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Rhino Marking & Protection Systems • Grenoble Office: +33 970 44 91 51 • USA Factory: 507-835-4646 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 . edited or unchanged. Unless explicitly stated otherwise in writing. whole or in part. whether produced by GSP and its agents and associates or another party to whom GSP has provided The publishers welcome editorial contributions from interested parties. alone or in combination with other material in any publication or format in print or online or howsoever distributed. terrain review 24 26 POLICY AND opinion TECHNICAL EVENTS 28 57 58 59 projects 30 33 60 60 2 www. Bucks HP9 1NS United Kingdom Tel: +44 1494 675139 Fax: +44 1494 670155 SOUTHERN Hemisphere (Sales and Subscriptions) GPO Box 4967 Melbourne VIC 3001 Australia Tel: +61 3 9248 5100 Fax: +61 3 9602 2708 26 REGULARS From the Editor Pipes & People Media Kit Advertisers’ Index Subscription form Coming in future issues TransCanada supersizes Keystone project IP Pipeline moves forward after much discussion Technological breakthrough crucial for Second West – East Gas Pipeline South Stream: providing more gas to Europe Peru to complete Camisea pipeline expansion ahead of schedule Egyptian pipeline complete World Wrap Project briefs Enagás: expanding pipelines in Europe Pipeline development in the land of the free REX appeal: pipeline construction in the Rockies Protecting pipelines in mountain areas Canadian perspective: a goal-oriented approach to regulating pipelines Environmental navigation of German landfall and modelling pull-back operations GDK: innovative pipeline construction on GASTAU Pipeline link constructed in central Australia 54 PIPLINE EQUIPMENT 35 38 PIGGING Pipelayers and sidebooms: the essential pipeline machinery Pipelaying with the PL61 Optimal identification: getting up close with ID anomalies GE’s MagneScan inspects Normandy pipeline Prickly pigging: PipeWay’s Porcupine reaches the international market PPSA: providing squeaky clean pigging advice Ensuring pipeline integrity: talking pigging in Houston 5 simple steps to total valve integrity A place for science in pipeline design CTDUT: a model for sharing facilities and costs in research and development Trans-Mediterranean Pipeline Learn to weld with Lincoln Electric’s virtual welding system Production begins on world’s largest three-screw crude oil pipeline pump Latest edition of WinDOT – the Pipeline Safety Encyclopedia Cure pipes with Curapipe Pipeline carnivale in Rio! Evaluating different rehabilitation approaches Pipeline Technology Conference: a scientific update from Ostend APCE: pipeline success in South East Asia Australian industry gathers in northern Australia issue 002 | DECEMBER 2009 40 43 44 45 46 AROUND THE WORLD 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 VALVES 48 50 52 TECH TALK INDUSTRY NEWS MEET THE company REGION REVIEW: USA HISTORY 18 23 54 56 56 56 56 PRODUCTS AND SERVICES The global organization for oil and gas pipeline engineers • Recognizing your skills and status • Promoting the highest engineering standards • Providing a professional network SIGN UP TODAY! query@pipelinesinternational. However. The publishers do not accept responsibility for any claims made by advertisers. by providing editorial material to Great Southern Press (GSP).contents 24 4 15 61 64 6 7 Northern Hemisphere (Editorial and Technical) PO Box 21 Beaconsfield.pipeinst. the publishers do not accept responsibility for the content of these contributions and the views contained therein which will not necessarily be the views of the www. including text and images you are providing permission for that material to be subsequently used by GSP.

however. and obviously these should be in place before any pigging operations begin. USA. Wisconsin. including compressors. there are no published standards of cleanliness and although there are many ways in which deposits can be removed from a pipe wall. The more the subject of ‘how clean is clean?’ can be discussed. ISSN: 1837-1167 t seems a paradox: 10–15 years ago. minimisation of pipewall deposits will improve flow conditions as well as a pipeline’s overall efficiency and cost-effectiveness. or was the ‘Full Monty’ required? The issue revolved around the capacity of the intelligent inspection tools to 4 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 . and sulphides found in gas lines. Black powder is the name given to the mixture of iron oxides. A pipeline’s internal cleanliness has. intelligent inspection tools are of an unimaginably greater sophistication. When it’s time for an inspection. is being asked more frequently. and to remove the possibility of debris clogging-up the tool. One of the most detrimental cleaning problems for gas pipelines is the formation and accumulation of so-called ‘black powder’. preventing accurate inspection. relating to the capacity of the equipment to detect pipewall features. Now. Clarion and Tiratsoo Technical are privileged to provide some of the best available industry based technical training courses for those working in the oil and gas pipeline industry. Nevertheless. removal of the black powder from the pipeline is not the end of the affair.Overview and Guidelines for Compliance (Houston) Pipeline Pigging & Integrity Management Conference (Houston) Subsea Pipeline Engineering Course (Amsterdam) Practical Pigging Training (Rio de Janeiro) February 15-18 February 15-19 April 12-16 APRIL 2010 April 20-23 April 26-27 Engineering for Arctic Environments (Houston) Subsea Pipeline Engineering Course (Houston) Microbiological Corrosion in Pipelines (Houston) April 26-30 April 27-30 Subsea Production Systems Engineering (Houston) Pipeline Defect Origination. Although difficult to deal with.clarion. and valves. become a question of great significance. turbines. but to do with how clean the pipeline is. as intelligent inspection was developing and the science was coming into its own. deposits and other debris must be removed.from the editor I Editor-in-Chief: Associate Editor: Product Manager: Journalists: Sales Manager: Snr Account Manager: Sales Representative: Design Manager: Designers: Publisher: John Tiratsoo Lyndsie Mewett Scott Pearce Stephanie Clancy Julia Cooke Tim Thompson David Marsh Brett Thompson Michelle Bottger Sandra Noke Stephanie Rose Venysia Kurniawan Chris Bland ISSUE 002 DECEMBER 2009 United States REVIEW Pigging Pipelayers GASTAU Pipeline Cover shows workers finalising pipe stringing on a portion of Enbridge’s Alberta Clipper Pipeline project. a 36 inch. it seems surprising that it has not been found possible to establish some basic guidelines for achieving cleanliness. Its sources include millscale. In sag bends. However. John Tiratsoo Editor-in-Chief Complete syllabus and registration details for each course are available at: www. ‘clean’ needs to be kept in the spotlight of pipeline integrity management and operations. Putting this another way. Canada. the problems caused by accumulations of this material can be overcome – as can most pipeline problems – by careful planning and attention to detail. ensuring a pipeline is clean enough for an inspection to be carried out remains a subjective process. As the material is hazardous. The variability of its composition is illustrated by reports of the powder ranging from being completely iron sulphide to completely iron oxide. quite properly. and even causing it to become stuck. While it is clear that each pipeline and its operating regime are different. a major point of discussion was to do with the technology itself. as the particles settle out of the gas stream. both onshore and offshore. It has often been said that the best cleaning tool is a magnetic-flux leakage intelligent pig. necessary arrangements for its disposal must be made. Characterization and Sizing (Houston) Deepwater Riser Engineering Course (Houston) Onshore Pipeline Engineering (Houston) May 2010 May 10-14 May 17-21 May 17-21 Working with a faculty of some 38 leading industry experts. and atmospheric corrosion. Are you up to speed? 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 Training courses–early 2010 January 2010 February 2010 January 19-20 February 2-5 February 15-16 February 15-16 February 15-16 February 15-16 February 15-16 February 15-16 February 15-16 DIMP – Distribution Integrity Management Program (Houston) Subsea Production Systems Engineering (Aberdeen) Pigging & In-line Inspection (Houston) Defect Assessment in Pipelines (Houston) Pipeline Repair Methods / In-Service Welding (Houston) Introduction to Excavation Inspection & Applied NDE for Pipeline Integrity Assessment (Houston) Pipeline Risk Management (Houston) Performing Pipeline Rehabilitation (Houston) TRAINING DOT Pipeline Safety Regulations . corrosion products. carbonates. the more likely it is that shared experiences can lead to a shared solution.000 barrels per day crude oil pipeline from Hardisty. both to ensure that the tool’s sensors can have unimpeded access to the pipewall. 450. they can fill-in surface pits and other internal pipewall anomalies. although far more dangerous because it is both abrasive and pyrophoric – is one of the least understood but most prominent contamination problems in gas pipelines. and the general question being asked is no longer to do with their capacity to accurately and precisely detect features. and the cleanliness of the pipeline that the tool was to inspect was sometimes considered of less significance. these build-ups can harbour corrosive bacteria. A special session on this problem is being organised at the Pipeline Pigging and Integrity Management (PPIM) Conference being held in Houston on 17–18 February (see page 46). salts and scales from gas wells and wet gas gathering systems. The question of ‘how clean is clean?’ is not unfamiliar and. Alberta. to say nothing of the effect on reducing the potential for corrosion. to Superior. The accumulated solids can plug small orifices and consequently affect measurement equipment and. Under normal operating conditions. did the operator want a ‘quick-anddirty’ (and therefore cheap) inspection. The big question was “high resolution or low resolution?”. Black powder can cause product quality problems and excessive wear and erosion on internal pipewalls and many other pipeline components. and this remains true. and other papers at the event will also address the issue. in fairness. at the very least. This material – which is as fine as flour.

Alberta. The proposed Keystone XL Pipeline would increase the capacity of the original pipeline system from Western Canada to the US Gulf Coast by 500. Construction of the Keystone expansion is expected to begin once TransCanada receives the necessary regulatory approvals. From Cushing. However. Natural Resources told local media that only local when Iran and Pakistan signed a gas sales companies would be involved in the project.cpp. Converting the existing facilities in Canada began in 2008. by the first quarter 2010. The extension is proposed to originate in Alberta. and then 1.around the world around the world IP Pipeline moves forward after much discussion Iran has completed a major portion of the construction work on the Iran – Pakistan (IP) Pipeline project with the gas pipeline to reach the Iran – Pakistan border within the next few months. added Mr Mottaki. the initial phase of TransCanada’s Keystone Pipeline is nearing completion with the pipelay works set to reach Patoka. Oklahoma. I TransCanada supersizes Keystone project TransCanada is seeking regulatory approvals in Canada and the United States to construct and operate a 3. Texas.592 km of pipe and the conversion of 864 km of natural gas pipeline to oil service. The first phase involves the construction of 2.200 km expansion of its 3. purchase agreement for the pipeline project In September. in Pakistan. The 36 inch diameter pipeline would begin in Hardisty. Illinois. the 42 inch The Pakistani Economic Co-ordination diameter gas pipeline will run from the Committee (ECC) approved the $US3. the 1.360 km from Morgan. running from the Assaluyen gas field in southern Iran to the Gas Authority of India Limited’s Hazira – Vijaipur – Jagdishpur Pipeline in Gujarat. to Steele City. Texas. discussion for almost two decades and Pakistan Federal Minister for Petroleum and initially intended to include India. At the time of writing. Permits for the US portion of the expansion are expected by mid-2010.456 km to oil refineries in Wood River and a tank farm in Patoka. the Iranian Ministry of constructed in Iran. month. the pipeline system would have the capacity to deliver 1. the Pakistani ambassador ads 4972 Copon adrefrained 185x125 Green HR:2004-06-01HR 30/6/08 12:28 Page 1 in May this year. COPON Pipelinings COPON Internal Pipe Linings have been applied to over 140. with TransCanada on schedule to begin oil deliveries in the first quarter of 2010. India from to Iran Muhammad Bux Abassi claimed that India had definitely quit the pipeline. ranian Foreign Minister Manouchehr partaking in signing the agreement due to Mottaki has said that over 100 km of security concerns about the pipeline. COPON Pipelinings . Keystone XL will run to Houston and Port Arthur. Meanwhile. which would make it one of the largest oil delivery systems in North America.1 million barrels of oil per day.pipelinings. that supply of gas from Iran has been With an anticipated gas capacity of scheduled for October 2013. according to the Iranian Consul General based in Pakistan. www.000 km of diverse service pipelines worldwide during a period spanning more than 45 years: • Gas & Oil • Sour Gas & Oil • Water • Aviation Fuel • Refined Product • Petrochemical 3M United Kingdom plc Corrosion Protection Products 23 Standard Way.456 km Keystone Pipeline. but Iran said that it would not wait indefinitely for India to commit to the project. Illinois. scheduled for construction in 2010. The Keystone Pipeline originates in Alberta. 26.935 km pipeline project has been In July 2009. North Yorkshire DL6 2XA United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1609 780170 Fax: +44 (0)1609 780438 Email: pipecoatings.2 billion Assaluyen Gas Field in southern Iran to Iran – Pakistan gas pipeline the following Pakistan.485 cubic feet per annum. the project has been under through the state of Balochistan. A sub-committee of the ECC decided Formerly called the Iran – Pakistan – that the route of the pipeline would mainly run India Pipeline. the Iranian Ambassador to India Seyed Mehdi Nabizedeh told local news sources that China was interested in the project. the first phase of the project was 90 per cent complete.000 barrels of oil per day. Shortly after. but no formal agreements have since been of the world leaders in flow coating & lining technology I n September 2009. Nebraska. Once completed. Canada. Masoud Mohammad COPON™ AND THORTEX™ HAVE BEEN REBRANDED TO FORM PART OF THE SCOTCHKOTE™ PRODUCT RANGE FROM 3M 6 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 7 . where it would link into the original 477 km Keystone Pipeline extension to Cushing.670 km long. however Iranian officials are said to have denied these comments. Canada. Pakistan has also started Petroleum and Natural Resources announced construction on the project. The total cost of the Keystone and Keystone XL project is expected to be approximately $US12 billion. and travel 527 km to Monchy. Officials from Iran and Pakistan said that the option remains open for India to join the project at a later stage. Montana. and extend south to serve markets on the Gulf Coast. Canada’s National Energy Board held a hearing to review the application for the Canadian portion of the Keystone Gulf Coast expansion – dubbed Keystone XL – with a decision expected in early 2010. The original Iran – Pakistan – India Pipeline was proposed to be 2. Saskatchewan. and extends 3.

China Oil and Gas Pipeline Company was the engineering. gas storage location. the pipeline will transport natural gas imported from Central Asian countries. The crossing was a key engineering project for the Second West – East Gas Pipeline. procurement and construction contractor. to the Pearl and Yangtze River delta areas and the central west part of China. which is currently under construction. Significant progress was also made in fracture control.” Pipeline construction works are scheduled to be completed by the end of 2015. T T Construction progressed as planned on the first West-East Gas Pipeline. the tunnelled crossing of the Changjiang River was successfully completed. which is scheduled to be completed in the beginning of 2010. technical requirements and capacity will be finalised. located in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. The eastern section is expected to connect into the Turkmenistan – China Gas Pipeline. Tuha and Ordos basins. designated as the pipeline’s midpoint. which is expected to be completed in April 2010.461 km from Horgos to Zhongwei. and an onshore south and central European section. an offshore section. and safety prewarning technologies. semi-automatic welding. Gazprom says that Blue Stream has demonstrated that the construction of subsea projects has only a temporary and local effect on the marine environment. The pipeline is expected to increase the share of natural gas in China’s energy consumption by 1–2 per cent and play a significant role in boosting the country’s domestic natural gas demand.7 m per minute. Speaking about the progress of the pipeline. Italian company Eni will partner Gazprom in the offshore construction of the project. Junggat. Seven new products have been developed and manufactured domestically on an industrial scale. facilitate the improvement of China’s machinery manufacturing. and we are making significant progress on the pipeline. autonomous regions and municipalities. located in Xinjian Uygur Autonomous Region with the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region after traversing 14 provinces. Onshore route selection The Russian onshore section of the pipeline will run from the Pochinki Compressor Station to the Black Sea coast. by the end of 2009 and is scheduled to be comissioned in 2011. improve the nation’s energy structure and promote economic and social development to the adjacent regions along the pipeline. We are currently carrying out feasibility studies which will allow more accurate routeing. he 8. Gazprom has negotiated inter-governmental agreements with Greece. contemplate the creation of joint venture enterprises between Gazprom and local companies to develop and operate the South Stream Pipeline on their territories. The pipeline involves the construction of three sections of pipeline: an onshore Russian section. which sources its gas from Russian domestic gas sources and Central Asian gas suppliers. On November 16.590 m. spiral submerged arc welded pipes. Pipeline progress The project has been divided into eastern and western sections with Zhongwei. CNPC has successfully incorporated technological breakthroughs from six of its research projects to support the construction.477 km from Zhongwei to Guangzhou with designed pressure of 10 MPa. running 2. which and the risk of potential pollution can be effectively minimised. The crossing took place between Jiujiang City in Jiangxi Province and Wuxue City in Hubei Province. Gazprom Management Committee Chair Alexey Miller said “We have the technical know-how required to build South Stream in compliance with the latest environmental and technological requirements. Serbia and Bulgaria.around the world around the world Technological breakthrough crucial for Second West – East Gas Pipeline China National Petroleum Corporation’s (CNPC) intensive research and development programme has been integral in the construction of its Second West – East Gas Pipeline. The western section. Gazprom and Eni are carrying out a detailed feasibility study of the project’s offshore section. commenced construction in February 2008 and the welding work on the principle parts of the trunk line is now complete. South Stream: providing more gas to Europe Europe’s energy demand continues to grow. hot bending bends and hot-drawn T-joint pipe fittings. to Europe via the Black Sea. he South Stream Pipeline will deliver gas from the Russian Unified Gas System. Gazprom and Eni have gained experience in the course of construction and operation of the Blue Stream Pipeline across the Black Sea. anti-corrosion field coating. high grade steel pipe materials. The eastern section. These products include large diameter. which have benefited the construction and safe operation of the pipeline. The new X80 steel welding wire and flux increased welding speed by up to 1. with a horizontal crossing span of 2. with an additional 205 billion cubic metres of natural gas estimated to be required by 2030. integrity management technologies. Gazprom’s South Stream Pipeline will make an important contribution to improving Europe’s energy security. The next step is to lay a 48 inch diameter pipeline in the tunnel. as well as gas produced domestically in the Tarim. Offshore challenges The offshore section of South Stream will extend 900 km across the Black Sea at depths of up to 2 km and connect the Russian and Bulgarian coasts. 8 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 9 . joint-connecting welding and rework welding of the X80 steel pipes. Gazprom is currently in the process of starting those joint ventures with its partners. At the conclusion of the study the pipeline route. Welders on the Second West – East pipeline received guidance on more than 100 techniques developed through the project including automatic welding. Several possible routes for the onshore south and central Europe sections are currently being considered. Once completed.704 km pipeline consists of one trunk link and eight branches that will connect Horgos. A feasibility study is currently underway to select the route for this section of pipeline. Currently. which is 30 per cent higher than the speed achieved on the first West – East Gas Pipeline. running 2. commenced construction in December 2008.

located in the Ucayali Basin. and extends through the governorates of Beni Suef. Assiut and Sohag in August this year and the final stage was completed in November. The whole pipeline has a design capacity of 0. Asyut. TGP was awarded three different ile Valley Gas Company (NVGC) was granted an exclusive franchise by the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation (EGPC) in April 1998 to develop a natural gas transmission and distribution pipeline system to provide natural gas to consumers in Upper Egypt. and a third for the distribution of gas in Lima and Calleo.200 km pipeline has been constructed in five stages. The downstream project consists of two pipelines: a 714 km natural gas pipeline and a 540 km liquids pipeline. are under way: an increase of capacity at a compressor station in the Ayacucho region and the construction of a loop along Peru's coast. N Peru to complete Camisea pipeline expansion ahead of schedule The Camisea Gas Pipeline. The project also involved the design and construction of three compressor stations – two between Beni Sueg and Assiut and one near Cairo. The completed pipeline extends 1. luspetrol was scheduled to begin the mobilisation of materials and equipment to expand its Malvinas Gas Processing Plant. Transportadora de Gas Peruano (TGP) is a consortium led by Argentina’s Tecgas and includes Pluspetrol. 10 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 11 . Orascom with a 20 per cent interest and Middle East Gas Association holding the remaining 5 per cent. while Stage 4 involved the laying of 100 km of 30 inch diameter pipeline from Assiut to Sohag. will increase its capacity by 43 per cent by the end of 2009. In the first phase of the project. Edison with a 37. Luxor and Aswan. Qena. to the Port of Pisco. TGP is on schedule to complete the pipeline expansion in December 2009 according to Mr Gamarra. in November 2009. SK Corporation. Edison has since sold most of its Egyptian assets to Petronas of Malaysia. a small town 80 km south of Cairo. 431 km east of Lima. the natural gas pipeline turns north along the coastline to the Lima city gate to supply gas for domestic use. El Minya. “TGP has made considerable advances in this process of amplification and it’s likely to be ready by the end of the year.84 Bcf/d across a zone populated with massive agricultural and agro-industrial settlements. according to the Peruvian Minister of Energy and Mines. 33 year contracts by the Government of Peru as part of the Camisea downstream project in 2000 – a contract for the transportation of gas from Camisea to Lima.200 km pipeline was worth approximately $US9. however the spike in Peruvian gas consumption from 95 Bcf/a in 2007 to 120 Bcf/a in 2008 has led domestic pressure to be placed on the Peruvian Government to meet domestic natural gas supply needs. which commences at El Wasta. bringing gas to Aswan homes and businesses for the first time. It was originally anticipated that the pipeline would reach 164 Bcf/a in 2015. NVGC was formed as a joint venture led by British Gas with a 37. Pedro Sanchez Gamarra. Peru. The 1. The final stage involved the laying of 408 km of 30 inch diameter pipeline from Sohag to Aswan. The two pipelines run parallel to each other from the Camisea field passing through the Andes mountain range via the Malvinas gas processing plant to Pisco. Mr Fahmi said that the delivery of natural gas to the provinces of North and South Sinai would accelerate the reconstruction and development of the area by providing energy to attract industrial projects. Two major upgrades.5 per cent interest.” he said. The Camisea pipeline connects the Camisea Gas Field. both due for completion in the second half 2009.3 billion in investment and forms part of a broader development programme. including the New Valley governorate and Toshka. “The pipeline will have a major role in reshaping the investment map of the entire southern Egypt. Hunt Oil. The upgrades will expand the pipeline from its current capacity of 115 billion cubic feet per annum (Bcf/a) to a capacity of 164 Bcf/a in an attempt to meet the demand for gas in Peru’s densely populated coastal regions.” said Mr Fahmi. P The spike in Peruvian gas consumption from 95 Bcf/a in 2007 to 120 Bcf/a in 2008 has led domestic pressure to be placed on the Peruvian Government to meet domestic natural gas supply needs. The last section of the pipeline was brought online at the end of November and Egyptian Minister of Petroleum Sameh Fahmi attended a ceremony in Aswan to celebrate the completion of the project.200 km and its ultimate marketing capacity is targeted to be as much as 6 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d). Sonatrach and Grana y Montero. a second contract for the transportation of natural gas liquids from Camisea to the coast. Stage 3 saw 136 km of 32 inch diameter pipeline laid from the governorate of Minya to Assiut at a cost of $US75 million. which extracts gas from the Camisea Gas Fields to feed into the Camisea Gas Pipeline.5 per cent interest. commissioned in August 2004. NVGC took over a pipeline built by the Government from Cairo to the Kuraymat Power Station located near Beni Suef. Sohag. From Pisco.around the world around the world Egyptian pipeline complete The Upper Egypt Gas Pipeline reached the governorates of Minya. Stage 2 involved the construction of 150 km of 32 inch diameter pipeline extending from Beni Suef to Abu Qurqas. NVGC holds the right to develop a pipeline system across an area. The 1.

Pemex awards pipeline contracts to UPM Petróleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has awarded United Pipeline de Mexico (UPM) a $US12. Austria. To stay informed on all this news and more. will be reverse engineered to allow oil to flow in both directions through the pipeline. Construction commences on China – Myanmar Pipeline China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has commenced construction on the 771 km China – Myanmar Pipeline and a crude oil port in Myanmar. The Eldoret – Kampala Oil Pipeline. with construction scheduled to begin in early 2010. subscribe to the Pipelines International Update ›› www. with a refinery in Schwechat. as well as nine major interstate pipelines. Uganda agree to reverseengineer oil pipeline Fugro maps out Peruvian oil pipeline Oil and gas exploration and development company Perenco has engaged Fugro to provide detailed topographic mapping of a proposed oil pipeline route in northern Peru. approximately 160 km north of Dhahran. Saudi Aramco begins offshore pipeline construction Austria and Slovakia sign-off on Bratislava-Schwechat Pipeline A joint venture between Slovakian company Transpetrol and Austrian OMV AG will build the BratislavaSchwechat Pipeline. located in East Africa. which will then be transported through a 110 km subsea pipeline from the field to onshore processing facilities at the Khursaniyah Gas Plant. Pipeline construction and associated works have commenced at Saudi Aramco’s offshore Karan Gas Field. located in the Maranon Basin on the Pacific coast. The project will be Vietnam’s longest gas pipeline. Vietnam to build nation’s longest gas pipeline PetroVietnam will construct a 400 km pipeline running from Depot B on the southwestern continental shelf to the Mekong Delta to supply the O Mon Power Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 12 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 13 .world wrap world wrap Nord Stream granted Swedish and Finnish permits The Swedish and Finnish governments have granted permits to Nord Stream AG to construct the twin 1. Gas pipeline extends into Northwest Louisiana Acadian Gas plans to extend its 1. The pipeline will have a capacity of 12 MMt/a and connect Myanmar’s port at Maday Island in the Indian Ocean via Mandalay in central Myanmar.220 km Nord Stream natural gas pipelines through their exclusive economic zones in the Baltic Sea. Kenya. as well as a $US13. Perenco’s proposed pipeline system will transport oil production to the Bayovar export terminal.8 Bcf/d of Karan Khuff gas. Military Zone 9 Command will provide services to protect the pipeline in areas under its management during the time of construction and after completion. located 1. The 320 km pipeline is being built under a public private partnership between the Kenyan and Ugandan governments as well as Libyan contractor Tamoil East Africa.pipelinesinternational. replacement and rehabilitation of approximately 40 km of pipelines in Mexico’s Chicontepec oil region. The approvals process for the pipeline is also continuing in Russia and Germany. which brings crude oil to the country from Russia.4 Bcf/d of gas. Construction of the 5 MMt/a capacity pipeline is scheduled to begin in 2012. as it is becoming increasingly likely that an oil refinery will be built in Western Uganda. to Ruili in China’s southwestern province of Yunnan.609 km Louisiana intrastate natural gas pipeline system into Northwest Louisiana to provide producers in the Haynesville shale play with access to multiple markets through connections with the pipeline system in South Louisiana.4 million contract for the construction.000 km from its Block 67 group of oil fields. The 400 km extension will have a capacity of 1. in Saudi Arabia’s Khuff region.9 million contract for the construction of connecting pipelines and associated infrastructure to tie-in the oil wells produced in the same region. a 62 km oil pipeline connecting Slovakia’s Friendship Pipeline. The Karan onshore facility will have the capacity to process 1.

Role changes at Rosen After 12 years of direct involvement in the Australasian industry. streams. Rosen Australia. Russian Federation Tel: +7 495 719 3001 JOINT VENTURE PARTNERS: Gazprom Transgaz Moscow.project briefs Pipes and people Project briefs Kasimovskoye UGS – Voskresensk CS Gas Trunkline PROPONENT: OAO Gazprom. 7th Floor. Pipes & People Mr MacGregor said “This is an important time for research. Name change for Statoilhydro StatoilHydro ASA has changed its name to Statoil ASA. USA. PROJECT SCOPE: The Medgaz Pipeline is a subsea gas pipeline that runs under the Mediterranean Sea from Beni Saf on the Algerian coast up to landfall on the Spanish coast of Almería. PROJECT UPDATE: Construction has commenced on the Taian – Weihai section of the pipeline network. The pipeline includes two compressor stations located at Tuma and Voskresensk and one gas metering station at Kasimov. 9 Dongzhimen North Street. MacGregor as Chair at its Annual Meeting on 15 September 2009. Beijing 100007. consisting of one trunk line and six branch lines. New Chair at PRCI The Board of Directors of Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) elected Vice President of TransCanada Pipelines Operations and Project Services Paul F. Statoil is technical service-provider for approximately 7. in the energy pipeline industry. and is currently responsible for the company’s supply chain management. Muelle de Poniente. 04002 Almería. Hydrostatic tests are expected to be completed on the pipeline in March 2010. having been in the industry for more than a decade. Mr Fernandez has been with PLM since its inception in May 2005. and particularly collaborative research. is pleased to announce that Anthony (Tony) J. without requiring transit through third countries. PROJECT UPDATE: Commissioning occurred on the trunkline in October. He previously worked with Ring Power Corporation for 17 years as International Accounts Manager and later Pipeline Division Manager. Moscow GSP-7. and tie in to the Shaan – Jing Gas Pipeline and the Second West – East Gas Pipeline via the Ji – Ning Pipeline and Taian branch of the Shandong Pipeline. Mr Young has been with Rosen for three years in capacity of Operations Manager. He is now responsible for all operational aspects including the processors of data evaluation. EXPECTED COMPLETION DATE: June 2010 PLM Senior Vice President Anthony J. “With Tony taking responsibility for daily operational and sales issues. Spain. PIPELINE LENGTH: 210 km PIPELINE CAPACITY: 282 Bcf/a of gas when fully operational.” New Vice President at PLM The new look Statoil.C. PROJECT SCOPE: The pipeline will originate in Conway County. PIPELINE LENGTH: 298 km PIPELINE CAPACITY: The pipeline will have an initial capacity of 2 Bcf/d of gas. He has been succeeded by Neil Pain who has been appointed as General Manager. serving most recently as Vice Chair. Arkansas. Mississippi. United States. Tel: +86 10 6209 4114 JOINT VENTURE PARTNER: Shandong Natural Gas Pipeline Network Company PROJECT SCOPE: The network will enable CNPC to transport gas from central Shandong to cities including coastal Qingdao and Weihai in the east.” said Mr Ternan. Chris Yoxall and Neil Pain. expected COMPLETION DATE: Early 2011 PROPONENT: China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC). He has held numerous key positions with TransCanada since joining the company in 1981. and continue eastward through White County. and terminate at an interconnect with Trunkline Gas Company in Panola County. PipeLine Machinery International (PLM) President Mel Ternan. PIPELINE LENGTH: 1. MEDGAZ Pipeline PROPONENT: MEDGAZ. PIPELINE CAPACITY: 388 Bcf/a of gas when fully operational. operations and maintenance within the Australian organisation. ENDESA and GDF SUEZ. Fernandez. In this time.000 km of pipeline from the Norwegian continental shelf to Europe. Mr Pain has undertaken a number of responsibilities including quality assurance.L. Myles Youngs has assumed the role of General Manager. a member of the Executive Committee. He replaces Enbridge Pipelines Oil Sands Projects Senior Vice President Art Meyer. Arkansas. and performance standards.plmcat. Construction contracts are currently being negotiated and it is anticipated that construction will commence in March 2010. Operations in Australia.6 km off the Algerian coast. The pipeline is a strategic project for Algeria. Additional PLM information is available on the PLM website at www. 14 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 15 . Vice President and General Manager Operations of Rosen Asia Pacific Chris Yoxall has relocated within Rosen to Houston. Shandong Natural Gas Pipeline Network Fayetteville Express Pipeline PROPONENT: Fayetteville Express Pipeline L. Gazprom UGS PROJECT SCOPE: The Kasimovskoye UGS – Voskresensk CS pipeline.067 km of pipeline system. The project will parallel existing pipeline or electric transmission right-of-ways where possible to minimise impact to the environment. Mr MacGregor has been a PRCI Board member for four years. P. Spain Tel: +34 950 182 900 JOINT VENTURE PARTNERS: MEDGAZ is a consortium of five international companies: SONATRACH. Dongcheng District. Illinois 60515. The project includes a total of 108 rivers. EXPECTED COMPLETION DATE: Late 2010. The company advised that ticker symbols will remain unchanged as STL on the Oslo Stock Exchange and STO on the New York Stock Exchange. we will have more opportunity at the president level to concentrate on strategic and PLM expansion plans. which began construction in 2005. China. connects the Kasimovskoye underground gas storage (UGS) to the Voskresensk compressor station (CS). COMPLETION DATE: The pipeline has been commissioned with a ceremony marking the occasion held in Voskresensk District. PIPELINE LENGTH: 204 km PIPELINE CAPACITY: 95 Bcf/a of gas when fully operational. project management and business development. with the tie-in completed 1. 16 Nametkina Street. Statoil is an international energy company with operations in 40 countries. and the rest of Europe. Tel: +1 630 725 3070 PARTNERS: Fayetteville Express Pipeline LLC is a joint venture between Kinder Morgan Energy Partners and Energy Transfer Partners. Rosen USA. Fernandez has taken on the position of Senior Vice President with PLM. I am honoured that my colleagues in PRCI have entrusted me with this position. PROJECT UPDATE: Saipem has completed subsea pipelay operations. and has been with Rosen for over six years. and I look forward to working with them and the PRCI team to continue to extend the success of PRCI’s collaborative Rosen’s Myles Young.R. 3250 Lacey Road. to take up the position of Vice President. Mr Pain is well known. Tony participated in the early discussions that resulted in a four-dealer partnership to form PLM and provide Caterpillar’s global focus to the pipeline industry. IBERDROLA. Saipem was contracted to construct the subsea infrastructure. The company is based in Norway and has more than 35 years of experience from oil and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf. Downers Grove. and Chair of the Audit and Finance Committee. Moscow Oblast on 23 October. procurement activities. communities and landowners. CEPSA. Puerto de Almería. supplying natural gas directly from Algeria. As part of the restructured changes. railways and highway crossings during construction and the trunkline will provide highly reliable and uninterrupted gas supply to Moscow and its suburbs. PROJECT UPDATE: An application has been lodged with the Federal Energy Regulation Commission and approval is expected by the end of 2009. 2009.

” an Enagás spokesperson said. making it possible that in case of any supply crisis. 122 km pipeline between Almería and Lorca. The Peninsula pipeline during pipelay works. The 300 million euro ($US448. which will run along the Mediterranean coast and have a capacity of 7. The company says that the project is a “very complex and important” subsea pipeline system that connects the Iberian Peninsula with the Balearic Islands. the company was appointed technical manager of Spain’s gas system in accordance with the Royal Decree-Law 6/2000. the Barcelona Regasification Plant is celebrating its 40th year of operations. and last year received natural gas from ten different countries. “Regasification plants give flexibility to the gas system. The company says that it will continue to construct regasification plants and underground storage facilities as necessary to increase storage capacity.” says an Enagás spokesperson. this has been one of the most complex pipeline projects constructed as part of the Spanish Gas System. The project consists of three components: a 65 km pipeline between Montesa and Denia. regasification and storage. and this year the company has been designated the operator of the transmission system for Spain’s high-pressure gas network under the Royal Decree-Law 6/2009. Spain. the High Level Group of the South West Regional Energy Market. the 267 km Denia – Ibiza – Mallorca subsea pipeline.2 Bcm/a Irun Pipeline. Recent pipeline projects Enagás recently completed the 500 million euro ($US748 million) Peninsula – Baleares Pipeline project.7 million) project was constructed in two sections – a 42 inch diameter.” an Enagás spokesperson said. without requiring transit through third countries. the project allows the supply of natural gas to power plants on the Islands. Approximately 22. The company transports gas through over 9. • Increase the capacity of the Euskadour Pipeline from 0. and the 0. 170 km pipeline between Lorca and Chinchilla. not including the 500 who worked on the Castoro Sei pipelay vessel.2 Bcm/a via looping and additional compression. Balearic Pipeline construction.500 pipes were used to construct the underwater section of the pipeline.. as well as promote the development of a pan-European pipeline network to ensure greater security of natural gas to Europe. and another underground gas storage at Yela. "To date. It is necessary to have a network connecting Europe from north to south. More than 500 people were employed to construct the pipeline. Enagás signed a contract for the purchase of a 25 per cent interest in a regasification plant at Bilbao. Cartagena and Huelva. The company continues to develop its transmission pipeline network and natural gas assets in Spain. supplying natural gas directly from Algeria. Today. Enagás says that the pipeline system will bring important benefits to the Islands.7 Bcm/a to 5. E Future pipeline projects: international connections Enagás says that construction of international pipeline connections is essential for a secure natural gas supply for Europe.. Lowering-in the Peninsula pipeline. The working group aims to: • Double the current capacity of the Larrau Pipeline from 2. recently completing the complex Peninsula – Baleares Pipeline project.reinforcing the security of natural gas supply for Spain. “The pipeline gives Baleares energy security as it connects the Islands directly with the Spanish Gas System. The company also owns an underground natural gas storage facility at Serrablo. Spain has one of the most diverse natural gas supply portfolios in the world.7 billion cubic metre per annum (Bcm/a) Larrau Pipeline. the company talks about the project and its plans for future pipeline expansions. This year. The company is currently working on the construction of its fourth regasification plant at El Musel Port in Gijón in the north of Spain. The project is planned for completion in 2015. “International connections are strategic investments and essential to continue guaranteeing gas system security. • Construct the 190 km MidCat Pipeline. Here. natural gas can circulate through Europe in both directions. Enagás also recently completed construction on the 292 km Almería – Chinchilla Pipeline. which was built to connect the Spanish Gas System with the Medgaz Pipeline currently under the company meet the company Enagás: expanding pipelines in Europe Operator of Spain’s natural gas pipeline system Enagás continues to develop its transmission pipeline network. 16 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 17 . Work began on the project in December 2007 and was completed in September this year. “Having a pan-European gas network is essential to have a real European natural gas market. Guadalajara.5 Bcm/a. Enagás headquarters in Madrid. increasing the uptake of natural gas in the area.000 km of high-pressure gas pipeline and owns three regasification plants located at Barcelona. The importance of gas storage and regasification facilities Enagás has been investing in storage and regasification facilities since the company first began. The project is expected to reach completion in 2013. The company used the Castoro Sei vessel and an auxiliary fleet of six boats to complete the project. In September this year. and the rest of Europe. Besides transporting natural gas for distribution to residents. The Medgaz Pipeline is a strategic project for Algeria.1–2 Bcm/a by 2013. and. Enagás is part of the European Union organisation.” says a company spokesperson. which included installing pipe at depths as deep as 997 m. There are currently two pipeline connections between France and Spain – the 2." a company spokesperson says. Enagás’ main activities include natural gas transportation. and a compressor station located at Denia. In 2000. as well as a 25 per cent interest in the Bahía de Bizkaia Gas Regasification Plant in Bilbao. Enagás says that only eight pipelay vessels in the world specialise in this type of project. and a 42 inch diameter. nagás has developed and operated natural gas transmission pipelines in Spain since 1972.

The project extends the company’s Lakehead System from the Flanagan Terminal near Pontiac. and Florida. During this phase. Texas. Pennsylvania.2 Bcf/d of gas. and Superior. Phase 2 of the project was placed into service in 2008. Louisiana. ETC Tiger Pipeline Company is proposing Construction works at Denbury Resources' Green Pipeline. MEP will have capacity of 1.607 km . USA and Lyndsie Mewett. to the Flanagan terminal. which is scheduled to be in-service by 2010. Of this. and extend to the Perryville.7 Bcf/d capacity pipeline connects the Algonquin Gas Transmission Pipeline with Spectra Energy’s 430 km East Tennessee Natural Gas Pipeline. the installation of two new compressor stations to be located in northwestern Pennsylvania. This stage began operation earlier this year. Northeast region Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (TGPC). and the other near Perryville in Union Parish.000 bbl/d. Dominion Transmission. Alabama. is proposing the Appalachian Gateway Project to meet demand for natural gas in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern US. The pipeline will be designed to provide an outlet for increasing supplies coming out of the Haynesville shale region. The Phase VIII Expansion Project will consist of approximately 777 km of multidiameter pipeline in Alabama. In 2007. The pipeline system will be constructed in Continued on page 20 ›› 18 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 19 .046 km pipeline system. 442 km of 42 inch pipe and 317 km of 36 inch pipe. Stage 2 involved the construction of approximately 214 km of pipeline from Enbridge’s Delavan pumping station near Whitewater. Illinois. The original capacity of the pipeline is being expanded through the addition of incremental compression. The Texas Eastern Transmission Pipeline connects Texas and the Gulf Coast with markets in the midAtlantic and northeastern US.8 Bcf/d in Zone 1 and 1. which has the capacity to deliver 2. with transportation services to begin by September 2012. Upon completion. to construct an interstate natural gas pipeline to provide takeaway capacity from the East Texas Carthage Hub area and the Haynesville Shale play. The project will provide an annual average of 798 million cubic feet per day (MMcf/d) of additional firm transportation capacity. Construction is expected to start in 2011. Illinois. The 300 Line Expansion Project involves the installation of seven looping segments in Pennsylvania and New Jersey totalling approximately 205 km of 30 inch pipeline. plans to increase the capacity of its 300 Line to transport new natural gas supplies to serve the growing demand in the northeastern US. The pipeline will deliver natural gas to Spectra Energy’s 14. One station is located near Paris in Lamar County. a subsidiary of El Paso Corporation. One new compressor station will be built in Highlands County. The company operates an 8. The project is planned to be in service by November 2011. south to a petroleum transportation hub in Patoka. This 1. which would run from the Carthage Hub in Texas to an interconnection with the SNG Pipeline in Washington Parish.Region Review region review Southeast region Kinder Morgan Energy Partners and Energy Transfer Partners began service on the Midcontinent Express Pipeline (MEP) in August this year. Pipelines International takes a look at some of the major projects in the pipeline. The project includes the construction of approximately 177 km of pipeline between 20 and 30 inches in diameter to run between West Virginia and Pennsylvania. Wisconsin. The MEP also has two compressor stations. The project will transport oil from Canada to markets in the US Midwest. The project is expected to be completed in November 2010. The 20 inch diameter pipeline was constructed at the same time as and along the Alberta Clipper line. Initial capacity will be 450. Midwest region Enbridge has recently completed construction on the Alberta Clipper Pipeline to transport oil between Hardisty. will add an incremental 164 MMcf/d through additional compression. The 1. Phase 3 of the project. The pipeline is comprised of approximately 48 km of 30 inch pipe. Associate Editor The United States of America boasts well established oil and natural gas pipeline systems. with an ultimate capacity of up to 800. The project will have a capacity of 2 Bcf/d and is expected to begin operation in the first half of 2011. Georgia. 42 inch diameter Tiger Pipeline will begin near Carthage. El Paso Corporation placed Phase 1 of its Cypress Pipeline project into service.4 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d). Illinois. Stage 3 will see the system extend from the Flanagan. When completed in 2010.000 barrels per day (bbl/d). as well as four new gas compressor stations. to Patoka. The 289 km. Clarion. Enbridge is expected to complete construction of its Southern Lights Project by the end of 2009. Florida Gas Transmission is proposing to expand its natural gas pipeline system to meet the growing energy needs of the Gulf Coast and Florida. which will be an expansion of the company’s Algonquin Pipeline System. Enbridge has conducted an open season for the proposed 523 km interstate LaCrosse Pipeline. Mississippi. The project is expected to be completed and in service in 2011. The pipeline is an expansion of the Southern Natural Gas (SNG) Pipeline. Louisiana. Texas. Illinois. The expansion project will involve a total of 74 km of multi-diameter pipeline and associated support facilities. Four compressor stations have been planned for the pipeline. and provides an incremental 220 MMcf/d of takeaway capacity from the company’s LNG facility near Savannah. Canada. 36 inch diameter pipeline is expected to be in service by mid-2010. complementing the recently completed Southern Access Project as crude oil supplies from Western Canada continue to increase. compression facilities were installed to add an additional 116 MMcf/d of capacity to the pipeline.000 km Texas Eastern Transmission Pipeline System at Dominion’s Oakford Station in Delmont.3 Bcf/d of natural gas to the Florida peninsula.2 Bcf/d in Zone 2. with approximately 587 km built parallel to existing pipelines. transports 2. The 6. Houston.800 km Algonquin Natural Gas Transmission System. Dominion Resources’ natural gas transmission and storage subsidiary. which are continuing to grow with the proposal and construction of more pipelines across the country. The pipeline is scheduled for completion in 2013. Oklahoma. Louisiana area. and terminating with an interconnection into the Transcontinental Gas Pipeline at Transco’s compressor station near the town of Butler in Choctaw County. TGPC expects that the project will increase natural gas delivery capacity in the region by approximately 3. Florida. Alberta. It involves the construction of new pipeline and the use of some segments of existing pipeline on which the flow direction has been reversed. The cities are approximately 400 km apart. Stage 1 began operations in 2008 and included 516 km of new pipeline along the Lakehead System in Wisconsin and the construction of additional pump stations. The pipeline connects to the Texas Eastern Transmission System and the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline. Florida. The MEP consists of a single pipeline originating near the town of Bennington in Bryan County. Enbridge is progressing the Southern Access Extension project. Pipeline development in the land of the free By BJ Lowe. located in New England. Wisconsin. 20 km of new pipeline will be located in Massachusetts with 53 km of upgrades to existing pipeline in Massachusetts and Connecticut. and upgrades at seven existing compressor stations. Spectra Energy has proposed the HubLine/East to West Expansion Project. The majority of the pipeline is to be constructed within the right-of-way of the existing 276 km CenterPoint Carthage to Perryville Pipeline and Gulf South’s 389 km East Texas to Mississippi Pipeline. The 268 km pipeline extends the SNG system to interconnect with the Florida Gas Transmission system near Jacksonville. A map of the Florida Gas Transmission Pipeline.

bringing crude oil from Western Canada to the US. Mississippi. and will have an initial capacity of 350 MMcf/d. added 1. The Raton Expansion Project involves the installation of approximately 188 km of 16 inch pipeline in Las Animas. REX-East is the final segment of the REX Pipeline. and parallel an existing Questar pipeline that runs from Wamsutter to Blacks Fork and on to Opal.3 million to construct and have a capacity of 800 MMcf/d of gas. Wyoming. The project will involve approximately 1. to Audrain County. one in northwestern Nevada. Wyoming. CIG had hoped to receive FERC authorisation for the project by October 2009. Denbury has said that it expects the pipelines to take four to five years to complete. The 5.1 Bcf/d. Colorado. Denbury plans to commission a study for a 177 km pipeline that could connect the plant to the existing Free State Pipeline.Region Review region review ‹‹ Continued FROM page 19 2010 and begin operation later that year or by early 2011. Continued on page 22 ›› 20 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 21 . Upon in-service of the proposed project. located in southwestern Wyoming. Questar Overthrust Pipeline received interest for approximately 1 Bcf/d of new pipeline capacity for delivery into RAP. Construction of the pipeline is expected to commence in March 2010 with the pipeline to be in service by January 2011. Utah. Ohio. and Washington. The 1. The pipeline is expected to be commence construction in 2012 and completed by 2013. 42 inch diameter Rockies Alliance Pipeline (RAP) to connect the Rocky Mountain Region to the Chicago market hub. The study comes as two proposed Midwestern gasification plants. The first involved the installation of compressor stations at Joliet. which combines both the new construction of pipeline and the conversion of an existing Welded pipe during the construction of Alberta Clipper. which runs from the Cheyenne Hub in Weld County. The Haynesville Extension will intersect with nine interstate pipeline systems. The pipeline is expected to tie into El Paso Corporation’s proposed Ruby Pipeline. TransCanada is currently constructing the 3. north of Elko. TransCanada has also proposed one compressor station at Hettinger County.126 km long carbon dioxide pipeline project connecting proposed gasification plants in the Midwest to existing pipeline infrastructure in Mississippi and Louisiana. It involves the construction of new pipeline and the use of some segments of existing pipeline on which the flow direction has been reversed. is building the Raton Expansion Project to serve increasing demands for Rocky Mountain natural gas supplies. The project will have an initial design capacity of up to 1. The additional expansion proposes to add long-haul capacity of up to 115 MMcf/d by adding two new compressors and upgrades to the US portion of the system.086 km of 42 inch diameter pipeline beginning at the Opal Hub in Wyoming and terminating at interconnects near Malin. Approximately 2. Michigan. 24 inch natural gas gathering pipeline. The Vector Pipeline System.2 Bcf/d to approximately 1. the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has prepared a draft environmental impact statement for TransCanada’s proposed Bison Pipeline. Illinois. and runs from Audrain County. Arkansas. Central region The Rockies Express Pipeline (REX) runs from the Meeker Hub in Rio Blanco County. but will be expandable to 1 Bcf/d. TransCanada has said that future development plans for the pipeline include the expansion and extension of the Bison Pipeline into the Rockies Basin.4–2. The Questar Overthrust Pipeline expansion would run west from a compressor station near Rock Springs to Black Fork. located in Panola County. and. In addition. has already undergone two expansion projects. to an interconnect on the 5.027 km REX-East Pipeline section completed commissioning in November this year. Following the completion of REX-East.3 Bcf/d of transportation capacity. Questar’s Overthrust Pipeline is a 270 km. Spreads one and two of the pipeline are yet to be awarded. The pipeline is designed to have a capacity of approximately 477 MMcf/d of gas. Ontario. one south of Curlew Junction. Missouri. to the Lebanon Hub in Warren County. This expansion will enable gas to be transported to CIG’s mainline for ultimate delivery to the Cheyenne Hub in northern Colorado for delivery to major national markets. Oregon. As a result. Enbridge is expected to complete construction of its Southern Lights Project by the end of 2009. It is expected that the project will be complete by 2012.738 km. Pipe stacking in preparation for the Vector Pipeline System construction.219 km of new pipeline is to be constructed in the US. North Dakota.3 Bcf/d. The project is expected to be complete by September 2011. completed in 2007. Sempra Pipelines and Storage. where it connects with the Lakehead System and the third party Minnesota Pipeline.8 Bcf/d of gas. Carbon dioxide pipelines Denbury Resources recently began a feasibility study into constructing an 804 km and 1. pipeline from natural gas to oil service. The project will transport oil from Canada to markets in the US Midwest. where Questar’s Overthrust Pipeline will be expanded from the Opal and Meeker receipt hubs to meet the need for additional capacity. Michigan. 36 inch diameter pipeline would cost approximately $US94. The Raton 2010 Expansion Project will start in southern Las Animas County and will terminate in southern El Paso County at an interconnection with CIG’s pipeline system. The Ruby Pipeline will connect natural gas reserves in the Rocky Mountain region with markets the western US. beginning near Bald Knob. The expansion will involve upgrades to existing pump station sites. It delivers oil from North Dakota and Motana to Minnesota. which transports natural gas between Joliet. Willbros Group has been awarded a contract to construct spreads three and four of the pipeline. The 141 km pipeline section from Whitney Canyon to Kanda comprises the western-most segment of the 701 km Trailbalzer Pipeline system. a subsidiary of El Paso. Nevada. Ohio. Missouri. Alliance Pipeline and Questar Overthrust Pipeline Company have jointly proposed the 1. Southwest region Kinder Morgan Energy Partners and Energy Transfer Partners’ 298 km Fayetteville Express Pipeline has been proposed to run from Conway County Arkansas. The pipeline is a joint venture between Kinder Morgan Partners. The expansion could also include incremental short-haul capacity by adding a loop to the US and/or Canadian portion of the pipeline system. In addition. Texas. to Audrain County. The North Dakota System consists of 531 km of crude oil gathering and 998 km of interstate transmission pipeline. and the storage complex at Dawn.456 km Keystone Pipeline project. constructed in 2000. and ending at the Trunkline Gas Company interconnection. The project includes approximately 486 km of 30 inch diameter natural gas transmission pipeline extending northeast from Wyoming through Montana to North Dakota. an approximately 35 km. The Canadian portion of the project includes the construction of approximately 373 km of new pipeline and the conversion of approximately 864 km of existing TransCanada pipeline from natural gas to crude oil transmission. and Warren County. makes up the western segment of the REX Pipeline.5 Bcf/d of gas and four compressor stations will be constructed: one near the Opal Hub in southwestern Wyoming.147 km of 42 inch diameter pipeline. Missouri. the pipeline has a capacity of 1. The 69 km. Colorado Interstate Gas Company (CIG). Colorado. The authorisation is still pending. Colorado. During an open season. The second expansion was completed in October 2009 and involved the construction of a compressor station at Athens. Construction is expected to begin on the pipeline in 2010. Illinois. Enterprise Products Partners and Duncan Energy Partners are planning to increase the capacity of the recently announced Haynesville Extension Project from 1. have been granted approval to the term sheet negotiation phase under the US Department of Energy loan guarantee programme. The 531 km section from Meeker to the Cheyenne Hub was placed in service in February 2007. A third proposed gasification plant has also been selected by the loan guarantee programme to be built along the Gulf Coast of Mississippi. The project is expected to be complete by November 2011. one at the mid-point of the project. Huerfano. The project will take advantage of existing Overthrust and Alliance infrastructure. The 128 km section from Kanda to Wamsutter. The companies are currently undergoing a second open season to evaluate the potential gas capacity expansion of the pipeline. The pipeline is expected to be completed in mid-2010. as a first phase. RAP will initially provide 1. with the pipeline to be operational in November of that year. Kinder Morgan and Copano Energy have entered into a letter of intent to construct. Vector Pipeline and Vector Pipeline Partnerships have launched a binding open season to secure shipper interest in a third expansion of the 550 km Vector Pipelines System. The natural gas pipeline will originate in LaSalle County and terminate in Duval County. 36 inch diameter pipeline. Enterprise and Duncan Energy placed an order increasing the size of the 249 km pipeline extension of their jointly-owned Acadian Gas intrastate pipeline into Northwest Louisiana to 42 inches in diameter. increasing the nominal capacity of the pipeline from 1. The pipeline will originate from Wamsutter. via White County. Canada. and ConocoPhillips. with which Denbury has carbon dioxide purchase contracts.600 km Lakehead System was constructed in 1949 and is the world’s largest crude oil and liquids pipeline system. Enbridge has proposed the North Dakota System Expansion Phase 6 project to bring its North Dakota System expansion to 161.000 bbl/d of oil by early 2010.632 km Trunkline Pipeline. Pueblo and El Paso counties. with a proposed in-service date in May 2010. The completion of REX-West in May 2008. which includes laying 193 km of 42 inch diameter pipeline to parallel existing utility corridors in the region.

and commercial service to launch in the second half of 2012.8 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas per day. Following the completion of REX-East. and a interstate natural gas transmission system (Pacific Connector). or REX. The 36 inch diameter pipeline will be approximately 354 km long.735 km. The welding work was completed using cutting edge components. northern California and northern Nevada. the Pacific Northwest. and would include new and existing infrastructure in Alberta. Texas. Alberta – was a large part of how the construction proceeded in such an efficient fashion. and. Above: Overland Pass Natural Gas Pipeline map.735 km pipeline route offered unique challenges for the construction of the pipeline. a 2. and Gas Transmission Northwest’s system. The automatic welding systems enabled a very high level of productivity that exceeded 100 welds per day for the mainline pipelay. Each region along the 2. Much of the terrain was already level and ready for the pipe stringing and trenching in preparation for pipelaying. 22 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 23 . 36 inch diameter pipeline designed to transport up to 1 Bcf/d of natural gas from the proposed Jordan Cove LNG terminal to markets in the region. all located in Oregon. which is a special wire produced to weld the high strength X80 pipe used. Alaskan proposals There are currently two competing large diameter pipeline projects proposed that would link Alaska’s North Slope gas reserves to markets in Canada and the US. which runs 1. which presented the project’s crews with a variety of construction issues. K ‹‹ Continued FROM page 21 Western region Williams’ subsidiary Northwest Pipeline has proposed to construct the 30 inch diameter. The system used was an analog to digital conversion unit. PG&E Corporation and Fort Chicago Energy Partners. Most of the REX Pipeline was constructed along existing pipeline corridors.276 km Northwest Pipeline. Mr Fore said. Trimark Flux Core and Fab Shield X80. but an innovative ‘phased array’ weld inspection system. By allowing the system to be less complex and highly accurate in weld interpretation. crosses eight states and travels approximately 2. Additional project pace was gained by the establishment of ‘mini pipe gangs’. Weld integrity was ensured by using ultrasonic weld inspection systems to scan 100 per cent of the field welds for defects. however construction crews faced a variety of landscape and geographical challenges as the pipeline construction progressed eastward along the route into the Appalachian Region on the REX-East Pipeline route. “The innovative technology employed ensured that the pipeline was built in the safest and most efficient way possible – and will maintain the integrity of the pipeline in the future. The proposed Palomar project is seeking a certificate from the FERC for permission to construct and operate the pipeline. is a 370 km. which stretches from eastern Missouri to eastern Ohio. Subsidiaries of Williams. but the biggest asset was the skilled and experienced workers employed on the project. after receiving Federal Energy Regulatory Commission authorisation in April 2007. was also used on the pipeline. However.” said Mr Fore. Once the welding was completed. and if required. each joint was checked carefully by the onsite scanning technology. The proposed Palomar Gas Transmission Pipeline is a new interstate natural gas pipeline that will provide additional energy infrastructure to serve Oregon. REX was designed with a construction schedule that favoured automatic field welding. a unit of Sempra Energy. provided by UT Quality of Texas. The proposed TransCanada Alaska Pipeline project would include a gas treatment plant to be built at Prudhoe Bay. The REX-West section was completed in early 2008. The majority of the route passed through mountainous terrain – starting in the Rocky Mountains and extending to the Appalachian Region – which brought with it significant technical challenges. ConocoPhillips jointly developed the Rockies Express (REX) Pipeline project. Construction works on the Texas Eastern Transmission Pipeline System. The Pacific Connector project includes interconnects to Williams’ 6. The proposed Denali Pipeline project consists of a gas treatment plant on the North Slope. have agreed to jointly pursue construction of a LNG import terminal (Jordan Cove LNG). The automatic welding equipment – provided by CRC Evans of Houston. REX saw more robust results. Welding to schedule New technology was employed to ensure that pipeline construction proceeded smoothly. the REX project is one of the largest natural gas pipelines constructed in North America over the last 25 years.Region Review region review REX appeal: pipeline construction in the Rockies The Rockies Express Pipeline. Palomar is a joint venture between TransCanada and NW Natural. inder Morgan Energy Partners. the crew successfully managed to move the project forward without delay. REX Director of Community Relations Allen Fore said “The REX Pipeline was constructed using the latest technology in all aspects of the construction process. which were capable of laying up to 20 joints of pipe per day. The mini gangs were ideal to lay pipe in the rough terrain encountered on the project. an approximately 3. The project involves six pipeline loops running parallel to Northwest’s existing 26 inch mainline along the Columbia River Gorge. Construction is set to begin in the first half of 2012. The pipeline was constructed in three phases: • The 528 km REX-Entrega section across Colorado. there were thousands of construction workers on the pipeline spread. to be located in Coos Country. The REX-Entrega and REX-West pipeline routes cross the Rocky Mountains and much of the REX-East route also covers mountainous terrain. Washington.736 km long pipeline from North Slope Alaska through Yukon and northeastern British Columbia to the British Columbia/ Alberta border near Boundary Lake.219 km long pipeline to Alberta. Sempra Pipelines & Storage. • The recently completed REX-East portion. Canada.414 km long pipeline from Alberta to Chicago at a current estimated cost of $US30 billion. This project will increase the supply of natural gas for the Pacific Northwest. and. The Pacific Connector Pipeline project The REX Pipeline before lowering in. Beginning in Colorado and ending in eastern Ohio. 192 km Blue Bridge Pipeline project. a 2. Oregon. The totally digital system was first qualified in the US for the REX-West project. “The pipeline construction process is often compared to a sort of moving assembly line and during peak construction efforts. the 386 km Tuscarora Gas Transmission system. REX-East finalised construction and was placed into service on 12 November 2009. and other western states. Tie-in welds were made with Hobart welding wire. • REX-West. the pipeline has the capability to transport up to 1. The pipeline projects require a certificate of public convenience and necessity to be granted by the FERC in order to commence construction and operation activities. and RMS Welding Systems of Nisku.147 km from Colorado to eastern Missouri.

with the usual thickness per layer at 4–14 mm for non-woven geotextiles and 6–11 mm for rockshield materials. backfilling and the pipeline service life. taking approximately 15 minutes for a team of three people to protect just one pipe joint. restricting the access to the right-of-way (RoW) during construction. The above-mentioned INGAA study has identified two main areas as the focus for future innovations in mechanical protection systems – coatings that are resistant to damage. Today. Finally. Mountains often include environmentally sensitive and protected areas. which further increases the total protection cost. increased costs. Bredero Shaw. where it is used in the trench to protect the pipe against impact and penetration from rocky outcrops in the trench bottom or impacts from rocks in the excavated trench material. During pipeline operation. Australia and Europe. weather patterns are usually rapidly changing – quick temperature changes and flash rains – which can delay the construction of the pipelines. design and constructability. earthquake and fault zones. More recently. • Rocks in the trench bottom or impact from the backfill material. Mountain areas can have a challenging topography such as steep slopes. environmental impact and economical criteria. Another two refer to arctic conditions and the environmentally sensitive area often encountered in mountain terrain. as well as additional manpower and materials. Clear safety standards and operating procedures have to be in place to avoid accidents. In all the scenarios. W hen installing and operating transmission pipelines in mountain regions. and accidents with human and economic costs. Onshore Pipelines: The Road to Success. These materials protect the pipe during lowering-in. This cannot be guaranteed by the basic mechanical protection of the steel and anticorrosion coatings. one has to account for specific risks in order to mitigate potential lost time. with companies faced with hard rock. and Related Pipeline Construction Practices. usually translated in reduced RoW and temporary workspace. FBE coating Standard protective layer thickness Diameter of backfill material that will damage the anti-corrosion coating 0. • Lowering-in. Sand padding also has limitations in terms of terrain configurations. as well as non-woven geotextiles and rockshield materials. Padding. karst and sinkholes. select backfilling (or mechanical padding) has been used as a sand padding technique. Supplying some of the required materials such as sand for padding. These materials also have a wide range of technical performance. for example during transportation. The need for supplementary mechanical protection Mechanical damage to the pipe can occur during all phases of the pipeline construction and operation. the pipeline industry is dedicating a lot of effort to prepare and standardise the construction and operation of pipelines in mountain regions.5 mm Rockshield material 11 mm Concrete coating 25 mm Sand/ select backfill 300 mm 10–20 mm 50–60 mm 100–120 mm 300+ mm 300+ mm Table 1 – Impact resistance of different protection systems. The International Pipeline and Offshore Contractors Association (IPLOCA) presents ten different pipeline construction environments in its recently released recommended construction practices for onshore pipelines. This requires special equipment that can screen the material excavated from the trench and install the finer grades around the pipe. and are usually applied in specialised coating facilities. the industry has developed supplementary mechanical protection systems that are aimed at reducing or eliminating the risk of mechanical damage. handling (loading in and out). installed and operated with a minimum footprint on flora and fauna. The optimum supplementary mechanical protection system will be selected based on a well defined series of technical performance. the steel pipe and the anti-corrosion coating have to be intact during construction and operation. Industry sources. Sand padding needs additional equipment such as sand trucks. river and lake crossings. with heavy snowfall or rain.4 mm 3LPE coating 3. backfilling. ridge and rock RoW scenarios. do not need additional equipment or manpower for installation. The pipeline industry is using its field experience to improve the existing systems and to develop new ones. Concrete coatings are currently the only supplementary mechanical protection systems that protect steel pipe through all the construction and service life phases – from transportation. their minimum impact resistance is in the 25–35 J range. Sand bedding and padding is still A pipeline right-of-way in a mountain area. and the quality of the protection is highly dependent on the skills of the field installation team. while using the coarser material for closing up the trench. backfilling and long-term service life. but has the advantage of re-using the trench material and thus avoiding most surplus material disposal costs. soil type (clay. and. and wet or frozen sand. and which are the most efficient in protecting the pipe and its coating against impact and penetration. in order to ensure an incident-free service life for the pipeline. while the fibrereinforced concrete coatings are applied using a spraying process. temporary work and storage space at the RoW. This system protects the pipe during the pipeline backfilling and operation phases. usually before the lowering-in phase. padding machines. without any damage to the pipe and the pipe coating during application.terrain review terrain review Protecting pipelines in mountain areas By Vlad Popovici. The impact resistance of these materials is limited. pipelines in permafrost regions face stability issues. silt) and climate limitations that are similar to sand padding. Pipeline projects have to be designed. As an example. Geography is another significant risk factor with two sub-categories – topography and geology. 24 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 25 . Conclusion Building and operating pipelines in mountain areas is a challenging endeavor that can be facilitated by properly protecting the steel pipe and its anti-corrosion coating with supplementary mechanical protection systems. Some seasons can be harsh. These materials are available in different styles and thicknesses. and extreme temperatures and winds. erosion and landslides. Impacts and penetration damage can be caused by many factors: • Other pipes or pipe handling equipment. Sand is usually supplied to the RoW. Toronto. and during pipeline’s service life. one of the most efficient ways of mitigating the pipeline construction and operating risks is to protect the steel pipe against mechanical damage from impact and penetration. One of the biggest challenges is to protect the pipe and its external coatings against mechanical damage from impact and penetration. As the industry uses a wide range of supplementary mechanical protection systems. and industry experience shows that potential sand washouts can reduce long-term protection. Geology can also raise issues during both construction and operation. Mechanical protection systems Concrete coatings for mechanical protection have been developed during the last 25–30 years in North America. the most frequently used supplementary mechanical protection system. Minimising any risk of accidental harmful discharge or contamination is also important. Canada Steel transmission pipelines going through mountain areas often face significant risks during their construction and service life. A pipeline protected by a bendable concrete coating. The sand layer usually has a thickness of 20–30 cm around the pipe and has a minimum impact resistance of 300–450 J. Additional costs are usually incurred for the transportation and disposal of the original trench material that becomes surplus material after the use of sand. handling and storage to lowering-in. When rocks more than 10 cm in size are present in the backfill material. The installation of these materials is very slow. such as steep slopes. Wire-mesh concrete coatings are applied using a side-wrap process. do not have any usage limitations in terms of terrain configuration. Therefore. and rockshield materials are polyethylene or PVCbased solid sheets or open-cell rolls that are installed around the steel pipe in the field. lowering-in. and safely disposing of surplus materials can be difficult during the construction phase of a mountain pipeline. such as a recent Interstate Natural Gas Association of America (INGAA) report entitled Emerging Bedding. However. other protection systems such as sand padding have to be added. also mention concerns regarding the negative impacts of some of these materials – the solid sheet type – on the active anti-corrosion protection of the pipeline. Steel wire mesh reinforced concrete coatings that are usually 20–25 mm thick and fibre-reinforced concrete coatings (8–10 mm thick) are the two types of mechanical protection concrete coatings. The mechanical protection concrete coatings are fully bendable according to the industry standards. The concrete coatings offer excellent damage resistance – minimum impact resistance of 150 J for the fibre-reinforced concrete coatings and 450 J for the wire-reinforced concrete coatings. building and operating pipelines in mountain regions can be dangerous for the people involved. most pipeline projects use the following supplementary mechanical protection system: concrete coatings. In order to address the above-mentioned risk factors. and new crushing/ padding equipment. ground conditions or climate. Steel pipe is impact resistant by itself and some of the external coatings applied on steel increase this basic mechanical protection. Three of these environments directly describe mountain areas – the side slope. Non-woven geotextile materials are polypropylene fibre-based rolls. sand padding and select backfill (mechanical padding). and. In addition. this article will focus on the systems that protect the entire diameter and length of the pipe. wet or frozen ground conditions. storage. Climate is an important consideration during both pipeline construction and operation in mountain areas. This system has terrain configuration. such as national parks. climate.

” Dr Murray continued. Several pilot projects have been successfully conducted under provincial jurisdiction and one under the NEB. for a large diameter pipe. if a company exhibits exemplary behaviour throughout its activities. to which the AIV methodology had been applied.” A flame ionisation leak test was also conducted before placing the section into service.” Dr Murray says that if a company experiences many incidents involving safety. while enabling companies to make use of the latest technologies and knowledge of their own system. This means that the wall thickness of international pipelines increases upon entry into the US. in a prescriptive regime. then it would be appropriate to conduct a focused audit of that function. Focused audits are less likely to be repetitive. usually on a five-year cycle. for example. or the environment. “Whereas re-inspection or hydrotesting intervals are prescribed in the US.” Dr Murray says. Sometimes that would be pre-empted if. we come to an agreement with the company as to what constitutes a reasonable interval. “The determination to conduct an audit is made based upon our assessment of the risk a particular company poses using its operating history (what we know about them) and to some extent its geographic location. he National Energy Board (NEB) of Canada is an independent federal agency that regulates oil. the US stipulates a 72 per cent SMYS for pipelines. so a five to seven-year frequency seems about right for a full audit. “For example we regulate a pipeline company whose system delivers liquid products to three major Canadian cities and two of our largest airports. Differences in pipeline regulation include physical differences. Pipelines International recently caught up with Professional Leader – Engineering Dr Alan Murray to talk about the issues currently facing Canada’s pipeline regulator. Dr Murray says that the standard inevitably sets out minimum requirements in quite prescriptive terms. to develop best practice procedures. regulators. the Board indicated that one of the sections had been hydrotested. T The role of the NEB The NEB regulates pipelines that cross provincial or international boundaries. Here. “The challenge for the Board staff lies in conducting audits since the check list approach. within the company as interviewees.” The initial audit report is sent to the company for its comments and upon consideration of these. supported of course by a sound rationale. construction and Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Energy Regulatory Commission – and with the Pipelines and Hazardous Materials and Safety Administration (PHMSA). Obtaining and disposing of large quantities of water can be a problem while.” Dr Murray points out. An NEB audit follows the ISO management system process fairly closely and it audits against the Onshore Pipeline Regulations. Companies are advised that they have been selected for an audit via letter and are generally given several months to prepare. whereas Canada specifies an 80 per cent SMYS. burial depths and some welding procedures. while the assessment of a company’s ongoing operations is made as a result of regular integrity meetings with Board staff and in depth audits.” he says. 26 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 27 . “It has been our experience that management of change or internal communications is a common area of either ‘non conformance’ or ‘needs improvement’. including the pipeline industry. Dr Murray explains that in its place proponents have developed a fairly sophisticated quality management system referred to as ‘alternative integrity validation’ (AIV). Close out meetings are held at the end of each day of the audit and any findings shared with the company representatives. For example. “Since we are separate jurisdictions. which are for the most part written in goal-oriented language. the NEB can be assured that the prescriptive elements of Z662 are being met. who is responsible for the safety and integrity of those facilities. “There is a will between Canadian and US regulators to push toward harmonisation and we have undertaken joint studies to see where this would be most effective.” Dr Murray concludes. that in considering waiving the need to test two adjacent sections of pipe. the level of scrutiny during the application stage of a new project could be less onerous. Leaving to one side the probability of failure. regulating the Canadian sections of the international pipelines. The Board promotes safety and security. They are issued with a detailed set of audit protocols describing the conduct and focus of the audit. The standard covers oil and gas pipeline systems and is a consensus document reflecting the viewpoints of operators. The two countries also have differing approaches concerning Integrity Management Programmes (IMPs). hydrotesting costs could be as much as 5 per cent of the entire project cost. “Conducting an audit is quite demanding of both NEB staff time and for a company in preparing for it.” says Dr Murray. “Unquestionably there are environmental and economic benefits associated with eliminating the hydrotest.” says Dr Murray. NEBs Professional Leader – Engineering Dr Alan Murray outlines some of the issues currently facing the regulation of Canadian pipelines. The objective of the audit is to establish the adequacy and effectiveness of a company’s programmes. and at various locations. The NEB conducts two types of audit – a full audit or a focused audit. such as valve spacings. Pipeline construction is subject to frequent inspections. “It is important to note though. while pipelines located within a Canadian province are the jurisdiction of that province. with different requirements and philosophical approaches. The NEB. Dr Murray says that the company is expected to designate individuals at different levels. which in turn has meant that the original regulations developed were similarly prescriptive. The audit process Dr Murray says that the NEB “uses a life cycle approach to compliance in a goaloriented world”. has to give away in some areas to one of professional judgement and that takes a lot of experience. since it has been demonstrating programme adequacy and effectiveness. with several companies having recently done so successfully. Regulating US/Canada pipelines Pipelines crossing the border of Canada and the US are regulated by separate regimes. He notes that a company may also apply to PHMSA for a waiver. “I think it is fair to say that it is uneconomic for a company to maintain two separate IMPs so it may choose to use the one deemed more onerous. eliminating hydrotesting and moving toward a more streamlined approach to regulating Canada/United States cross border pipelines are some of the issues currently being addressed by the National Energy Board of Canada. companies that operate cross border pipelines have to comply with the requirements of both systems and that can’t be easy!” he says. who may dispute them or provide clarification. contractors and consultants. for example to operate at 80 per cent SMYS in Canada. has Memorandum of Understandings with the financial regulator responsible for approving interstates pipelines in the US – the Federal Replacing the hydrotest The NEB is currently addressing applications to eliminate the hydrotesting of pipelines on the basis that the quality of pipeline fabrication. as a rule of thumb. environmental protection and efficient energy infrastructure and markets. Both the provinces and the NEB adopt the same national pipeline standard. inspection techniques has improved to the point where the strength aspect of the hydrotest is redundant.policy and opinion policy and opinion Alan Murray. in Canada as part of the goal oriented philosophy. “By adopting a goal-oriented approach to regulation. a final report is written and a date set for the filing of a corrective action plan. Dr Murray says that the organisations meet regularly to share information. “Conversely. the consequence of a line break are such that the company will always be deemed a high risk and hence will have a full audit. gas and electric utility industries. CSA Z662. the company were to undergo a change of ownership. Further it regarded the procedure as experimental with a comparatively low risk of failure as the hoop stress at the intended operating pressure was of the order of 56 per cent specified minimum yield strength (SMYS). In 1999 the NEB decided that the onus for ensuring safety and protection of the environment should fall on the pipeline operators since they have a direct influence over the condition and operation of their pipelines. Canadian perspective: a goaloriented approach to regulating pipelines Encouraging a goal-oriented approach.

and may lead to penetration of the borehole wall. and then turns southward and east of the Swedish island of Gotland. and the expected installation schedule. including the environmental and authorisation issues. continuing in a south-southwest direction and eventually landfalling close to Lubmin.5 m depending on pipeline stability. There are few standards that actually provide guidance for this operation. varying between 2. The second article. not the least of which is its environmental aspects. From the simulations and analytical solutions. and simulations they performed to study the behaviour of a pipeline in the borehole during the pull-back operation of an HDD project. northwest of St Petersburg. it will transport energy sufficient for 13–14 million people. and local shipping authority requirements. and cohesive soil will be placed above the coarse material. filling it with drilling ‘mud’ such as Bentonite. the most critical aspect of which is the pull-back operation. The first article describes the project and its general technical details. east of Greifswald in Germany. and gives a reasonable estimate of the maximum pull-back force. The pipeline’s route is highly sensitive from many viewpoints. the pipelines cross the coastline southbound at Vyborg. the drilling fluid. This article highlight some of the papers published in the current issue of the Journal of Pipeline Engineering. anticipated construction techniques. After installation of the pipelines. and the pig receivers adjacent to the Greifswald receiving terminal in Germany. Depending on the ground conditions and the bending radius.5 m and 4. The pipeline profile in the German landfall area has been designed to satisfy a variety of criteria in respect of the burial depth: the cover to the pipeline varies from 1–4. The German landfall crosses an area that requires a high degree of environmental protection. and then ‘pulling-back’ the actual pipeline through the drilled hole. this is a quick and relatively simple method for the calculation of the distribution of normal forces between the pipeline and the borehole wall. The project is very significant for Europe as. the drilling pipe. and J Spiekhout. with specific attention paid to the pipeline landfall in Germany. Pipeline installation by HDD: pull-back governs success Soil reaction force at the head of the pipeline during the pull-back operation of horizontal directional drilling. The route runs westward through the Gulf of Finland for approximately 440 km. after which the offshore and pull-in sections of the landfall will be hydrostatically tested in combination with the remainder of the Nord Stream Pipeline. planned for 2011. coastal erosion. For general design purposes.223 km long parallel 48 inch diameter offshore pipelines laid across the Baltic Sea. The current Dutch method for calculating the pull-back force on the pipe is based on the soil-pipeline interaction. The model describes the complex set of interactions between the pipeline. and through which the pipe trench has to be widened over a length of about 1.j-pipe-eng. which will be published during the construction period for the Nord Stream Pipeline next year. As described in the last issue of Pipelines International. The current issue of the Journal of Pipeline Engineering includes the first of three articles on one of the world’s biggest current pipeline projects – the Nord Stream Pipeline. which in turn leads to high pulling forces and may lead to a stuck pipeline or to damaged pullback equipment. The pipeline’s route crosses a sandbar known as the Boddenrandschwelle. is widely used for pipes up to 20 inches in diameter and above. these high soil reaction stresses in the curved section may cause damage to the pipeline coating. once fully operational. connecting the pig launchers close to the compressor station at Portovaya Bay. an area where the water depth is relatively shallow. The joint paper from the Netherlandsbased National Institute Geo-Engineering Unit in Delft and NV Nederlandse Gasunie reports on research undertaken into the behaviour of the head of the pipeline at its connection with the pull-back equipment in the curved sections of an HDD trajectory. Following this the route turns southwest to skirt the Danish island of Bornholm. Considerable lengths of pipe can be installed in this way: the process involves drilling an oversized pilot hole along the planned trajectory. and Nord Stream AG has gone to great lengths to ensure that the environmental impact of the pipeline is kept to an absolute minimum along its complete length. and the soil in the borehole. cannot be explained with this method. The method considers the distribution of the normal forces between the pipeline and the wall of the pre-reamed borehole. the authors show that the soilreaction forces are much higher when the head of the pipeline is located in the bend compared to when the head of the pipeline has passed through the bend. the dredged material contained within the offshore storage area will be re-dredged and backfilled into the trench. Here. and supply approximately 25 per cent of Europe’s imported gas requirements. together with a description of the German landfall. in the Netherlands. problems occurred during pullback operations at a number of locations where relatively large diameter pipelines are being installed. The backfilled trench will be accepted on completion of a detailed bathymetric 28 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 29 . developed over 10 years ago. The problems varied from high pulling forces to abandoned pull-back operations due to a jammed pipeline. by Nigel S Kirk and Dipl-Ing Björn Dobberstein. Russia. The final article. Selected coarse-grained material will be placed directly around the pipeline to ensure that liquefaction of the material does not occur and induce buoyancy.5 m deep. The cost of damaged pipes if things go wrong. by J P Pruiksma. and recent research has shown that the behaviour of the head of the pipeline is of major importance in the pull-back operation. will review the project on completion of the first pipeline and assess the positive and negative aspects of the German landfall’s construction. Nord Stream Pipeline series: considering environmental impacts The Nord Stream Pipeline’s German landfall: the challenges ahead. Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) for installing pipelines under obstacles such as river or canal crossings. The authors describe the model they have developed for the pull-back operation.technical technical Environmental navigation of German landfall and modelling pull-back operations Environmental considerations for pipeline construction are discussed in the latest edition of Pipelines International’s sister publication The Journal of Pipeline Engineering (JPE). with topsoil finishing off the layered backfill. pipeline protection. however.100 m to ensure a minimum trench width of approximately 50 m to allow access for the laybarge. Recently. H M G Kruse. Surveying underway on the Nord Stream Pipeline route. Editor-in-Chief John Tiratsoo outlines articles discussing the Nord Stream Pipeline project and horizontal directional drilling construction methods. The method is particularly suited to soils such as clays through which it is easy to drill. will provide a general update of the project and describe the installation design together with the actual construction activities and the challenges encountered. At the Russian end. The reason for pulling problems. H J Brink. The pipeline–soil interaction during the pullback operation has been identified as the cause of these pull-back operations. the Nord Stream Pipeline project consists of two 1. and the cost of additional measures during and after the pull-back. The series will review various aspects of the project. can be considerable. and road and railway embankments. Abstracts of the complete contents and subscription information can be found at www.

The special equipment includes: • CAT 320 hydraulic excavators on Kori amphibious floating tracks to allow ditch opening at the steep rivers banks and in swampy areas. Brazil. GDK says that each kilometre of the pipeline has varying environmental conditions. vicinity of the project.projects projects GDK: innovative pipeline construction on GASTAU GDK is currently completing construction on Petrobras’ GASTAU Project. pigging and testing. The offshore platform and facilities. Continued on page 32 ›› 30 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 31 . which includes a 28 inch diameter. This requires special construction procedures to ensure safe conditions are maintained to those existing lines. ranging from swamps to hills. ranging from swamps to hills. GDK took this into consideration. Some sections of the pipeline cross housing development areas.500 pieces of heavy construction equipment: • 140 pipelayers • 120 22/24 tonne excavators • 20 pipe carrier • 65 dozers • Bending machines • Welding coupling machines • Road boring machines from 4–8 inch • Three HDD rigs with up to 1. The first phase of the field’s development is expected to produce 15 million cubic metres per day (MMcm/d) of gas. Preparing the Lourenço Velho River crossing. This includes 1. GDK has approximately 3. with strict environment restrictions. automobile fuel and domestic consumption in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro cities. simultaneously with the final completion date of the whole project scheduled for December 2010. offshore and onshore pipeline and compressor stations are under construction T Crossing Carvalho Pinto Expressway I Carvalho Pinto Expressway II Tamoios Highway Paraíba River Santa Branca Dam Capivari River Lourenço Velho I River Lourenço Velho II River Method HDD HDD Boring machine Lay and post-trenching Pre-trenching and lay Pre-trenching and lay Pre-trenching and lay Pre-trenching and lay Width 180 m 140 m 130 m 420 m 230 m 280 m 300 m 170 m Features 6 lanes 6 lanes 25 m depth Rock 15 m depth/rock Swampy area Swampy area GDK profile GDK is a Brazilian company. big cities of more than 2 million inhabitants. 97 km natural gas pipeline extension running from the north coast of Brazil to 760 m elevated plains between the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.000 pounds pulling force. The project is of strategic importance to Brazil. and owns 90 per cent of the equipment used in its projects. Petrobras tendered the special crossings contract separately due to the complexity of works involved and high level of execution difficulty. GDK was awarded a 32 km section of the API 5L X70 pipeline running between São José dos Campos Refinery and Taubaté station. commissioning and start-up support for the pipeline. which focuses on the research and development of pipeline construction technology. as well as heavy rains experienced in the region from September to February. The two contracts are managed and performed by two independent GDK teams. • Extra-long Doosan 24 tonne hydraulic excavators. Brazilian pipeline construction company GDK S. rock incidence and farm lands. side slope sections. focused in oil and gas construction activities including onshore and offshore pipeline construction.000 employees. engineering. reaching up to 15 m.000. to open the ditch in the deeper river beds. with industrial plants. Table 1: Summary of the features of the GASTAU Pipeline crossings.A is responsible for two contracts for the GASTAU Project. offshore platforms and facilities. as a major part of the two contracts is located inside a Federal Permanent Environmental Preservation Area. Route terrain profile and soil conditions are varied. Right: Lourenço River crossing preparation. Safety was also a primary concern. The scope of work involves the design. The second contract involves the execution of seven special crossings of major rivers. construction. rock incidence and farm lands. GDK´s team is using innovative methods and special equipment – some of which have never before been used for onshore pipeline construction. which are densely populated. and both involve unique challenges. In addition to the technical execution requirements. A total of 35 road and highway crossings are being performed with large boring machines. located in the offshore Santos Basin. and. The GASTAU Project requires development within a tight contract schedule. drying. To comply with all these requirements. GDK says that a detailed study and survey was required to select the most appropriate method for the particular characteristic of each of the crossings required for the project. he GASTAU Project will run from the Caraguatatuba Gas Treatment Plant to Taubaté Custody Transfer Station and São José dos Campos Refinery. on special ‘H’ configurated floating pontoon sets. The company is a member of the International Pipeline and Offshore Contractors Association (IPLOCA) as well as corporate member of the IPLOCA Novel Group. and require 12 road crossings over a distance of less than 1 km. In addition. the GASTAU Pipeline is parallel to and located on the same rightof-way as three operating trunklines. when conducting technical studies to select the final pipeline construction methods to be used. dams and highways that are crossed by the gas pipeline. aiming at increasing natural gas supply to feed industrial. side slope sections. GDK has also defined an environmental plan. refineries. Challenges The 32 km section of pipeline runs through a highly developed region. Route terrain profile and soil conditions are varied. large farms and an impressive highway network built within the Crossing the Paraiba River. gas processing units and petrochemical plants. The 97 km pipeline will transport natural gas produced from the Mexilhão field. in São Paulo State.

Following the correct positioning of the 420 m string at the crossing. Co-operative construction In July 2007.projects projects Pipeline link constructed in central Australia Epic Energy recently completed construction of the QSN Link Pipeline. After reaching its correct position in the river bed. Onsite cultural heritage monitoring continued while ground-breaking activities were underway in Queensland and onsite flora and fauna monitors were in place to ensure minimal impact on the natural habitat. a post-trenching machine – applied only in offshore pipelines – will excavate the ditch below the pipe. before continuing into South Australia to Moomba. the team of up to 12 people included both long-term Epic employees seconded to the project for its duration and contractors employed specifically for the project. Construction continuing on schedule Completion of all the seven major crossings is scheduled to be achieved in January 2010. Welders hard at work. T Trenching activities are completed on the QSN Link project. he QSN Link project connects the 935 km South West Queensland Pipeline (SWQP) with Epic Energy’s 780 km Moomba to Adelaide Pipeline and the 1. meant that any issues identified during the process were resolved quickly and with minimal impact on the construction process. burying it 1 m into to river bed. Hot tapping the pipelines Three hot taps were included on the project – a Class 900 tap on the SWQP. After an extensive technical study. There were literally hundreds of culturally significant sites identified by Continued on page 34 ›› 32 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 33 . as well as limiting the environmental impact of the project. The ECI process also assisted the company to ‘hit the ground running’ once the contract was awarded.000 tonnes of high-strength PIPESTEEL. at Scraper Station 4 near Charleville. to Orrcon's Pipe and Large Tube Division. the Moomba to Adelaide Pipeline and on the Moomba to Sydney Pipeline. in line with a special requirement stipulated by Petrobras. which for the first time directly links the sales gas systems in Queensland. This solution is to prepare a pipe length with a concrete jacket to run along the entire width of the river and bank and kept afloat using twin-buoys sets. and at Wallumbilla. The pipeline contract is expected to be complete by March 2010. GDK has previously performed several offshore Road crossing boring machine. Nacap subcontracted the hot tap works on all pipelines to experienced hot tap contractor Furmanite. and stabilising the pipe section. The Paraíba River – the most important river in the region – is 420 m wide and 25 m deep with a deep ‘V’ channel and steep banks that do not allow conventional construction methods or directional drilling methods. Epic Energy and engineering consultant WorleyParsons in Brisbane. for a mid-January 2009 first gas date. Left: Launching the Lourenço II river crossing. 400 mm diameter QSN Link. The steel supplied was developed specifically to meet the stringent requirements of highstrength. high-pressure pipeline applications and has been used in over 20 other pipeline projects. Australia. and a midline compressor station on the SWQP near Charleville and compression at Epic’s Wallumbilla compound. By October 2009. pipeline construction contracts. Having to apply new techniques and equipment to perform the jobs. While assembling large diameter pipelines in a sensitive area of the Guanabara Bay in Rio de Janeiro. Paraiba River crossing preparation. commenced on 31 March 2008 and on 4 August 2008.367 km Moomba to Sydney Pipeline. the pipe will be lowered to the river bed by water-ballasting the buoys. During construction of the pipeline and compressor facilities. An early contractor involvement (ECI) process was adopted for the project. utilising the gas hub at Wallumbilla. respectively. The SWQP also delivers gas into the Roma to Brisbane Pipeline and the Queensland Gas Pipeline. Epic Energy set up an inhouse project team to manage the QSN Link project. GDK has decided to apply a combined onshore and offshore solution. The project included the construction of the 180 km. Construction of the compressor stations. The SWQP receives coal seam gas at Wallumbilla in Queensland. ‹‹ Continued FROM page 31 Paraíba River crossing GDK says that one of the most challenging jobs under the contract is the Paraíba River crossing. Again the co-operative nature of the project between Nacap. the GASTAU Project highlights the experience of GDK personnel and establishes a new benchmark in terms of pipeline construction performance. GDK says that the application of this solution can be credited to the combination of the company’s expertise in both onshore and offshore pipeline construction. GASTAU Project GDK managing team Director - Conrado Serodio Project Manager - José Guido de Oliveira Contract Manager - Sérgio Menezes Borges Construction Manager - Sérgio Lima Construction Supervisor - Edson de Souza Tight time-frames and environmental awareness The main concern with respect to engineering was the fast track nature of the job. and transports that gas to Ballera to service the Mt Isa market. Headed by Daniel Wallace. five of the crossings were already complete and the overall work progress had reached above 70 per cent. suitable for conversion into API 5L X70. around 300 new jobs were created and Epic Energy employed additional staff to operate and maintain the new pipeline and facilities post commissioning. BlueScope Steel supplied approximately 17. to both New South Wales and South Australia. GDK employed a similar method resulting in a very cost-effective solution to the client. which enabled the construction contractor Nacap to become intimately involved in the planning and contract negotiation for the job prior to contract award. All phases of construction being managed by Epic Energy were completed on time.

Numerous planning visits were undertaken to the proposed Cooper crossing site by personnel including Nacap. PipeLine Machinery International's (PLM) Sherry Gettis says “The contractor may need to consider using machines with lower lift capacity. The most environmentally significant sites on the project were identified early in the pre-construction surveys around the creek areas and. which is complete within one minute of the welding being scanned. resulted in minor re-alignment of the pipeline route and reduced work space in areas where re-alignment was impractical. A hydraulic variable undercarriage is used on the latest model. W Pipe stringing along the QSN Link route. Further expansion Work continues on bringing the previously announced proposed Stage 3 expansion of the SWQP to fruition. operating platform on the two largest models – PL4611 and PL015. Safety Safety improvements are continually being made within the pipelayer/sideboom industry. hen selecting a pipelayer or sideboom to construct a pipeline. Within the last 12 months.000 kg – by extending a prop to support a sideboom with an overhang of Construction works underway on the pipeline. many considerations must be taken into account. transporting the pipelayer to site can be an issue. The AUT process also meant high examination rates were achieved by AUT contractor. Nacap immediately flagged these as ‘no-go’ areas for the duration of the project.” Dressta has developed a pipelayer with a boom prop to improve stability. A pipelayer will be selected based on the size and weight of the pipe to be installed and topography of the construction site. 2.” The contractor could also choose to purchase a large pipelay machine with the ability to self-disassemble. transportability and ease of service required for the project. Maats/Liebherr has developed the RL 64 pipelayer with wide track pads on the load side in order to increase stability and maintain a low ground pressure to improve safety when working on porous ditch edges.3 m in length. These long lengths significantly increased pipeline construction rates with welding achieving approximately 5. The expanded SWQP’s daily capacity would be increased from 168 TJ to approximately 380 TJ. The company’s pipelay machines are also fitted with hydraulically controlled counterweights for machine stability. load management systems. almost square. ‹‹ Continued FROM page 33 local indigenous groups during preconstruction surveys of the planned route. On mobilisation to site. the Cooper Creek crossing near the Nappa Merrie bridge. Volvo Construction Equipment's Derrick Butterfield says “The larger and heavier the pipe to be used – for example. as is usually the case. • Automatic Ultrasonic Testing (AUT) was employed to test 100 per cent of the circumferential welds. concrete coated pipe for immersion in water – demands equipment with the lifting capability and stability to manage it safely.projects pipeline equipment Pipelayers and sidebooms: the essential pipeline machinery Pipelayers and sidebooms are an integral piece of machinery on any pipeline construction site. AUT enables quick examination of the weld and a fast return on assessment of testing. Stability Mr Butterfield says that machine stability remains a known issue with pipelayer and sideboom machinery. increased load capacity and better stability on its machines. PipeLine Machinery International provides Caterpillar pipelayers. but use more of them to lift a section of pipe. PL4608. These considerations impact on the lifting capacity of the pipelayer. Epic and environmental consultant. UT Quality. “Volvo’s excavator-based pipelayer solution dramatically increases stability thanks to a wide. 450 mm diameter pipeline adjacent to the SWQP. The SB-60 BP aims to provide contractors with the ability to safely lift larger loads of pipe – up to 60. The identification of these areas.2–6 m. in particular. Volvo has developed a roll over protective structure (ROPS). AUT also enables easy electronic storage of all examination data in Epic Energy’s Geographical Information System (GIS). such as in Volvo’s large pipelayer range. The Stage 3 expansion involves the construction of a new circa 935 km. and issues such as safety and the environment are driving further developments within the industry. Ease of service can be a crucial consideration on remote access pipelines or projects with tight completion timelines. to ensure that the optimum route was chosen with minimal environmental impact. There are many machines currently available to choose from. Continued on page 36 ›› 34 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 35 . Innovations The following innovations were employed by the project team: • The contract for the supply of linepipe with Orrcon included triple random lengths of up to 19.” If limited access to the right-of-way is encountered.5 km per day for the entire length of the pipeline. RPS Ecos.

Pipelay and sideboom manufacturers offer many different options for pipeline projects. pipelay and sideboom machinery continues to be developed. Companies that manufacture and distribute pipelayer and sideboom equipment are responding by developing pipelayers with engines that have lower emissions. an automatic boom kick-out to prevent boom damage. The industry continues to improve the transportability of the equipment. which complies with the EN 13510:2000 and ISO 3741:2006 standards. Ms Gettis notes that there are issues that need to be addressed as manufacture is increased on lower emissions engines. New cab designs maximise the operator’s view around the machine.” says Ms Gettis. there is a growing concern about reducing the carbon footprint of pipeline construction projects. “The larger and heavier the pipe to be used – for example.” she says. Dressta has improved safety on its pipelayer machines through the incorporation of emergency free-fall on the load line. PLM’s Ms Gettis notes several features of the Caterpillar pipelayers that have been adapted with safety in mind.” – Volvo’s Derrick Butterfield Dressta pipelayers and sidebooms complete the job. Maats/Liebherr has installed its RL 64 pipelayer with a diesel engine with an output of 275 kW/374 horse power that complies with all common emission regulations. an automatic overwind device and a load indicating device. concrete coated pipe for immersion in water – demands equipment with the lifting capability and stability to manage it safely.pipeline equipment Volvo Construction Equipment pipelayers in action.4 degrees Celsius temperatures is our challenge and one we have been working on with the industry for several years. 36 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 . Low ambient temperatures are a challenge for today’s low-emissions engines. Caterpillar and PLM are working closely with industry training facilities to ensure that new operators have the best equipment to learn on. “Lower emissions requirements and alternative low-sulfur diesel fuels are issues that will affect major northern hemisphere pipeline projects. develop accessories to improve operator comfort and efficiency. Fingertip controls and quick release blocks are designed to keep operators out of trouble.” Ms Gettis also notes that adequate training is imperative to ensure safety on the construction site. “The most important safety aspect on the pipeline right-of-way is well-trained operators on well-maintained equipment. In addition. Future developments Each pipeline construction spread is different. requiring contractors to think carefully about the machinery that would best suit the project. Caterpillar is continuing to develop Tier 4 rated engines and has recently launched the first electric drive tractor – the D7E. ‹‹ Continued FROM page 35 Maats/Liebherr has also recently developed a ROPS for the Komatsu D355C-3 machine. Addressing this issue on projects to be built in -4. The environment Within the industry. while taking key issues such as safety and the environment into consideration. and continue to engineer machinery required for new trends in the pipeline industry. and this includes knowing how to properly operate pipelay and sideboom equipment.

“Caterpillar Yellow” and the POWER EDGE trade dress. New and used PLM-supplied Caterpillar machines are now operating around the world delivering maximum productivity and reliability. ONE NAME.plmcat. The one piece main frame is designed to absorb high impact shock loads and twisting forces. together with industry-leading technology in the areas of environmental compliance. EU Stage IIIA and Japan Moc Step 3 engine exhaust emission regulations. ONE FOCUS. P ipeLine Machinery International is supplying Caterpillar’s PL61 pipelayer – a new technically refined model at the small end of the pipelayer product line – to the worldwide pipeline industry. The Caterpillar C6.6 Diesel Engine with ACERT Technology meets worldwide emissions requirements For more information on Caterpillar’s pipelayer line available through PipeLine Machinery International visit 38 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 . The Caterpillar pipelayer system includes a winch. ONE WORLD. ACERT. with improved control. operator comfort.6 Diesel Engine with ACERT Technology meets worldwide emissions requirements for EPA Tier 3.pipeline equipment Pipelaying with the PL61 The Caterpillar PL61 pipelayer provides 40. visibility and durability. counterweight and frame. Counterweight segments are contoured to provide a low centre of gravity and an enhanced forward and right side viewing area necessary for job site safety. PipeLine Machinery International (PLM) supports the global needs of mainline pipeline construction customers with one-stop access to the most extensive pipeline machinery expertise in the business. CATERPILLAR.5 m lightweight boom. their respective logos. www.000 lb lift capacity and the capability to meet pipeline contractor requirements. safety and ease of operation. 5. The boom is constructed of specialty strength steel and the counterweight is extended hydraulically for improved load balance and clearance. The Caterpillar C6.plmcat. SystemOne. The PL61 features an electronically controlled hydrostatic drive system with independent power and control of each track for fast acceleration. Caterpillar PL61 pipelayers can be ordered globally through PipeLine Machinery International or by contacting your local Caterpillar dealer. The machine can be configured for both standard gauge and low ground pressure. and on-the-go direction changes. as well as corporate and product identity used herein. © 2008 Caterpillar All Rights Reserved CAT. are trademarks of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission. The frame is engineered to last throughout the extended service life of the PL61. variable speed control.

The most important type of anomaly for the purposes of the present investigation are ovalities. Germany The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) requires that mechanical pipeline defects such as dents must be reported. As a leader in pipeline inspection. the new sensor systems and their innovative arrangement have significantly improved probability of detection. also known as ‘local strain’: abrupt changes in pipeline curvature are more severe and result in a higher dent strain value than plain dents. an accurate assessment of the properties of such anomalies based on reliable highresolution geometry data leads to more detailed knowledge and consequently more reliable analysis of the pipeline contour. R esearch programmes to enhance the assessment of this type of damage have led to a new approach in the detection of inner diameter anomalies by means of the latest generation of high-resolution geometry inspection technology. The operating benefits gained thereby are explained in the context of other in-line inspection EMPOWERED BY TECHNOLOGY 40 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 . enables merging and mapping data sets to provide a more complete picture of the pipeline as well as a more thorough assessment of specific anomalies. Based on experimental data obtained in the course of several research projects. A new approach to the detection of ID anomalies To ensure full compliance with all requirements governing the wide variety of ID anomalies. circumferentially offset from the first. Exceeding regulatory requirements Adopting a modular inspection approach whereby the newly developed high-resolution geometry technology is combined with other ILI methods such as magnetic flux leakage (MFL). all subsequent bending strain assessment decisions are as a rule supplemented by data obtained during the same inspection run on the basis of internal pipeline contour sampling with ID mapping sensors. Firstly.roseninspection. a new sensor has been developed which combines the proven mechanical caliper arm system with a ‘touchless’ eddy current device. www. an IMU to form so-called ‘multi-purpose tools’. Rosen Technology & Research Center. a new approach consisting of two main features is now taken. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) defines a dent as ‘a gross disturbance in the curvature of the pipe wall’. In addition. geometry mapping and. Operators often find it particularly challenging to effectively assess such ID anomalies. pipeline curvature and dent shape provide an important parameter for the calculation of dent strain. Difficult operating conditions in deep water. Figure 1: 30 inch RoGeo·Xt featuring two inspection planes for 100 per cent coverage of the internal pipeline surface. The new RoGeo·Xt makes an invaluable contribution to local strain assessment. Figure 1 shows how this new approach is implemented in a single tool. Such multi-purpose tools incorporating a variety of ILI methods have been developed further to accommodate multi-diameter pipelines. Defined as ‘a deviation of the circular shape of the cross section of the pipeline’. if the RoGeo·Xt is equipped with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The highly accurate data furnished by the enhanced geometric inspection system is therefore a great step forward in assessing Continued on page 42 ›› TREATMENT. this article presents the benefits of high-resolution geometry tools in conducting baseline surveys for the purpose of subsequent assessment of mechanical damage. In combination. ID anomalies can appear in a wide range of forms. Daniel Molenda (PhD) and Johannes Palmer. The nature of ovalities and other ID anomalies Being very complex in structure. Figure 2: Pipeline long seam arrangement of an offshore pipeline as detected by the Rosen geometry inspection tool. a new arrangement of these sensor devices with a second sensor ring. it can also measure regional strain resulting from the displacement of pipeline segments due to external forces such as landslides. Secondly. an ovality affects the entire circumference of the pipeline cross section. length and width of many ID anomalies including dents. ensures complete coverage of the internal pipeline circumference. as in this case. high-pressure or heavy wall pipes as well as challenging pipeline design features such as wyes have always placed great demands on the design of ILI tools and runs. In combination. ROSEN not only supplies a complete range of treatments for pipelines but also keeps your engineering structures up and running. Since it is often impossible to give a full description of the depth. Whereas the displacements are detected with the IMU. Ovalities usually appear in combination with a dent making them part of a more complex ID anomaly.pigging Optimal identification: getting up close with ID anomalies By Steffen Paeper.

The system records the position of the pipeline features and anomalies such as: • Dents. has completed its first project with the new MagneScan in-line inspection system. their combination permits reliable feature assessment based on a comparison between UT stand-off and the lift-off measurement (eddy current sensor) of the RoGeo·Xt. 42 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 43 . Mapping data is integrated with inspection information during the run. the project maintained strict compliance with the European Union’s ATEX safety requirements. and secondly provides an ideal database for analysing the pipeline’s ability to resist buckling due to environmental loading. The improved accuracy means less digs for the operators following inspection runs. The long seams (green appearance) around the 12 o’clock line (red) are very clear and distinctive. These data sets are combined to achieve enhanced defect sizing specifications and improved probability of identification. for example of dent curvature associated with seam welds.pipelinesinternational. ILI methods are then used to prove or disprove this value. This high sensitivity enormously benefits integrity management programmes. PII Pipeline Solutions was instrumental in developing the original MFL technology used for oil and gas pipeline inspection in the 1970s when it was under British Gas ownership. long seams forms a vital source of information for several defect assessment methods. typically at 10 and 2 o’clock. Product Line Leader. the new technology has completed more than 40 inspection runs. Technical features of the new MagneScan that are attractive to pipeline operators include its 216 low noise Hall effect sensors that record readings taken on axial. GRTgaz successfully completed its advanced magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection on a 6 inch diameter. Since the two technologies use different measurement methods to supply the same type of information. The new MagneScan system deployed by GRTgaz is the first able to inspect pipelines — of varying diameters and sharp bends — for multiple types of features in a single run. and — in practice — detect metal loss even smaller. • Metal loss in the vicinity of welds. The system was developed by GE Oil & Gas’ PII Pipeline Solutions Centre of Excellence for Magnetics in Northumberland.” To aid data analysts in improving characterisation of complex (interactive or axial) corrosion defects. E Figure 4: Correlating the azimuth angle of ovalities with the pipeline layout. The unprecedented sensitivity in the sub-millimetre range of geometric ILI tools such as the RoGeo·Xt extends their range of applications. and. clean. 39 km pipeline in Normandy. and allows them to come back to GE later with additional requirements for more in-depth analysis leading to remediation plans. The MFL inspection was completed using the MagneScan in-line inspection system.500 km of liquid and gas pipelines across three continents. covering over 2. • Metal loss associated with dents and under casings. which allows operators to map pipelines of diameters as small as 6 inches while also inspecting for metal loss and geometry features. for operations in potentially explosive atmospheres. using high resolution MFL sensors that deliver high quality data to identify and locate metal loss and is suitable for geographic information systems (GIS) analysis. This new 3D configuration covers 100 per cent of the pipe circumference and optimises defect-sizing accuracy for width. The DOT guidelines for dents without any stress riser use as a critical benchmark a dent depth of 2 per cent and above in outer diameter. This means that geometry tools can now be used to support wall thickness recordings obtained from metal loss mapping tools. tools with improved performance have been developed. While GRTgaz and GE’s PII Pipeline Solutions had originally agreed that the project would consist of a maximum of five runs to gauge. GE Oil & Gas. United Kingdom. The sensitivity of geometric ILI tools to local features can be enhanced by combining high-resolution geometric technology with an ultrasonic (UT) device. Due to the high sensitivity of the lift-off arlier this year. length and depth. The system simultaneously maps the pipeline and checks it for corrosion. PII Pipeline Solutions Establishing a technical benchmark in pipeline security and environmental protection. their position alternates between 2 o’clock and 10 o’clock with minimal scatters. reducing the amount of post-processing required. geometric survey. and the results from the analysed data have amazed even the most experienced of our staff. radial. GE instead completed the scope of supply in only four runs.5 dents per kilometre. even marginal ovalities can be detected and sized. Figure 2 shows an example of a data set recorded during a geometric ILI of an offshore pipeline. This means that the extended tool can be used to detect and size shallow internal corrosion in exceptionally challenging conditions. running gauge. “We have delivered to our client the full inspection report within the eight-week timeframe that was agreed upon. High-resolution geometry tools are a suitable instrument for assessing recent as-built pipelines in baseline surveys. the RoGeo·Xt can even be used to search for shallow internal corrosion. pipeline manufacturers must meet specifications for the production of pipeline joints and bends. meaning that the tool not only meets but by far exceeds current regulatory requirements. Based on a new sensor combining a mechanical calliper arm with a ‘touchless’ eddy current device as well as a novel arrangement of these sensor devices with a second sensor ring to ensure 100 per cent internal coverage.” In addition to the tool’s reliable performance allowing the operation to be carried out ahead of schedule. “We were very pleased with the performance of the new MagneScan system. for example where complete magnetisation of the pipe wall is extremely difficult or using UT is altogether impossible. the pipeline is located to the northwest of Paris and is part of GRTgaz’s 32. This article is a condensed version. cleaner ‘profile’ and the new MagneScan. which convert to significant savings and reduced environmental impact. inspect and map the pipeline. radial and transverse vectors every 2 mm. “GE was also able to complete the project within our very tight window – between 19 and 30 January 2009 – to minimise the impact on production from our gas storage facility in St Illiers. France. In addition to the codes and regulations governing pipeline inspections. which specify an ‘outof-roundness’ value for all manufactured pipeline joints. Due to the enhancement of the tools’ geometric inspection capabilities. A detailed comparison of the data sample and the actual pipeline layout highlights the sensitivity of the RoGeo·Xt ILI tool. UT not only measures wall thickness but also the stand-off signal. Pipelines are usually welded with the long seams offset. As the distance between the UT sensor and pipe wall is known. GE’s MagneScan inspects Normandy pipeline By Martin Bluck.pigging PIGGING Figure 3: Schematic illustration of a typical pipeline joint layout with long seams offset at 10 and 2 o’clock (dashed red line indicates the 12 o’clock position). • Internal and external pitting and general corrosion on the pipe body. cleaning and dummy tool runs had been completed. the new technology presents visually powerful data derived from three magnetic fields – transverse. In line with this interest. These strict requirements have led to greater interest in ID anomalies. Since its introduction at the International Pipeline Conference in Calgary in September 2008. and bends. GRTgaz. including references can be found at the Pipelines International website www. The MagneScan in-line inspection system. It allowed us to complete the inspection with a single pass after the initial gauging. The first Rosen statistics based on ID anomaly data gathered with the RoGeo·Xt show that more than 80 per cent of detected ID anomalies are shallower than 2 per cent. since internal wall thickness loss can be treated as ID changes. This geometric inspection data allows a more comprehensive feature assessment. Such a pipeline layout scheme is shown in Figure 3. The new MagneScan systems are designed to locate and size areas of metal loss of five per cent wall thickness or greater.” said GRTgaz spokesperson Stéphane Ardiet. as the detection of welded areas including Conclusion Rosen’s RoGeo·Xt has been proven in field applications to fulfil the requirements of standard codes and regulations.000 km gas pipeline system in France. GDF Suez’s wholly-owned gas transmission system operator. Measuring ovality and welded areas including long seams as part of baseline surveys Regulators specify that ovality (or ‘out-of-roundness’) is an applicable value for assessing the quality of manufactured pipeline joints. the new approach to the detection of ID anomalies provides a more complete picture of the condition of pipelines. The full version of this article. Built in 1965. ‹‹ Continued FROM page 40 Internal corrosion The RoGeo·Xt is highly sensitive to features affecting the whole circumference of the pipeline. and axial.” said General Manager of GE Oil & Gas PII Pipe Solutions John Bucci. ovalities. An accurate baseline survey firstly confirms that these various pipeline elements perfectly fit each other following installation. the condition even of assets posing great inspection challenges. for example by documenting in detail the manufacture of submerged arc-welded longitudinal seam pipes and stating the rating of manufactured bends to ensure satisfactory fitting of pipeline joints. and this has in turned resulted in a significant increase in the number of features reported to an average of 1. “This technology enables pipeline operators to choose the level of analysis of data they wish to review upon completion of inspection.

This pipe cleaner consisted of a steel pipe or mandrel body with flanges welded on both ends. The tools were equipped with wire brushes. These stories are generally accepted as possibly being true. The Association publishes a regular newsletter Pigging Industry News. sometimes through pipe-wall communications.004 inches. Ultrasonic (UT) technology requires a homogeneous liquid to fill the pipeline. cleaner product. Scale deposits that may hide corrosion or corrosion colonies can also be defined as to thickness. please contact the Association via email ppsa@ppsa-online. and currently has a circulated to approximately 5. or urethane cups or discs. The sensor finger range also allows the accurate measurement of almost any wall thickness. Next year’s will be held on 16 February. many new industries such as the water and wastewater industry. As production goes deeper. The technology has now been used in pigs up to 42 inches and is now being adapted down to 3 inches. the Porcupine detects and defines longitudinal defects including channelling corrosion. dewater. flexible and accurate method to inspect pipeline and tubed systems for required defect and cleanliness information to make integrity and asset management decisions. Until 1960. a 104 page book which was written to give a comprehensive overview of the most important aspects of pipeline pigging. Another benefit of the Porcupine technology is the tool’s flexible design. and stuck into the pipeline. or to receive a free copy of the Directory of members. it made a 44 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 45 .ppsa-online. The Association now has over 95 members. The Association runs an annual seminar in Aberdeen. and problems incurred. and pipe sealing to allow repairs or tie-ins. the Pigging Products and Services Association (PPSA) was formed in 1990. PPSA aim “To promote the knowledge of pigging and its related products and services by providing a channel of communication between the members themselves. the wall thickness of pipelines generally increases so that the use of MFL in some systems has a limited application. A number of years ago the PPSA published An Introduction to Pipeline Pigging.” W PipeWay’s Porcupine ultra high resolution technology. drying. making inputs in computerised operations. Providing pigging services Wholly funded by members through annual subscription fees. For further information about the PPSA and its activities. The PPSA’s annual general meeting is usually held to coincide with the Houston Pipeline Pigging and Integrity Monitoring Conference and Exhibition. in which many PPSA members and their companies are involved. Apart from the main functions of sweeping. inner of the 2007 Global Pipeline award presented by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers International Pipeline Technology Institute. fill. The lessons learned from standard pigging operations to clean. ollowing an initiative that developed from a series of pipeline pigging conferences. containing contact details of all the members and a brief overview of their capabilities and activities. erosion. preferential longitudinal weld line and general wall thinning. This information allows the evaluation of pipeline cleaning programs and their modification based on data from the Porcupine. and the pressures. Discs made of leather sheets were stacked together to provide thickness. at the Marriott Westchase Hotel in Houston. reducing its application on most production pipelines and all gas pipelines. As the pipe cleaner travelled down the line pushing out debris. The detection and definition of the defects will be for both the straight pipe and the numerous elbows in the system. occasional training courses on pigging. area covered and location. and salvaged product. which contains news about members’ companies and brief articles of general pigging interest. This will allow some systems now considered unpiggable to be pigged with the technology. Debris that is not movable such as scale or other hard deposits will be detected and measured as to the area covered and the thickness of the deposits. ‘semi-intelligent’ pigs now perform additional functions such as alerting and initiating actions involving pumps and valves. Why is a pig called a pig? One of the PPSA's most popular general questions is “How did a pig get its name?”. Proof of the technology in field applications and comparison of the technology to both MFL and UT techniques have proven this system is now ready to be applied to any pipeline system. most pipe cleaning was limited to the oil and gas industry. The tool has been proven in dual diameter pipelines and in bend radius down to 1D in some sizes. A third account claims that an early sphere pig was in fact a pig’s bladder – like a football – that was inflated to the necessary oversize. wiping. The Association also publishes an annual directory. The inspection of tubes in these heat exchanger systems will be able to detect and define defects such as small diameter corrosion. therefore determining whether the tubes are clean prior to putting the units back in service. scrapers. and represents the pigging industry throughout the world. speeds. some with specific or limited use. There are several and attached to the flanges. A similar squealing is attributed to a very early type of pig that was made up from a bale of hay wrapped around by barbed wire. The Porcupine technology offers a unique. The book is now in its eighth edition. and development is continuing to the present day. The range of motion of the sensor is accurate to 0. and general wall thinning and bulging. In comparisons to UT pig results and to external C-Scan UT inspection. allowing chemical or mitigation treatments to reach the affected areas. the correlation has proved the tool’s performance and resolution to be similar in both normally formed corrosion and longitudinal channelling corrosion. decreased pumping pressures. inspection. or visit www. scraping. The Porcupine’s direct measurement of the internal surface and its discontinuities avoids these limitations. petrochemical and mining industries are now using pigs in their pipelines. like steam generation systems and coker refinery units. sponsors lectures and meetings about the subject. Although the oil and gas industry remains the largest user of foam pigs. one pipeliner made a comment to the other about “hearing that pig squeal”. These were introduced in the late 1960s. As the cleaner went by. erosion. A second limitation of UT is that pipelines inspected by that method need to be very clean to avoid false or no signal return. knife blades. Operators can then decide the best method for eliminating the areas of scale. increased flows. In MFL PPSA: providing squeaky clean pigging advice The Pigging Products and Services Association plays a major role in promoting the knowledge of pipeline pigging and related products and services.000 copies around the world. although none can be verified. the limitation of internal area for magnets intensifies the problems created by wall thickness. The sensor fingers measure axial movement in both directions from its calibrated set point at the nominal inner diameter (ID) of the system being inspected. F is free. as well as typical pitting corrosion and small inner diameter (ID) corrosion. realising gains such as energy savings. and continues to be an invaluable source of reference to the wider industry. The magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technique using longitudinal induced flux fields does not do well on the sizing definition of longitudinally oriented corrosion or on defects that create general wall thinning. PipeWay is currently developing the Porcupine technology for tube inspection for the applications. and integrity monitoring. and other devices for ploughing. It has a newly refurbished website where visitors can source the products and services they need. and supports relevant conferences. One story says that two pipeliners were told to clean a pipeline and listen for the pipe cleaner to go by. An added benefit of this inspection is that it will be able to check for remaining scale. noise. Porcupine’s direct measuring technique is also very tolerant of soft or movable debris in the pipeline allowing for inspections in lines that are resistant to cleaning such as those containing paraffin. Then the foam bullet-shaped pig was developed – referred to as the ‘polly’ pig because it was made of polyurethane foam. MFL technology is also limited by wall thickness especially above 19 mm.pigging pigging Prickly pigging: PipeWay’s Porcupine reaches the international market PipeWay’s Porcupine ultra high resolution technology has been developed to solve some of the limitations of magnetic flux leakage and ultrasonic technology that affects detection and definition of internal defects on pipeline systems. There are now literally hundreds of different types of pigs. pigs of 14 inches or below. leather. and with users and other interested parties. cleaning. as well as the chemical processing. The directory Pigs through history For more than half a century pigs consisted of steel bodies and rubber. and link to PPSA’s technical information service and other facilities. Some of these asset classes are heat exchangers. The high resolution response and the high degree of flexibility also make this technology applicable to other areas where the technology will answer integrity questions about high value assets. scraping. and displace product from pipelines. have contributed greatly to the development of instrumented pigs. the PPSA plays a major role in providing information and sourcing equipment and services for pipeline operators and the industry generally.

pigging PIGGING Ensuring pipeline integrity: talking pigging in Houston Houston. These courses will cover: • Pigging and in-line inspection • Pipeline risk management • Pipeline repair and in-service welding • Pipeline rehabilitation • Defect assessment in pipelines • Excavation inspection and applied nondestructive evaluation • USA Department of Transportation pipeline safety regulations. The premier Conference and Exhibition provides a forum dedicated exclusively to pigging for maintenance and inspection. February 15-18. and showcase more than 70 companies’ products and services – providing the world’s largest specialised exhibition of pipeline pigging and related products and or call us at +1 713 521 5929 Make sure you don’t miss out on the latest pipeline pigging updates. he 22nd Pipeline Pigging & Integrity Management Conference and Exhibition is once again set to take the world by storm – taking place at the Marriott Westchase Hotel. products and services. The 2010 event is expected to draw more than 1. as well as pipeline integrity evaluation and repair. Delegates will be able to talk to product and service providers directly to find out about the latest innovative solutions available. The two-day technical programme. Texas. More than 100 specialized providers of pipeline inspection and integrity services 850+ attendees 2 days of cutting-edge technical presentations 7 critically acclaimed training courses Plan to be there: www. and much more. with the annual Pipeline Pigging & Integrity Management Conference and Exhibition gearing up to be a great success. starting on 17 February. 2010 Pipeline professionals around the world are looking forward to this event. Get in quick to register. new pigging tools and techniques. Texas. crude oil and product pipelines. the PPIM Conference is recognized as the foremost international forum for sharing and learning about best practices in lifetime maintenance and condition-monitoring technology for natural gas. Houston. Houston Marriott Westchase Hotel. The Exhibition will run from 16–18 February. from 15–18 February 2010.clarion. Houston.000 participants including engineering management and field operating personnel from both transmission and distribution companies concerned with improved operations and integrity management. will feature ‘unpiggable pipelines’. inspection. ng and Integrity Managem i g g i P ent line e p i P T multi-diameter and bi-directional pigging. regulation. Texas Courses Conference Exhibition Now entering it 22nd year. will be abuzz with pipeline pigging in February Conference Organisers The international gathering of the global pigging industry! Conference Supporters 46 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 . To register for the Pipeline Pigging & Integrity Management Conference and Exhibition visit www. data interpretation and management. Houston. It enables delegates to come face to face with the industry’s top professionals and create important and lasting contacts. Seven training courses will also be available from 15–16 February.clarion.

Compared to the cost of an emergency valve body sealing job. whereas metal-seated plug valves are designed to resist seat wear in these conditions. opposed to the more popular and slightly cheaper ¼ inch riser lines. Many pipeline operators are beginning to specify full-port ball valves in place of body vent fittings on large diameter valves for this reason. rocks. As a result of valve installation. Instead. Routine maintenance If the preceding four steps have been followed. with less chance of lost production and failed isolations. one of the most important steps is to outfit the valve with the proper internal check valves. the operator will need to implement a scheduled routine of sealant system top-ups with synthetic lubricant. Conclusion Much of this information is not new to pipeline operators.000 psi (344. Technicians are often faced with servicing valves of up to 60 inch inner diameter that are outfitted with ¼ inch body vent ports. and riser lines (if required). construction debris becomes trapped inside the pipe where the butt ends are welded. Many manufacturers claim to produce valves that do not require lubrication and. a new valve will require top-up more often than a valve that has been in operation for one year or more. pressure and service condition can be found. the valve should be online with no problems concerning sealing capability. floating or trunion-mounted ball. The only chance at maintaining the sealing integrity of the valve depends on the ability to inject synthetic lubricants and sealants into the seat and stem areas of the valve. had any lubricant been injected into the valve. Any opportunity to prevent contamination of the valve assembly will increase the likelihood of achieving a positive seat seal test once installed. At this point during the aforementioned construction project. if not millions of dollars on the back end taking into account pipe section isolation during emergency shutdowns. the valve was dry cycled and so severely damaged to the point that it required replacement before the pipeline section could be brought online. Upgrading Once the valve design that best suits the operating conditions of the pipeline has been chosen.000 psi (20. it is best to consider the service conditions. yet thousands of valves in every sector of the petroleum industry are scheduled for replacement every year causing lost production. which can fail under as little as 3. hence. Specifying 3/8 inch riser lines. Often large diameter block valves are stored on a dusty construction site with no end covers or alternative protection from airborne contaminants. it is conceivable that any given valve could stay in service indefinitely and retain sealing integrity. In combination with specialised sealants and pumping equipment. Studies have shown that threaded cage style fittings can withstand injection pressures of well over 50. Inspecting and commissioning Of any step taken toward ensuring that a pipeline runs efficiently and safely. It may seem excessive. these upgrades are overlooked during the design phase as future wear and tear is rarely taken into account. Likewise. It is advised to top up the lubricant every time a valve is operated for the first year in addition to a semi-annual full service schedule. every commissioned valve on this project retains perfect sealing integrity. What is the likelihood of the valve seat seals being worn enough to cause significant leakage due to continued dry cycling or the presence of an abrasive like construction debris. body vent/drain fittings. Due to line purging and throttling. When selecting a crucial component like a mainline block valve. do not include a seat sealant system to inject lubricant or emergency sealant. Every valve was purged of factory grease and replaced with a high quality synthetic lubricant and air tested to ensure that the seat seals maintained their integrity. packing injectors. Typically. rising or non-rising stem gate. Sealweld Corporation Careful handling and storage of valves prior to installation. valve commissioning is the most crucial. and any other kind of debris was meticulously removed from pipe sections before valve installation. Likewise for injection fittings. damage can easily occur on the soft-seat seals of a ball valve.700 kPa). The engineers and managers of this pipeline project would go on to implement a strict valve commissioning and pipe inspection procedure. the purging process pushes the construction debris against the ball and into the gap between the seat ring and the sealing face. a preventative maintenance routine will quickly pay for itself. one could almost completely eliminate having to replace valves before their service life expectancy. exposing the seat ring and body cavity to debris contamination. welding slag. dirt. It only takes one cycle of a contaminated valve to completely destroy the highly sensitive soft seals inside the seating area. Every valve will eventually leak if not properly maintained and the operator’s ability to maintain production or to isolate a pipe section could depend greatly on sealing one leaking valve. The cause: no lubricant in the seat sealant system or seat ring groove. As a result. By taking a few simple steps like these ones above. It is this first critical year of operation that the valve seals sit tightest against the ball plug or gate slab and lubricant is required to reduce the breakout torque during operation. 48 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 49 . In order to maintain the valve properly. Rarely is the internal sealing integrity of the valve taken into consideration by construction crews whose number one concern is its timely installation. Of these makes and styles there is a wide range of feature options to choose from. it would have pushed enough of the debris out and away from the sealing area and minimal damage would have occurred. ensures a more efficient and safe pipeline. sealant injection fittings. black powder or sand? For instance. enables service technicians a much greater chance of injecting a heavy sealant faster if leakage is occurring in the seat area and a seal must be achieved. Selecting the right valves There are many valve manufacturers and valves for any type of production. Valve maintenance technicians rely on the ability to blow-down the valve body cavity to create pressure differentials across leak paths in order to ‘draw’ sealants into the required areas.valves valves simple steps to total valve integrity By Jason Chisholm. a threaded cage design is more likely to withstand the injection pressures of heavy emergency sealants than a crimped cage design. Typically. but a small investment in time and preventative maintenance on the front end could potentially save hundreds of thousands. such as full or reduced port. A case in point involves the resurrection of three brand new 36 inch buried mainline block valves due to the complete washout of seat seals during nitrogen purging. Any rough handling of the valve could cause the ball or gate to ‘creep’ out of its seat. as well as following correct procedures during construction and commissioning. Eight years later. Once installed. This is hardly an ideal situation as the drain port will not be able to vent enough pressure to create the kind of differential that is required to deliver the sealant to the areas that need it the most. This article outlines five steps to follow for a healthy valve. Storage and handling Valve care is often neglected before initial installation. a metal-seated plug valve would suit a mainline block cross-over assembly application better than a soft-seal ball valve. the improper transportation of the valve itself should be of paramount concern to project managers.700 kPa). temperature.

cost reductions can be made due to the decreased pipe weight. a fracture can spread for long distances in either the brittle or ductile mode. and after welding. The authors conclude that. even 40 years A place for science in pipeline design By John Tiratsoo. For example. Traditional manual or semi-automatic welding techniques have a number of limitations in relation to this challenge: • The higher strength steel grades that are becoming more commonly used (X80 and above) are more difficult to weld with conventional technologies. the linepipe supplied does not meet the DWTT shear area requirement. during October 2009. while the weld metal volume could be decreased by 25 per cent. or liquids with a high vapour pressure. To enable pipelines to be welded using the friction-welding process. conventional friction welding is not suitable for joining long components. reliable weld quality consistency. since these cannot be rotated for obvious practical reasons. The introduction of the test also led to significant improvements in the manufacturing of linepipe steel. and. Authors Dallam et al. While differing design philosophies may be employed. which only automatic welding can guarantee to provide. and while acknowledging that there could be as many equivalent selections made as there are reviewers available. large-scale tests more accurately Figure 1: Schematic of the FRIEX process. We can reasonably assume that these new pipelines will require approximately 20 million welds to join the pipes – an unparalleled challenge on welding operations in terms of productivity. the background to the development of the DWTT is in danger of being lost in time. the suitability for service and the risk of failure ultimately depend on the material’s behaviour in actual service conditions. as the test is an essential requirement for many types of pipeline. he Pipeline Technology Conference in Ostend (see our report on page 59) showcased 117 papers over three days. dense-phase fluids. The authors point out. Email jtiratsoo@gs-press. However. making the weld metal stronger than the host metal of the pipe. the number of possible processes. This ring is placed between the pipes and is rotated under an axial load that generates the required friction and associated heat (see Figure 1). the friction between the ring and the pipes increases the temperature in the contact area until the forge temperature is reached. and a minimum requirement for highly-skilled labour. As they point out. many current pipeline engineers do not understand the background or importance of the test – this can lead to problems. or phone +44 1494 675139 50 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 51 . and the test has been very successful in preventing such fractures. A further advantage over thicker materials is that less longitudinal and girth welding is required. switching from X70 to X80 pipe could reduce wall thickness by 12 per cent because of the ratio of pipe strength. Called the FRIEX process. after its introduction. the remaining welding ring material and welding flashes are removed using automated turning and milling machines. After the two adjacent pipes are brought into contact with the rotating ring. and for many years linepipe has met the shear area requirement without difficulty. The DWTT shear area requirement ensures that such fractures will not occur. • Relatively slow joint completion rate due to the slow process of traditional welding and number of passes required. all of which will be welcome to contractors and pipeline owners alike. The major difference between the FRIEX process and conventional friction welding is that a ‘filler material’ in the form of a solid ring is used. this welding process was developed by Denys NV in co-operation with the Soete Laboratory of Ghent University and the Belgian Welding Institute. T X80 pipe X80 pipe is being used more and more widely due to its higher strength and thinner wall thickness. that as the required strength increases. or the same amount of material supporting greater operating loads. there are inconsistent and arbitrary limits on DWTT – such as it only being required for welded pipe of 20 inch diameter or larger – which now need to be reviewed and revised. the rotation of the ring is rapidly stopped and the axial force is increased to the final forge force. and has proven to be very successful in preventing in-service long running brittle fractures. examine the criteria for X80 pipe welding. welding quality. linepipe specifications have stipulated minimum requirements for the shear area in a DWTT to ensure the arrest of a long-running brittle fracture. At that moment. the background to the development of the DWTT still needs to be recognised and fully understood. Pipelines that transport gaseous fluids. For over 40 years. importance of drop-weight tear tests and new welding processes were topics high on the agenda at the Pipeline Technology Conference held in Ostend. Among its many advantages over other methods are its speed. The papers mentioned above can be obtained from Great Southern Press’ UK office. however. The trend in design. Editor-in-Chief The advantages of X80 pipe. The developers of this process recognise that further testing is required. reproducible. However. Friction welding is a forge welding process in which the heat is generated through the friction between two surfaces rubbing against each other under controlled axial pressure. Toughness specifications for linepipe have been developed to ensure that any propagating fracture is arrested within an acceptable length. On the other hand. but the feasibility of their system has clearly been effectively demonstrated. and. and consumables that are suitable for welding decrease. Forging is done using either a hydraulic or pneumatic force. which also require higher energy consumption and give rise to increasingly unacceptable carbon dioxide emissions. an innovative variant of the conventional process has been created. As an example of the speed of this operation. However. Additionally. thinner pipe requiring less welding. several automatic welding processes have been developed by the industry. This article discusses three papers presented at the Conference. and this is a recommendation where higher-strength materials and welding processes are being investigated. are susceptible to propagating fractures. is to use higher-strength materials to take advantage of either less material performing the same function. Once initiated. The motivation for this is to achieve higher performance and safety at a lower total project cost. The authors of this paper point out that in a number of recent projects. procedures. • Increasingly stringent quality requirements demand km of new pipeline construction has been announced worldwide. Tests show that fractures will not propagate if the shear area measured in the test is 85 per cent or higher at the minimum design temperature. such as pipes. with the financial support of the Institute for the Promotion of Innovation by Science and Technology in Flanders. Testing at a small scale has evolved to prove the materials and the design. • The difficulty of finding skilled welders and to encouraging them to work in often remote and inhospitable areas. and environmental impact. and the potential for thinner wall pipe. The drop-weight tear test Dr Andrew Cosham and co-authors continued the theme of testing in their paper on the drop-weight tear test (DWTT). Tensile tests and Charpy V-notch impact tests are normally performed on small specimens. as the DWTT shear-area requirement is just as relevant to today’s pipeline designers as it was at its introduction. employee safety. the lower cost of transporting the pipe to the job site. the below papers are considered to be of particular interest. New welding process It is widely acknowledged that there will be a great increase in pipeline construction in the coming years. One approach involves ‘overmatching’ the weld metal yield strength. and upwards of 280. and consequently pipeline material development. in terms of the weld performance in wide-plate tests. considerable resources and efforts are expended in the design and fabrication of safe and economical pipelines. Belgium. two-phase fluids. and consider the most extreme set of expected service conditions. making it difficult to listen to each presentation. two 20 inch diameter X65 grade steel pipes were completely welded together in around 12 talk tech talk simulate service conditions. quality assurance. Following original research in the 1960s and subsequent testing in a variety of conditions. and there is now a risk of complacency. In order to meet these challenges. Each paper presents different subjects. the DWTT requirement was incorporated into API 5L in 1969. With increased pipe strength.

and include the whole range of tools from foam pigs through to caliper and magnetic flux leakage tools. demonstrating its feasibility as a solution and complementing steel or composite material pipes of any diameter. and the ones who need. Pipes of other diameters can also be incorporated. run in real time. but as important partners in the initiatives with which CTDUT may be involved. allow installation of spools with mapped defects so that the performance of intelligent tools can be assessed under controlled circumstances. 45 members. inspection and maintenance of pipelines beyond the certification of processes and operating procedures. Participants at CTDUT’s pigging course and pipe bursting test facility. drag reduction. involves demonstrations of actual pigs being safely launched. which includes the main participants in the Brazilian pipeline sector. Rosen and Pipeway. As an example of this network-based approach. CTDUT’s facilities are dedicated to testing and training. Other planned projects that will be appropriate to these pipelines will be testing and certification of control equipment and systems. and systems for inspection and protection of pipelines. The laboratory is equipped with a 10 tonne capacity crane.5 km test pipeline. CTDUT has participated in drafting the proposed Safety rules for operation of pipelines. such as long-range guided acoustic waves. The management and those responsible for CTDUT are finding that this model is being increasingly accepted. In such a model. a hydrostatic pressurising pump of up to 1. The rig is equipped with a variable speed winch. Centro Tecnologia em Dutos (CTDUT) has been formed to offer such a service to pipeline owners and operators. monitoring. The structural integrity laboratory offers an area for both destructive and non-destructive integrity tests on carbon Pipelines International's Editor-in-Chief John Tiratsoo (second from right). and retrieved. These new test pipelines will be used to support research and development of new equipment. a number of the institution’s facilities. The projects are looking into leak detection. Created as a non-profit association. Facilitating development Current facilities at CTDUT include a 14 inch diameter test loop. which are invited to join a working group whenever a research project requires expertise in their respective areas of specialisation. there are economic and practical disadvantages of stopping and starting an operating pipeline for the purposes of a testing or research programme. and maintenance. the model for CTDUT came from an audacious and original concept that is performing well and producing excellent results. The course is seen as an increasingly important part of CTDUT’s activities combining. and. specialised knowledge in the oil and gas pipeline industry. 2. a pipeline pig pull-through and defect-characterisation facility and a laboratory for research into structural integrity. being prepared by ANP – the Brazilian National Agency of Oil. The five-day course is planned to run at half-yearly intervals. The oil and gas will come from the nearby Petrobras/ Transpetro Duque de Caxias refinery. It is not the intention of CTDUT to replace or supersede other already adopted solutions. and few companies can afford this structure without imposing extensive costs on their customers. among others. running in April and September this year. which can be operated with oil. and in maintenance procedures. visits CTDUT's pigging course and pipe bursting test facility. The work undertaken at CTDUT is often part of wider research projects. and a 16 inch diameter. transient flow in pipelines. The loop can also be used for training for intervention operations in pipelines. containing a variety of mapped defects. Natural Gas and Biofuels – a project that brought together a wide range of experts with differing backgrounds and interests. The pig pull-through rig is a testing assembly consisting of pipelines with diameters ranging from 6 inches to 16 inches. The institution’s management co-ordinates the research and development projects that are undertaken. In addition. Transpetro. as it does. but to complement what already works well. which may have their centres of excellence inside universities or other specialised institutions. Details of the pigging training course held at the CTDUT facility can be found at www. and encourages and focuses the collective work of teams from different research groups towards a common goal. who developed the pigging course held at CTDUT in association with Clarion. Rio de Janeiro. and has been designed to be suitable for tests that evaluate the detection efficiency and calibration of instrumented pigs and other equipment used for the detection of defects. The syllabus. the Centro de Tecnologia em Dutos (CTDUT) – which translates as the Centre for Technology in Pipelines – offers such services to the pipeline community. Non-associated external organisations can also use the CTDUT facilities. which are carried out at the facility due to the organisation’s ability to provide the necessary hardware and expertise.piggingtraining. including the operation of control and lock valves. It is also important to consider that the availability of well-trained researchers inside the company.000 bar. Both pipelines will eventually be used for the pigging training course as well. and working as a shared research centre available for use by all companies in the sector regardless of their membership status. CTDUT. The 14 inch. Brazil Any dedicated facility for pipeline industry testing has high costs of construction. other laboratories and specialists are not perceived as ‘competitors’. developed by Penspen. Inaugurated on 10 May 2006 as an initiative of its three founding partners – Petrobras. as well as classroom-based lectures and discussions. and available for use by the whole pipeline community. although CTDUT does not have its own dedicated team of in-house researchers. as well as on ancillary equipment such as valves. The 4. and Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio) – CTDUT now has T traditional research models. according to the test requirements.5 km test pipeline in the same right-of-way that can be operated with gas. the growing technological challenges created by the need to exploit new fields often leads companies to undertake research and development activities as a means of remaining competitive and keeping pace with their market’s requirements. and act as a catalyst. 100 m test loop is equipped with flanged spools that.1 m x 18. operation. the training and qualification of operators and technicians. 2. seeking to act as an independent institution and discussion forum for the industry. and monitoring cameras. A further part of CTDUT’s infrastructure currently under construction is a 12 inch diameter. among other applications. in all areas of expertise can lead to the formation of a research and development structure but at considerable cost. and opening and closing the pig trap closures. An example includes the pigging training course developed by John Tiratsoo of Pipelines International and Houston-based Clarion in association with UK-based Penspen and pigging companies Rosen of Germany and PipeWay of Brazil. but instead relies upon a network of researchers from other institutions. Balanced against this. he pipeline industry has particular difficulties in terms of testing and research due partly to the risks associated with any testing programme and difficulties in simulating the extreme conditions in an operational pipeline. including several prominent institutions in their respective fields of pipeline engineering and operations. Working together The research model on which CTDUT is founded is that of a science and technology institution that does not house its researchers on its staff. protection.1 m underground test area is covered with heavy steels plates for maximum protection. The test loop also provides the option for training operators in the procedures involved for safely launching and receiving pigs. as well as flow tests under various actual operating conditions for validation and developed of simulation software. Created with the objective of meeting such needs. Among the research activities being currently developed are seven projects with the financial support of two government organisations (CTPETRO and FINEP) as well as Petrobras. 52 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 53 . This model of a Brazilian ‘network of competence in pipelines’ transects the traditional boundaries of research institutions. a safety bunker with high-impact protection. Pigs have been provided to the course by both Rosen and PipeWay. The organisation also has specialised and trained operating personnel who are able meet all the demands likely to be required of such a facility. Other partners include various Brazilian universities and research institutions.industry news industry news CTDUT: a model for sharing facilities and costs in research and development By Arthur Braga. and the development of techniques for internal lining of pipeline. Executive Director. both public and private. providing evident advantages for both the ones who have. tools.

a section of the TransMediterranean Pipeline that runs through Tunisian territory. under repair at Keppel Verolme. to negotiate a transit fee of 12 per cent of the value of the gas that passed through its territory. this time with the Algerian Government demanding an increase of $US2 per 1 million british thermal unit from the price set in the 1977 agreement. and the fact that the only feasible route for the TransMediterranean Pipeline passed through its territory. involved the deepest subsea pipeline installation at the time. which saw the capacity of the pipeline double to 1 trillion cubic feet per annum. which provided a maximum tension of 180 t in the pipes being laid. The section across the Sicilian Channel is operated by TMPC. The Algerian section of the pipeline is operated by Algerian state-owned company Sonatrach while the Tunisian section is owned by Sotugat (Société Tunisienne du Gazoduc Trans-Tunisien) and operated by Sergaz. The first line of the Trans-Mediterranean was finally commissioned in June 1983. After obstructing materials were successfully blasted through. The Castoro Sei at work offshore Sciliy. D uring the 1960s the TransMediterranean Pipeline project was conceived as the most effective way to monetise Algeria’s extensive gas reserves and to enable Italy to expand its natural gas consumption. after which it crosses the 155 km wide Sicilian Channel. The demand forced Eni to investigate the option of abandoning the pipeline project in favour of shipping Castoro Sei. Eni’s growing commitment to the project. which was laid parallel to it.8 km in the Sicilian Channel. a guide cable was laid along the wall of the trench to act as a reference line for surveying the position of the first pipeline.7 m wide corridor was required to be opened up through rock and coral in water depths of 503 m over a length of 4. Pipeline progress Construction began with an official ceremony in Algiers in June 1979 and by the end of 1980. a computer-controlled. Saipem developed a model to monitor the stress status of the pipes on the sea floor both during and after laying to minimise the risk of buckling and avoid the associated long delays. the three pipelines spanning the Sicilian channel had been completed. and the pipeline progressed. The severe unevenness of the seabed and steep slopes posed the main difficulties for the project.history history Trans-Mediterranean Pipeline The 2. while the second phase was completed between 1991 and 1994. Italian stated-owned Eni pursued the construction of the subsea pipeline in favour of proposals to ship LNG across the Mediterranean and in 1973. Constructing in deep waters The 2. signed a contract with the Algerian Government for the supply of 414 billion cubic feet of gas from the Hassi R’Mel Gas Field for a period of 25 years. which was constructed between 1978 and 1983 to bring natural gas from Algeria to Italy. Saipem was contracted to carry out the engineering. Work was completed in October 2008 to increase the capacity by 113 Bcf/a and works are planned to increase capacity by a further 116 Bcf/a starting from 2012. construction and commissioning of two new gas compression stations and the upgrading of the existing compression facilities. limiting free spans in the pipeline construction. In 1975 Sonatrach and Eni awarded Eni subsidiary Saipem a $US237 million contract to lay three 20 inch gas transmission pipelines across the Sicilian Channel in water depths of up to 610 m and a further four pipelines across the Straits of Messina from Sicily to the Italian mainland. worldwide experience in design. The Tunisian crisis In 1977 Tunisia sought to take advantage of rising oil prices. Present day In 2005 Eni and Sonatrach reached an agreement to expand the TransTunisian Pipeline. The agreement gave rise to the technical challenge of crossing the Mediterranean with a subsea pipeline at record-breaking depths. LNG from Algeria instead. procurement. This manoeuvre resulted in Tunisia accepting a 5. construction and maintenance of offshore pipelines was limited to water depths of 150 m. Construction halted when Eni refused to comply with the new demands and the Algerian Government ordered a halt to all Italian industrial contracts and construction projects in Algeria. More than a quarter of a century on. Construction of the Algerian onshore section of the pipeline did not recommence until a new pricing agreement was reached in 1982. a joint venture of Eni and Sonatrach. Slovenia secured access to the pipeline through the construction of a 35 km spurline. Pipelines International reflects on the achievement. The Italian section is operated by Eni's subsidiary Snam Rete Gas. which is still in service.340 km Trans-Mediterranean Pipeline. The laying system was comprised of three ramps – one fixed and one pivoting ramp. From there it travels 370 km through Tunisia to El Haouaria. which connects into the Italian end. 54 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 55 . Pricing disagreements arose once again. The Trans-Mediterranean Pipeline project necessitated the research and development of new technologies to overcome the engineering and construction hurdles presented by the pipeline’s depth. Saipem constructed Castoro Sei. semi-submersible pipelay vessel.625 per cent transit fee of transported gas volumes. Image courtesy of Keppel Verolme. The Castoro Sei was equipped with three tensioners. which was hinged to the internal pivoting ramp. and a ‘stinger’. to break the world record and lay pipes in depths up to 610 m. A 45. At the time. A preliminary feasibility study was conducted in 1969 and the first route survey completed during 1970.340 km pipeline route begins at the Hassi R’Mel field in Algeria and runs 550 km to the Tunisian border.

if predictions are correct. As an observer of the industry. Pipelines will obviously form a part of this exploitation. However. and their ancillary equipment. the curing substance penetrates. ne of the Southern Hemisphere’s major oil and gas pipeline industry gatherings. without the need for pulsation dampeners. and. their materials. L incoln Electric has developed a new way to teach welding techniques through a virtual welding system called VRTEX 360. and Mr Formigli discussed some scenarios for the large-diameter. A diverse range of papers was presented at the event. A major plenary session was held in which Petrobras’ Pre-Salt Executive Manager Jose Miranda Formigli gave an informative overview of the vast ‘Pre-Salt’ oil and associated gas reserves that have been discovered around 300 km offshore Brazil in around 2. triangle and box weave. without the need for a gear reducer. This huge reservoir. interpretations. and Santos basins and. C olfax Corporation has begun production of the world's largest rotary positive displacement three-screw crude oil pump. Curapipe’s solution cures undetected leaks and cracks (below SCADA system thresholds) before they become larger and more problematic leaks that would require pipeline shutdown and excavation. The performance of this pump series can be further controlled with the use of a variable-speed drive to dial in the required flow rate. along with universities such as PUC-Rio were well represented – as well as a considerable international contingent of authors. on 20–22 September 2011. The latest release of WinDOT includes updates to pipeline regulations for 16 states and 15 new or updated pipeline standards. The Imo 8L Series of pumps is designed to ensure constant oil flow. will provide a significant proportion of the world’s energy supplies for many years to come. with many papers from Brazilian authors – Petrobras and its research institutions. low noise and vibration levels. This year’s event also provided the opportunity for the launch of Pipelines International.viadata. and cost of. weave techniques – straight. A pig train carrying Curapipe’s innovative curing substance is inserted upstream through a pig launcher. including push and drag GMAW techniques. it is clear that what these speakers had to say is true. One of the benefits of events such as these is the networking opportunities they present. Users can search by word or phrase to find regulations. The Rio Pipeline Conference and Exhibition is increasingly gaining attention on the international stage as an important and useful forum. Exhibiting pipeline style The exhibition attracted many visitors. including amendments. Pipelines International had a stand in the exhibition. A number of panel sessions were also held.200 m of water. including 35 that are incorporated by reference. several possible winners gathered at the stand and wouldn’t move until they had witnessed the drawing of the card. The Curapipe solution is a viable pipeline repair solution launched remotely and applied internally. pipeline inspection. will undoubtedly strengthen such international support. which reduces the risk of pipeline failure. Congratulations go to Karina Vargas from Sinopec for winning the iPod Nano. and there was a great range of equipment and services on show for them to see. and the atmosphere of Rio was imbued with the spirit of making new contacts and refreshing old urapipe has developed a leak curing solution for pinhole leaks and cracks that go undetected by conventional detection methods. The clear message that came from this is that huge investment in pipelines. deepwater pipelines that may be required. For more information visit www. welding electrodes or welding coupons and does not require weld fume removal. Instructors can set up the VRTEX 360 to accommodate various types of welding techniques. The product allows welding to be taught without the use of shielding gas. many from outside South America. and 124 exhibiting companies. attracting pleasing feedback. Students are able to practice welding in simulated environments. including the Distribution Integrity Management Program Guidance by linking code sections directly to the guide material. interpretations and guide material to assist them in compliance programs and research.78 MPa. copies of which were widely distributed to delegates and visitors. as well as costly downtime for repairing fully grown leaks.000 barrels of oil per day at pressures up to 13. including a welding booth training environment and field-welding applications. O For more information visit www. Cure pipes with Curapipe T C For more information visit www. at which much interest was raised by the business card prize draw. underlies the Espiritu Santo. The Rio Pipeline Exhibition. waivers and advisory bulletins. one of which discussed the future of the global pipeline industry. it is always encouraging to see industry leaders getting together and saying it in public. and are considering what their impact will be internationally. monitoring and maintenance. Campos. The VRTEX 360 provides a virtual. Pipelines International Editor-inChief John Tiratsoo reports. was held on 22–24 September 2009. Are you launching a new product or service? Contact us at news@pipelinesinternational. The Imo 8L-912Y pump can be installed on pipelines up to 24 inches in diameter and can transport more than 85. was bigger than ever. Topics covered inlcuded: • Automation and SCADA • Compressors and pumps • Corrosion • Environmental safety • GIS • Inspection • Integrity • Logistics • Rehabilitation • Reliability and risk • Slurry pipelines • Social responsibility • Subsea pipelines. WinDOT incorporates the January 2009 edition of Gas Piping Technology Committee Guide. for which the winner would receive an iPod Delegates enjoyed papers presented at the Conference. reinforced by comments from Petrobras’ Pipelines and Terminal Director Claudio Campos. seals and fixes pinhole leaks and cracks.products & services events Learn to weld with Lincoln Electric’s virtual welding system Production begins on world’s largest three-screw crude oil pipeline pump Pipeline carnivale in Rio! The biennial Rio Pipeline Conference and Exhibition. will be required in the foreseeable future in order to transport the great quantities of gas and oil required by the world’s energy consumers. As the pig train passes through the A diverse programme Latest edition of WinDOT – the Pipeline Safety Encyclopedia he August 2009 edition of WinDOT includes the current United States federal pipeline safety regulations 49 CFR 190-199 and Part 40. organised by the Instituto Brasileiro de Petroleo Gas e Biocombustiveis (IBP) in association with ASME. The Brazilian Government and Petrobras are currently working out how best to exploit and export these reserves. Such was the enthusiasm that on the day of the draw. There are 55 standards available on the WinDOT CD. The Curapipe solution is intended to prevent spills and product loss. hands-on training experience. minimising foundation requirements. the 2009 Rio Pipeline Conference and Exhibition. Presentations by Enbridge International’s Operations Director in Canada Bill Trefanenko and Director of Sinopec International Petroleum Service of China’s Wang Zhonghong emphasised this For more information visit www. nonpulsating flow. even in the presence of varying system back pressures due to changes in viscosity. Deployed as a preventive measure for the pipeline industry. and. With over 320 papers in multiple tracks (chosen from around 500 submissions). stringer beads.colfaxcorp.VRTEX360. Colfax’s 8L-912Y pump requires no external lube system and can be direct-coupled to a synchronous-speed driver. from over 35 countries. This reduces the overall footprint of the equipment and simplifies the driver-to-pump alignment. the three-day event provided plenty of opportunity for delegates and visitors to occupy their time to the full. The next event. which provides real-time welding technique feedback to both trainers and students. 56 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 57 . The training system feeds computergenerated data with a virtual welding gun and helmet equipped with internal monitors. similar to a video game. decreases the need for. and will once again provide a great opportunity for an industry gathering.curapipe. with over 30 billion barrels of oil.

Topics covered at the 2009 Pipeline Technology Conference • • • • • Pipeline steels. This technology has already found favour with a number of pipeline operators in the Middle East who are reporting considerable success of their cleaning pig runs. cased in an HDPE outer wrap and laid in the ground. as well as Russia. or phone +44 1494 675139. a visit had been arranged to nearby Bruges with a canal trip and an opportunity to taste the products of the Halve Maan brewery. Mr Batzel gave an enthusiastic presentation on the importance of brush selection for cleaning pigs. Australia. Strain-based design. Pipeline inspection. and.000 km of pipe per annum is currently being replaced in Russia by Gazprom and others. refurbished. Brazil. Iran. a company set up to develop new technology for Shell Global Solutions. or inattention. rehabilitation is often the more cost effective solution. Professor Rudi Deny Pipelines International Editor-in-Chief John Tiratsoo on the NDT stand. and can provide an additional lifespan of 50+ years to a pipeline. US. a welcome relief after a long day discussing strain-based design or fracture arrest. Dr Chris Alexander from Stress Engineering of Houston gave a comprehensive overview of materials and techniques. and the rehabilitation industry is growing as a consequence. such as compressors. The wrong temperature. There was a conference dinner the following evening at one of Ostend’s grand casinos. held between 21 and 22 October 2009. and the country’s Technological Institute-KVIV. The panel of authors represented nearly all of the major manufacturers and researchers involved in these areas. Truboetal of Moscow and Incal Pipeline Rehabilitation of Houston described a plant that has been set up in Russia to refurbish 56 inch diameter pipes taken out of the ground by For full details of the event and photos of social functions visit www. and both events proved highly enjoyable. Sour service. This year. Alan Morton of TD Williamson and Bart Davis of Neptune Research’s Syntho-Glass division spoke about various Next conference to be held in Berlin 2010! The Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Pipelines Conference and Exhibition was first held last year in Prague. Many techniques have now been developed to assist pipeline owners with rehabilitation decision-making and implementation. Delegates enjoy a coffee break. described a wide variety of approaches and solutions. and management of the material demands considerable planning. China. Further details on papers presented at the conference can be found at www. Bill Bruce of DNV Columbus gave a review of hot tap and sleeve welding. Pipelaying at the Ostend conference – a superb model on the Denys stand. and the United States. Belgium. Papers from the conference are available as PDF files on a searchable CD. Phoenix. Two other ‘wrapping’ techniques were presented. One of the key research papers in this field was published in 1998 by Richard Baldwin of Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio on behalf of the Gas Research Council. but also its movement through a pipeline. Pipestream of Houston. and backfilled while in service. Arizona. ECA and validation testing. can lead to the perils of ‘burnthrough’ and consequent leakage. Canada. Belgium. 42 inch diameter line running from the Tengiz Oil Field to Novorossiisk on Russia’s Black Sea coast. and there are many advantages of this process over ‘traditional’ pipelaying. which allows up to 150 m per day to be exposed. Smart Pipe has developed what presenter Richard Huriaux described as a ‘mobile factory’ that allows a pipe to be made onsite using a process in which a high density polyethylene (HDPE) core pipe is wrapped with high-strength fibre tapes and windings. Ductile failure and crack arrest. The paper given by Ray Burke illustrated this by showing a series of burst tests where the host pipe burst well away from the location of the repair. and came from countries as far afield as Argentina. The final paper of the conference was from Doug Batzel of Galaxy Brushes in. the Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Pipelines Conference and Exhibition addressed this difficult question. Europe. South Korea. Held this year from 12–14 October. United States. Mr Bruce’s ‘rules of thumb’ to be considered for pipeline sleeving start with “Is the repair required at all?” – a question that surprisingly often can be answered in the negative. Germany. The conference’s opening presentation focused on rehabilitating – and even. Professor Rudi Denys presents one of his papers. A major refurbishment job was then described by Sid Taylor of Incal. which is presented with the A4-sized book of abstracts. Toughness and residual stresses. This process is fraught with issues that demand very careful attention to the details of the welding involved. and the pipes can often be reused provided careful attention is taken to their refurbishment and subsequent inspection. Diameters up to 24 inches are currently feasible. The ability for this forum to meet regularly provides an unmatched opportunity for discussions and networking of the highest calibre. While replacement is sometimes the only option. Email jtiratsoo@gs-press.pipeline2009. There is now a considerable range of composite-wrap alternatives. is held every five years in Ostend.piperehabconf. Mr Batzel’s company has pioneered the development of so-called ‘pencil’ brushes. of 117 papers – is renowned worldwide as the foremost opportunity to learn about the latest developments and approaches being employed in high-pressure transmission pipeline design. Houston-based Dr John Smart of John Smart Consulting Engineers reviewed the problems associated with black powder in gas 58 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 59 . which are designed to deflect into pits and other internal pipeline features that stiffer wire brushes will pass over. Pipeline welding. on 20–21 October cleaning. materials and welding research. Japan. Pipeline design and construction. organised by Professor Rudi Denys of the University of Gent. Czech Republic. it can be extremely damaging to both the internal pipe wall and rotating equipment.EVENTs events Evaluating different rehabilitation approaches Over 60 per cent of the world’s major oil and gas transmission pipelines are now more than 40 years old – leaving some operators to face stark choices: to rehabilitate. Dr Smart pointed out that the problem is not only the physical aspects of the powder itself. The Russian contractor has developed an interesting and efficient coating removal.510 km. In addition. the delegate list of the event read like a ‘Yellow Pages’ of the industry’s cutting edge scientific researchers and technological developers. One of the traditions of the Pipeline Technology Conference is that social activities are arranged for the delegates. and can be obtained from Great Southern Press’ UK office. The project involved recoating 60 km of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium Oil Pipeline in Kazakhstan – a 1. and recoating system in the trench. or to replace? Held in Pittsburgh. P apers at the Evaluation and Rehabilitation Conference and Exhibition. The organisers plan for the event to alternate between North America and Europe. is now able to wrap a host pipe with a steel reinforcing strip in such a way that the resulting wrapped pipe is considerably stronger than the original. based in Antwerp. and care needs to be taken in specifying the one that is to be used for any particular job as their properties vary quite widely. Upwards of 20. T • • • • projects their companies had undertaken in which composite wraps had been used with great success. he widely-respected Pipeline Technology Conference. Pennsylvania. Pipeline Technology Conference: a scientific update from Ostend The high-level programme at the Pipeline Technology Conference – this year. The next conference is planned for Berlin. recycling – the pipes themselves after they have been lifted from the trench. s and Dr Michael Beller.

environmental and economic challenges. optimising asset performance. Texas. exciting www. An interesting two-day business program featured the most up-to-date information about projects. and attracted approximately 150 Keynote presentations included Cape York Partnerships Director Noel Pearson speaking about pipeline development on Aboriginal FutureGAS 2010 International Pipeline Exhibition Pipeline Technology Conference 2010 Offshore Technology Conference 2010 IndoPipe 2010 2010 APIA Annual Convention International Pipeline Conference 2010 and International Pipeline Exposition 44th IPLOCA Convention Langfang. Khairuddin-AGC Board Chairman.pipechina. 7 reasons to advertise 1. technical. Datuk Rahim-President. Italy Datuk Rahim expanded on what the IGU Presidency means for Malaysia and South East Asia www. The Australian Pipeline Industry Association Exhibition held in Cairns. DATE/VENUE 15 – 18 February. Queensland. Professor Andrew Palmer from the Centre for Offshore Research and Engineering. international issues. Pipelines International will have the best editorial and the best design – meaning your advert will make the best impression. intelligent pigging. Sabah. he most prestigious Australian pipeline event of the year – the Australian Pipeline Industry Association (APIA) Convention was held between 17–20 October in Cairns.iee-c.clarion. The focus of this year’s Conference was ‘Optimising Pipeline Performance by Harnessing our Human Capital’ and a wide range of case studies was presented ranging from industry training. gave an enlightening presentation on the looming shortage of experienced personnel in the oil and gas 60 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 61 .iploca. 5. 6. It is an excellent way to advise the industry of a new product or service. 2010 Houston. and Canada’s National T Australian industry gathers in northern Australia Energy Board Professional Leader – Engineering Alan Murray. It is great value and will give you a strong return on your Pipelines International is published by two of the longest standing names in the pipeline media. stimulating colleagues.indopipe2010. University of Singapore. The highlight of the Conference was the opening by Datuk (Dr) Abdul Rahim Hj Hashim who gave his first regional address as the newly appointed President of the International Gas Union (IGU). Magazine advertising remains the most effective way to market your products and services. United States 9 – 11 March 2010 Brisbane. Seven LNG projects have been proposed in the www. 3.apia.futuregas. The Exhibition provided a great opportunity for delegates to discuss the latest products and services for the industry with approximately 60 suppliers. Soh Mey Lee-Chairperson IGU Task Force 2. International Gas Union. 2. Australia. USA 9 – 10 June 2010 Jakarta. 7. The readership is highly targeted toward senior members of the pipeline industry. travel and reasonable monetary compensation. Indonesia 11 – 14 September 2010 Darwin. Canada 27 September – 4 October 2010 Venice. He observed that the gas industry should not take demand growth for its product for granted. Dr Allen-Executive Director AGC.ptc2010. indicating that the long lead times means there is a challenge to develop gas markets. who discussed the similarities and differences between the Australian and Canadian www. Malaysian Gas Association and President. integrity management and flow assurance. Queensland was a fitting location for the APIA Convention and Exhibition as the state is developing as a natural gas and LNG export hub for Australia. Natural gas is set to play an ever increasing role in energy production and will need pipelines to reach markets. He highlighted the importance of recruiting students who want challenging. 4. as well as investigating new developments in the industry. Prof Andrew C Palmer-National University of Singapore. BRINGING THE PIPELINE WORLD TOGETHER From L-R: Dato' Margaret Fung-CEO Sabah Energy Corporation. Germany 3 – 6 May 2010 Houston. China 19 – 20 April 2010 Hannover.event snapshots media kit APCE: pipeline success in South East Asia T he event was held at the Sutera Harbour Resort. involving the construction of hundreds of kilometres of pipeline from the state’s coal seam gas fields to port sites. Australia 31 March – 2 April 2010 EVENT 22 International Pipeline Pigging & Integrity Management Conference nd CONTACT www. balanced across regions and roles. Australia 27 September – 1 October 2010 Calgary.

500 €6. John Tiratsoo and Scientific Surveys are long-time publishers of information on pipelines – including information on companies. Pipes & Pipelines International. Double Page (Trimmed Size) 420 mm x 297 mm Double Page (Bleed Size) 426 mm x 303 mm advertising rates & sizes Prices per Insertion (prices below are in $US) 4 TIMES Double Page Spread Outside Back Cover Inside Front Cover Inside Back Cover Page One Full Page Half Page Third Page Quarter Page $8.850 €5. Full Page (Trimmed Size) 210 mm x 297 mm Full Page (Bleed Size) 216 mm x 303 mm Half Page (Horizontal) 185 mm x 125 mm Half Page (Vertical) 122 mm x 185 mm Half Page (Vertical) 90 mm x 250 mm Quarter Page (Horizontal) 185 mm x 60 mm Quarter Page (Vertical) 90 mm x 125 mm Quarter Page (Special) 122 mm x 90 mm Third Page (Vertical) 59 mm x 250 mm Third Page (Horizontal) 185 mm x 83 mm 62 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 63 .500 €3. as well as features on important industry areas such as integrity management.000 $2.000 decisionmaking pipeline industry members around the globe with a balance between regions and roles. The Pipelines International team Pipelines International is being published by the merger of two long-standing pipeline media companies.800 $3.500 $8. and a 2 per cent discount for single bookings. The magazine will include region reviews.600 $5. Pipeline. Pipeline Asia.400 €5. The new company will be known as Great Southern Press.500 $7.000 $3. Pipeline pigging and integrity technology. company and regulatory news.950 €4.250 €2.000 $9.550 €2.950 €4. the magazine will reflect the diversity of the pipeline industry across the continents.650 ONCE $10. It publishes The Australian Pipeliner – the flagship of the Australian pipeline industry – as well as a number of other industry titles including Gas Today. The magazine is present at a wide number of industry events throughout the year. the latest news and technical information. project reviews.800 $5.900 $5.550 €4.000 $8.850 €5.600 $6. Scientific Surveys and Great Southern kit media kit bringing the worldwide pipeline industry together Pipelines International is the new magazine for the global pipeline industry.750 €2.000 $4.700 €2.000 $3. and project.400 $3. Great Southern Press has been publishing about pipelines since 1972. Current and former publications from the Pipelines International team include Pipeline World.350 €3.600 $7.850 €2.800 $6.200 €4. The magazine is directly mailed to over 10.000 $6.600 $2.550 €5. Multiple bookings provide excellent value and ensure extended exposure.350 Prices per Insertion (prices below are in €) 4 TIMES Double page spread Outside Back Cover Inside Front Cover Inside Back Cover Page One Full page Half Page Third Page Quarter Page €6.350 $2.000 ONCE €7. John is also the editor of the must-have book on pigging.250 €1.750 €4.400 €5.750 TWICE $9.100 Colour: All adverts are full colour Prepayment of bookings attracts a 5 per cent discount for multiple bookings. Plant & Offshore.500 $7. particularly if you book all four editions plus the annual directory. projects.100 €6.000 $7. Published quarterly.800 TWICE €7.900 €4. The Indonesian Pipeliner.700 $3. and the Journal of Pipeline Engineering.550 €2.750 €5.000 €2.600 $6.000 $8.

Paid subscriptions are also available at the following rate $US60. Insert 41 OBC SUBSCRIPTION FORM Name: Job Title: Company: Address: Telephone: Fax: Email: Annual subscription: A limited number of qualified free subscriptions are or subscribe online at: Coming in future issues MARCH 2010 Region Review Middle East JUNE 2010 Southeast Asia SEPTEMBER 2010 Canada DECEMBER 2010 Western Europe Feature Equipment Feature Terrain Review DEADLINE Trenchless Technology Compressors Valves Pigging Automatic Welding Padding Machines Trenchers Pipe Layers & Side Booms Swamps/marsh Offshore Desert Forest 12 March 2010 14 May 2010 6 August 2010 29 October 2010 64 Pipelines International | DECEMBER 2009 . You can use this form to apply obligation free. €45 (for one year/five issues including Directory) Rhino Marking & Protection Systems 1 I would like to subscribe to Pipelines International: Expiry: _ _ / _ _ Name on card: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Please invoice me Please debit my credit card the amount of: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Please either detach this page or make a photocopy and send to: Great Southern Press GPO Box 4967 Melbourne VIC 3001 Phone: +61 3 9248 5100 | Fax: +61 3 9602 2708 Email: query@pipelinesinternational.REGULAR ADVERTISERS’ INDEX 3M United Kingdom plc (Corrosion Protection Products) Allu UK Ltd Clarion/Tiratsoo Technical Training Dressta Asia Pacific Journal of Pipeline Engineering LaValley Industries The Professional Institute of Pipeline Engineers PipeLine Machinery International PPIM 2010 Rosen Group Vacuworx 7 IFC 5 37 IBC 11 3 39 47.pipelinesinternational.

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