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INFRASTRUCTURE REGULATORY ISSUES
Dexter [Pick the date]
BY DEEPAK KUMAR AJIT KR. PRABHAKAR PRAGYAN KRANTI KALITA ANAMIKA DALUI BISWARUP GOSH
Introduction Road infrastructure is of prime importance for the growth of the economy, since around 60% of freight and 85% of passenger traffic moves by road in India. The National Highways only constitute around 1.7% of the road network, but carry 40% of the total road traffic. Yet only 24% of the country‟s national highways are four-lane and meet the required standards. The National Highway Development Programme (NHDP) is the largest and foremost infrastructure program being undertaken in the country. The program envisages upgrading or strengthening of around 54,000 km of the highways in several phases with an investment of around INR 3,000 billion. Economic liberalization in 1990s necessitated development of a world-class road network to trigger the economic growth trajectory for India. The concept of involving private sector was mooted as the investment required for this task was well beyond the budgetary support. Thus private sector participation in the form of Public Private Partnership emerged in mid nineties and entrenched itself in 2000–10 as the most preferred mode of delivery in the construction of National Highways in India.
Typical Project description and need: Name of the National Length in Project Stretch Highway Km
Indicative Project Cost (In Rs. cr.) 1520.00
Assignment period (months)
Four Laning of MHKNT Border - Sangareddy from (km 348 to km 493) of NH-9 on DBFOT (TOLL) Basis.
km 348.800 to km 493.000
Scope of work The scope of work will broadly include rehabilitation, up gradation and widening of the existing carriageway to four lane standards with construction of new pavement, rehabilitation of existing pavement, construction and/or rehabilitation of major and minor bridges, culverts, road intersections, interchanges, drains, etc. and the operation and maintenance thereof.
Project objectives: The proposed project focuses on contribution in the development of economic relations, trade and transport communications in southern part of India through improving regional road infrastructures. This highway project mainly focuses on the following: Enhanced safety of the traffic, the road users and the people living close to the highway. Enhanced operational efficiency of the highway. Fulfillment of the access needs of the local population. Minimal adverse impact on the road users and the local population due to construction
Planned outputs: At the pre execution phase, the project has to go through the following stages • • • • • • • Pre-Feasibility study with various alternatives Feasibility study for bankable project Detailed design Tender documents for construction Specific studies (hydrology, structures, environmental impact, social impact, toll/transit fees, financial management) Training of local staff
Project Feasibility study The feasibility of the project is evaluated in two basic phases, viz Pre-feasibility Study (Concept and Initiation Phase) This step implies the discussion of the investment idea. It may include a representation of the investment idea with a simple legal, marketing, technical and engineering, financial and economical, or social criterion that lead to a primary approval or refusal of the idea. Detailed Feasibility Study (Design and Development Phase)
The detailed feasibility study includes more detailed studies of the investment idea with a detailed legal, marketing, technical and engineering, financial and economical, or social criterion that lead to project appraisal. Generally, the tasks associated with such studies include the following • Legal study, that includes the legal aspects of the project, any legal issues forbidding the project and any legal modifications required to proceed in this project. • Technical and engineering studies, which define the expected capacity of the NH after upgradation, determination of no. of lanes, complete design, construction process and method, site location, and planning schedules. A detail study regarding feasibility of the proposed upgradation of the HIGHWAY is done considering Visibility and Road Safety Black Spot inventory , description of Road Cross-Sections ,Geotechnical analysis. Hydrology study is important due to the severe problems of erosion, which encountered on the road banks. Slope stability problems at different sections should be exhaustively surveyed. All existing bridges and site proposed bridges on the present road have to be thoroughly inspected before proceeding further. For each existing bridge decision should made for repair or complete reconstruction. A complete study of road geometry conditions is also very important; for that data have to be collected about existing geometry, roadside facilities, visibility conditions and risk zones during different seasons of the year.
• Financial and economical studies, that define the investment costs of construction, cost of material, labour, machines etc, financial schedule, resources and budgets, and revenues or benefits inform of toll tax. The Economic Feasibility of the Project is to be confirmed in consistence with the Pre-Feasibility Report issued for the needs of the banks Appraisal for loan. Alternate pavement design options for the Project Road meeting the economic feasibility has to be proposed. Financial analysis is carried out to assess sustainability for Government‟s budget. Proposed tolls are eventually taken into account. • Social study, In addition to pure technical engineering surveys, social impact studies is equally important and to be also undertaken during the inspection period with relevant site surveys. This study incorporates Social Impact Assessment on the neighboring area of the proposed stretch of the road. Social feasibility study measures the social profitability of the project. It is necessary to carry out to review the feasibility of investment from the social point of view. It measures the social profitability of the investment project.
Other environmental issues also considered such as River Erosion Protection, Slope Stability Assessment, and Environmental Impact Assess. Specific technical studies have to be carried out with relevant site visits to incorporate concern hydrology of the area, slope stability and structures in addition to existing road geometry. Feasibility Study According to the World Bank Procedure The World Bank (WB) provides funds to governments and public organizations guaranteed by their governments to execute public projects. Each year the World Bank lends between US$15$20 billion for projects in more than 100 countries. The feasibility study steps followed by the WB are shown in following.
The Bank provides policy analysis and project advice along with financial assistance where requested. institutional. alternative scenarios to conducting the project. For tailoring bidding documents to the project concerned. with widespread stakeholder support. and a likely timetable for the project approval process. depending on the complexity of the project being proposed. environmental. and financial issues facing the project are studied and addressed. targeted to country poverty reduction efforts. The bank prepares lending and advisory services. the technical. the bank helps governments take the lead in preparing and implementing development strategies in the belief that programs that are owned by the country. the bank prepare an outline of the basic elements of the project. have a greater chance of success. . its proposed objective. based on the selectivity framework and areas of comparative advantage. economic. During this period. • Preparation: This part of the process is driven by the country that the Bank is working with and can take from a few months to three years. likely risks. • Identification: Projects that can be funded as part of the agreed development are identified.• Country Assistance Strategy: Under its current development policy.
the various criteria considered for adoption of plan includes: • Its construction costs • route length • Connectivity to important places • the route which requires the least land acquisition • minimal negative social and environmental impacts . The project appraisal document and draft legal documents are prepared. efficiency. • Negotiations and Broad Approval: The bank and the country that is seeking to borrow the funds negotiate on loan or credit agreement. • Implementation and Completion: The implementation and completion report is prepared to evaluate the performance of both the bank and the borrower. • Implementation and Supervision: The borrower implements the project. Preliminary Design The Preliminary Design is prepared after complete reception of the topographical and geotechnical surveys. institutional. and social aspects of the project. environmental. and effectiveness. The horizontal and vertical alignments have been defined as well as various options of pavement. financial. Both sides come to an agreement on the terms and conditions of the loan. technical. Analysis is used for future project design. The bank ensures that the loan proceeds are used for the loan purposes with due regard for economy.• Appraisal: The bank assesses the economic. • Evaluation: The bank prepares an independent audit report and evaluates the project. The Analysis of the alternatives is based on the following considerations: • Traffic volume considerations • Economic Growth Projects and Assumptions • Potential shifts of vehicular traffic • Economic Considerations Recommendations on the Best Alternative/Option In this phase out of the proposed alternative designs best suited is adopted for implementation .
Preliminary design of reconstructed bridges. Advertisements inviting tenders for highway projects are published in public media stating the type abd brief of work with requirement of . Economic analysis is performed comparing discounted yearly benefits to the construction and maintenance costs in the alternatives with and without upgradation of the highway. which are part of the Tender document. A draft has to be handed over to the National Highways Authority of India at the early stage. Benefits are derived from traffic estimates and vehicle operating costs previously assessed without 4-lane facility in that rout. A design report has to be prepared consisting of the following (a) Preliminary designs (b) Proposed design basis. are derive from the Preliminary Design of the Feasibility Study. hydraulic structures and river erosion protection structures has to be also carried out. After submission of the best-suited design. the material specification with estimated cost report has to be prepared. these will consequently be handed over to the successful bidder of the construction works. Construction cost estimates are then derive from the preliminary design. for revision of its price with the final quantities.• which facilitates least number of buildings will have to be demolished if any • design with gentlest vertical alignment In this phase. standards and specifications (c) Summary of survey and investigations data (d) Available Facilities Inventory Along with relevant drawings including (a)Location map (b)Layout plans (c)Other relevant drawings (d)Indicative land acquisition plans Tender Documents / Bill of Quantities The next phase after banks appraisal is to prepare Tender Documents for the construction works. The Technical Drawings and the Bill of Quantities. A full maintenance study is conduct with estimates of yearly maintenance costs for the economic analysis.
or duplication in the nomenclature of items.minimum prequalification levels of organizations for the issue of tender documents. and (c) the time stipulated to complete the job is adequate. Strengthening the public transport system in the country . specifications and drawings. To review Tax rationalization and other efficiency parameters. Tender Documents have to be prepared before the invitation of the bids is commenced. To offer close guidance in the preparation and review of final documents prior to certification. These documents are issued on request. (b) the specifications and drawings are capable of implementation at site. conditions of contract. Terms of Reference In this section a brief description of the assignment and its objectives are given prior to the award of project to the parties. The documents have also to be approved by the National Highways Authority Of India to ensure that: (a) there is no ambiguity. To conduct Internal Auditors training and guide the Internal Auditor team in conducting required numbers of internal audits. To assist in evaluation of implemented ISO 9001:2008 quality management system through internal audits including closure actions. only to appropriately prequalified organizations. To assist in coordination of required management reviews prior to certification To guide the ISO project team to take the necessary corrective actions on identified nonconformities and final review of documents To co-ordinate during final certification of the department and ensure the department is certified by a select certification body Efficiency and otherwise of the Inter-State Transport flows and bringing about a barrier free transport environment. contradiction.
Steps in Procurement Procurement procedure usually follows the following steps 1. Clarifications and Common Set of Deviations 7. Issue of Bid documents to prospective bidders 6. Approval of Bid Documents by National Highways Authority Of India 3. Scrutiny 9. Submission of Technical Proposal.Acceptance of Bids Tendering process It is the phase of project. Pre Bid Meeting and Issue of Minutes. which involves action to perform bidding by interested contractors in order to win the contract by responding to tenders with their capabilities and skills formation consists of the following steps Information to Consultants Letter of Invitation Submission of Firms Credentials. Terms of Reference Draft Form of Contract Information to Consultants . Receipt of Bids 8. Invitation for Bids 5. Preparation of Bid Documents 2. Public Invitation for Pre-qualification (where relevant) Issue of Instructions and Pre-qualification criteria Pre-Application Meeting and Issue of Clarifications to Applicants Receipt of PQ applications and scrutiny Approval to PQ 4. submission of Financial proposal.
A brief description of the work to be done and other related information are provided. project cost. Tenders must be invited in the most open and public manner possible. The notice-inviting tender is also available in NHAI website in addition to the invitation in the press. Bids are invited from consulting firms in form of a proposal for providing consulting services required for the project. where the important or core information is provided while leading the intending bidders to the detailed tender Time Period for Bids Period given for submission of Bids should be adequate to enable the bidder make his investigations. For domestic Bids this period may be 30 to 60 days. Sale of Tenders Tender documents must be kept ready for sale before the issue of Invitation for Bids. The intending bidders desiring to tender should make a written application and pay the price of the bid documents in the specified format. Usually the period is counted from the publication to the last date of sale of bid documents. amount of earnest money . it provides all necessary information regarding the various terms and conditions imposed by the NHAI. performance guarantee etc. Wide publicity must be given to the Bid Invitation Notice. Tender documents with complete set of drawings are made available to the bidders as soon as their applications are received. visit the site. such as location . time and format.In this phase communication is made to the bidders by means of public notice. and quote realistically. Letter of Invitation In this phase. by advertisement in the Press and by notice in English/Hindi and regional language newspapers of the concerned District/ State or National Levels as may be applicable. process of submission of offer. duration . Proposal Submission Interested consultant should submit both technical and financial proposals in two parts namely. Technical Financial . carry out his costing.
Scrutiny of bids Scrutiny of the 'Financial Bids' is carried out to determine whether each bid has been properly signed conforms to all the terms. Submission and Opening of Bids The NHAI needs to fix a place and a specific date and time as the deadline for the submission of tenders. the NHAI authorized personnel needs to open the bids in the presence of the intending bidders or their representative. This money is to be deposited along with completed tender in specified format. . if any will be announced by the procuri ng entity during opening of bids. On the due date and appointed time. The bidder‟s name. to enable prospective bidders to seek clarifications about the provisions of the bid and make suggestions about the work and the bidding conditions. Evaluation of Proposals The evaluation of the proposals are made only after (i) correction for errors. The tender must be submitted in writing. shall be returned unopened to the bidders who submitted the same. Arithmetic errors includes difference between the amount of rate in figure and in words he rate quoted by the bidder in figures and in words tallies. The tender received after the deadline for the submission of tender. the bid prices and discount. conditions and specifications of the tender documents without material deviation and reservation.Pre Bid Meeting A Pre Bid Meeting is held at prior to the opening of the tender. Substantially responsive financial bids are checked for any arithmetic errors and are to be rectified. signed and in a sealed envelope as per stipulations contained in the Bid documents. Bid Security A bid security or earnest money (Normally 1% of the estimated cost of the work put to tender) is to accompany the bid by the offerer. Unsuccessful bidder can refund their earnest money after award of the work. . but the amount is not worked out correctly. as mentioned in the bid document.
taxes and other levies will not be considered in evaluation of bids. In case re-bidding/change to post-qualification also results in receipt of single bid then it should be opened and the bid amount should be compared with the estimated project cost. change from pre-qualification to post-qualification may also be considered and resorted to. In case only a single bid is received by the due date of receipt. In case of re-bidding. The usual criterion stipulated in tender documents. deviations and. Guidelines for Acceptance of Single Tenders1 The following guidelines adopted by NHAI for its works. a detailed price analysis for any or all the items of Bill of Quantities has to present by the offerer to demonstrate the internal consistency of those prices with the construction methods and schedule proposed Acceptance of Bids At the end of its scrutiny and evaluation of the bids a comparative statement of tenders is prepared to compare the tenders and in order to ascertain the successful tender in accordance with the procedures and criteria set forth in the bid documents.(ii) (iii) adjustments for any acceptable variations. or alterative offers and other factors. if that would help increase response of tender. which are in excess of the bidding documents or otherwise result in unsolicited benefits for the Contractor should not be taken into account in bid evaluation.. adjustments to reflect any discounts or other modifications offered. deviations. Duties. Any variations. without thereby incurring any liability to the affected bidder(s) or any obligation to inform the affected bidder(s) of the grounds for this action. 1 National Highway Authority of India : NHAI Works Manual-(2006) . the tender response is expected to be poor. f the bid of the successful bidder is seriously unbalanced in relation to the estimate of the cost of the work. at any time before the award of its work. National Highways Authority Of India shall reserve the right to accept or reject any bid or all bids. law and order etc. is to regard a bidder successful if his bid quotes the lowest price subject to any margin of preference applied pursuant to Government policy. recall the tender and to annul the bidding process. normally the bid process may be cancelled and re-bidding done by giving a shorter notice (say of four weeks) except in cases where due to other reasons like difficult conditions.
In case the bid amount is within 15% of the estimated cost. The model was used to throw up the of annuity levels for a range of expected returns on equity (equity IRR) for the project. Payment of annuity is linked to the road being available to users and appropriate formulae for deductions for non-availability or inadequate quality have been set out in the contract. then for acceptance. In cases where due to reasons like difficult conditions. in that the payment commences only after the road is built. the payment is subject to the availability of the road and service quality. Special Purpose Vehicle . Value for Money (VfM) = Cost under the Conventional Approach (CCA) . Public Sector Financial Model: The financial model developed using public sector benchmarks was used to compare the costs to NHAI under the conventional approach and under the annuity payment based BOT approach. likelihood of poor response etc. law and order.. then acceptance of the bid may be considered with proper justification and reasons. the equivalent annuity for NHAI under the conventional approach was derived using discounted cash flow analysis. operating costs. For this the risks under each of the approaches were evaluated and the value of quantifiable transferred risks (primarily cost and time overrun) ascertained. Objective measures for availability – lane kilometer hours over the annuity period and riding quality – such as road roughness index. The annuity payment is a payment for performance. rutting and potholes etc. Based on the above. were developed for this purpose. For EPC contracts such single tenders can be considered for acceptance provided if bid is reasonable and sufficient justifications exist for acceptance. periodic maintenance expenses and the cost of debt finance. the above guidelines shall be applicable as are prescribed for acceptance of tenders where re-bidding is resorted to. it is decided to open the single bid without going for re-bidding. During the operations period.Cost under the Annuity Approach (CAA) Private Sector Financial Model: A financial model for each project was developed incorporating typical private sector estimates of capital costs of the project.
with a specialized arm of NHAI (insurance function) to buy political and traffic insurance. Concession Agreement:-It is a negotiated contract between a company and a government that gives the company the right to operate a specific business within the government's jurisdiction. b. with a specialized agency for toll collection. subject to certain conditions. and g. d. It involves very less cash support from the NHAI in the form of equity/debt. Nearly 80 percent of this equity at the SPV level is infused by the promoter‟s themselves. rest of the funds comes from Ports/Financial Institutions/beneficiary organisations in the form of equities/debt. a. SPVs are separate legal entities formed under the Companies Act. . f. A concession agreement may also refer to an agreement between the owner of a facility and the concession owner or concessionaire that grants the latter exclusive rights to operate a specified business in the facility under specified conditions. This is because due to the lack of exit options at the SPV level. e. with a Trusteeship company to act as a security trustee and to protect the ensure that the interests of the investors by ensuring that the SPV functions as per the mandate at the time of its inception. 1956. c. The SPV enters into a number of contracts with the various parties to the transaction. Regardless of the type of concession. very few equity providers are willing to participate at the SPV level. with the civil contractors for road construction and maintenance. the concessionaire usually has to pay the party that grants it the concession ongoing fees that may either be a fixed amount or a percentage of revenues. The amount spent on developments of roads/highways is to be recovered in prescribed concession period by way of collection of toll fee by SPV. lock-in etc. with a bank for managing any financial risk that may be present in the financing structure and for adequate liquidity. with NHAI for land acquisition.with a rating agency to rate the various types of instruments to be offered to the investors to financially participate in the project.
no such retention shall be made. In the event of failure of the Concessionaire to effect the payment pursuant to above. be retained in the Escrow Account provided that if a Bank Guarantee of an equivalent sum in the form and content acceptable to authority has been furnished by the Concessionaire to aithority. then such larger amount as recommended by the Independent Consultant shall be retained in the Escrow Account. The Concessionaire shall not create nor permit to subsist any encumbrance over or otherwise transfer or dispose of all or any of its rights and benefits under this Agreement or any Project Agreements to which Concessionaire is a party except with prior consent in writing of authority. to the authority within the 15 (fifteen) days period set forth therein.000 (twenty thousand) PCUs per day per year shall notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Agreement. This Agreement shall not be assigned by the Concessionaire save and except with prior consent in writing of authority. which consent authority shall be entitled to decline without assigning any reason whatsoever.The Concessionaire shall be responsible for all defects in the Project Highway for a further period of 24 (twenty four) months after the Termination of the Concession Period or any extension thereof and shall have the obligation to rectify at its own cost any defects observed in the Project Highway including any Project Facilities during the said period failing which authority shall get the same rectified at the Concessionaire‟s risk and cost and all such costs shall be paid by the Concessionaire to authority within 7 (seven) days of receipt of demand in this regard from authority. which consent authority shall be entitled to decline without assigning any reason whatsoever. Provided further that the Independent Consultant shall carry out an inspection of the Project Highway at any time within two year before the Termination Date and if it recommends that the status of the Project Highway is such that a large amount should be retained in the Escrow Account. . authority shall be entitled to recover the same from the Project Escrow Account and/or the Termination Payment for which purpose a sum equal to the Fees realisable during the last two year of the Concession Period for a traffic volume calculated at the rate of 20.
agents. suit or proceeding liabilities. subsidiaries and contractors . Events of Default except to the extent that any such claim has arisen due to a negligent act or omission. reduction in return or other financial burden as aforesaid. the Indemnifying Party shall be entitled. The Indemnified Party shall have the right. related to or arising out of any matter for which it is entitled to be indemnified hereunder and their reasonable costs and expenses shall be indemnified by the Indemnifying Party. the aggregate financial effect of which exceeds Rs. its Subsidiaries. defend and hold authority harmless against any and all proceedings.If as a result of Change in Law. defend and hold harmless the Concessionaire against any and all proceedings. payments and obligations at its expense and through counsel of its choice provided it gives prompt notice of its intention to do so to the Indemnified Party and reimburses the Indemnified Party for the reasonable cost and expenses incurred by the Indemnified Party . damage and expense of whatever kind and nature arising out of defect in title and/or the rights of authority in the land comprised in the Site adversely affecting the performance of the Concessionaire‟s obligations under this Agreement and/or arising out of acts done in discharge of their lawful functions by authority. action. defend and litigate any claim. the Concessionaire may notify authority and propose amendments to this Agreement so as to put the Concessionaire in the same financial position as it would have occupied had there been no such Change in Law resulting in such cost increase. at its option. servants or agents including due to Concessionaire Event of Default. If the Indemnifying Party acknowledges in writing its obligation to indemnify the person indemnified in respect of loss to the full extent. contractors. third party claims. to assume and control the defence of such claim. actions. indemnify. actions and. the Concessionaire suffers an increase in costs or reduction in net after tax return or other financial burden. its Officers. breach of contract or breach of statutory duty on the part of the Concessionaire. but not the obligation. the Parties shall meet as soon as reasonably practicable but no later than 30 (thirty) days and either agree on amendments to this Agreement or on alternative arrangements to implement the foregoing. Upon notification by the Concessionaire as aforesaid. servants. resulting from. affiliates. action.10 million (Rupees ten million) in any Accounting Year. third party claims for loss. to contest. Authority will. suit or proceeding by any third party alleged or asserted against such party in respect of. The Concessionaire will indemnify.
there may be enforceability issues with certain provisions of the shareholder‟s agreement. disclosure. The Concessionaire shall not be liable to pay any property taxes for the Site. action. the property representing the capital investment made by the Concessionaire shall be deemed to be acquired and owned by the Concessionaire.prior to the assumption by the Indemnifying Party of such defence. and use of the Site for telegraph lines. For the purposes of claiming tax depreciation. . The Concessionaire shall have exclusive rights to the use of the Site in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement and for this purpose it may regulate the entry and use of the Project Highway by third parties. Shareholder‟s Agreement:A Shareholders‟ Agreement between shareholders of a private limited company is a contract that details the various provisions that will govern each of the shareholders who are party to the agreement vis-à-vis the Company and the shares held by each such shareholder and also the provisions that will govern the management of the Company as agreed to by the parties to the agreement. Where such access or use causes any financial loss to the Concessionaire. The Concessionaire shall allow access to. suit or proceeding without the prior written consent of the Indemnified Party unless the Indemnifying Party provides such security to the Indemnified Party as shall be reasonably required by the Indemnified Party to secure. it may seek compensation or damages from such user of the Site as per Applicable Laws. electric lines or such other public purposes as authority may specify. It may be noted that in case of a public limited company. arbitration. the loss to be indemnified hereunder to the extent so compromised or settled. The Concessionaire shall not sublet the whole or any part of the Site save and except as may be expressly set forth in this Agreement provided however that nothing contained herein shall be construed or interpreted as restricting the right of the Concessionaire to appoint contractors for the performance of its obligations hereunder including for operation and maintenance of all or any part of the Project Highway including Project Facilities. The agreement also addresses the issues related to dispute resolution. The Indemnifying Party shall not be entitled to settle or compromise any claim. redresses of public grievances etc.
quorum for board meeting. A tag along clause . a shareholder may get control of the Board and the decisions of the Company that are taken at the Board level may also be steered through veto rights. Promoters may make certain representations and warranties on a “best of their knowledge and belief” basis. Composition of Board of directors of the company and other management related matters The shareholders may agree on the maximum number of directors on the Board.Some of the critical clauses in a typical Shareholders‟ Agreement between shareholders of a private limited company would be: 1. assets of the company. A First right of refusal clause makes it obligatory on a shareholders who wants to sell his shareholding. Representations and warranties from the Company and its Promoters Any investor who invests in a company would insist on certain representations and warranties being made by the Company and its promoters about the financial position of the company. By virtue of this provision. 3. litigations and claims against the company. If the Shareholders‟ Agreement has a drag along clause then in the event that one shareholder wishes to sell his shares to a third party. Matters that require unanimous consent of the directors and matters on which a party‟s nominee director shall have veto rights will also be addressed in this clause. the number of nominee directors from each party. liabilities of the company. The language of each representation and warranty should be carefully reviewed and if necessary. status of the shares that are to be issued to/purchase by the investor and so on. who will be the chairman of the Board meeting. Any exceptions to such representations and warranties must also be clearly captured. 2. negotiated. to first offer his shares to the other shareholder who is party to the Shareholders‟ Agreement on the same terms and condition on which he proposes to sell it to a third party. whether chairman will have casting vote and other such matters pertaining to the Board. Lock-in/first right of refusal/tag along/drag along A lock in clause impose restrictions on alienation/sale of shares held in the company by either party without prior approval of other party for a certain period of time. compliance with laws by the company. then he can require the other shareholder who is party to the Shareholders‟ Agreement to also sell his shares to the same third party on the same terms and conditions.
any anti dilution rights. change in auditors etc. Threshold Shareholding The Shareholders‟ agreement can also specify a minimum shareholding that a party must have in order to have all the special rights specified in the shareholders agreement. Pre-emptive rights By these clauses. A pre-emptive right obligates the Company to offer any future shares that may be issued. on the same terms and conditions.gives a shareholder the right to insist that his shares also be sold to a third party to whom the other shareholder proposes to sell his shares. Indemnification . 3. pursuant to an anti dilution right. the Company‟s right to issue further shares or raise further capital can be curtailed. first to the Shareholder (on a pro rate basis) before offering it to any other party and may allow the shareholder to continue maintaining its shareholding percentage in the Company. Restriction further issue of shares. 4. amendment of memorandum and articles of the Company. 7. fresh issue of capital. 5. Further. in case the company issues shares to any other person at a price lower than the price at which a shareholder who is party to the Shareholders‟ Agreement was issued shares. change in capital structure of the Company. Management of the Company The Shareholders‟ Agreement can have clauses on who will manage the Company on a day to day basis.). 6. then the shareholder who is party to the Shareholders‟ Agreement has the right to receive such additional shares (at no cost to him) so as to reduce the price per share held by him to the same price as that at which shares were issued to the other person. Matters requiring consent of both parties The Shareholders‟ agreement can also specify matters that will require the consent of both parties in general meeting (eg. how the MD will be appointed and whether company can change or appoint an MD without concurrence of both parties.
water supply. to carry on similar business as the Company. The above are only indicative clauses that may be contained in a shareholders‟ agreement. urban transportation. their ability to absorb cross-border financing in significant volumes is rather limited. Information rights Usually any investing shareholder will insist on certain financial information being made available to such shareholder periodically by the Company. including balance sheets and profit and loss accounts. railways. roads. 8. the earnings of most infrastructure projects (energy. Non-compete Usually promoters/founders will be required to undertake that they will not directly or indirectly engage in or be employed by any party. Apart from these clauses. restrictive covenant etc. given the lack of standard long term foreign exchange risk hedging products (usually not over 2 years) and little market depth for long-term swaps in most developing countries. termination. more so. which have an international side to their operations (and power projects set up for cross border sales of the power generated). sanitation and other urban infrastructure) are denominated entirely in their respective local currencies. With the exception perhaps of airports and ports. Since projects of this nature have very little natural hedge. and so require significantly high levels of long-term financing. the shareholder‟s agreement may contain clauses related to illegality. Availability of domestic financing of the required magnitude is therefore critical to the development of infrastructure in any location. telecommunication. The period of non-compete is usually a matter of negotiation. . 9. Generation of working capital and Lender’s Agreement Infrastructure projects are typically capital-intensive and have long gestation periods.The Shareholders‟ Agreement may require one of the parties (usually the founders or promoters) and/or the Company to indemnify the investing shareholder against any breach of representations and warranties.
and the elapse of time to reach operating break even (especially in transportation and telecom projects). become common sources of funding for infrastructure projects. comprehensive project preparation. namely. political will in appropriate measure. with the exchange risk absorbed by the government. the ability to implement projects either as pure private investments or under public private partnership (PPP) structures also depends on the domestic finance market in each of these locations. Financing of Private Infrastructure Projects The feature of long gestation in infrastructure projects . Further.Since capital markets across developing countries are at different stages of development. necessitate the provision of long-term funding to these projects. of course. entrepreneurial resources of the required order and perhaps most importantly. Admittedly the developments over the last year which have caused a serious meltdown in global financial markets have altered the financial landscape for private investment in infrastructure in India. Other pre-requisites for the development of a private infrastructure market include putting in place appropriate legal and policy frameworks. though it is certainly a very important one. private sponsors seek to maximize the quantum of debt financing for these projects which can vary from levels as . not very effectively. and to a lesser extent mezzanine finance structures.longer project implementation period due to their capital intensive nature. is not the only pre-requisite for development of private infrastructure. Where markets are reasonably developed. equitable concession/ contractual structures. domestic financing by way of equity and debt. This paper broadly reviews the experience of India over the last decade in the development and financing of private infrastructure projects and the role of a specialised institution. and so project implementation is usually undertaken by government authorities directly or through specialised government agencies. transparent procurement processes. Availability of domestic finance. issues such as land acquisition and time required to obtain environmental and other statutory clearances. development and financing of private infrastructure projects during this period. although in most instances. given their return on equity considerations. Other locations would still need to access multi-lateral or bilateral credit sources (including export lines of credit) for funding infrastructure projects. Infrastructure Development Finance Company Limited (IDFC) in policy advocacy.
Domestic Financing of Private Infrastructure Projects Private infrastructure projects have been mainly financed by equity and debt funding sources. As a consequence. cost variance. The process of raising finance is therefore characterised by intense negotiations between lenders and sponsors. achieving a bankruptcy-remote structure. to more common levels of 60-70% (energy.low as 40-50% (telecom and port projects). counter-party risks (for payment – when services are purchased by a government authority or for supply of fuel or other vital inputs). Till the late nineties. Project implementation is undertaken through a special purpose company/ vehicle (SPV) set up exclusively for each project. implementation risks (construction delays. debt financing in India was provided largely by two main sources – development finance institutions (DFIs) providing long term debt for capital expenditure and commercial banks providing short term credit to meet the working capital requirements of projects. toll roads. the underlying project contracts (concession agreements. operating risks (obsolescence. As a result. inflation and contractor failures) and revenue risks (demand/ traffic and inflation). for instance road projects where government pays an annuity over the project life). cost overruns and contractor failures). among others. fuel supply agreements. urban sector projects. Since infrastructure projects are exposed to different types of risks – policy and regulatory risks (tariff setting. project sponsors rarely expose their existing operations and balance sheets to these risks. Debt financing for the project is usually raised on non-recourse or in some instances on partial recourse terms by the SPV – with sponsors limiting risk to their equity investment in the SPV or in some instances by an additional underwriting commitment to cover cost overruns. EPC and O&M contracts. airports) and may even go up to 80-90% (projects involving payment for services by the government authority. purchase agreements etc) and insurances are assigned to the lenders. The process of economic liberalisation of the early nineties also resulted in increased exposure of the financial sector to global markets and trends. competition. The financing structures and agreements are often elaborate and complex and cash flows secured through structured escrow/ cash retention agreements. so that financing risks are appropriately mitigated. the distinctions . legal and policy changes).
beyond a point. The bulk of the credit is provided in the form of loans which are not easy to sell down. Several new private sector banks also commenced operations and the propensity of banks to provide long term credit also increased. be necessary to bring in players with the ability to provide long-term liquidity at affordable costs into debt financing.severe credit stresses on banks‟ portfolios. taking advantage of a declining interest rate scenario in the period up to 2007. The few securitisation transactions undertaken have been mainly to refinance existing debt. . the absence of a deep secondary market for corporate debt has not enabled sell down and secondary trading in debt instruments of any significant volume. with projects taking on the refinancing risk.between DFIs and commercial banks reduced. While this has worked so far. with IDBI and ICICI eventually converting to commercial banks. It has also been argued that banks (even the large players) and NBFCs would soon reach their prudential exposure limits – both on account of credit exposure and maturity mismatches. result in a “blowback” . this cannot be sustained. the bulk of the financing raised so far has been of a relatively short term nature. In practice though. giving little head room for assuming very significant levels of new exposure in the near-term. This was also helped by easy liquidity conditions that prevailed over much of the last decade. The bulk of domestic debt financing so far has been provided in the form of senior secured debt by commercial banks and non-banking finance companies (which include some of the erstwhile DFIs like IFCI and specialised entities like IDFC) and to a lesser extent by insurance companies. Passing on the liquidity/ interest-rate risks to projects could. there has been no reliance on the capital markets. they would carry re-pricing options at shorter intervals of one. It would. given the current financial crisis and the increasing expectations from private financing over the next few years. This would pass on interest rate re-pricing risks to projects. though issuance of debt securities (more amenable to secondary trading) is popular with some of the market participants. With the exception of one public bond offering to retail investors. While projects need long-term funding. This issue has been discussed further in the last section of this paper. Even where loans have been given for longer tenures (in some cases even upto 12-15 years). three or five years. therefore.
Such funds. equity capital was. With the currently depressed state of the equity markets. which opened new institutional and retail equity funding sources for infrastructure investment. initially. entirely provided by project sponsors out of their existing balance sheets. Since the SPVs are unlikely to list. A common form of raising capital (initially used in the telecom sector) was by investing through a holding company which allowed significant dilution in the quantum of equity funds to be invested by sponsors. There have been instances where minority equity stakes have been placed with EPC/ O&M contractors for these projects as well as with strategic investors. which seek steady rather than spectacular returns. however. Increased leveraging has also been accomplished through mezzanine finance (subordinated debt structures). The clutch of private equity funds set up for infrastructure over the last few years would now have opportunities to “cherry pick” good quality assets. it remains to be seen how committed many of these would be to investment in India and whether investors would be able to bring in the committed levels of funding into these funds. it would be a while before the momentum of the earlier years of this decade is regained.Most PPP projects impose a minimum shareholding commitment on sponsors of projects – typically 51% of the equity in the first five years and 26% thereafter. A new category of funds – targeting international pension funds and “steady return” investors. but these too have rarely exceeded 10-15% of the cost of project.either in equity or mezzanine products. companies with a good track record of project implementation could always access markets at appropriate junctures. the funds themselves could list after a few years to provide exit routes for investors. The minority stakes at each level were funded through private placements with domestic and international private equity and venture capital funds. who would directly benefit from the project‟s operations – but these have not been of a significant order. are project equity funds which would invest directly into SPVs . As more and more projects got successfully implemented these holding companies made successful public offerings at impressive valuations particularly in the 20052007 period. more so as these became multi-layered. could also provide equity dilution opportunities to sponsors after the project is implemented. After negotiating with lenders for the maximum possible leverage. .
-recourse debt is not fully effective in the road or national highway project. the lenders are exposed to high degree of commercial risk because in a . the government. 2009) which expose this sector to the high degree of uncertainty and hence risks. schedule and cost outcomes. Thus project risk pertains to the probability of uncertainties of the technical. Author: Piyush Joshi. Some of the important characteristics are as follows: Catchment Area future development affects the demand of a road to a great extent and is beyond the control of the private player or concessionaire or even in few cases. The main asset for Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) in a road project is not worth anything without the revenue collection. RISKS ASSESSMENT IN HIGHWAY PROJECTS For an infrastructure project there is always a chance that things will not turn out exactly as planned.3. RISK ASSESSMENT -Identify hazard -Assess probability & consequence -Prioritize Risk Control measures Reduce Eliminate/substitute Reduce chance Reduce effect Retain Self finance Remove Contractually insurance National Highways and Roads as an infrastructure sector have certain key peculiar characteristics (Law relating to Infrastructure Projects. Thus.
Private sector participation is typically through construction or management contracts and BuildOperate-Transfer (BOT) contracts. Weak institution will lead to recurrent delays. In the current scenario. Uncertainty defines that number of different values can exist for a quantity but without probability of such values or outcomes are not known and cannot be assessed. acquire a small portion of the land parcel can delay and hamper the implementation of the project. In addition. are through competitive bidding.road project. all projects awarded by NHAI. Risks and Uncertainty can be differentiated on the basis of ex-ante probability distributions. operation and maintenance. Certain level of commercial risk cannot be mitigated completely. Owing to these peculiar characteristics. recently but the willingness of the commuters to pay toll is not high. highway project cannot move with the demand. On the other hand. be it construction / management or BOT. complete dependence on tolling revenue to recover project cost and service non-recourse debt is not a feasible solution to increase private participation. BOT contracts permit tolling on stretches of the NHDP by the private operator or may also be based on the lowest annuity payment from the Government. Risks reflect situations where the outcomes are unknown but the probability distributions of such outcomes are known or can be assessed. the usage of road can fluctuate sharply. A shift of residential or commercial centers can shift the traffic volumes from the project. . Like any other infrastructure sector. it is imperative that roads and national highways as an infrastructure sector needs strong institution building and comprehensive concession structure. road or national highway projects are also exposed to risks related to construction.
Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis (Toll and Annuity) or similar basis (BOO.Risks relating to Route Characteristics / Specifications regarding a particular route or specifications Risks related to Traffic Risks related to Toll nation of toll rates To attract investments (domestic and foreign) in the roads and national highways sector in India. DBFOT. a comprehensive risks mitigation framework has been designed under the name of „Model Concession Agreement‟ (MCA). . etc. the government has implemented few prominent policy initiatives to strengthen the institution building aspect by promoting the Public Private Partnership (PPP) on Build.) for the highways projects. To address the complexities involved in highway projects.
finance. construct.This framework addresses the issues which are typically important for limited recourse financing of infrastructure projects. maintain Toll Shadow Revenue . manage. manage. symmetry of obligations between the principal parties. finance. and termination. finance. The definition of „crucial assumptions‟ has been arrived after discussion with the industry experts. For simplicity purpose. BOT Annuity and Engineering Procurement & Construction (EPC). allocation of risks and rewards. PPP Models selected for this study are BOT Toll. construct. only four crucial assumptions have been studied in terms of their correlation and their impact on the project Net Present Value. Risks in Various PPP Models PPP Mode Asset Ownership PPP Duration (years) Private Player Revenue Risk High Private Player Role Compensation BOT Toll Public 15 – 30 Design. force majeure. reduction of transaction costs. maintain and collect tolls Design. manage. In addition. construct. has been considered wherein the impact of various risks involved has been studied. various risks prevalent in the different PPP models have been identified. maintain Toll Revenue BOT Annuity Public 15 – 30 Low Medium Annuity Revenue BOT Shadow Toll Public 15 – 30 High Design. Risks Identification in Various PPP Models As per the project scope. such as mitigation and unbundling of risks. precision and predictability of costs and obligations.
BOT Annuity and Engineering Procurement & Construction (EPC). The model was made to be as robust as possible by inclusion of as many risks as possible.Management Contracts Public 5 Low Management of all aspects of operation and maintenance Pre-determined fee. Stage 02: This stage involved risks identification in the three PPP models i. Evaluation of short listed risks in terms of criticality and impact on the project NPV was studied in this stage. based on performance Methodology As per the study of the scope. PPP Models selected for this study are BOT Toll. It also involved incorporating learnings gained from the past professional experience. . the name of the bearing party (private or government) and the execution condition associated with each risk was also identified. BOT Annuity and Engineering Procurement & Construction (EPC) via comprehensive study of the Model Concessionaire Agreements (MCA) available on the NHAI and PPP India website. In addition. BOT Toll. The project methodology encompasses five stages namely: Stage 01: This stage involved comprehensive understanding of the Indian roads and highways sector via literature available from the secondary sources and paid reports.e. Stage 03: A road project was conceptualized in this stage and a financial model for the same was built. Secondary and primary research was conducted for this stage. Stage 04: Industry experts were consulted for the short listing of four risks for conducting the sensitivity analysis of the model. various risks prevalent in the different PPP models have been identified. Stage 05: A risk management framework is designed in this stage after incorporating feedback on the above stages.
Private Player The concessionaire is required to finalize the design and detailed engineering basis 3.Private Player In the event the concessionaire fails to meet the project milestone. 5. he or she has to pay damage to NHAI at the rate of Rs. One million) per day until such milestone is achieve or 0.50 per day per 1000 (one thousand) sq. Funding Bearing party -Private Player Private Player is required to arrange for financing. 2. Otherwise. VGF is available but only to the extent of 20% of project cost . 000. Land Availability Bearing party-Government Granting authority will be liable for enabling access to the Site. Such Damages shall be raised to Rs. However. Time and Cost Overruns Bearing party.2000 (Rupees two thousand) per month after COD if such area is essential for the smooth and efficient operation of the Project Highway.000 (Rs. meters or part thereof if such area is required by the Concessionaire for Construction Works. RISKS CHARACTERIZATION OF BOT TOLL MCA Pre Completion Risk 1. the costs shall be borne by the concessionaire. free from Encumbrances. Delay in any case other Force Majeure will invite NHAI paying Concessionaire damages at the rate of Rs. the damages paid will be refunded in case the project achieves completion on or before the scheduled completion date. Design Bearing party.Two of the commonly used modes of Execution of Road Projects are described: A. Change in Scope Bearing party -Private Player / Government Granting authority will bear all the costs arising out of any change of scope order if the costs exceed 5% of the total project cost.1% of the performance security amount (which is about 5% of the total project cost) for each day of delay.1. 4.
100. For every 1% shortfall in actual traffic compared to target traffic. concession agreement shall be deemed to have been terminated by mutual agreement of the parties. For every 1% excess . Delay in Financial Closure Bearing party -Private Player If the Concessionaire shall fail to achieve Financial Close within the said 180 (one hundred eighty) days period. Post Completion Risk 1. modify. repair or otherwise make improvements to the Project Highway to comply with Specifications and Standards. the revenues earned beyond the traffic cap level will be submitted in Safety Fund. or through O&M Contractors and if required. investigations and other detailed examination of the project before submitting their Bids. Nothing contained in the Feasibility Report shall be binding on the NHAI and it shall have no liability whatsoever in relation to or arising out of any or all contents of the Feasibility Report.6. the Concessionaire shall be entitled to a further Period of 90 (ninety) days subject to an advance weekly payment by the Concessionaire to NHAI of a sum of Rs. 7.5% of the expected traffic growth. Also. MCAs provide for extension or lowering of the concession period in the event of a higher or lower than expected growth in traffic. The granting authority the right to forfeit the bid security. Traffic variance and revenue risk Bearing party -Private Player In the traffic falls or grows more than 2. 000 (Rupees one hundred thousand) per week. Beyond 270 days. Incorrect valuation by government authority Bearing party -Private Player The Feasibility Report of the Project provided by NHAI is to be taken only as preliminary reference document by way of assistance to the Bidders who are expected to carry out their own surveys.5% with Cap on Concession Period Variation as 20%. if the traffic grows beyond the traffic cap in a particular year. Performance Bearing party -Private Player The Concessionaire shall operate and maintain the Project Highway by itself. concession period increase by 1. 2.
Interest rate/Inflation Bearing party -Private Player The interest rate and inflation risk is factored in the bid value quoted by the private player.in actual traffic compared to target traffic. Performance & Design Bearing party -Private Player The Private Player is responsible for any technology up gradation during or after construction phase or during operations phase. concession period decreases by 0. FINANCIAL RISK 7. 8. other applicable permits are to be obtained by the concessionaire. Foreign exchange exposure /Insolvency and outside creditor risk Bearing party -Private Player . TECHNOLOGY RISK 6. The additional cost would be borne by private player. 5. Competing Roads / Routes Bearing party –Government The granting authority will pay the concessionaire compensation equal to the difference between the realizable fee and the projected daily fee until the breach is cured. Environmental issues Bearing party -Private Player / Government Applicable permits relating to environmental protection and conservation of the site to be obtained by the granting authority. Toll collection Bearing party -Private Player Concessionaire will levy and collect Fees from users of the Project Highway at the rates set forth in the Fee Notification and in accordance with MCA 4. 3.75% with Cap on Concession Period Variation as 10%.
operation and maintenance phase. Change in Law Bearing party. FORCE MAJEURE Bearing party. the Concessionaire may notify NHAI and propose amendments to this Agreement so as to put the Concessionaire in the same financial position as it would have occupied had there been no such Change in Law 10. but if he is unable to collect Fees during the subsistence of such Force Majeure Event. the Concessionaire suffers an increase in costs or reduction in net after tax return or other financial burden or enjoys a reduction in costs or increase in net after tax return or other financial benefit.10 million (Rupees ten million) in any accounting year.Government / Private Player No pre fixed penalty or compensation decided and it would be mutually decided depending upon the situation. It is borne by the Private Player and is factored in various costs pertaining to construction.Government / Private Player If Force Majeure happens before financial closure then the date for achieving Financial Close shall be extended by the period for which such Force Majeure shall subside. the Concession Period will be extended by the period for which collection of Fees remains suspended POLITICAL RISK 9. the Concessionaire will continue to make all reasonable efforts to collect Fees. Both parties will bear their respective costs and no Party shall be required to pay to the other Party any costs arising out of such Force Majeure Event. . the aggregate financial effect of which exceeds Rs.Government / Private Player If as a result of Change in Law. If Force Majeure happens after financial close and commercial date of operations (COD). Government reneging Bearing party.
Private Player Private Player is required to arrange for financing. Land Availability Bearing party. Anything beyond the limit will be NHAI‟s responsibility.Private Player The Concessionaire shall operate and maintain the Project Highway by it self.Private Player The concessionaire is required to finalize the design and detailed engineering basis 3. 5.Government .B. Time and Cost Overruns Bearing party. Funding Bearing party. RISK CHARACTERIZATION OF BOT TOLL ANNUITY Pre Completion Risk 1.Government NHAI will provide the physical possession of the project site. Post Completion Risk 1. Design Bearing party. or through O&M Contractors and if required. Performance Bearing party. Traffic variance Bearing party.Private Player / Government Change in scope with maximum permissible limit of INR 175 million is to be borne by the concessionaire. 2. Change in Scope Bearing party. repair or otherwise make improvements to the Project Highway to comply with Specifications and Standards 2. modify.Private Player Penalty is attached for not achieving the project schedule (details mentioned in Annuity Fees point) 4.
TECHNOLOGY RISK 7. demand. Toll collection Bearing party. Annuity Fees Bearing party. Granting authority will assume the risk of traffic variance as revenue to concessionaire is in the form of annuity and is independent on the traffic volume. Competing Roads / Routes Bearing party. If COD is achieved between two annuity payments. SPCD is Scheduled Project completion date.Government NHAI will levy. COD is Commercial Date of Operations.Government / Private Player Applicable permits relating to environmental protection and conservation of the site to be obtained by the granting authority. then B or R = ((PAPD – COD) + X)*A/180 wherein PAPD is Previous Annuity Payment Date 5. Design & Performance Bearing party. 3.Government Annuity payments would be made by NHAI as MCA terms and conditions. 4. Environmental issues Bearing party. X is number of delay days computed by independent engineer. Bonus and penalty are provided for early and delay project completion respectively given by the following formula: B or R = ((SPCD – COD) + X)*A/180 wherein B or R is Bonus / Reduction. A is Annuity. other applicable permits are to be obtained by the concessionaire 6.Private Player . collect and retain the toll fee either by itself or may authorize any other person to collect fee.Government Private Player is independent of any approval of any competing road or route by NHAI and is solely dependent on the Annuity.
FORCE MAJEURE Bearing party. In all other cases. Foreign exchange exposure & Insolvency and outside creditor risk Bearing party. Interest rate Inflation Bearing party.e. The Private Player is responsible for any technology up gradation during or after construction phase or during operations phase.Private Player It is borne by the Private Player and is factored in various costs pertaining to construction.Government / Private Player The Force Majeure risk would be borne by both parties but it is highly dependent on the time when force majeure happens i. If capital expenditure is upto INR 60 million or increase in . 9. FINANCIAL RISK 8. operation and maintenance phase. The additional cost would be borne by private player. before COD or after COD and whether it is political or non political force majeure. the additional amount shall be allocated and shared between NHAI and Concessionaire subject to some limit bands. POLITICAL RISK 1. In case force majeure happens before COD and is a non political event then NHAI is not obliged to pay anything to Concessionaire. Change in Law Bearing party.Government / Private Player If there is an increase in capital expenditure or increase in taxes owing to change in law.Private Player The interest rate and inflation risk is factored in the annuity quoted by the private player. NHAI would be paying the concessionaire the force majeure payments dependent upon the type of event.
Provisions for liquidated damages in the MCA Design Time and Cost Overruns Change in Scope Funding Comprehensive techno commercial feasibility of the Adequate and accurate definition of the project scope freezed before the project commencement.Government / Private Player No pre fixed penalty or compensation decided and it would be mutually decided depending upon the situation. NHAI would not share any additional cost and all would be borne by concessionaire. appointment of Independent technical consultant to review the project design and is made the final authority regarding the design aspect. EPC contract to an experienced and reputed firm on fixed time and cost basis. Penalty clause to be included in MCA . Government reneging Bearing party. Anything above this limit would be completely borne by NHAI. 2. 1956 and LAA Defining the parameters of determining the success of the land acquisition process Based on mutual understanding between private player and government. TYPE OF RISK Land Availability MITIGATION MEASURES Stringent Penalty Clause in MCA Sale Deeds Speedy review and clearance of Land Acquisition Act Uniformity in NHA.taxes is upto INR 10 million.
project to be conducted when approaching investors Assessment of risk to identify corporate finance versus project finance Delay in Financial Closure Flexibility for the SPV regarding change in ownership Ensure extensive project rights. structure and contractual agreements along with risk sharing makes project viable Performance Termination clause in case of failure to meet the performance standards Escrow Account to solve the issue of excessive cash flow Long term O&M contract with operating and performance commitments Provision in MCA regarding continuous up gradation in performance in response to change in demand Traffic variance and revenue risk Short term and counter guarantee by NHAI Traffic management measures to incentive the users Environmental issues Ensure that all the environmental concerns are addressed including impact assessment before the bid submission Involve external agencies to carry out Environmental impact assessment .
Performance EPC contract to an experienced and reputed firm with suitable warranty and continuing support damages in the MCA In case of damage. the competing roads should not be allowed provided traffic volumes have not exceeded to certain percentage of forecasted figures. force majeure insurance clause provision needs to be incorporated Interest rate Inflation Foreign exchange exposure Insolvency and outside creditor risk Force Majeure Comprehensive insurance policies Adequate mitigation of risk between both parties Suspension of performance obligations during the occurrence of FM event Swaps and hedging Good corporate governance Management competency Credit appetite and strength of sponsors Pass the additional cost to the consumers Change in Law Government reneging Involvement of MLC for the political risk cover Formation of independent regulator .Competing Roads / Routes Comprehensive clause in MCA regarding provision of competing roads – for pre determined duration.
force majeure. Road user charges as cost recovery for highway projects Roads have often been treated as public goods.The sector involves certain risks like market conditions. from the public sector perspective. The mechanism of road user charging is discussed in the following sections. The formation of an Independent Regulatory Authority for the sector can possibly address the pricing and award of project issues raised by the private investors. also known as cost recovery. etc are addressed more effectively. In response to sector‟s risk exposure to certain risks . and the mechanisms involved. the economic agents within the community from whom those resources will be collected. legal systems weak institution building. we consider the objectives of road user charges and their implications for the levels and structure of taxes which are generally used as proxies for direct road charges. it is recommended that issues pertaining to certain clauses in MCA like land acquisition. For roads and road transport.from a developers or investors perspective. financed from general taxation rather than through cost-related charges. In this chapter. etc. Efficient allocation of resources between sectors Economic efficiency requires that the user of resources pays the marginal social costs associated with the use of those resources. either toll payers/road users or tax payers or a combination. COST RECOVERY MECHANISM FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS This section defines revenues for a highway project. this means that no category of vehicle should pay less than the sum of the following: . environmental clearances. It presents the sources of revenue available to fund highway projects. which makes it imperative for players in this sector to be develop comprehensive risk framework in order to mitigate. transfer or avoid such risks.
The marginal environmental cost: increased traffic raised the levels of vehicle emissions. Distortion between modes: inappropriate charging structures on different transport modes. . vehicle speeds decline. These may be termed the private marginal costs of using the road network. noise pollution. can have a marked negative impact on traffic allocation and economic efficiency. There are recurrent costs associated with road provision and maintenance that are not related to use and on which the level of vehicle flow has no impact: weather and time related road maintenance. The marginal road maintenance cost: additional traffic. it is important to avoid three distortions: Distortion between vehicle classes and their users: charges on different categories of vehicle should appropriately reflect the differences in the costs that they impose on the system. The costs are not borne by the road user but by society. The individual road user considers only his/her personal time and cost but their use of the road may well increase the travel time and costs of all users of that road. etc. especially heavy commercial traffic increase road deterioration and reduces the pavement life and increases the cost of road maintenance and renewal. which compete closely for the same types of passenger and freight traffic. In the transport sector.The economic cost of the fuel and the other resources consumed in making the trip. mainly those people living and working close to the roads The marginal congestion cost imposed on other vehicles: as vehicle flows increase. Efficient use of resources within the road sector: Another important efficiency dimension in structuring a charging system is to avoid significant distortions within the sector. for example. Such costs should be financed by the means which causes the least economic and equity distortion.
Equity There are several dimension of equity that are or may be relevant to the structuring of a road user charging system: Horizontal equity: vehicles within the same category. all vehicles should be required to meet the full costs of road maintenance which are attributable to their use of the road network. This may distort decisions on the location of economic activity or vehicle registration but its impact is probably lower than for the first two distortions. Full road maintenance costs For efficiency reasons. imposing the same costs on society. if the charging/financing structures in some states are significantly different to those in others. should pay the same level of charges. Such maintenance includes not only the day-to-day routine maintenance (repairing potholes. Distributional equity: this is normally interpreted as requiring charges/taxes to be progressive. Distortion between locations: this can occur. for example) but also the more periodic resealing and strengthening of the pavements. Vertical equity: charges paid by different vehicle categories should vary in proportion to the costs that the categories impose. with higher income users paying higher charges. . The Costs to Be Covered by Road User Charges There is a broad consensus regarding the costs that should be covered by road user charges with the exception of whether investment in new or improved roads should be financed exclusively by present road users.
should finance the costs through higher charges (higher charges on gasoline) as they benefit from the road network and can afford to pay higher charges. traffic signaling. and road accidents. The costs involved in managing road use (traffic police. there would be no impact on the individuals‟ decisions as to whether to use the network. (b)Economic pricing approach: the fixed costs should be financed by charges which impose the least distortion on the use of the road network. In principle. but costs nevertheless which need to be financed. Environmental and other externality costs. primarily car owners. etc.There are some costs of road maintenance which are not variable with use and cannot be strictly attributed to specific vehicle categories. System administration costs. the cost of the marginal trip would not be changed. should also be met by users. Such charges could be set by: An annual vehicle license fee: once paid. in collecting the various user charges and in enforcing their payment. Higher charges would thus be established for those vehicle categories with the lowest travel demand elasticity.). the monetary cost of environmental impacts should also be included in the costs which should be recovered from users. These externalities include global and local air pollution. Congestion costs . Two broad approaches might be adopted to finance these non-attributable costs: (a)Equity distribution approach: the higher income groups. Charges established through Ramsey pricing principles: to minimize the impact on total use. the additional charges necessary to cover the fixed costs should be set in inverse proportion to the demand elasticity.
Singapore has had congestion pricing for many years. then this . However. the annual investment costs are likely to exceed the “correct” capital charge. as envisaged in the next decade in India. it should be the annual servicing charge on the capital employed that should be recovered from users. Hence it is recommended that. whether road users should pay simply the short-run marginal costs or a longer run marginal costs including the capacity expansion cost. in accordance with normal commercial principles. Furthermore. The treatment of investment costs for new or improved roads is theoretically more difficult. That is the presumption made in road cost accounting in some of the industrialized countries such as the United Kingdom. if the political decision is made to raise capital finance from vehicle related charges. The annual capital charge may then be set to service the debt on the capital investment. and not the current year‟s capital expenditure. It is agreed that road users should not be charged for the vast investment that has already been made in the road network. and London introduced a central area congestion charge in 2003. In periods of very rapid growth of the capital in the network. and its size is not growing rapidly. current year capital expenditure and the appropriate servicing charge for capital may be approximately equal. it is a more a question of whether road users should pay for the investment which is now being made in expanding and improving the network. Capital investment costs.Road congestion pricing is now being given much wider consideration. this would put the burden of a long-term strategy excessively and unnecessarily on the current generation. Trying to recoup these capital costs from current revenue is likely to inhibit the desired rate of investment as well as impose substantial costs on road users. expanding too rapidly to finance capital expansion from revenues. Where the road system is well established. it does not necessarily require that the full current year costs of investment expenditures be recovered from current users. resorts to borrowing. while the efficiency objective requires that all categories of users pay at least the marginal social costs of their use of roads. A normal business.
revenue should. in the road sector. for practical and political reasons. In general. as far as possible. increasing returns to scale mean that marginal social costs will be below average costs and transfers from general taxation will be required to cover total costs. In contrast. Its conclusion was that 100% coverage of infrastructure expenditures by transport user charges alone is not an appropriate basis for ensuring efficiency. marginal social costs may vary greatly depending on the level of congestion and other externalities. marginal social cost pricing in the road sector may result in surplus revenues in some urban areas (of the order of 150%) but under recovery in rural areas. The range of instruments. as far as possible be raised from vehicle related charges (based on attributable costs) with. An important defining characteristic of these charges is their proximity to the point of use– the “directness” of the tax. this is changing as technology has developed and public pressure has grown to link charges more directly with use. most countries still use relatively indirect tax instruments.1: Tax/Charging Instruments Applied to the Road Sector . A recent European Conference of Ministers of Transport report analyzed this complex issue.1. Suitable Tax and Charging Instruments A range of instruments has been used internationally to tax/charge users for road-related costs. Hence. Figure 4. their prevalence internationally. a zero marginal tax impact. In the rail sector. however. and a rough categorization by directness is shown in Figure 4.
It is fiscally efficient (cheap to collect. In India. Fuel taxation is also a major source of general government revenue. they are now explored in more detail. etc. Relatively progressive as travel demand is usually income elastic. It can be collected at the refinery and/or point of distribution and good records can be maintained to ensure transparency. . Fuel taxes Both developed and developing countries rely on fuel taxation as the major source of taxation to finance road sector needs.As fuel taxes. and tolls are likely to form the backbone of the revenue stream for the highway network. annual license fees. Limited impact on demand due to low price elasticity. and less so diesel.). In addition. gasoline. in the future. are already subject to higher tax rates than other commodities. Fuel tax as an instrument in a well-structured road tax regime has many attractions. low evasion. a brief description is also given of some new user charging initiatives that have been developed to overcome the disadvantages of previous charging instruments.
the imposition of higher toll levels may increase total economic welfare in three circumstances. Annual vehicle licenses Many countries use annual license fees as both a policing/control measure and as a means to supplement fuel taxes for road user charging. Correlated with environmental damage. However. global warming effects are fairly directly proportional to the amount of fuel consumed. Road tolls All tolls deter traffic and will discourage some trips of positive value if the toll levels are set at levels above social marginal cost. emissions of particulate matter. the provision of a facility which would not otherwise be provided. moving more quickly). . Where the tolled facility is itself congested and the toll secures a more optimal level of utilization (fewer users. Reasonably good measure for distance related costs as fuel consumption is highly correlated with the distance traveled. differential levels of taxation can be levied. discriminate within the car category by weight or power and within the heavy commercial vehicle category by weight and/or axle configuration. Vehicle licenses are thus a very flexible instrument for road user charging. Where different fuels have different environmental impacts. thus reasonably fair for allocating variable costs within vehicle categories. in aggregate.g. Where the whole system including the tolled road and alternative untolled routes is congested. Where the toll is necessary to finance. The great advantage of vehicle licenses is that they can discriminate within vehicle categories as well as between vehicle categories. or accelerate. e. They can. for example.
those who choose not to use the tolled road are demonstrating that they value the potential benefits less than the cost of the toll (though they may still benefit from lower traffic on the untolled road and thus increased speeds and higher service standards). “What level of toll is acceptable to users”? The answer is often given in terms of the proportion of the net benefits which are captured as tolls. when introducing a general toll regime on major links. However. users with higher values of time will benefit and users with lower value of time will be worse off. sufficient attention is given to explaining to road users how the toll revenues will be used and what benefits will accrue. that they value their time and other savings more than the cost of the toll. Conversely. This impact is often not recognized by road users and governments need to ensure that. when compared with the situation of only the untolled facility. . When tolls are imposed on existing facilities. A more scientific answer can be sought by considering the motivations for choice. which would not have existed without tolling. they will obviously increase the total revenue raised from road users. by their choice of route. A more efficient solution is the introduction of a weight-distance charge for heavy goods vehicles. social welfare will be maximized when the toll is set at the level which maximizes the total net benefits to both sets of users plus the profit (or loss) to the toll road operator. when an existing route is tolled. in addition to existing levels of taxation. without any extra capacity or service quality. When the additional revenue is used to improve the network (additional capacity and/or better maintenance) road users may still be better off than without the tolls. The road damage costs more steeply with weight than fuel consumption and thus the tax/charges on the fuel used. both the traffic on the tolled route and those users remaining on the untolled route benefit.Where a new toll financed route is provided. Weight/distance charges A serious deficiency in the road tax structure exists in Relation to heavy commercial vehicles. Theoretically. Many countries compensate with annual vehicle fees. but these are imperfect charges for use-related costs. The users of new tolled facilities demonstrate.
Contracts are often long-term and private firms will be very reluctant to embark on the project if they are not convinced that the funds will be provided and will be sourced from stable sources. with commercial vehicle charges related to not just weight and distances but also the category of road used. It is important to distinguish the concepts of revenues (eg toll collection) and payments to the private sector. simple structures ease administration. There are also substantial benefits to charging close to the point of use. this allows pricing signals to be perceived more easily and more directly by road users and enhances the incentives for rational choice in travel demand. including annual operating and maintenance costs. There are now discussions in the UK to extend this type of approach to all vehicles and totally restructure vehicle taxation. especially in Western Europe. Payment to the private sector Private firms involved in PPP are obviously very concerned about how they will receive the payments that cover the costs of their investment. . lowers the probability of detection and reduces transport revenue collection. reduce tax evasion. reduce administrative costs. Simple Charging Structures The tradeoffs to be considered in relation to the use of weight/distance charges represent an example of a broader problem: striking a balance between the practical and the theoretically efficient. This is very important when designing a robust road user charge system. and lower the costs of compliance. There is thus a tradeoff between imposing charges that closely reflect the social marginal cost of use (and are perceived by users as reflecting the costs they impose) and using instruments that are cost effective to collect and administer. substantially reducing fixed charges and fuel taxes and relying on direct pricing for road use. since they are not necessarily linked. Complexity encourages evasion.Advances in communication technology and the ready availability of GPS is leading to even more developments in road-user charges.
it is not always in the public sector's interest to transfer the commercial risk to a private operator. does not prevent efficiency incentives being included in the contract agreement (performance-based contracts). cash flows are kept separate and remuneration of the operator is not related to the revenue collected. Payment of private firms by the public sector. . Such contractual provisions are often used in the mass transit sector. It is possible to engage a private firm to collect tolls on behalf of the Government. which then pays the road operator.For example. although leaving the commercial risk outside the operator's responsibility. The toll collector and the road operator can even be the same company. but in such a case.
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