due to processes known to us. and as to the future. t mako such nn investigation. however. he wrote occasional memoirs on natural philosophy. . and they are only impor. and limited in time by the short duration of the human race $ thai we should attempt to appJy the laws whicli we have deduced from the confined circle oi facts open to us. among xis. and regularly delivered a course of lectures on physical geography.in tho least. away. natural laws. nite spaco. in the progress of scientific knowledge. oeesses. The same hypothesis our planetary system was advanced a second time. which i in our milky way .
as move in infinite you all under the most powerful magnification. try to give the Ixall. float celestial bodies. c. But these ellipses lie in both cases differently lu our as regards the atiractiug centre. the ellipse of the path has such a position in reference to the attracting centre. In this case. all. vie^ oJ even know. represents in our model the attraction which the earth ?xerts on the moon. put in the place of the ball any other solid body for instance. in our model. because the opposing forces. a and b. The nearest fixed stars.s in the centre of the sphere. is in th must bo pushed it aside. or the sun on the planets. aro two points which lio symmetrically toward tho ends of tho ellipse. After you have convinced yourselves of the accuracy of these facts. looked at from the nearest fixed stars. and are characterized by tho property that the sum of their distances.122 POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. the course of planetary motion. the small ball will move round the large one in a circular path. In the front rank of gravitation. toward For planets. The force which causes a body to fall to the ground is none other than that which continually compels the moon to accompany the earth in its path round the sun. This is the position of equilibrium of the ball. we have penetrated into the interconnections of natural phenomena. which attracts the planets to the sun. 3. fixed horijsontally in the wall. the circles described by the lead ball will bo continually narrower. according to which this forc-j decreases with in. has acquired wtrong actual confirmation during the past half-century. in so far as they have been determined. against tho globe. of the form of the curved line in Fig. is the same t'rou* any given points. model. and keep it visible. If the original impulse ha* not been of the right strength in both case*. and. would only appear as a single luminous point seeing that the masses of lios stars. on the contrary. a slight throw in a lateral direction. If the path about tho attracting centre is exactly circular. l in this case. and brings them in mutual interdependence. have no visible diameter and we may be sura that even our sun. tho form ami position of th orbit depend on tho law a"cording to which the magnitude of the attracting force alters. am -f. and at its end a small heavy body for instance. or to a rigid bar. that this. each of TIS is but as a r--un of dust. these circumstances. Kepler had found that the paths of th planets are ellipses of thin kind and since. when it is a little away from the globe. For this purpose the ball the paths will not be circular but elliptical. a large terrestrial globe on a stand. a sili cord. it stretches the thread. crease of distance as the square of that disTerrestrial giavity must obey tliin tance. If you have accurately hit the strength of the throw. or on the lead sphere. And that the general laws. the attracting force is stronger. when it is operative between an earthly body and the mass of our earth. then. it is immaterial according to what law the fore* would increase or diminish at other distance* from the centre in which the moving body does not come. which i. it still because gravity im- position of equilibrium. the farther the lead sphere is removed Under from its position of equilibrium. notwithstanding these enormous dist-inof-s. To indicate this. the same This force. have not been found to be materially different from that of the sun. and NoM'ton had tho wonderful selfdenial to refrain from publishing his important discovery until it had acquired a direct eonnrmation . tho attracting force is feebler the farther it is removed from the attracting body. tho resistance of the air. as tho above example shows. with which all heavy masses attract each other. Compared with the enormous distances between them. one of whose foci lies in th contra of attraction. This is the force of gravitation. its . there is an invisible tie between them which connects them together. . friction. 01 the ellipse. the rigidity of the thread. mechanical model. The two foci. or the planets about the sun. Newton could deduce from the form of tho planetary oibits th* well-known law of tho force of gravitation. is the law of The and space. centre. which thing always happens. as they are excluded in the planetary system. But. If you allow this to hang at rest. law. away from the sun. by means of a simple . at n Hufficient height. and which keeps the earth itself from fleeing off into space. and this is tho reason that an ellipsa in described. Fasten to the branch of * tree. and may retain thin motion for S3iu3 time just as the moon persists in its coursa round the earth.bin. cannot be eliminated. also hold for the most distant vistas of spaco. Now. this followed from the obser- . a lead ball. tho attracting force always acts on the planets. which we have found. And upon whatever wide it is drawn. Yon may realize. with equal strength. tends to come back to pels but it presKea taken away. We know this force as gravity. drives the ball toward the globe. if it.
as well as by terrestrial ones but spectmm analysis has taught us that ft . You thus see that in gravitation we havo discovered a property common to an matte*. it was inferred that there must be another planet. red and yellow at one edge. unknown causes must be at work. The nearest of them. as in tho case of Neptune. of entirely distinct bright lines. what is tho chemical constitution of the ignited gaseous. The mass of Sirius is found to be 13-76. and tho methods of astronomical observation. . red. which has a velocity of 186. in the United States. but its light is so feeble which take place between all tho and all their satellites. Now if a solid or a liquid is heated to such an extent that it becomes incandescent. Another fixed star. and even of the nebuls9. Thus. that Sirius. The development of this theory of planetary motion in detail was. SCIENTIFIC. With regard to the led stars. to measure. has never been again found in the spectrum of any terrestrial el&- . The agreement between this theory. and it exhibits therefore the series of colors into which white sunlight can thus be decomposed. tellite has not y?i been discovered.000 miles a second. This must have spectrum which its light gives is. the most dis- -disturbance. Gaseous spectra of this kind are shown in the heavenly space by many nebulro . Light. and be accurately compared with what actually takes place in the heavens. a broad colored band without any breaks. ao that it can be ascertained. as had never previously been attained in any other branch of human knowledge. jjid that therefore the same law of gravitation must hold for them as for our planetary system. the most brilliant of tho fixed Ktars.tho University of Cambridge. and violet. confirming therein a conjeetare of BeKsel. is in tho sani* case as Sirius. as has been said. LECTURES. like the rainbow. or by an ignited vaporthat is. and is therefore somewhat large? than the distance of Nf une from the sun. as far in the celestial spac^ as our means of observation have hitherto been able to penetrate.039. P\ :yon. of one or more. green. and the rays of which are separated from each other when refracted by a prism. was discovered. is made up of various kinds of lights which appear of different colors to our eye*. and sometimes even fr great number. from Besscl's calculation of the discrepancy between the actual and the calculated motion of Uranus. the merit of Laplace. as yet. In the course of the eighteenth century tho power of mathematical analysis. The spectrum of such a body consists. a. The distance of some of them could be tant of But it of well-known terrestrial element^ are met with in the atmospheres of the fixed stars.600 miles farther from (he sun than the earth. blue. Emboldened by thia agreement. The formation of the prismatic spectrum depends on the fact that the sun's light. at distances in the heavens which all the means we possess have hitherto utterly failed thirty-five light would to . and along with it a lino which. but its . moves in an elliptical path about an invisible centre. and thus Neptune. which is not confined to bodies in our syntem. in the constellation of the Centaur.POPULAR vations. a substance vaporized by heat. is to say. The position of this planet was calculated by Leverrier and Adams.e still constantly found. which traverses the distance from tli sun to the earth in eight minutes. and in no wise characteristic of tho nature of the body which emits the light. the Pole as. seen through a glass prism. then. The more delimodern astronomy havu to it possible determine take distances years traverse for instance. Peters of Altona found. The case is different if the light is emitted by an ignited gas. appears . the next step was to conclude that where slight defects wer. but extends. Such a colored image is called n spectrum the rainbow is such a one. the number that it can only be seen by the most perfect instruments. Bat not merely is this universal property of'all mass shared by the most distant celestial bodies. though not exactly by a prism . would take three years to travel from a Centauri cate methods of made which . blue and violet at the other. bears toward the gravity of a terrestrial body the ratio required by the above law. increased BO far that all the complicated moon toward been due to an unseen companion. position and arrangement ia the spectrum is characteristic for the substances of which the gas or vapor consists. of the simpler motions about the sun. and that of its satellite 6-71. It is not quite dark. was BO complete and so accurate. that elliptical all known at that time. You all Imow that a fine bright line ot light. in consequence of the mutual action of each upon t-ach. earth's orbit. by means of spectrum analysis. which was developed from the simple law of gravitation and the extremely complicated and manifold phenomena which follow therefrom. is 1. this was discovered. Star but the law of gravitation is seen to hold. body. was not merely in the region of the xttraction of our sun that the law of gravitaion was found to hold. ruling the motion of the double stars. and wheo the excellent and powerful telescope of . it was found that double stars noved about each other in elliptical paths.* a colored band. timm the mass of the sun their mutual distance is equal to thirty-seven times the radius of th. and that of most ignited bodies. for the most part they are spectra which show tho bright line of ignited hydrogen and oxygen. planets. and green in tho middle. produced by the refraction of light. with the well-known series of colors.and which astronomers call disturbances actions. which each one would produce if the others were absent that all these could be theoretically predicted from Newton' s law. calculated. 823 that the force which attracts the the earth. had been set up. lo us. whose. yellow. The knowledge of the law of gravitation has here also led to the discovery of new bodies.
Ca (calcium \ Na (sodium \ r . The dark lines of the solar spectrum."e known as Fraunhofer's lines. we see a predominance of iron lines. In the whole spectrum Kirch boff found not less than 450. The numbers above their. (5. either in the flames or in the electrical spark. this pearance when the gas is in front of an ignited solid whose temperature is far higher than that of the gas. would Pb show bright lines. Here. FIG.634 POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. Tar more powerful apparatus was afterward nsed by Kirchhoff. Put. but that the greater part of the light which they emit is really due to gaseous bodies. show how far these fractions of Kirchhoffa of the whole system are apart from each other.solar atmosphere contains an abundance of the vapon map Fto. apparatus willi four prisms. . to push tho decomposition of light as far as possible. indicate (lead) the positions in which the vapors of these metals when made incandescent. Fig. constructed by Kteinheil for Kirchhotf. small heaps of fine stars. and also that of a great number of fixed stars. from which it reaches the eye of the observer. seen in front of a dark background. discovery vas of the utmost importance. 5. At the further end of the telescope B is a screen with a fine slit. and the affixed lines. and are hen. 4. which can be narrowed or widened by tho small screw. Figs. known Apart trom tho proof of two wellterrestrial elements. 4 represents an The gaseous spectra present a different ap- and by which tho light under investigation can be allowed to enter. It then passes through the telescope B. since it furnished the first unmistakable proof that the cosmical nobuke aro not. which are just visible in the places in which the gas alone. would show bright lines. afterward through the four prisms. originally discovered by Wollaston. and finally through the telescope A. Tho solar spectrum is of this kind. representing a fine slice of light. yellow. meat. for the most part.smell portions of the solar spectrum as mapped by Kirchhoff. . . 5. and golden-yelloM in which the chemical symbols below Fe (iron). also. that the. and 7 represent . The observer sees then a continuous spectrum of a solid. and then by Angstrom. It follows from this. were first investigated and measured by Fraunhofer. but traversed by tine dark lines. taken from the green.
how our btLer hand. there is in a Orionis the rare metal thallixim and so on. and hydrogen. We may consider what we see on its surface as a layer of incandescent vapor. calcium. as ing anything we can produce. They show tho bright lines of hydrogen. before they are again resolved.^O. In these layers of gas and of vapor about the sun enormous stormw occur. many fixed stars exhibit peculiarly banded spectra. forming what were called the rose-red protuberances. the sun appears surrounded by a layer of transparent gases. iron. Jansen and Lockyer. from the inalterability of their shape. which indeed is formed by its combustion. arid uro therefore seen in a very oblique direction. as well as gold. of copper.'cpor than the edge of the surrounding follows from their penumbr. 9 On the other hand. are many lines which we cannot identify with those of terrestrial elements. and some others. Vogel. that the sun is a dark cool body. like gigantic jets or tongues of flame. We cannot. which is continually radiating heat on the outside. which represent the highest temperature attainable by terrestrial means. Spectrum analj-sis has further taught us more about the sun. This can be deduced with certainty from Kirchhoffs law of the radiation of opaque bodies. Lead. and. Both have been found in the irre solvable nebula?. il. to judge from the appearances of the sun-spots. by which they may at any time be seen by the aid of the spectroscope. so that two or three earths could lie in one of them. there are very place.* These structures could formerly only be viewed at the time of a total eclipse of the sun. surrounded by u photosphere which only radiates heat anil which. by the way. You know that the sun is an enormous sphere. In the spectrum of the sun. with clouds of smoke above them. and of the metals of magnesia. of zinc. antimony. also. In the atmosphere of . plained all spectra .<\ or. and also the presence of hydrogen. Figs.i respective di placements as they come near the edge. morenf iron. an element in water. whoso diameter is 112 times an great as that of the earth. arsenic. C. 625 considered that they did not belong to the system of our fixed stars. it is also possible that they are produced by the excessively high temperature of the sun. which are as much greater than those of our earth in extent and in velocity as the sun is greater than the earth. But this is certain. say that we have ex. that the known terrestrial substances are widely diffused in space. Currents of ignited hydrogen burst out several thousands of miles high. . which were seen as long ago as by Galileo. Fig. of magnesium. hydro' gen. We now possess a method. contains a physical impossibility. and is certainly cooler than the inner masses of the sun. as it were. . and mean' while several rotations of the sun may takv Sometimes. however. devised by MM. there vre individual darker parts on the sun's surface. these must be musses of enormous dimensions and at an n<>rimms distance. the sides of the funnel are not so dark as the deepest part. It shows. what are called sun-spots. and iron. 5. however. baryta. It is possible that they may be due to sub stances unknown to us. again. and also mercury. The older assumption. hotter than all our terrestrial flames hotter even than the incandescent carbon points of the electrical arc. jit>j-scuu seen under powerful magnification. ff. The spectra of several fixed stars are similarly constituted they show systems of fine lines which can be identified with those of terrestrial elements.POPULAII SC::::TTIFIC ^^^IOJL. from the greater luminous intensity of the sun. which are hot enough to show in the spectrum bright colored lines. For this reason Hir W. calcium. Theii diameter is often more than many tens oJ thousands of miles. This layer of vapor. 8 represents such a spot according to Padre Secchi. on the . the core. and are hence called the Chromosphere. probably belonging to gases whose molecules have not been completely resolved into their atoms by the high temperature. sodium. C. and >th-r terrestrial elements. Justifies us in concluding what nn enormously high temperature must prevail there. These spots may stand for woeks or months. alumina. of sodium. antimony. which constitutes the greater part nf onr atmosphere. mercury. is. and especially nitrogen. iron. which. light externally. by which he is brought nearer to us. They are funnel-shaped. silver. magnesium. than could formerly have seemed possible. and 7 indicate and sodium. but were representatives of the manner in which other systems manifested themselves. has a depth of about 500 miles. That the core if rapid changes in them.r transcend- Outside the opaque photosphere. and bismuth and. Aldebaran in Taurus there is. according to H. indeed. slowly chang ing. is wanting.
Just on the edge of these spots there are spectroscopic indications of the most violent motion. must be remembered that the gases. are charged with vapors of difficultly volatile it According to H. and. aud partly bv radiation into space. They may bo considered to he places where the cooler from the outer of the sun's atgases layers mosphere sink down. This cooling can only. and perhaps produce local superficial coolings of the sun's mass.pe. higher than any temIf now tho . At the same time. of even 87 to 48 miles. Violent storms cannot fail to occur in th sun's atmosphere. C. because about them are layers of ignited vapors a ) much aa 500 miles in height. of course.ii'lC UiUTUllES. they show comparatively often a rotatory motion. tipper layers. and at timQ . and partly by their expansion. To understand the origin of these phenomena. must become cooled. Tho spcctrocpic n metals. and in their vicinity there are often Fig. as they rise from the hot body of the sun. They appear then as depressions. because it is cooled on the outside. even then. whlcn expand as they ncencf. If I 9 represents in A to E the different aspects of such a spot as it cornea iiear the odgc of the sun. they deposit their morn constituents as fog or difficultly volatile cloud. FIG. ba as regarded comparative their temperature is probably. This is the reason w>>v we have frequent. to a heizht of 70. sink down. Vogel's observations In Bothdisplacement of the lines showed yeUvitiex of IB to mile* in a second . and the coolest and comparatively densest and heaviest parts come to lio over (he hotter and lighter ones. freed trom the heavier vapors.rature attainable on the earth. according to Lockyer. . there will be a space over th sun's body which is free from cloud.000 miles. large protuberances . kamp.
ndden and violent. KO that individual ones fall into the sun. in those parts of Hpaca which our earth traverses.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. By disturbances of the planetary motion astronomers understand. A voinui't > : . cooled this set:i tho surrounding air in vibra- With the far more colossal magnitude cal processes are fur more violent. The existence of the luminiferous ether cannot be considered doubtful. generally held that. it was unchangeable. without its being supported by another body. it would continue to move forever with undiminished velocity. which rolls on a plane surface. from falling. ground made hot by the sun and above. each of the planets would move continuously in a constant ellipse whose axes would retain the same direction and the same magnitude. it produces the second place. becanse this is heated from tho is fV37 waves of Bound in the surrounding bodieg . in long periods of time. in its chief features at uny rate. . or even more. which cannot be realized on terrestrial bodies. according to which every motion of a body on which no force acts goes on in a straight line forever with unchanged velocity.oro. as by far the largest body of our system. without contact with any body which could produce friction. Even calls its i:t. That light and radiant heat are due to a motion whiub spreads in all directions has been sufficiently For the transference of such a proved. however. from the magnitude of the action of this motion. This opinion was based mainly on the conclusions at which Laplace had arrived as the final results of his long and laborious investigations. On our earth we cannot produce such an everlasting motion as that of the planets seems to be . do effect slow changes in the plane. * This calculation would. . due to their friction against tha wheel. The attraction of the sun. and the farther the smoother is tho path but at tho same time wo hear tho rolling bail xaake a clattering sound that is. J. lost it* bnm-a if Mnxwcii'H hvpoi he-is wore cmitlrinrd. in addition to the attraction of the sun there are the attractions of all other planets. however. They appear to move in tho perfectly vacuous cosmical space. mid temperature of the sun. motion through space there must bo something which can be moved. Thus it happens that its velocity is continually less and less until it finally ceases. movements in the earth's fctmosphere. alone were operative.ut. tho axles. is indeed the chief and preponderating force which If it produces the motion of the planets. resistance of the air. In like manner.! . it i < filled by that continuous medium the agitation of which constitutes light and radiant heat. large and small fragments of heavy mutter. making the revolutions always in the same length of time. for resisting forces are continually being opposed to all movements of terrestrial bodies. the direction. and the magnitude of the axes of its elliptical orbit. In this result of Laplace's investigation!! only applies to disturbances due to the reciprocal attraction of planets upon each other. Is there nowhero any friction in th* motion of the planets ? From the progress which the knowledge of nature has made since tho timo of Laplaco. those deviations from the purely elliptical motion which are due to the attraction of various planets and satellites upon each other. Henco the fundamental law of mechanics. Indeed. or from that which the science of mechanic. If we could once ki^ep it set n body in rotation. and inelastic impact. and You this conclusion ous. there in friction even on tho smoothest surface tion. are still everywhere) scattered at any rate. and again revert to a mean conBut it must not be forgotten that dition. never holds fully. . even the most carefully constructed wheel which plays upon fine points. and hence their motioij seems to be one which never diminishes. Celestial space is not absolutely vacuous. It has been asked whether these attractions in the orbit of the planet could go BO far as to cause two adjacent planets to encounter each other. that the justification of depends on the question whether cosmical space is really quito vacusee. as I have already mentioned. but then For there is always some friction on stops. and which physicists know as th3 luminifertms ether. ThomII* son. and on the assumption that no forces of other kinds have any influence on their motions. goes on for a quarter of an hour. The best known of these nre what we call friction. which. nixonling Jx which li^ht tU-iiuida on electrical aiul raa^ueticAlcNi tUuuouj. Such a calculation has been made by Sir W. we see it go on for a while. and in addition there is the resistance of the air. and are We will now pass to the question of the permanence of the present condition of our For a long time the view was pretty wystein. yet. lias found that the density may possibly ba far less than that of the air in tho most perfect exhaustion obtainable by A good airpump . of the influence of planetary disturbances. In the first place. in point of fact. which resistance is mainly due to that of the particles of air against each other. if wo eliminate the influence of gravity in n ball. we may indeed assign certain limits for tho density of this medium. for example. its meteorologion a far larger scale. and imuarts to it some of its own motion. This case. and if we could transfer the whole arrangement to an absolute vacuum. once made to turn. iui:a. we must now answer both questions in the negative. from the size of huge stone* to that of dust. though umall. Laplace was able to reply that this could not be the case that all alterations in the planetary orbits produced by this kind of disturbance must periodically increase and decrease. but that the mass of the cthor cannot _bo_abjspluteVy_t <i>iiil to x. the celebrated Glasgow physicist. is apparently met with in tho planeU with their satellites.
with reference to the well-known small comet which bears his name. wo observe that they aro in fact steUe caiientv. and iw such fall without being Keen. would bo sufficient to . before they caiue within the region of our terrestrial atmosIn the more strongly resisting mediphere. Bhown. teaches this. As'the force of their motion diminishes. multiplied by the height from which it must fall. provided that all tho heat were retained by the iron. and did not. 3 This enormous velocity with which they" enter our atmosphere is undoubtedly t)i cnuso of their becoming heated. continually become smaller and The reason for this phenomenon is the following The force which offers a resistance to the attraction of the sun on all which smaller.r. It of is different with the smaller bodies our Encke in particular has system. every badly greased coach-wheel. If. small part of the atmosphere and if they are calculated for the entire surface of the earth. it results that about seien and a half millions fall every day. they are somewhat sparse and distant from each other. contain less than 2775 pounds of luminous ether. they yield by a corresponding amount to the atIf traction of tho sun. In our retigrade. As they move in spaco under tho influence of tho name laws as the planets and comets.000 to 2. we may figure shooting-stars a. Encke' s comet is no doubt in this condition. 1 . and has long continued to act. If.der Ilerschel'-s . while a in light feather is appreciably hindered . the outer crusts of meteoric grees. but also by the work consumed in its compression. by poets. is that.-< be- ing on an average of tho samo>i/e as pavingTheir incandescence mostly occurs Ktuncs. us it undoubtedly does. in such a case. falling stars. mainly pass into tLo air. and has a diameter of 7820 miles. every auger which we work in hard wood. that tho velocity of the shooting-stars is perfectly adequate to raiso them to tho most violent inTho temperatures attainable candescence. By this. and continue their path through space with an altered and retarded motion. as they have long been culled which fills space is any diminution to have been perceived in tins notion o lLo planets since the time in which we possess astronomical observations of their path. in the higher and most attenuated regions of the atmosphere. on an average. One of tho most important results of modern physics. like solid bodies. and curries with it whatever stones aro contained therein. would be just sufficient to raise tho same weight of water through ono degree Centigrade. not only becomes heated by friction. Others fall to the earth the larger ones as meteorites. having its velocity gradually delayed by the resistance of the inr. especially toward morning. and at the same time are heated by the corresponding friction. describes circles about its centre of attraction. stones generally show truces of incipient fusion and in cases in which observers examined with sufficient promptitude tho stones which had fallen they found hem hot on tho surface. But tho earth moves through 18 miles every second. at any rate. when they usually fall. in the same manner on tho far larger masses of the planets. the resistance continues.* The phenomena in celestial space are in conformity with this. they are continuously observed. they will continue to get nearer the sun until they fall into it. at a distance of 450 miles from its neighbors. they possess a planetary velocity of from eighteen gions of space. they aro seen with tolerable regxilarity. But tho resistance whoso presence in spaco which would be necessary to produce it. wo measure tho work done by tho weight pendulum which wo have men- tioned.iettorio iron to 900. According to A2"\. and therefore sweeps through 87' millions of cubic miles of space every second. Many of them may still find an escape from the terrestrial atmosphere. According to Alexander Herschel's estimates. Wo know now that these are bodies which ranged about in cosmical space. Just as a heavy stone flung through the air shows scarcely any influence of the resistance of the air. and get nearer to it. Its motion is similar to that of the circular like manner tho medium far too attenuated for equal to that of tho earth cannot. The equivalent i:i work of a velocity of eighteen to twenty -four miles in a second may bo easily calculated and this. Joule has shown that tho work.000 degrees Cen- hereby indicated. Every match that we ignite. while tho Hmaller ones arc probably resolved into dust by the heat. that it circulates round the sun in ever-diminishing orbits and in ever shorter periods of revolution. aTeo. while the interior of detached pieces seemed to show tho intense cold of cosmical space. by terrestrial means scarcely exceed 2000 deIn fact. um which this atmosphere offers they are delayed in their motion. To the individual observer who casually looks toward tho starry bky the meteorites appear as u rare and exceptional phenomenon. eighteen miles and more above the surface of tho earth. the tendency to continue their motion in a straight line in the direction of their path. is what is called the centrifugal force that is. The air. . and which prevents them from getting continually nearer to the sun. raiso the temperature of a picco of r. like tho mechanicians. : comets and planets. each Ktono is.500. and which. But a single observer only views but u. tho heat developed is exactly proportional to the work expended.1 height of 425 metres. produced by a given weight of water falling through . LIuny groups are irregularly distributed . however. This calculation shows. You nil know that friction heats the bodies rubbed.138 POPULAR SCIENTIFIC MATURES. from known mechanical laws transformed into heat. estimate. must act. Tho presence of partly fine and partly coarse heavy masses diffused in cosinical space is more distinctly revealed by tho pheis nomena of asteroids and of meteorites. to forty miles In a second. the actual proof of which is mainly due to tho Englishman Joule.
that tho fall of ehooting-stars and of meteorites is perhaps only a small survival of a process which onco built up worlds. but which could not perhaps claim any great degree of probability. and in a far higher degree by the sun. of which originally. in tho direction of these planes. Mars. that of Jupiter only half as much. planets. and the separate paths of the small planet's satellites differ still more. Bpaco and if we follow out this consideration it takes us back to a state of things in which. if they had become detached from the common mass. Now. perhaps. any direction of the planes for each individual one would have been equally probable a reverse direction of tho orbit would have been just as probable as a direct one decidedly elliptical paths would have been as probable as the almost circular ones which we meet with in all the bodies we have named. and Neptune in the interval between Mara and Jupiter there circulate. considerable divergences occur. possessed it slow movement it of under the influence tion of its parts an . at a placo much nearer the sun. loosely diffused in space. Thus the 10th of Augiist of each year is remarkable.. as the planets. These were the essential features of th> considerations which led Kant and Laplaco to their hypothesis. Moreover. it assumes far greater significance. Thus tho planes of all the planets. . the smaller they are. But it follows from this that the earth and the planets were once smaller than they are that more mass wrw diffused in now. have perhaps been formed by the gradual aggregation of fine dust. being probably thoso vliicli hnvo ftlready undergone disturbances by planets. and must . and every thirty-three years the splendid fireworks of* the 12th to the 14th of November repeats itself for a few years. that are more subject to the influence of tho resisting medium. therefore. which we have much reason for considering to be formations which have only accidentally come within the sphere of tha sun's attraction. if we did not find that our predecessors. from west to east. accordingly. and this can only be sought in a primitive connection of the entire mass. especially for tho rotations of the planets about their own axes. when it had become detached from tho nebulous balls of fue adjacent fixed rtars. . 156 Moons also small planets or planetoids. The earth and tho planets have for millions of years been sweeping together the loose masses in space. and Jupiter. it is true. a complete irregularity in the comets and meteoric Gwarms. right angles to the planes of the larger planets. many billions of cubio miles could contain scarcely a gramme of mass. is on tho whole greater. Uranus. Venus. in tho first place. whoso plane i. starting from quite different considerations. It is remarkable that certain comets accompany the paths of these swarnis. also about their own axes. Uranus. as far as we know. all the mass now accumulated in the sun and in the planets. as well as the equatorial planes of these planets. it in remarkable that all the pianos of rotation of the planets and of their satellites. Saturn. the Earth. but none which could drive into space such largo masses. in fact. But in these paths they all move direct. wandered wl . and that ill those planes all the rotation is in tho same direction. had arrived at the same hypothecis. rotate about the larger planets that is. and had come together. Saturn. . about the Earth iind the four most distant ones. all in the same direction about tho sun. to the extent of twenty-throe and a half degrees. Now. There is. cutting the earth's CS9 regular orbit in definite places. From this point of view. in space. The equatorial plane of tho Sun deviates by only seven and a half degrees. In their view our system was originally a chaotic ball of nebulou.i matter. they ought to . rotatiof 1 l condensed. This would be a supposition of which \vo might admit the possibility. do not vary much from each other. Mercury. Jupiter. Tho number of coincidences in the orbits of tho planets and their satellites is too great to be ascribed to accident. It must at the same time be remarked that the coincidence. and therefore always occur on particular days of the year. We must assume. independently of each other. and that of Mars by twenty-eight and a half degrees. You know that a considerable number of planets rotate around tho sun besides tho eight larger ones. with the exception of Mercury and of the small ones between Mars and Jupiter. tho rr It became condensed he reciprocal attrac\ the degree in which motion increased.OPULAU sci:::rnnc LIXTURES. This ball. What tho earth does is dona by the other planets. toward which all the smaller bodies of our system fall those. they hold fast what they have once attracted. the longer are the bodies and the larger the paths in question while in the smaller bodies. The equatorial piano of the Earth deviates. This is an important process. Tho only considerable exceptions known are tho moons of Uranus. and for the smaller paths. as far as can be ascertained. and give rise to the supposition that the comets gradually split up into meteoric swarms. rotate about their own axes. that the small masses oi! meteorites as they now fall. and Neptune lastly tho Sun.* almost ut have a markedly elliptical orbit. and. and at any rate tho larger . If wo consider. further. we are acquainted with forces and processes which condense an originally diffused mass. We must inquire for the reason of this coincidence. and which must fall the more rapidly. when it extended to the path of the most distant planet. in the condition we now find them. wo BOO ourselves led to a primitive condition of fine nebulous masses. . differ at most by three degrees from the path of the Earth. that this mass i:i its primitive condition extended at least to tho orbit of the outermost planats. There are also denser swarms which move in elliptical orbits. like the earth that If they had originated is.
that of the sun's rays. disturb the uniformity of this great motion. The water collects in brooks. but still goes on. and produce for us the capricious Warm aqueous vapors change of winds. and thilher. . while the colder air flows toward the poles. become condensed into clouds. to larger pieces than originally existed. and upon tho snowy tops of the mountains. drives on earth a kind of steam . the mass which sepring. detached from each other. and fall ia the cooler zones. tho water evaporated from the warm tropical seas to the But whence does tho sun acquire thla ? It radiates forth a more intense light mountain heights . The showers of stars. Jiinh and the grave. . or from men and from animals. and makes life possible crumbles the stones. Wend 1 and wander. utrifo Their seething . perature over land and sea. which works in it \inder evervarying l<>nas in indestructible. Need we wonder if. by which a motive force can be continuously produced without a corresponding consumption. and furnished the swarms of small . Just as tho human race finds on earth but a limited supply of motive forces.engine whose performances are far greater than those of artificially constructerl machines. goal. not to be n -JIM I. and thus works at the geological transformation of the earth's surface. or during this condensation again repelled masses from the periphery. however manifold may be the changes which take place among them. and serves man more particularly as fuel. capable of producing which are strictly limited.winds. . All life and all motion on our earth is. in rivers. Where the Under and restless wave Undulates ever over. It seems as if Goethe had an idea of this when he makes the earth-spirit speak of himself as the representative of natural force. which leads again to the same . and is independent of the These have been special interests of man. and of the force of crystallization of their constituents. divided into many parts. are remains of primitive plants. The universe has its definite store of force. They develop light and heat and that directs us to a third series of considerations. the sources of pcwer of our steam-engines. which partly serves tho whole animal kingdom as food. though the traces are slight. From time to time masics at the circumference of this disk became detached under the influence of the increasing centrifugal force that which became detached formed again into n rotating nebulous mass. Of tho heat which thus issues from it. a water-raising engine of the most magnificent kind. to our forefathers of the Aryan race in India and Persia. the sun appeared as the fittest symbol of the Deity ? They were right in regarding it as the giver of all life as the ultimate source of almost 11 that has happened on earth. Thus is formed the great circulation of the Local differences of tempassage . No natural process. I have previously explained the mechanical Calculated by that equivalent of heat. in fact. everlasting and unchangeable like mutter itself. carries their fragments along. this becomes lighter and ascends. the ancient production of the sun's rays. For a long time experience had impressed on our mechanicians that a working force cannot be produced from nothing that it can only be taken from the stores which na. They warm the air of the hot zones. as examples now taking pluce of the process which formed the heavenly bodies. with few exceptions. Modern physics has attempted to prove the universality of this experience. Our more recent experience as to the nature of star showers teaches us that this process of the condensation of loosely diffused masses to form larger bodies is by no means complete. tempests of motion. which bring to xts light and heat. as has been said. of the sun's rays that the variegated covering of and while they plants of the earth grows grow. which it can utilize but not increase. The sun. . as it were. in the f nrt. they accumulate in their structure organic matter. that of Saturn. . remained as a coherent In another case. ascend v/ith the warm air. to show that it applies to the great whole of all natural processes. than can bo attained with any terrestrial means. are important from another point of view. arated from the outside of the chief ball. with whose power no artificial machine can bo even distantly compared. so also must this be the case in the great whole of nature. generalized and comprehended in the allruling natural law of the Conservation of Force. which became satellites. and no series of natural processes. The circulation of water in the atmosphere raises. or in one case.-rvor life. It yields as much heat as if 1500 pounds of coal were burned every hour upon each square foot of its surface. tho small fraction which enters our atmosphere furnishes a great mechanical force. and which cannot be increased at pleasure whether it be taken from the rushing water or from tho wind whether from the layers of coal. in the storm. i . can be found. standard. plains and mountains. Every steam-engine teaches us that heat can produce such force. of food. . The form in which it now appears is altered by the fact that meanwhile the gaseous or dust like mass diffused in space had united under the influence of the force of attraction. the work which the sun produces its radiation is equal to the constant exby ertion of 7000 horse-power lor each square foot of the sun's surface. 'Her und under. in the fire. work. planets between Mars and Jupiter. < In the current* of lu tho ii. it is. liithcr LtanltlaM ocean. kept up by a single force. moistens the plains. force and formed it into a flat disk. which either simply condensed and formed a planet. as rain and as snow. It is only under the influence. which cannot work without the consumption ture possesses .830 POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. Coals and lignites.
It is probable rather that a great part of this heat. Does the sun's heat originate in a process of this kind ? To this question we can reply with a complete and decided negative.000. the temperature might be raised to 28. for the smallest mass.000. they move this respect for grav- the past. assuming it to hold. there is no present manifestation of force sufficient to cover the expenditure of the sun's heat. of this force as one acting on the had been destroyed by friction and impact. Calculation shows that. I work the living mantle of God. At the whirling loom of time unawcd. to explain the production of heat which takes place in the sun. is open. between heat Let ns return to the special question which concerns us here Whence does the sun de: rive this enormous store of force which ? it nends out On earth the processes of combustion arc the most abundant source of heat. the min must originally have had a storo of heat which it gradually Bat whenca this store? gives out. indeed. too. the visible motion which it had as a whole in fact. That. whether this be suddenly. . Yet the hypothesis. previously discussed an to the origin of the If the mass of the sun. the mass of the sun should increase so rapidly that the consequences would have shown theuiselven in the accelerated motion of the planets. and. know that the cosmical forces alone oould have produced it. produce the greatest amount of heat when they combine . if unrestrained by centrifugal force. both masses attract each other. which. The pressure which endeavors to condense the interior is about 800 times us great as and . however. A heavy mass. it develops the corresponding quantity of the motion of heat. which is suspended in space separated from another heavy moss. and this invisible vibration of the molecules is the motion of heat. and that in like manner the gravity of the water when it appears as terWe know that a weight tho mountains works our rushing mills. and if this velocity is finally destroyed. holds also for gravitation. by collision. the heat resulting from their combustion would be siifficient to keep up the radiation of heat from the sun for 3021 years. or gradually. know and mechanical work. even on the most favorable assumption. Heaving M>1 weaving The ehaogM of life. for. by the fnction of movable parts. however. previously established. That which holds in ity. had fallen together under the influence of celestial gravity if then the resultant motion W duced these great We know velocities is gravitation. a hypothesis which was propounded by Mayer. and had then been condensed that is. and has been favorably adopted by several other physicists. This cannot be assumed. would have been sufficient to cover its present expenditure for not less than 22. that the entire amount of the sun's heat which is? continually lost by radiation. is a inconsiderable. and with greater velocity. comes to our aid. motion of heat. raised from the earth can drive our clocks. of whatever kind. according to Sir W. now. Tho mass of the sun is known. and also the quantity of heat produced by the union of known weights of oxygen and hydrogen. the amount of which can be calculated from the equivalence. and these we can only find in cosmical attraction. but even of colossal. that we must quite drop this hypothesis. to objection . 631 toward each other under the influence of this attraction this takes place with everincreasing velocity . this motion is not lost it is transferred to the smallest elementary particles of the mass. mixed in the proportion in which they would unite to form water. for such an increase of temperature would offer the greatest hindrance to condensation. Calculation shows that under the above supposition. assuming the thermal capacity of the sun to be the same as that f water.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. But the heat which the nun could have previously developed by its condensation. We must seek for forces of far greater magnitude. 000 of degrees.000 of years of surface of our planet restrial gravity. If. Aad the sun it is may become. and geology puts it beyond doubt that this period must be extended to millions of years. And here the hypothesis. Now we may assume with great probability that very many more meteors fall upon tht) sun than upon the earth. the new world produced by such condensation must have acquired a store of heat not only of considerable. at tha most a portion. sun had been once diffused in cosmical space. Known chemical forces are tHus so completely inadequate. with the production of heat. let us assume that the sun consists of hydrogen and oxygen. which. which was produced by condensation. The entire loss of heat from the sun cannot at all events be produced in this way . began to radiate into space before this condensation was complete. magnitude. may not be long time. If down from a weight falls from a height and strikes the ground its mass loses. and therefore give more heat. is made up by tha fall of meteors. Thomson's investigations. Let us select from among them the two. For represents a force capable of work. We have already seen that the comparatively small masses of shooting-stars and meteorites can produce extraordinarily large amounts of heat when their cosmical velocities are arrested by our atmosphere. Visible motion is transformed by impact into the . but even profane history teaches that the sun has lighted and warmed us for 3000 years. for we now that the sun contains the terrestrial elements with which we arc acquainted. by no moans so dense as Spectrum analysis demon* strates the presence of largo masses of iron of other known constituents of the rocks. Now the force which has proit is true. if this quantity of heat could over have been present in the sun at one time.
as we have already seen.t:-th.arc'd with the general uniform distribuits . belongs to hydrogen. one of which. however. is now the source of all The smaller bodies of our system might become less hot than the sun. We still find in the firmament of fixed stars. For. sp&o truni analysis has shown a gas spectrum in nebulas which contains stars. represented in Fig. The increase in temperature. iiewl confirmation. however. of Saturn. You see. produced by the friction of a fluid. Ibuu a quarter density of th oar.ro. 12. and t'. before the discovery of spectrum analysis. At any rate. though on a smaller scale. become heated to even 9000 degrees. A body like the earth might. are too feeble to admit of accurate investigation. with the depth.h. In this case another circumstance has conis. is surprising. . if even we put thermal capacity as high as that of water. p. The existence of hot wells and of volcanic eruptions shows that ill the interior of the earth there is a very high temperature. of other Milky Ways. is of unknown origin. because the attraction of the fresh masses would be feebler. moreover.* while the third. of which those whose light is sufficiently strong give for the most part a colored spectrum of fine bright lines. as well as that of the eun. - In thft rontro of density of tho si. exhibits formations on its surface which are * Mr. In many nebulas small stars can be seen. in the blue. Herschel's newest catalogue. a second in bluish-green to nitrogen. The smaller bodies must cool more rapidly as long as they are still liquid. Zix-i'ix-r concl di. is shown in boreholes and in mines. We . tion of the internal hefct. while the (smaller planets and the moon approximate are here reto the density of the earth. which would be sufficient to maintai a for an additional 17. oven if it only uttaiuod (hj density of the earth though it will probably become far denser in the interior owin^ to the enormous pressure this would develop a peculiarity which might Inive been i:.>t the if. :-'vl r. on tho contrary. the larger bodies which are already formed go on increasing with the development of heat. by which the conclusions are confirmed until we have confidence in them.0.s o\vir. At present no truce of such a one can be perceived. have hitherto rostix] on very arbitrary assumptions and. The nebulas are partly rounded structures. discovered in them. and sometimes also. as in Jb'i^s. and all directions with other discoveries. they are partly annular. 15 shows such a spectrum of a small but bright nebula in the Traces of other bright lines are Dragon. which the theory in question presupposes. which.000. Herschel's former view might be regarded s the most probable. by the attraction of the meteoric masses already diffused in space. are uutucieiit. while* many actual heaps of stars show the continuous of spectrum ignited solid bodies. however. the attempts to discover for the internal heat of the earth a more recent origin in chemical processes. over 5000 nebulous spots. according to Sir J. Fig. thus. traces of a continuous spectrum all of which. fresh quantities of heat. It must be observed here that the light of very feeble objects which give a continuous spectrum aro . somewhat iri- On the other hand. minded of the higher initial temperature. seeing that all stages of that process can still be found to exist. as they appear in the spectra of the ignited gases. from the Canes Venatici. to more than our names can produce.from photometric meaanrenientB. goes on still. tributedthat Fn. always turns tho same side to ward the condensation. as the large nebula in Orion. and of Neptune.-i constantly led to the same primitive conditions. and the slower cooling. . which can scarcely be anything than a remnant of the high temperature which prevailed at the time of its production. .632 tfcat v~ t!io ~~"'*~**O . of Uranus. between the two.a be nebula) are only heaps of very fine stars.A/ J*< JLi v* i T"V "r* 1 f>T7C L IvISS. iiwiii. The hypothesis of Kant and Laplace is seen to bo one of the happiest ideas in science. considering the huge masses of Jupiter.irth . as in Fig. as in the figur. which then connects us in at first astounds us. Even now the smaller bodies are slowly drawn toward the sun by the resistance in space. Now.n.* Tho moon. Nebulas have in general three distinctly recognizable lines. which are called planetary nelmlm 'Fig. that it. in They arc Fig. that that which we see i. seen along with them. Sir W. the better are tho telescopes used in their analysis. fo-r the most part feebly luminous over their whole surface. 10. therefore assume vitlx groat probability thut the nun will still continue in its enormous of the mean Wo may strikingly suggestive of volcanic craters. 101 sometimes wholly irregular in form.unt to a former state of ignition of our sutIili. the observation that this process of transformation.g pro'iunty to tcmpuratr.. which characterizes large masses. The mode of its rotation. 11 . is 1 -isr. their small density. that Jupiter tlill possesses a Julit of its owu.000 of yeara the same intensity of sun- shine as that which terrestrial life. 13 and 14. from Sagittarius and More stars are continually being Aurigo. 15. while the fixed stars only appear as luminous points. by what various paths we are i. Thus.
. 15.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. 11. Fio.
AS. Such an influence is observed in Sirius and Procyon. In a more recent case. The former does not appear very probable. whose number increases with each newer and more perfect telescope. of which hydrogen forms i\ prominent constituent. because small masses very soon give out their heat. and on the whole also in the chemical condition of their surface. and finally reverted to tho dark- decomposed. The countless luminous stars of the heavenly firmament. the spectroscope over a large surface. while the undecomposable light of bright gas lines remains am oistribnted by was visible for two years. there are. But we find also in space a third stadium. Tho term of 17. In other cases obscure heavenly bodies have discovered themselves by their attraction on adjacent bright stars. associate themselves with this primitive condition of tho worlds as they are formed. and was observed from September 27th. in the course of history.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTUHES. which has but little luminosity. in organisms and especially in living ones. and hence can still be seen. .. In the first place. their shape has either not at all altered. and by still greater condensation than that which I have assumed in that calculation. have discovered in the case of Sirius a scarcely visible star. S. Thus there are extinct suns. that of extinct suns and for this also there are actual evidences. in which on May 12th. although there may bo differences in the quantity of individual elements. In the planetary UiiiKsori. of Cambridge. a ness from which Tho largest of . tho spherical or discoidal. and thus will some time becom* . The same conclusion had been origdrawn by Sir W. 14. are connected spots which art partly irresolvable and partly resolvable into heaps of stars. which to such a condition. 1604. exhibit highly irregular forms. in luminosity.000. The fact that there arc such lends now weight to the reasons which permit us to conclude that otur sun also is a body which slowly gives out its store of heat. but is almost seven times as heavy as the sun. stood still like a fixed star. This was only luminous for twelve days. . it might be supposed that the gaseous mass had attained u condition of equilibrium but most other neb- any it had so suddenly emerged.. In 1572 Tycho Brahc observed euch a one. which only show the light of the latter kind. and whoso distance from Sirius is about equal to that of Neptune from the sun. them all seems to have been that observed by Kepler in the year 1604. 1G06. 186f>. by the new accretion of falling meteors. . or they must be of colossal size and distance. The reason of its luminosity was probably the collision with a smaller world. Alvan Clarke and Pond. and are therefore greatly enfeebled or even extinguished. But wo must reconcile ourselves to th . besides tho lines of gases. email star of tho tenth magnitude in the Corona suddenly burst out to ono of tho second magnitude. pretty frequent examples of the appearance of new stars. or not appreciably. however. they must cither have very little mass. the decomposition of tho light of the nebulae shows that by far tho greater part of their luminous surface is due to ignited gases. thought which we only reluctantly admit it seems to us an insult to the beneficent Creative Power which we otherwise find at work . since they have been known and observed. has about half the mass of Sirius. In case. that they are ot huge dimensions and disulas by no means correspond tances. which. extinct. though gradually burning paler. which was brighter than a star of the first magnitude. Herschel. until March. and the motions of the latter thereby produced.000 years which I have given may perhaps become considerably prolonged by tho gradual abatement of radiation. They are like our sun in magnitude. . But wo know of no natural process which could spare our sun the fate which has manThis is * ifestly fallen upon other suns. inally stars. By means of a new refracting telescope Messrs. spectrum analysis showed that it was an outburst of ignited hydrogen which produced tho light. - Kio. U. The satellite of Procyon has not yet been seen it appears to be quite dark. also show the continuous spectrum of ignited denser bodies. on the assumption that tho nebulre were heaps of With those nebulae which. and hence we are left to the second alternative.
Home constituents are renewed from day to day. as it were. more The observer with a deaf ear only recognizes the vibration of sound as long as it is visible and can be f-lt. liko the . will not consider the extremes of temperature. within which we now exist. imperishable. which. bound up with heavy matter. and thus. whose strange and unearthly remains still gaze at us from their ancient tombs . when starts meets another string attuned to this again or excites a flame ready to sing to the same tone. though possibly very remote. and far more does the duration of our race sink into insignificance compared with the enormous periods during which worlds have been in process of formation. and the most deli. that which most arouses our moral feelings at the thought of a future. For the material of the body. But even men of such free and large order of minds ns Lessing and David Strauss could not reconcile themselves to the thought of a final destruction of the living race. United afresh.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. may bear without fear the thought that the thread of his own consciousness will one day break. which will ultimately fall a prey to destruction by brute force ? Under the light of Darwin's great thonght we begin to see that not only pleasure and joy. into the era of the lake dwellings or of the mammoth. is particularly the question whether all this life is not an aimless sport. Axe our sensvn. adjusted for a more sensitive state of equilibrium. and that. Just as the flame remains the same in appearance.000 of years. and the previous duration of our race. And this life we 'mi'*'"t perhaps consider as allied to ours in its primitive germ. although it draws every minute fresh combustible vapor. it ia. so also in the living being. however we may consider ourselves to bo the centre and final object of creation.000. is but an instant compared with the primeval times of our planet. is subject to continuous and comparaa change the more tively rapid change rapid. Even there it retains the characteristic pecuclosest typo of life. however different might be the form which it would assume in udaptilig itself to its new dwelling-place. keeping all the time its pitch. and it reveals its history to the inquirer who questions it by the spectroscope. may become extinct. Thus the individual. But carbon is the element. which is characteristic of organic compounds. which would show that the finer and complex forms of vital motion could exist otherwise than ia established the dense material of organic life that it can propagate itself as the sound-movement of a string can leave its originally narrow and fixed home and diffuse itself in the air. and death. and with it of all the fruits of all past generations. from which . and then radiating into boundless space as the vibration of an ether. the heat which it Who knows living bodies are built up. but produces continues to exist indestructible. reconstructed every moment from freah particles of water. are the powerful means by which nature has built up her liner and more perfect who could say what new worlds would not be ready to develop life ? Meteoric stones sometimes contain hydrocarbons the light of the heads of comets exhibits a spectrum which is most like that of the electrical light in gases containing hydrogen and carbon. whom wo ought perhaps to honor as our ancestors. cessation of all living creation on the earth. and fresh oxygen from the air. The flame even. even if we follow it far beyond our written history. even if sun and earth should solidify and become motionless. like that of the flame. struggle. who knows to what degree of perfection our posterity will have been developed in 17. and will still contimie to form when our sun is extinguished. that. acquire a new bodily existence. even if in a modest position. which again is but a speck of dust in the immensity of space . now agitating the molecules of ponderable matter. And we men know more ticularly that in our intelligence. and continues to exist with the same form and structure. which now constitutes the body. our civic order. cate shade of its color-tint it . by scientific observation. as an invisible motion. some from month to month. to which the con^ tinuance of the individual is attached. which everywhere warm through space. But who knows whether the first living inhabitants of the warm sea on the young world. and is yet being . it. and that which we acquire in the same way will in like manner ennoble the life of our posterity. whether these bodies. do not scatter germs of life wherever there is a new world. we are but as dust on the earth . is the destructive as those of the older geological times appear to us ? Yea. and whether our fossilized bones will not perhaps seem to them as monstrous as those of the Ichthyosaurus now do and whether they. which has become capable of giving a dwellingplace to organic bodies'. liarities of its origin. and others only after years. As jr et we know of no fact. these rays may ignite a new flame. and our morality we are living on the it. to be just as violent and . and our earth is either solidified hi cold or is united with the ignited central body of our which our forefathers have gained for us. However this may be. when living beings existed upon 685 par- thought forms of life. into the vortex of and just as the wave its ascending current goes on in unaltered form. the livelier the activity of the organ* in question. That which continues to exist us a particular individual is like the flume and the wave only the form of motion which continually attracts fresh matter into its vortex and expels the old. and in a limited sphere of activity. would not have regarded our present cooler condition with as much horror as we look on a world without a sun ? Considering the wonderful adaptability to the conditions of life which all organisms possess. but also pain. of all processes in inanimate nature. in reference to life. not the definite niiiss of substance. which can bo inheritance system. who works for the ideal objects of humanity.
like myself. while the interior is cold. on the other hand. or shower of stones. of this Institution. so also has our science hence an old student. unscientific. in his book Comets. and be conveyed to the celestial In his bodies which have been cooled. was a period of fermentation. Although all that we hoped for has not been fulfilled. The authorities at that earth. F. might be in the crevices would be safe from combustion in the earth's atmosphere. and only in the degree in which this would bo destroyed by friction would heat be produced. They are questions th existence and signification of which wo must remember. in the first place. therefore.nan POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. C. and was just at the end of my studies. recollections which crowd in upon me this occasion have brought vividly before my mind a picture of the then condition of our science. before another such audience as this. we may inquire whether life has ever originated at all or not. when he accidentally coinee . but not published. and many things have turned out differently from what we wished. I had never seen a tumor cut. I cannot object if any one considers this hypothesis to be in a high. " Mr. which would have no more of tradition. . and whether its germs have not been transported from one world to another. that when all our attempts fail in producing organisms from inanimate matter. it must necessarily have first passed through the atmosphere of the earth before it could deliver itself of its organisms for the purpose of peopling the : THS ANNIVERSARY OP THE FOUNDATION OF THE INSTITUTE FOB THE rDUCATTON OP ABMY 8UEGEON8. and read a paper on the operaI was then a pupil tion of Venal Tumors. Wo do not knovr whether that would last for hours. or for weeks. J. and adds (p. of our endeavors and of our hopes. ' Sir W. and I still possess the books which were awarded to rue as the prize. and have developed themselves wherever they found a favorable soil. or even in the highest. " On the Nature of the Zoellner. " As I have already remarked. But even those germs which were collected on the surface when they reached the -highest and most attenuated layer of the atmosphere would long before have been blown away by the powerful draught of air. I stood on the rostrum in the Hall of this Institute. 1877. or even Hence all germs which there very cold. He recalls the history of meteoric stone. I am not inclined to suggest that all these possibilitisH are probabilities. as far as the impact of two to produce time judged more favorably of my essay tlran I did myself. i!t refers o the question as to the possibility that organic germs may occur in meteoric stones. before the stone reached the denser parts of the gaseous mass." by Thomson and Tait. ADDENDUM. degree improbable. flying through the higher regions of the atmosphere cf a celestial body. germs. scarcely recognizes the somewhat matronly aspect of Dame Medicine. but wished to depend upon individual experience. Thomson had described this aa not Here also. even a little before Sir W. xxvi. we know from repeated observations that the larger meteoric stones only become heated in their outside layer during their fall through the atmosphere. 1871. for da\ s. ON Cologne. I consider it even not improbable that a stone. A ADDRESS DELIVERED AUGUST 2. on which I took occasion to express myself briefly in the preface to the second part of the German translation of the " Handbook of Theoretical PhyI give here the sics. and have led mo to compare the paat state of things with that into which it has The on developed. ) 'If. carries with it a mass of air which contains unburm d velocity. in order that if the case arise thc-v may be solved by actual observations or by conclusions therefrom.' I I must confess that I also am a culprit. Much indeed has been accom- bodies is concerned. But to me it seems a perfectly correct scientific procedure. Thomson. of the fight between learned tradition and the new spirit of natural science." on Sir W. in a lecture delivered in the spring of the same year at Heidelberg and : THE The fragments. yet wo have gained much for which we could not hare dared to hope. which at tin. plished. opening Address at the Meeting of the British Association in Edinburgh. Thomson. the lirst consequences would be powerful mechanical motions. first deaf ear In this respect? foregoing sentences on this pago gave rise to a controversial attack by Mr. but book knowledge played at that time a far wider and a far more influential part in medicine than we It are at present disposed to assign to it. on the 24 of August. and the subject-matter of my lecture was merely compiled from books. in August. IT is now thirty-five years since. if there is an error. Zoellner' s so-called physical objections are but of very small weight." ON THOUGHT IN MEDICINE. as Thomson assumes. And. and had not shared the general rise of temperature. that meteoric stones covered with organisms had escaped with a whole skin in the smash-up of its mother-body.moment were scattered with planetary might escape without any disi-ngagement of heat. Just as the history of the world has made one of its few giant steps before our eyes. where the compression would be sufficient an appreciable heat.' Now. passage in question M I will mention here a further objection. had mentioned the same view as a possible mode of explaining the transmission cf organisms through space.
and who has asked himself the off the dread event? the resources and all the means which science has accumulated become ex- solemn questions. and which has. from the year 1849 to 1856. The history of this science claims. The course of development of medicine is an instructive lesson on the true principles of scientific inquiry. for a time. of understanding the literature of his science and the direction as well as the conditions of its progress. appear . not fall too far out of the range of my official hausted ? Provided that he remains undisturbed in his study. General pathology was regarded by our elders as the fairest blossom of medical science. It had. whose starting-point was also medicine. To one who has to contend with the hostile forces of fact. But in fact. he can only use the hard and clear light of facts. and witnessed the distracted grief of affection. I may. however. fruitful virgin soil for cultivation . that which he knows and can do. therefore. Many of my predecessors have broken a lance for the scientific defence of this essence. been the custom of a former timo to combine the study of medicine with that of the natural sciences. the purely theoretical inquirer may smile with calm contempt when. and the positive part of this lesson has. perhaps. once the intellectual home in which I grew up. as it were. again in relation to fcer. the everlasting principles of all scientific results of whose development you are better work . in his general pathology and therapeutics. As regards my acquaintance with the tone of thought of the older medicine. who has watched the fading eye of approaching death. " Godlike is the physician who is a philosopher. havto see assembled before me ing remained permanently connected with science and practice.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. I should like the impression of this development and of its causes not to be quite lost on the younger of special incentive for consulting the literature of that period they would meet with principles which appear as if written in a lost tongue. had. If I am called upon to designate in one word the fundamental error of that former time. it is true. Medicine. therefore. of teaching that branch of the natural sciences which has to make the widest generalizations. taking place as they do by slow steps. incumbent on every educated physician. independently of the general obligation. In my first professorship at Konigsberg. have been less struck and less surprised by great changes. and more especially Eenle and Lotz. been not hearers. Or he may consider ancient prejudices to be interesting and pardonable. been so glaring. and with the . that which formed its essence possesses only historical interest for the disciples of modern natural science. and must give> up the notion of lulling himself in agreeable illusions. as a banner oi the old. and even the emigrant best understands and is best understood by his native land. unfitly termed Natural Philosophy by the Hence it does English-speaking peoples. on that part of the subject which contains the general theoretical conceptions of the nature of disease. Has could bo done to ward all been done which Have all duties and of my own studies. My own original inclination was toward physics . and whatever in thin was compulsory I must consider fortunate not merely that I entered medicine at a timo in which any one who was even moderately at homo in physical considerations found a . more fitted to show that a true criticism of the sources of cognition is also practically an exceedingly important object of true philosophy The proud word of Hippocrates. if I attempt to discourse here of the principles of scientific method. vanity and conceit seek to swell themselves in science and stir up a commotion. . I should be inclined to say that it pursued a false ideal of science in a one-sided and erroneous reverence for the deductive method." served. so vigorous nnrt so capable of growth has she become in the fountain of youth of the natural sciences. as remains of poetic romance. external circumstances compelled mo to commence the study of medicine. as in medicine. perhaps. was not the only science which was involved in this error but in no other science have the consequences. but 1 consider the study of medicine to have been that training which preached more impressively and more convincingly than any other could have done. acqiminted than I am. is exposed to severe tests . 087 which was made possible tome by the liberal arrangements of this Institution. that I can once moreaddress an assembly consisting almost exclusively of medical men who have gone Medicine was through the same school. on that account. in no previous time been so impressively taught as in the last generation. in reference to the sciences of experience. indifference and romance dis^. 1 rejoice. The latter. This must be my excuse for speaking to you about the metamorphosis which has taken place in medicine during this period. more freshly than those of my contemporaries whom I have the honor and who. The task falls to me. my They have no Perhaps only he can appreciate the im- mense importance and the fearful practical scope of the problems of medical theory. None other is. arranged it very thoroughly and methodically and with great critical acumen. retain the impression ot this antagonism. a special interest in the history of the development of the human mind. there was in my case a special incentive. simple and yet are ever forgotten again so clear and yet always hidden by a deceptive veil. perhaps. and of the principles of its treatment. deductive . so that it is by no means easy for us to transfer ourselves into the mode of thought of a peiiod which is so far behind us. or have so hindered progress. or of youthful enthusiasm. I had to lecture each winter on general pathology that is. and has to discuss the meaning of fundamental ideas . principles which are so .
It is not difficult to understand how in periods of youthf ul development. observation. which he has possessed as long ns ho can remember. may admit Ibis if only what wo nre to understand as \Vo once agree all a philosopher. If. we can assert further. of the scholar over the barbarian. Understood in this sense. They must. in close connection with true philosophical or metaphysical considerations. A curious case of this kind is the history of the circulation of the blood. select some of these characteristics. such a one-sided overestimate of thought could be arrived at. is in possession of a huge mass of every-day experiences. Such a one can give help like a god. reported and believed under the authority of primeval wisdom. in we assign the reference to them. but the similar traces which the daily repetition of similar cases has left in his memory haw deeply engraved themselves. but the stress of their endeavors was laid upon thinking. assert themselves ns regulative powers. for well or ill. we shall in fact bo able to say with Hippocrates. or how much criticism he has bestowed upon it. astronomy. name of mammals to those animals which. etc. breathe through lungs. by this alone a host of experiences are transmitted from preceding generations without this metaphysical speculation. these deeply impressed remains of all previous conceptions are just the conceptions of what is conformable to law in the things and processes. together the things. Hence the fact. in which. appearing to be the case. li'. were considerably moderated. on the contrary. And since only that which is in conformity with law is always repeated with regularity. that in the speech of an intelligent observing people a certain class of things are included in one name. last-named characteristics. which long remained undetected. . Speech cannot readily develop names for classes of objects or for classes of processes. Everything individual has long been forgotten. and perception. The philosophers of that time knew little more of the laws of nature than the unlearned layman . philosophy theoretical knowledge . knowledge is handed on already formed whence the reporter has derived it. gradually added all kinds of small . That man strives to develop his thinking faculty to the utmost is a problem on the solution of which the feeling of his own dignity. thrt ancients. possess many points in common. physics. is even still more confusing for one who reflects upon the origin of knowledge. reflecting scientifically upon this. iadi-ed. The conceptions which he has formed. which his mother tongue has transmitted. depends and it is n natural error to have considered unimportant the dowry of mental capacities which nature had given to animals. upon the logical consequence and completeness of the system. The requirements for the QiAuanijto. and as he does not know that he or his forefathers havo de- . "The adult. to begin its Icarian flight of . is the chief reason of his superiority over the animal. when he begins to reflect. facts must be made to correspond with reality. especially if the tralition has been handed down through sevWe must admit it all upon eral generations. he shares with his lower fellowcreatures. allege that it will ever attain this ideal ? But those disciples of medicine who thought themselves divine even in their own lifetime. An enormous amount is transmitted by speech and writing. \ve mpdicino. We need not refer even to the possibility of inheritance by procreation. for instance. their embraced alterations. Or if we. the aphorism describes in three words the ideal which our But who can science has to strive after. even in the objective world of fact. havo bi ought no criticism to bear upon it have. Thus man. feeling. . perception. when young. therefore. that they aro all warmblooded animals. The superiority of man over animals. large ones which ultimately grew up to after all this. when he begins to reflect upon the origin of his knowledge. uatur. moreover. if we have not been accustomed very often to mention corresponding individuals. . But another kind of tradition by speech.1-38 POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. of which we shall still have to speak. no easy problem to ascertain completely the origins of our knowledge. depends upon thinking sensation. and in acuteness of the senses many of these are even superior to him. as well as of his own practical power. are suckled by their mothers. finds that he possesses a wide range of acquirements of which he knows not whence they came. . we are to understand the medical philosopher of Hippocrates to be a man who has a perfected insight into the causal connection of natural processes. the common possession of these selected characteristics must necessitate that in the given cases a great number of other characteristics are to be regularly met with there must be a natural connection between the first and tba often . and collate them to fcrm a definition. Every adherent of any given cosmological system. and separate cases. in fact. can seldom bo made out. themselves with such knowledge. good faith we cannot arrive at the source and when many generations have contented ted . have separate divisions of the heart. This power which man possesses of gathering together the stores of knowledge of generations. and to have believed that thought could bo liberated from its natural basis. It is. born alive. and to assert what there is in common about them. were not inclined to postpone their hopes for so long a period. indicates that these things or cases fall under a common natural relationship . that they have a spinal column but no quadrate bone.il history. which in great part reach back to the obscurity of his first childhood. therefore. strange things aro and who wished to impose themselves upon others as such. felt himself to be a philosopher. Fur philosophers pursued mathematics. who is restricted to an inherited blind instinct and to But all transmit its individual experience.
to mov.s no prouder edifice of tho most exact thought than modern astronomy. the fewer and the. What was called the solidar pathology wanted to deduce even-thing from the altered mechanism of tho solid parts. recognize this psychological anthropomorphism. What was not right was tho delusion that it was more scientific to refer ail diseases to one kind of explanation. it is true. such AS the f/t^vrnv Vtp/iov. built a well-ascertained foundation may readily admit an error he loses. that it acquired the authority of a dogma. especially from their altered tension . The? fact that air is generally found in the arteries of dead bodies. and flows toward tho heart. und the occult qualities of the substances assimilated -all these were the elements of this chemistry.><:. has produced much contusion. made it more one-sided and more logical. a conclusion is deduced by tho strictest logical method from an uncertain premiss does not give it a hair's breadth of principles . nothing more than that in which ho erred. from Newton's law of gravitation. some of which contained remarkable. r was cited before the theological faculty Salamanca Servetua was burned at Geneva along with his book. and still continued to be. to the immanent dialectic of the cosmicul process of Hegel. The A eins only remainosl then in which blood could circulate. But Newton had been preceded by Kepler. this again boils i:\ the stomach and is the source of all motion here the thread is begun to be spun which subsequently led a physician to the law of the conservation of force. On the othff hand. to bo governed by intdlcctual forces. the more did they depend upon the ancient authorities. the inherent vital force of Hippocrates. certainty or of value. which they assumed as dogmas. according to the varying inclination of their authors. by induction. Socrates. which either appears guaranteed . plished remained virtually misnr^r. with others. the jrrriyta which is half spirit and half air. and the astronomers have never believed that Newton's force excluded the simultaneous! action of other forces. more thorough were the methods to which the healing art was restricted. Humoral it v/as dangerous to attack. Any careful observation of the operation of blood-letting must hav taught that.-i from there to the heart. The more tho schools were driven into a comer by the increase in actual knowledge. and through tho veins to the organs. natural science which it would have Iwen quite right to utilize within a narrow circle. from the stridwn and iaxum. and tho more intolerant were they against innovation. Paris faculty prohibited the teaching of Harvey's doctrine of the circulation of the blood in its lecture-rooms. in which ho doscribed the circulation of the lungs and tho lius. There i. which can be driven from the lungs into the arteries and fills them. At tho same time the bases of tho systems from which these schools started were mostly views on.s supposed to lead the conception that it must be possible to build a complete system which would embrace all forms of disease. The four cardinal fluids. independently of their theories. by nutritive substances. . r. . sprouted up in consequence of this or the other increase of natural knowledge. is the intolerance of expression which I have already One who works upon partially mentioned. deductive method seemed to be capable of doing everything. the false kind of logical conclusion to which it wa. resisting media. and their cure. without regard to any discordance with nature. than to several. exaggerated his theory. It was believed to be formed in the liver. the acrimonies or dyscrasies. from tone and want of tone. in the veins. like his conceptions. upon any one such simple explanation. from the Ideas of Plato. of .POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. Yet tho essential and fundamental error c this system was. One chamet eristic of tho schools which up their system on such hypotheses. by experience. and were mostly put forth by physicians. But the best which he accomings. by so doing. which indeed only penetrates in tho moment. Vesa. which is kept up Wo : Then canio the less gifted pupils. who had by induction collated all the facts . the world of facts seems to him. however. black and yellow gall . The more rigid tho system. They have been continually on the watch to see whether friction. The older philosophers and physicians believed they couM deduce. which had to be expelled by sweating and purging in the beginning of our modern epoch.nd swarms of meteors have not also some influence. the acids and alkalies or the alchemistic spirits. had developed the inductive conception in the most instructive manner. Along with these were found all kinds of physiological conceptions. this false theory had become so mixed up with the explanation of fever and of inflammation. Complete knowledge of the causal connection of one class of phenomena gives finally a logical coherent system. veloport these conceptions from the tilings themselves. followed the path of philosophy the. That. which informer times was virtually identical with medicine.".forcshadow. I will not lead you through the motley confusion of pathological theories which. of its own bases. before they had settled their general : which pathology was only acquainted with alterations in mixture. the starting-point has boen placed upon a hypothesis. blood. deduced even to the minutest of its small disturbances. and afterward from strained or relaxed nerves and from obstructions in tho vessels. who obtained fame and renown as great observers and empirics. The great reformer of anatomy. it comes from tbo But periphery. led the ancients to the belief that air is also present in the arteries during life. who copied their master.iu which the vessels are cut. They forgot that u deduction can have no more certainty than the principle from which it is deduced and that each new induction must in tho first place bo a new test. representatives of tho classical four elements. and to the unconscious will of Schopenhauer Natural science. If. phlegm.
under the influence of the vital force. Ho it is who established tho first comprehensive system of chemistry. and the unrelenting logic witi which Robert Brown had once worked out this system was broken. to stimulate or moderate it according to circumstances. and the dispute will thus. which occasioned some false for instance. that of phlogiston. is. For the refutation of this hypothesis of binding and loosing. informing and stimulating. Stahl had a clear and acute mind. compel repent. The convinced disciples must therefore claim for each individual part of such a fabric the same degree of infallibility for the anatomy of Hippocrates just as much as for fever crises every opponent must only appear then as stupid or depraved. he called the altered condition of the nerve the excitation. . We have frequent opportunities of confirming these general rules in the schools of dogmatic deductive medicine. They turned their intolerance partly against each other. or then incite it. which in its essence is completely justified. The roost surprising tiling to him was. that the most varied external actions.i. or indwelling alchemist. Vis vitalis. despair. but must receive an impulse by a stimulus from without air and nourishment were considered to be the normal stimuli. or punish and it to it. sorrow. as concerns the changes which take place in them after excitation. The rigid traction. at the same time. that they produced muscular con- They were only quantitatively distinguished as regards their action on the organism. The kind of activity seemed. any crack may then hopulesxly destroy tho whole fabric of conviction. impatience." anima inscia. Arfitceus. Galen. The soul of life governs the body. The latter were principally seen in inflammation nnd in fever. Stahl's " soul of liio" gravity of phlogiston. . Increase or diminution of the excitability was the category under which the whole of tho acute diseases were referred. in the first half of the last centuryT^ffBs professor of chemistry and pathology in Halle. . fear. on the contrary. and under the name of" nature's healing power" it played a prominent part in the treatment of diseases. it was necessary to discover the law of the conservation of force. had. and from which indications were taken as to whether tho treatment should be lowering or stimulating. . but it always furone-sidetlness by authority. even in those cases in which he decides against our present views. constructed on the pattern on which the pietistic communities of that period represented to themselves the sinful human soul it is subject to errors and passions. are in an exceedingly unstable state of equilibrium this was looked upon as the fundamental property of animal life. Sydenham. he established tho of the necessity physical and vital actions was well thought out. which is . After death the restrained forces become free. and partly against the eclectics who found various explanations for various forms of disease. It was the function of the phy- and sician to observe tho strength of thif.friO POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES.nuer tho influence of the important discoveries which Albrecht von jgnJUer had made on tlie excitability of nerves "and which ha had placed in connection with tho vitalistic theory of the nature of life. had becomo eclectics. This method. from the way in which he states the proper question. inThe physician rrmst discretion. The second half of tho previous century was too much possessed by tho principles of rationalism to recognize openly Stahl's " soul of life. to which electrical ones were subsequently added. the more uncertain is the basis which is defended. had always the same result namely. chemical. according to old precedent. from those which brought on the reaction of . tho symptomnta mvrbi. who. nished the leading points of view. to allow them full play or to restrain them. bo so much the more passionate and personal. and its capacity of responding to a stimulus the exThis encitability. The doctrine of vital force entered into tho pathological system of changes in irritability. which was lost at death. to be conditioned by tha specific energy of tho organ. on the negative hypotheses . that is. . . only by the strength of the otritation he designate:! thorn by the common name of stimulus . But it has tho power to bind arid to loose these forces. thermal. in HO far as they depended on tho play of blind natural forces. first appease it.. the theoretical bases of his system passed essentially into the system of Lavoisier Stahl did not then know oxygen. while in the main it retained its functions. as a it Pnouma in tho arteries had then with Paracelsus acquired the form of an Archens. About tho time when we seniors commenced the study of medicine. Tho vital force had formerly lodged 03 ethereal spirit. to sloth. for which there was no similar justifiIt was believed that none of them cation. were active of themselves. mechanical. And yet the greatest physicians and observers. the defect of being illogical. reaction. and only acts by means of tho physico-chemical forces of the substances assimilated. in Georg Ernst Stahl. phlogiston into latent heat. vital force." It was presented more scientifically as vital force. on the whole. the symptomala readioni. Haller had observed tho excitability in the nerves and . . and was unhesitatingly transferred to the other organs and tissues of the body. tire condition of things. If wo translate bin muscles of amputated members. and had acquired its clearest scientific position as " soul of life. And the way in which. or at any r:Ue very lax systematists. The attempt was made to separate the direct actions of the virus which produce disease. or is only chosen because it agrees with that which it is wished to believe true. a kind of useful Kobold. Hippocrates at the head. The treatment of fever seemod at that time to be the chief point to be that part of . in the eyes of systematists. which physically speaking asserts no more than that the nerves. and evoke putrefaction and decomposition. it was still t. and lioerhaave.
in . therefore. in despair as to their sci- fessor of ni<>rf'. reperiment. riul. May I elucidate this by a few outlines ? At this time auscultation and percussion of the organs of the chest were being reguBut I larly practised in tho clinical wards. physiologist to visit him and witness the exThe physiologist. I mention those points. What these forces could do appeared quite subordinate. medicine -which ImcT a real scientific foundation. and an intelligent man must be opposed. an almost uncultivated field beforo which almost every stroke of tho spade might produeu remunerative. which is wanting in tho other faculties. and tested tho assumptions of that which was considered to be scientific. The instrument was not beautiful. uml in which the local trp. prostrated by typhoid fever . doing their work with blind necessity and according to a fixed law. and noted as an orator and intelligent man. which I described in my dissertation. that I myself should lecture on the rally intellectual part. in literature these ideaf. which I myself have experienced. to consider in all directions tho ways and means of attaining th. tics. Microscopic instruments wero costly and scarce. the foundation of the chemical laboratory.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. Another aged and learned pro.bat their doubtful features soon manifested themselves. and on my recovery I found myself in possession of the savings of my small resources.sos of disease. who was anyhow a human being. as yet. which. and he did not need it. have often heard it maintained that they of were a coarse mechanical means investigation which a physician with a clear mental vision did not need . A professor of physiology of that time. in order to restore the good old time . The vitalistic physician considered that the essential part of the vital processes did not depend upon natural forces. learn KO veil in thelaboratoric-M that is. as by far the most important means of invesTo count with a repeater was quite tigation. a phi- naturally found feebler expression. as pupil. The medical education of that timo was based mainly on the study of books there were still lectures. and indeed of the most mu. Liebig's cal and debased the patient. Any of my fellow-students who wished to make experiments had to do so at tho cost of his pocket-money. Johannes Millie?. to which a thinker. Thero was. Yet medicine possessed in anatomical dissections a great means of education for independent observation. You will understand how great a hindrance to progress such a feeling on the part of infiue itial and respected men must hivo been. losopher. however. however.. determined the result. but his example had not been imitated elsewhere. was urgent with mo to divide physiology. To feel the pulse seemed the most direct method of learning tho mode of action of tho vital force.rid to investigate tho vibrions in my research on putrefaction and fermentation. which tho younger generation does not. 1 was my nursed without expense.results. In reference to thu ophthalmoscope.vJi hud almost entirely given tip therapeuor on principle had grasped at an empiricism such as Rademacher then taught. tho physit is true. which were restrictfor experiments arid ed to mere dictation demonstrations in the laboratory the provision made was sometimes good and sometimes the reverse there were 110 physiologi. it wad too dangerous to admit crude light into diseased eyes another said tho mirror might be useful for physicians with bad eyes his. therapeutics of febrile diseases had thereby become very monotonous. usual. OHO thing we learned thereby. fused his request with indignation alleging that a physiologist had nothing to do with experiments they were of no good but for th physicist. in reference to the progressive set of ideas of tho natural sciences . but seemed to the old gentlemen as a method not quite in good taste. . . had a dispute on tho images in the e>o with his colleague . occupied hlnisefit reorganization of the universities. \riio tilt. and it indeed lowered which regarded any expectation of a scientific explanation as a vain hope. for'ihe old gentlemen wero cautious and worldly wise. Microscopic demonstrations were isolated and infrequent in the lectures. a celebrated surgical colleague said to me that ho would never use the instrument. illustrious representatives of medical science. were good. It WHS one man more especially who aroused our enthusiasm for work in tho right direction th&t is.pr>Ti!icR. "\Vo had. us. ence. Among the younger generation were many who. us far as chemistry w*as concerned. and should hand over the lower experimental part to a colleague whom he regarded as good enough for tho purpose. which since that time has almost been entirely abandoned. Therapeutics became still inoro impoverished as tho younger and more critical generation grew up. He thought that he had to deal with a soul-like being. and especially blood-letting. . great deed. AVhat wo learned at that time were only the ruins of the older dogmatiam.-ii v.-. and scarcely worthy of a minute study. e. to elucidate the feeling of tho older schools. until a practicable path was found. i Tho hitter challenged the tho physicist. yet I was able to recognize by its means the prolongations of the ganglionic cells in the inveitenrata. was complete. perhaps.it mont fell The comparatively into tho background. I cams into possession of one by having spent autumn vacation in 1841 in the Charite. although the means indicated by theory were still abundantly used. and to exhaust nil possibilities in th consideration. and physical laboratories in which tho student himself might go to work. nud to which 1 am disposed to attach great weight. by treating him as a machine. and it was practised. Ho quite gave ruo up when I said tiiat I myself considered experiments to bo the true basis of science. celebrated for his literary activity. no idea of measuring temperature in cii. .
of tne muscles. strokes. he showed how to make the experimental proof of Bell's law of the roots of the spinal cord so as to be free from errors and in regard to the sensible energies he not only established the general law. J. is pleasant in one way or the other. developed themselves in Germany tinder the influence of this powerful impulse ar beyond the standard of rival adjacent countries. overy-day experience. and about which facts could alone decide. kiihn. Lieberwe were succeeded by A. brothers Weber of Leipzig must " among whom the three first of all be who have built solid foundations in the mechanism of the circulation. is also under tho obligation of seeking for a knowledge of the truth. and more especially his example. Hallmann von Gracfe. and success justilkil this assumption. Briicke. . But do not think. that the struggle is at an end. was the actual definite . nervous irritation on the living body. Meyer. the vitalistic hypothesis. for him the success of fac1 He must endesiM-r is alone finally decisive. In reference to the separation of the nerves of motor and sensible energy. W. hypotheses will bo started which. Max Bchultze. and to refute false indications and evasions. at once promise to solve all riddles. Both classes will certainly not die out. As long as there are people of such astounding conceit ns to imagine that they can effect. His aim is one which is firmly settled . the materialists. were continued in his pupils. ophthalmology. so long will the hypotheses of the former find credence. that emerged from Mailer's hands in a state of classical perfection a scientific achievement whose value I am inclined to consider as equal to that of the discovery of the law of gravitation. Henle. was made wherever a way cor of understanding one of tho vital processes it was assumed that they could bo understood. firm and immovable for him. We had been preceded by Schwann. . without considering whether. collation. And. attack In &ic theoretical vtewg ho I'.642 POPULAR SCIENTIFIC The LECTUPtES. and teach liin the subtle disto forestall surgeon fearfully eases of decomposition. of the joints. and of vivisection greatly facilitated more particularly by tho use of ansesthetic ether and of the paralyzing curara. and of course by his thinking with those conceptions. the study of organic types. Traube. experimental pathology and therapeutics. of physiological the latter chemistry. to the development of which he has attained this is attempted to be satisfied by larly . . Microscopic and pathological anatomy. by the careful selection. or by Sir Charles Bell for ftie motor nerves. but carried out a great number of separate investigations. the auricular speculum. A delicate and copious technical apparatus has been developed in the methods of microscopy. in which the true was mixed up with the false or which had just been established for individual branches. and observation of those cases which fall Tinder the law. There are two characteristics more particu- by a few clevt-r which metaphysical systems have ]n the first place man is always possessed. and which had been sought to be expressed in a vague manner. Even the views upon thosa points which most easily crystallize into dogmas. A. bilities of delicate The continually increasing number of proved . Ileichert. His scientific tendency. Busch. And as long as there are people who believe implicitly in that which they -\\ish to be true. to prove or to refute by means of facts. no other method is possible than that of endeavoring to arrive at the laws of facts by observations and we can only learn them by induction. That which hitherto had been imagined from the data of . tho bo perceived . what will bo tinresult of his attack if he pursues this or thin In order to acquire this foreknowlcourse. far beyond the standard of the rest of nature this wish is satisOn the other hand. which luvd to be tested by facts. This was helped by the labors of those of similar tendencies among Miiller's contemporaries. to ascertain beforehand. the laryngoscope. Schneider.ivored lologlst. by which a number of deep problems became open to attack. mentioned. gentlemen. always desirous cf feeling himself to be a being of a higher order. But one who. that which man can otherwise only hope to achieve by toilsome labor. but in the most essential points he was ft natxiral philosophor. When we fancy that we have arrived at a . like the physician. but of what has not been settled by observations. opened out to tho physician possi- and yet certain diagnosis where there seemed to be absolute darkness. Virchow. nil theories were but hypotheses. and he therefore recurred most willingly to this. such as by Dr. The thermometer. and to the latter the majority will always belong. . ophthalmoscope. His most important performance for the physiology of the nervous system. Ludwig. . he tried continually to define more precisely. . fied by the spiiitualiste. Du Bois-Beymond. Peters. although the art of anatomical investigation was most familiar to him. as well as for the theory of cognition. to eliminate objections. Ho furnished the proof that fibxiue isx dissolved in blood he experimented on tho propagation of sound in such mechanisms as are found in the drum of the ear he treated the action of the eye as an optician. and of the truth only . edge of what is coming. what ho finds. on the mode of activity of the vital force and the activity of the conscious soul. propounded as dogmas. yet he worked himself into the chemical and physical methods which were more foreign to him. establishment of the doctrine of the specific energies of the nerves. has actively to face natural forces which bring about weal or woe. which to our generation seemed hopeless. llemak I met as fellowstudents E. Young for the theory of colors. he would like to believe that by his thought he was unrestrained lord of the world. . tangible parasitical organisms substitute objects for mystical entities. and of the ear. physiology.
in the hundreds of books and pamphlets which are every year published about ether. has no value in theory. did not agree among themselves. bul Kant allowed oneway of escape. '! I insist newer generation will probably have to guard against that of the materialistic hypotheses. as well as on tne nature of the asthenic fever and carcinoma. but tho success ia here But geometry seemed to him to do something which metaphysics was stn vine. and hence geometrical axioms.contain are concealed by the rubbish of tho rest and . the master. In the " type case" of the printer all tha wisdom of the world is contained which has been or can be discovered it is only requisite to know how the letters are to be arranged. of untried and unconfirmed hypotheses. or even as well. Tho proof that the ideas formed do not merely scrape together superficial resemblances. too. all external intuition. ail the most refined shades of possible hypotheses are exhausted. Since thai . for a newly discovered natural law. by the when he compares himwith a natural philosopher. the structure of atoms. Among the great number of such ideas. law. in reference to them are just as fresh " as they were two thousand years ago They imagined they knew what they did not know. It is then our duty to develop the conf>quences of our law as completely as may be.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES." it is of the same quality as the highest performances of artistic perception in the discovery of new types ot exIt is something which cannot bo pression. closely connected with the depth and completeness of the preliminary perceptions. there must bo some which are ultimately found to be partially or wholly correct it would be a stroke of skill always In such a happy chance a to guess falsely. only by tho date of their first publication. This estimate must by no means bo regarded as depending on external success. and to destroy his readers' patience by a multitude of useless quotations. ..ivoi$ OMO'U?). which after he looked upon as d priori principles antooedeut to all experience. Tho adherents of such a process are glad to certify the value of a first thought.} that great works can only ba produced by hard work. and have firmly established the proof. it was as clear to him as to Socrates that all metaphysical systems which up to that time hurl been were tissues of false conclusions. . To settle the present kind of questions of priority. . transcendental intuition. or as the inherent form ul. The pupils admire these big words and try to imitate side of a mole-heap. do not by any means suppose that I wish to diminish the real value of original thoughts. the theory of perception. to get by sudden mental flashes one who wants to publish something really new facts sees himself open to the danger of countless claims of priority. Hence all tlioso aspire after it who wish to pass as tho favored children of genius." And again. but are produced by a quick glance into tho connection of tha whole. madmen calls (ro. The first discovery of a new law is the discovery of n similarity which has hitherto been concealed in the conrso of natural processes. and he at any rate had the advantage of rwyt pretending to know what he did not know. and which cannot be acquired by any known method. Kant's rejection of the claims of pure thought has gradually made some impression. It is a manifestation of that which our forefather* in a serious sense " described as wit . unless he is prepared to waste time and power in reading beforehand a quantity of absolutely useless books. it is amusing in society. covery if otherwise. Our generation has had to suffer under the tha tyranny of spiritualistic metaphysics . forced. the prime master of inductive definitions. unconditional truth. In speaking against the empty manufacture of hypotheses. ho was surprised at its not being clear to them that it is not possible for men to discover such things since even those who most prided themselves on the speeches made on the matter. The metaphysicians may amuse themselves at this we will take their mocking to heart when they are in a position to do betThe old words of Socter. but in the iirst place only to apply to them the test of experience. Socrate:> them hauer self rotJS/^yzTT-oix^oi'oi'vra?. the progress of science. To find superficial resemblances is easy . but such a high degree of probability that it is practically equal to certainty. Schopencalls himself fi Mont Blanc. . man can loudly claim his priority for tho dis. s:> free from trouble. rates. ideas are completely developed that is. [iaiv<>fj. and without considering the ripeness of the research. ho held to be ^ivpn by perience. these are at a decided disadvantage. . solved all doubts. This is a test which really never ceases: The truo natural philosopher reflects at each new phenomenon. a lucky oblivion conceals tha false conclusions. and witty thoughts soon procure for their author tho name of a clever man. and among these there must necessarily be many fragments of the correct . and to what extent. whether the best established Liws of the best known forces may not experience a change it can of course only be a question of a change which does not contradict the wkolo store of our previously It never thus attains collected experiences. has seriously favored this mischief. : . can only bo acquired when these poraries. So also. But who knows how to find them upon this in order to make clear to you that all this literature. tho few sound ideas which they maj. so far as they can be tested. the business of deduction comnifncrr. propounded " Kritik der reinen Vernuiift is n conJlis tinual sermon against the use of tho category of thought beyond the limits of possible ex' an unattainable advantage over our contemTho true artist and the true inquirer know. Conscientious workers who are shy at bringing their thoughts before the public before they have tested them in all directions. and then to decide by this test whether tho law holds. It seems. but behaved to each other like . so easy. only by its agreement with facts. On the contrary.
whatever. and an action occurs in any other part. in short. which occur in memory . the clergyman. to learn the whole of what is worth knowing. we conceive it objectively asa/orce. and such a reference of individual cases to a force which under given conditions produces a definite result. mathematicians united to fight against any attempt to resolve the intuitions into their natural elements whether the so-called pure or the empirical. If these cannot be given. and of the direction in which. investigations of Lobatschewsky. you to think that my . or the percetions of vision. therethe mathematical fore. On another occasion I compared the relationship of metaphysics to philosophy with that of astrology to astronomy. For this reason. One word of warning. had to be content with a small number of quietly working disciples. that when an impression has been made on any part of the nervous system. If any process in vegetation is referred to forces in the cells. The former had the most exciting interest for the public at large. But do not forget the given conditions and the given result. Much may be imposed upon the irr3solvablo complexity of the nerve-fibres of the brain. the anatomist. that natural science has to seek for the laws of facts. From the entire chain of my argument it follows that v/hat I have said against metaphysics is not intended against philosophy. principles mechanics. because everything can be heaped on it without going into chains of reasoning. That all metaphysical sects get into a rage about this must not lead you astray. like ail those who cannot give any decisive reasons to their opponents. Against those investigators who endeavor to eliminate from among the perceptions of the senses. The groping of the medical schools for the last two thousand years is. this can at most assert that the more remote parts of the organism are without influence but it would be difficult to confirm this with certainty in more than a few cases. and however important the principle may appear to be. by which they hope in ft short time. philosophy has had. on the contrary. the jurist. however self-evident. without a closer definition of the conditions among which. when ho has reached the limits of microscopic vision. which might bo capable of proof or of refutation The nativistic theory of perception of the senses time. this is supposed to have been explained by saying that it is a reflex action." that he is not exactly beloved by the votaries of metaphysics or of intuitive conceptions. experience. Gauss. of electro-motive and of electro-dynamic force. against them it is attempted to raise a party cry that they are spiritualists. and the teacher. who impresses on his pupils. And the physician. In like manner. and philosophical amateurs have mostly taken an interest in the high-flying speculations of the metaphysicians. Indeed. Muller gave to the rtlea of reflex action. and can accordingly be acquired from experience these I consider to be very important steps. the principle that " a metaphysical conclusion is either . a force which rules the processes in nature. But metaphysicians have always tried to plume themselves on being philosophers. But the resemblance to the qualitates occultce of ancient medicine is very suspicious. the statesman.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC d priori intuition has "been the anchoring-ground of metaphysicians. they work. philosophy. As if memory. Astronomy. and to the complex of the prolongation of ganglionic cells. the explanation attempted is merely a modest confession of ignorance. and of the connection of nerve-fibres in the brain. and at no great trouble. the knowledge of mental and Just as spiritual processes and their laws. the expression of this theory in physiology. . if it gives up metaphysics. Metaphysicians. is a matter of experience. must try to gain an insight into the action of his optical instrument. . that we designate as a causal We cannot explanation of phenomena. ought to be able to build upon a knowledge of physical processes if they wish to acquire a true scientific basis for their But the true science of practical activity. and custom were not also facts. always refer to the forces of atoms we speak of a refractive force. in like manner every scientific inquirer must study minutely the chief instrument of his research as to its capabilities. still possesses a wide and important field. and especially for the fashionable world. whenever he can. are usually not very polite in their controversy one's own success may approximately be estimated from the increasing want of politeness in the replies. although it had become the ideal of scientific research. and then it is decidedly better to confess this openly. the axioms of geomethe of try. I should not like statements are influenced by personal irritation. In like manner. . the originally definite sense which Johannes is All . among other things. and which are not to be explained away because they cannot be glibly referred to reflex actions. and turned its alleged connoisseiirs into influential persons. . I need not explain that one who has such opinions as I have laid before j-ou. and Eiemann on the alterations which are logically possible in the axioms of geometry and the proof that the axiomr are principles which are to be confirmed or perhaps even refuted by experience. and of the repetition of similar impressions. perhaps. to suffer more from the evil mental habits and the false ideals of metaphysics than even medicine itself. whose laws are to be sought. this principle is nevertheless often In recognizing the law found. pare LECTU11ES. as forgotten. an illustration of the harm of erroneous views in this respect. It is even more convenient than pure thought. for these investigations lay the axe at the bases of apparently the firmest supports which their claims still possess. is gradually evaporated into thin. whatever there JZifly be of the actions of memory.1 false conclusion or a concealed experimental conclusion.
either in the last two thousand years or in the last one hundred years." which he wrote in anticipation of his approaching end. it cannot. except that the nonsense of their method was more prominent in the matter of natural science. I have tho mo7o reason to appreciate it highly. branch (Physics) which I represent. And not merely the development of this new side of scientific activity. In order. which waa is far real. They did no worse than their predecessors. the more immediate aims of investigations in the natural sciences may differ externally from those of tho mental sciences. fell all : . and notwithstanding that I belong to a branch of natural science which has come within the circle of university instruction in some sense as a foreign element which has necessitated . in fact. I think wo have every reason to be content with the success of the treatment which the school of natural science has applied. ON ACADEMIC FREEDOM IN UNIVERSITIES. and even international relationships make themselves felt." In his posthumous " Logical Studies. the author of the " History of Materialism. . In this work of true intelligence physicians are called upon to play a prominent part. and of the Senate. than is the case with the more complex problems of mental science. as well as in the ultimate aims Even if most of both classes of the sciences. and I have always had the pleasure of meeting with the ready assistance of my colleagues in the faculty. Among those who are continually called upon actively to preserve and apply their knowledge of nature. and however remote foreign their results. as no thoughtless innovator. 1877. I have allowed two unsuspected warrantors to speak for me Socrates and Kant both of INAUGURAL ADDRESS AS RECTOR C? THE FEEDKEICK WILLIAM UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN. you are thosa who begin with the best mental preparation. let me conclude with a sentence of ono who was unfortunately too soon taken away from us. and who guarded themIn selves against adding any new ones. and which forms the theoretical basis of all other branches of natural science. Lange says The Hegelian ascribes to the Herbartian a less perfect knowledge than to himself. My own researches lia% e led me more than other disciples of the school of natural science into controversial regions and the exhavo pressions of metaphysical discontent ." Let us. Frederick Albert Lange. but also tho influence of many political. or any other of the old dogmatic schools of medicine. . that here no regard is paid to the validity of the proof. be forgotten that the power of true my scientific method stands out in the natural sciences far more prominently that tho real more sharply separated from tho unby the incorruptible criticism of facts. many changes in the old order of university will. that tho particular characteristics of their methods are most teaching. finally. and that a mere statement in the form of a deduction from tho entirety of a system is recognized as " apodictic knowledge. and are acquainted with the most varied regions of natural phenomena. Let us work on. IN entering upon tho honorable office to my whom were certain that metaphysical systems established up to their time were full of empty false conclusions. and conversely but neither hesitates to consider the knowledge of the other to be higher compared with that of tho emin it at any rate an piricist. of tho objects of investigation of the natural sciences are not directly connected with tho interests of the mind. That you have made me the director of the business of this university for this yeai is a proof that you regard me For.v:: m:::. and with but slight preliminary knowledge. also. unknown to antiquity. almost same therapeutics. which the confidence of my colleagues has called me. The circle of our students has had to be increased a changed national life makes other the demand. to conclude our consultation on the condition of Dame Medicine correctly with the epikrisis. perhaps. and to recognize approximation to the only true knowledge. own perIn order. tho closest connection in the essentials of scientific methods. and require to be taken into account. therefore. notwithstanding that I havo been but few years among you. as many of you aro doubtless aware. and however into precisely the same errors as the great inbe thought tho telligences of what wishes to illuminated nineteenth century. arid we can only recommend the younger generation to continue the their interest may often appear.) upon those who aro leaving sciences become moro und more specialized . to those who are accustomed only to the direct manifestations and products of mental activity. he gives the following picture. however the objects. and which I have already been definitely pronounced. as it was conferred upon me. GERMAN perhaps concerned me even moro than my friends. the methods. several times in the position of having to propose alterations in the previous regulations of the university. to leave sonal opinions quite on one side.Pcri:L. as I have endeavored to show in discourse as Rector at Heidelberg. Ul> LIVEIIED OCTOBER 15. order to show that the matter has not changed. social. necessiIt is indeed just in that tate other changes. which struck me because it would hold just as well in reference to solidar or humoral pathologists. then. It is seen. there is in reality.- or. my first duty is once more openly to express my thanks to those who have thus honored me by their confidence. on the othei hand. who in dark ages. throw no stones at our old medical predecessors.
in the conception." "Bursaries.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. Tinder the superintendence of a number of older graduate members (Fellows) of the college in other respocts in the style and habits of the well-to-do classes in Engversities . Oxford and Cambridge. in colleges. and whero political or metaphysical propositions were in question. representatives of other sciences will be able to contribute someBut I think that ft final result can thing. and the The right of granting academic degrees. While the English universities give but little for the endowment of tho positions of approved scientific teachers. Until of late both uni- mature years. and themselves arranged their own affairs. cf Bologna are still to be seen the coats-offirms. tolerant of divergent opinions. Such a position would be easily anil lost others endeavoring to kindle in a new generation the ideal enthusiasm which had animated their lives. only be arrived at when each one becomes clear as to the state of things as seen from his point of view. dents are controlled by searching examinations for academical degrees. The point of view of any single individual is restricted . and in (ho minute study of the contents of preS'-nbed text-books. Not unfrequently the adherents of the minority were compelled to quit the university in a body. the eyes of the civilized world are upon them. and where. or was until recently. who frequented the university more immediately for their own instruction. By such examinations the academical degrees are acquired. divided . and also met together for regulating the common affairs of the uniIn the courtyard of the University versity. special knowledge is required. the most celebrated of all at by a false step. formerly of the Roman and now of the Anglican Church." "Colleges. the seniors. . Tho older graduated members were regarded as permanent life members of such unions. Their great endowments. governed the common affairs of each such union. rate universities split again into closer economic unions. had in great measure retained their character as schools for the clergy. upon the most But we must not think perfect freedom. the political feeling of the English for the retention of existing rights. who. of many such nations in ancient times. the right of co-operating in their management. in which very . as is still the case in the College of Doctors in the University of Vienna. were placed under the superintendence of the older members. based. Until lately it might have been said that the least change has taken place in the old English universities. exclusive of the libraries. on the other hand. had excluded almost all change. whose instruction laymen might also share in so far as it could serve the general education of the mind they were subjected to such ft control and mode of life as was foimerly considered to be good for young priests. in which teachers as well as taught were brought together by no other interest than that of love of science SOIMO by the desire of discovering the treasure of mental culturo which antiotiity had bequeathed ." whose older members. Such was tho origin of universities. was caused mainly by the fact that the state granted to them material help. On the other hand. The sepa. entitled to give a final opinion OR this matter. but would be difficult to regain. and in the plan of their organization. Even the medical faculties that of Paris. even in directions in which such change was urgently required. and in the Colleges of Oxford and of Cambridge. The range and the method of tho instructign is a more highly developed gyinuasial instruction though in its limitation to what is afterward required in the examination. especially that of an independent jurisdiction. tUe^ have aiothe** arranfjeiaeni which is ap- . land. partly owing to divergent political conditions and partly to that of national character. and honorable rights. They lived. 'i are here and there held in our Tho acquirements of the stuuniversities. Scholars speaking the most different languages crowd toward them. and without any direct practical object but younger men soon began to be sent. but required. and lists of members and seniors. even from the farthest parts of the earth. though only for limited regions. allowed no divergence from that which they regarded as the teaching of Hippocrates. The European universities of the Middle Ago had their origin as free private unions of their students. who came together under the influence of celebrated teachers. Any one who used the medicines the head of the Arabians or who believed in the circulation of the blood was expelled. and they retained the right of voting. and do not logically apply even that little for this object. "Wo can scarcely foresee what fresh demands and what new problems wo may have to meet in the more immediate future. for the most part. Such a free confederation of independent men. it is more like the Ropetitoria win. here of freedom of teaching in the modern The majority was usually very insense. we may give way when changes are I consider myself fey no means required. The change. Under these circumstances it is our duty to get a clear understanding of the reason 'for the previous prosperity of our universities we must try to find what is the feature in their arrangements which we must seek to retain as a precious jewel. students of that time were mostly men of present constitution. This was not restricted to those cases in which the Church intermeddled. the German universities have conquered a position of honor not confined to their fatherland . larger and moro varied appliances for study are required. on the . as they still live. in the universities to their contrary. In recognition of the public advantage of these unions they soon obtained from the state privileges. The course of this development was different in different European countries. under the name of " Nations.
French teaching is confined to that which is clearly established. whero they have a home. The Fellows may. with' definite regulations for the course of instruction. A special feature in tho organization of French universities consists in the fact that the position of the teacher is quite independent of tho favor of his hearers . They live and work in airy. spects we might well endeavor to imitate them. The teacher? need only possess good receptive talents. Tho development of the German universities differs characteristically from these two ex- . and this corrects many defects la their system of teaching. even when they are in the same town. do not thus break through. If the teacher has been "well chosen. who have passed the best examinations are elected as Fellows of their college. Outside the lecture-rooms. a respectable income. and they swear in verba inayistri . and which in this respect are far more efficacious than onr gymnastic and fencing exercises. It must not be forgotten that. they develop in a high degree a sense for delicacy and precision ia for . The faculties are entirely separated from one another. and is controlled by frequent examinations. Superieures. but need not act as tutors for the students. or is not ambitions of having a number of pupils. It is only unusual cases that test how much actual insight and judgment the pupil has acquired. is well adapted to give pupils. The course of study ia definitely prescribed. but may spend their stipends where they like. well- worked-out manner. this gives a happy self-satisfaction and freedom from doubts. But however beautiful this plan may seem. and in the most favorable conditions possible for scientific work. sufficient knowledge ior the routine of their calling. surrounded by lawns and groves of trees . they only period. . parently of great promise for scientific study. and along with this. their institutes for instruction special schools. although they are the pick of the students. . without any special e. in In two refact. and keep them up to the habits of educated society. They are tho real successors has been quite different. this is sufficient in ordinary cases. The moral effect of the more rigorous control is said to bo rather illusory. vivacious. he very sooa becomes indifferent to the success of his teaching. and does not excite doubt nor the necessity for deeper inquiry. in the opinion of all Both Oxford and Cambridge have each more than 500 such fellowships. the teacher has no real pleasure in teaching. I fear that one of the weakest sides in the instruction of German youth is in this direcla the second place the English unition. have in their student-career not come sufficiently in contact with the living spirit of inquiry. and with their own enthusiasm. and transmits this in a well arranged. versities. spacious buildings. to work on afterward on their own account. Tho French people are moreover gifted. which is easily intelligible. They have no choice between different teachers. and notwithstanding tho enormous sums devoted to it. and. they tind much of their pleasure in games which excite a passionate rivalry in the development of bodily energy and skill. The development of French universities of the old corporation of students. the more men more young induced will they be to seek an apparent refreshment in the misuse of tobacco and of It must also be admitintoxicating drinks. and Owens College in Manchester are constituted more on the German and Dutch model. but which has hitherto not effected much Those that is the institution of Fellowships. and ia many cases may retain the fellowships for aa indefinite With some exceptions. and indeed almost In accordance in the opposite direction. therefore. ted that the English universities accustom their students to energetic and accurate work. the are cut off from fresh air and from the opportunity of vigorous exercise. and the far from inconsiderable fees which they pay flow into the chest of tho Minister of Education the regular salaries of the university professthe state ors are defrayed from this source gives but an insignificant contribution toward the maintenance of the university.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. take greater care of the bodily health of their students. developed and quite distinct from those institutions which are to further the progress ment to suit some faculties have logically become purely of science. 647 University College and King's College in London. the Jardin des Plantes. together with a lively feeling for tha beauty and youthful freshness of antiquity.v or common feeling. When. tho French students live without control. writing which shows itself in the way in which they handle their mother-tongue. find associate with young rncn of other callings. Thus in France it is looked upon as a false step when a young man of promising talent takes a professorship in a faculty in the provThe method of instruction in Fiance inces. or aro elected to certain offices. such as the College de France. and the Ecole des Etudes unprejudiced Englishmen it does but little science manifestly because most of these young men.spri/ de corp. and ambitious. who are expected not to break through the restrictions of their political and ecclesiastical party. the pupila who belong to his faculty are generally compelled to attend his lectures. of even moderate capacity. like their schools. by and for which the university was founded and endowed. and is inclined to take things easily. In certain respects the English universities do a great deal. so that they can devote the whole of their leisure to scientific pursuits. . The Scotch universities and some smaller English foundations of more recent origin . They bring up their students as cultivated men. They need not even live ia the university town. In the first place. lose it in case they marry. ia which the pupil does what ho has seen his tc-acher do. with the tendency of the French to throw overboard everything of historic developrationalistic theory.
The universities of the Middle Ages formed definite close corporations. and too weak to resist encroachments upon their ancient rights in times in which modern states attempt to consolidate themselves. . life. means prepared to defend every individual regulation in the Codex of Students' Honor there are many Middle Age remains a7cong them which were better swept away but that can only be done by the students thorn. and freed more immediately from having to work for extraneous interests. and of what is intimately connected therewith. my rank must have had his whole mental standard altered for tho rest of his life. But in most cases the states which were working out their own independence were favorably disposed toward the universities they required intelligent officials. with increasing demands for the means of instruction. in the first delight in. If attendance on particular lectures was enjoined for certain callings what " these are called compulsory lectures" regulations were net made by the university. again.nd to whom it is left to arrange their own plan of studies as they own think best. Too poor in tKeir own foreign soil. from Dorpat to Zurich. Such intercourse is. You. however. The ruling officials were. and When I think of of the impression which a man like Johannes Muller. my younger friends. must be mainly attained by the sense of honor of the students and it must be considered fortunate that German students have retained a vivid sense of corporate union. made upon us.ulation. . have received in this freedom of the German students a costly and valuable inheritance of preceding gn- . which guarantee the peace of their fellowctudents and that of the citizens. free to acquire any part of their instruction from books it is highly desirable that the works of great men of past . .POPULAK SCIENTIFIC possessions not to bo compelled. pootry are fall of expressions of this feeling. . the more so as it is usually tonishment Borne obvious excrescences of this freedom which first meet their ej'es they are minblo to understand how young men can be so left to themselves without the greatest detriment. in fact. in which. without reference to their position as ordinary or extraordinary proThe students fessors or as private docents. youthful responsibility. to settle disputes among the members. the most interesting that life can offer. or will be so transferred but it is still necessary to maintain certain restrictions on a union of strong and spirited young men. and political changes in the states fighting with the decaying empire for the consolida. closely joined in friendly rivalry with a large body of associates of similar aspirations. tremcs. conservative England. Nothing of this kind is but even faintly suggested in the literature of other European The German student alone has peoples. selves. a requirement of honorable I am by no behavior in the individual. it was necessary to have their jurisdiction. and in daily mental iiitcrcoursa with teachers from whom he learns something of the workings of tho thoughts of -in- times should form an essential part of study. he can devote himself to the task of striving after the best i:nd noblest which the human race has hitherto been able to attain in knowledge and in spec. which pre- vents them from doing anything which is repugnant to tho feeling of honor of their own body. We have retained the old conception of students. the universities of Germany saved a far greater nucleus of their internal freedom and of the most valuable side of this freedom. free will. from "Vienna lo Gratz and in each university they had freo choice among the teachers of the same Bubject. and still have. This object.o time the students had. a. which wns necessary to secure tho continuation of the rights of hospitality on a foreign soil . perfect freedom to migrate from one German viniversity to another. which extended to the right over life and death of their own memAB they lived lor the most part on bers. eagerly to accept tlio help of tho state. Outside the university there is no control over tho proceedings of the students. In modern times the remains of this aca- tion of their young sovereignties. so long as they do not come in collision with the Beyond these guardians of public order. are. this perfect joy in the time. . At the $jur. the German universities have had to submit themselves to tho controlling influence of tho state. for the most part students of the university they remained attached to It is very remarkable how among wars it. partly to keep up that degree of respect and own order. but by the state. as that of young men responsible to themselves. and partly. Owing to thin latter circumstance the decision in all important university matters has in principle been transferred to the state. than in conscientious. For most foreigners the uncontrolled dom freeof Gentian students is a subject of PS. I Ttrmit place a very high value upon this latter point. and in times of religions or political excitement this supreme power has occasionally been unscrupulously exerted. tho physiologist. within tho society. and the fame of their country's university conferred a certain lustre upon the government. moreover. . striving after science of their almost all demic jurisdiction have bjr degrees been completely transferred to the ordinary courts. with their own jurisdiction. The German looks back to his student life na our literature and our to his golden age . partly to protect the members from tho caprices of foreign judges. own student. and than in France with its wild chase after freedom. which was afterward to admit candidates to these callings. while other privileged orders were destroyed. LECTU11ES. moreover. cases the only control to which they are subject is that of their colleagues. In cases of collision this is the object of the disciplinary power of the university authorities. Any one who has onco como in contact with one or more men of the first dependent minds.
as well as in Oxford and Cambridge. who know how to distinguish what from what is only apparent . There is no doubt that. and the like. who are now beginning* tories for chemistry. and were deserted in the third. the liberty of teaddng. frequently. and so as to entertain and to fix the attention. A teacher who retails convictions which aro foreign to him. microscopy. Even the smaller German universities have their who have proved own libraries. This has not always been insured. races. fatigue in tho second. struggle. taking care that the body of German students is worthy of the confidence which has hitherto accorded such a measure of free- Do dom. the boldest speculations upon the basis of Darwin's theory of evolution. from their own force and their and from own interest in sci- My having previously dwelt on tho influence of mental intercourse with distinguished men leads me to discuss another point in which German universities are distinguished from the English and French ones. the extended liberty of teaching. like that of the English. by such a system. And in the establishment of labora- In our own university we in the next few weeks expect the opening of two new institutions devoted to instruction in natural science. heavy. and who no longer let themselves be so appeased. and hesitating delivery. or in exis essential and to insight ence. In times of political and ecclesiastical struggle tho ruling parties havo often enough allowed themselves to encroach this has always been regarded by the German nation as an attack upon their sanctuThe advanced political freedom of the ary. I have to speak of another aspect of our That is. our too great contempt for form in speech and in writing. but even distrustful of. But freedom necessarily implies reIt is as injurious a present for fiponsibility. and. by each. The free conviction of the student can only bo acquired when freedom of expression is guaranteed to the teacher's own conviction to emulate her and physics. from his own experience how conviction is acquired and how not. know . may be taught in German universities with as little restraint as the most extreme deification of papal infallibility. is sufficient for those pupils who depend upon authority as the source of their knowledge. He must have known how to acquire conviction where no predecessor had been before him that is. with eloquence. can impart moreinformation in the same time than one which has the opposite qualities. ho must have worked at tho confines of human knowledge and have conquered for it new regions. many a one would be saved who is ruined by freedom. so also is any incitement to such acts as are legally forbidden. Care is also always taken that you yourselves should penetrate to the sources of knowledge in so far as these consist in books and monuments. You have to maintain it. You aro regarded as men whose unfettered conviction is to be gained . Germany has preceded all other* European countries. almost intuitively before us. first of all. But the state and the nation is best served by those who can bear freedom. They lay more weight than the Germans on what is called tho " talent for teaching" that is. new German Empire has brought a cure for this. Any one who desires to give his hearers a perfect conviction of the truth of his principles must. and often enough are more negligent than we should be of the outer forms of the lecture. It is that we start with tho object of having inpossible. who have done considerable scientific work. It cannot also bo doubted that many original men. erations. collections of casts. only by teachers their own power of advancing science. 049 Keep it and hand it purified and ennobled if possible.POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. This also is a point in respect to which the English and French often express their surprise. the power of explaining the subjects of instruction in ft well-arranged and clear manner. There can be no doubt that a good lecture can bo followed with far less exertion than a bad one . and in the observation of natural objects and processes. periments. Yet I have not infrequently seen that such teachers had crowded lecture-rooms. oratorical ornament. Even in the College do France the lectures of a man of Benan' s scientific importance and earnestness are forbidden. but not for such as require bases for their conviction which extend to not wonder if parents and statesmen sometimes urge that a more rigid system of supervision and control. In English and French universities there is less idea of liberty of teaching in this sense. may gant and the educated world. and which bring* it. physiology. But there is no obstacle to the discussion of a scientific question in a scientific spirit. which develops the salient points and the divisions of the subject. are often the centres of the eleif struction given. as it is valuable for strong characters. Jardin des Plantes. In Germany we are not only indifferent to. either in Germany or in tho adjacent countries. and have shown that they know how to work \/ the very bottom. weak. in his on to coming place. as it were. while emptyheaded orators excited astonishment in the first lecture. shall be introduced even among us. if possible. sequences of materialistic metaphysics. At this moment. As in the tribune of European parliaments it is forbidden to suspect motives or indulge in abuse of the personal qualities of our opponents. who can no longer be appeased by an appeal to any authority. Lectures of eloquent orators at the College de France. that the matter of the first can be more that certainly and completely apprehended n well-arranged explanation. have often an uncouth. Definite courses and specified teachers are not prescribed to you. You will see that this in an honorable confidence which the nation reposes in you. the most extreme con. sense in which German universities hare ad- . I am by no means prepared to defend what is.
greatly only have lost its sense of dignity. a teacher vho has publicly to prove his capacity before large circles. however. ing of the title of doctor. devote themselves to strenuous scientific work. only in large universities that there are two to teach one and the same branch and even if there is no difference iij the officirl definition of the subject. however. In the frequent of our students. On the other hand. Two distinguished teachers who are thus first place. and such u faculty would soon ruin itself. In the further.> hu-uitv proposes three candidates to Government ior its choice . they can more freely dispose of the means belonging to the stiite while on the other it falls to them to hold the examinations in the faculty. This naturally exerts a certain pressure on the weaker minds among the students. with the faculty. The usual form for the nomlnatT'n ordinary professors is that tl. This can have no considerable influence oa the official decisions of the faculty whcu it is only a question of one. strong a centre of attraction for tho students that both suffer no loss of hearers. of tho voters. which. and. but only needed it as an official recognition of their scientific training. though they may have to share among themselves a number of the less zealous ones. . on the one hand. as a whole. if other motives could preponderate over these . a professor's attempt to stimulate his hearers to vigorous and independent. a doctor is a " teacher. and the minuter specialization of the subjects of instruction. whether professors or docents. With regard to the spectre of rivalry among university teachers with which it is somei . that we have such a number of young men who. ment. and with very uncertain prospects for the future. / admission of private docents. The influence of examinations is. working with distinguished colleagues makes life in university circles instrucinteresting. a great number migrations of examinations are held in which the candidates have never attended the lectures of the examiners. but established with the co-operation of the Govern- Tho disagreeable effects jf rivalry will be feared by a teacher who does not feel quite certain in his scientific position. however. These form. have this amount of favor. change from assistants to competitors and that only in the most exceptional cases is anything ever heard of unworthy means of competition in what is a matter of . that residuum of former colleges of doctors to which the rights of the old corporations have been transferred. university. and stimulating. Excepting in times of heated party conflict it is very unusual for the proposals of tho faculty to be passed over. judging us from the point of view of basely practical interests. it is . often exaggerated. in the particular branch in which they wish to habilitate. a considerable fraction of the income of many teachers depends upon tho number of their hearers. a number of intelligent listeners . as possible. They are surprised. complementary to jach other.650 mlttoil toachr-rs. In the universities of the Middle Ages any doctor who found pupils could set up as teacher. Tho professors have. They form as it were a select committee of the graduates of a former epoch. Most of those who sought the title did not intend to act as teachers. is required from those doctors who desire to exercise the right of teaching. in opposition to the proposals of competent judges. though not unconditionally." or one whose c:vi)a( ity as teacher is recognized. ties. for the most part with insignificant incomes from fees. as a matter of fact. In a few places they are subject to some slight restrictions. Each one must wish that his faculty. a special proof of more profound scientific proficiency. research can only be successful when it his besides supported by colleagues this. have scarcely any The senior teachers of the practical effect. there will be a difference in the scientific tendencies of the teachers they will be able to divide the work in such a manner that each has that side which ho most completely masters. % POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. without salary. And. Lowtvi-r. it must not sunk. A facility must have tive. and not in the last resort. there can be none such if the students and their teachers are of the right kind. When tho . especially the ordinary professors. the strongest motives for securing to the faculty the best teachers. does not consider itself restricted to tho candidates proposed. In course of time the practical signification of the title was changed. rests. and even envious. The most essential condition for being able to work with pleasure at the preparation of lectures is the consciousness of having not too smuJ. Only in Germany are there any remains of this ancient In accordance with the altered meanright. they are equally sin-prised that the faculties so readily admit young men who at any moment may choosing as many able teachers. that. but also even the most ordinary worldly prudence. the legal status of these habilitated doctors as teachers is exatly the same as that of the ordinary professors. or of a small number. of In the original meaning of the word. If there is not a very obvious reason for hesitation it is always u serious personal responsibility for the executive officials to elect. moreover. form then so some delicacy. The predominance of a distinct scientific school in a faculty may bccoruo more injurious than such personal interests. new In most German universi- moreover. in those branches in which special apparatus is needed for instruction. that is with the body of ordinary professors. where the Government. On no feature of our university arrangements do foreigners express their astonishment so much as about the position of private docents. often also the state examination. shall attract as numerous and as intelligent a body of students as possible. . in German universities. That. The appointment like the \ to vacate professorships. can only be attained by times attempted to frighten public opinion. however.
This may extend over a long period. and the faculty in question will suffer during that time. Apart from the points which have been previously discussed. To produce a tures is a labor which is upon their good course of lecrenewed every term. The entire organization of our universities is thus permeated by this respect for a free independent conviction. It would be very dangerous for the universities if large numbers of students frequented them. upon the composition of the body of teachers. with a sufficient habit of mental exertion. . They are able. to be able to discriminate truth from the babbling appearance of truth. who were less developed in the above respects. only speak of freo conviction in a very limited sense. Occasional errors in youthful nnd excitable Hpirits naturally occur but. If. oa the other hand. with a tact Kufiiciently developed on the best models. s . organization they think themselves quite justified in not allowing their youth to look beyond the boundary which they themselves are not disposed to overstep. the representatives of the general must come to ws with a sufliciently logically trained judgment. they have hitherto been sent to r. social. had tha right to deliver lectures in the universities. and however good may bo the intention. In all these respects. It is only with such students that the intelligence of tho teacher bears any further fruit. and those who. Leopold von Bach. a private society. the lectures of a teacher has no slight influ- . the above considerations react show how the students teachers. havo been driven away by Government for ecclesiastical or for political reasons. it is assumed that the general public opinion wrong. be considered as outside tho range of discussion. However violently they may at limes have interfered with individual result. at any rate. the rest will only form a small fraction of tho number of the men of equal scientific standing who have been at work in the universities while the same calculation made for England would give exactly tho opposite result. as forming the foundation of their political. as Alexander and Wilhelm voa Hujaholdt. Wo can then. like David Strauss. But any institution based upon freedom must also be able to calculate on the judgment and reasonableness of those to whom freedom is granted. If. on the whole. to restrain the inquiring mind from tho investigation of those principles which appear to them to be beyond the rango of discussion. But it is clear that this attraction depends on the teacher's hope that he will not oiily find in the university a body of pupils enthusiastic and accustomed to work. I have often wondered that tho Royal Institution of London. and. perhaps. Among the students are to be found (Lose intelligent heads who will l)e the ijifiitnl leaders of the next generation. and as it would seem with perfect conscientiousness. where the students themselves are left to decide on the courso of their studies and to select their teachers. which provides for its members and others short courses of lectures on the Progress of Natural Science. and religious ties . will direct to themselves the eyes of the world. In Germany tho universities are unmistakably tho institutions which exert the most powerful attraction on the taught.s by the gymnasiums. Thus prepared. in whom practical political motives havo greater weight. English universities. however. . who have had no connection with Mill. the pupils must bo kept in the prescribed path. his more The iifnux of hearers to intelligent hearers. we see men like Humphry Davy. It was no question of great emoluments the jo men were manifestly attracted by a select public consisting of men and women of independent mental culture. student \viil pr Voabiy migrate by degrees to other universities. We so<> bi> -it how strenuously tho \iniversi-t under this system have sought to attract the scientific ability of Germany when wo consider how many pioneers have remained outside the universities. You see how different was the plan of our forefathers. New matter is continually being added which necessitates a reconsideration and rearrangement of tho old from fresh points of view. any region of questions is to soon set themselves right.i. they never wished to man it up by tho roots. The answer to such an inquiry is given in the not infrequent jest or sneer that all wisdom in Germany is prI'essorinl wisdom. The estimate which he places on his task will depend on how far he is followed by the appreciation of u sufficient number of. Tho same spirit which overthrew the yoke of the Church of Rome also organized the Ger- pull universities.uni'ipe. ence upon his iiiiue and promotion. The teacher would soon bo dispirited in his work if he could not count upon the zeal and the interest of bis hearers. but such also as devote themselves to the formation of an independent conviction. an I others. If we look nt England. which is more Htrongly impressed ou the Germans than on their Aryan kindred of the Celtic and Romanic branches. and v.3 frecdom7lmd"a riper knowledge the ercOTS^Fwlialris. it among the students cannot go permanently The majority of them who are.i:itifiv\'i!!y outlived itself. however remote and restricted it may be. as members of learned academies. school h-i~. and teachers must bo appointed who do not rebel against authority. ho.3vlu :fc from the list of Garman men of science those who. therefore. as were. therefore. An opinion which was not based upon independent conviction to them of no value. in a few years. we d. GiMto. In their appeared hearts they never lost faith that freedom could cure the errors of alpn. \vo may bo pretty sure that they will opinion .POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES." of scientific inquiry. should have been able to retain permanently the services of men of such scientific importance as Humphry Davy and Faraday. Faraday.
... It must therefore not bo L--I <l<r.aonyo.. 017 III. and in it you wro called upon to co-operate. Form Shade Color 2.. my dear colleagues. that you are in a responsible position. You must show that a conviction which you yourselves have worked out is a more fruitful germ of fresh insight. enthusiastic.i\ -vsities are scrupulous in the admission of students of a different style of educa- choke I . PAGE II.. TJW RELATION OP OPTICS TO PAINTING. 3. You will show that youth also is tion. teachers were in- the best-intentioned guidance by authority. for independence of conviction is not the facile assumption of untested hypotheses.. but also as a model to the widest circles of humanity. <Han. ON THE ORIGIN OP THE PLANETARY SYSTEM.. self-respect of the students must nut bo allowed to sink. for any extraneous reasons. freedom would its blessings. and gave its witness in blood is still in ths van of this fight. and a better guide for action. ON THOUGHT IN MEDICINK ON ACADEMIC FREEDOM IN GERMAN UNIVER- .... if the ur. but can only be acquired as the fruit of conscientious inquiry and strenuous labor. or arrogance..C 005 COO 610 614 Color. You have to preserve the noble inheritance of which I have spoken.. THE KND.. and will work for independency of conviction. If tbnt -were the tho dangers of academic.652 POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. not only for your own people. . troduced into the faculty who have not the complete qualifications of an independent academical teacher. L O* 1.. I say work . than The general OIIKO. v. It would be still more dangerous if. which in the sixteenth century Germany first revolted for the right of such conviction. To Germany has fallen an exalted historical task.non as pedantry-. CONTENTS... IV.. Do not forget.
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