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KAVIKA (TRANSFORMER MFG COMPANY)

INTRODUCTION
KAVIKA is an acronym for Karnataka Vidyuth Kharkhane which means an electrical factory of Karnataka. It is one of the oldest factories in India started by the then doyen Diwan of Mysore state Baratha Rathna Sir M.Vishweswaraiah in the year 1933; fifteen years earlier to independence of the country. In the beginning for a long period many electrical items required by the public works & electricity department of government of Mysore were manufactured. NOW it is re-assigned to manufacture of distribution transformers only. The transformers manufactured are 25, 63,100 and 250KVA only. About 90 % of work, is in assembling new transformers. The balance 10 % is repairing old but failed transformers of their own ie. (Kavika) make only.
Earlier all the transformer raw materials required, like insulated wires and flats, core stampings, bushings, tanks, off-load switches etc were all manufactured here only. Certain materials like large CRGO sheets were directly imported from foreign countries and later cut to exact sizes using necessary press-machines But now they are all outsourced i.e., purchased from outside agencies. The exact core stampings are also purchased from competent private suppliers. The whole factory is in a U-shaped building. The various stages of manufacturing, assembling, testing, readying for dispatch etc commence from one end of the U and ends in another end. For the purpose, the activities are divided into 9 zones viz; 1) Winding department 2) Carpentry 3) Core formation area 4) Core coil assembly area. 5) Connection 6) Vacuum chamber 7) Active part lowering 8) Testing and 9)Dispatch.

Winding department
The windings are made out of aluminum round wires (for the HV)and flats (for the LV) of different gauges as per the present policy of the government of using aluminum for all distribution transformers and copper for power and above voltage transformers. The normal procedure is to wind the LV coils first and then wind the HV coil over the LV coils. The wires/flats provided with DPC (Double paper covered) and provided with class D

insulations are procured from outside. As per IS. the HV and LV windings of distribution transformers should be provided with 28 and 3KV insulations respectively. The size of the bare flats for the LV and round wires for the HV are as below. The actual winding process (all 1 8.75x2.15mm flat 1mm dia wire helical mode 2 Two numbers of 7.5 x3.5mm flats 1.414mm dia wire only) consists 3 10.9 mmx4mm flats (two runs) 1.71mm dia wire of first, 4 3 radial numbers of 10.4x4.5mm 3mm dia wire carrying out flat and 3 axial numbers of 12x4mm flat LV winding by LV winders. using required size insulated aluminum flats. The coil is wound over a drum (dia and length and number of turns as per design depending on KVA rating)in one or two layers. Press board sheets, Craft paper, fevicol adhesive, cotton taps , pressboard\hilum strips (about 10 to 12 mm width) etc are extensively used so that the winding layers are tightly bound and all the movements (radially, sideways , endings and relative)are completely suppressed. After finishing the winding, oil ducts (for transil oil circulation later while in service)are formed using press board sheets and pressboard or hilum strips. Then the finished LV coils are removed from the winding machines and handed over to HV winders. The free lengths of the beginning of a coil is a little shorter than the end of the same coil. This is helpful at the coil-interconnecting stages ie. delta or star.

Sl.No

Transformer Capacity 25KVA 63KVA 100KVA 250KVA

L.V winding

H.V winding.

The number of turns of LV and HV for different ratings of the transformers are as below. NUMBER OF TURNS.

Sl.No 1 2 3 4

Transformer Capacity 25KVA 63KVA 100KVA 250KVA

L.V 166 94 80 47

H.V 7304 4136 3520 2120

The HV winders mount the finished LV winding in their winding machines and over it they wound the HV winding using 1 \ 1.414 \ 1.71 \ 3mm aluminum round wire in number of layers. The transformation ratio is always 44 because it is 11000 250. A tolerance of 0.5% is allowed. Here also adhesives, press board strips, craft paper etc are used extensively to tightly bound and all movements are suppressed. In case the HV wire ends before completion of the winding, a butt-joint weld machine is used to join the wires. In the cases of 25,63 and 100 KVA transformers no off load tap changers are provided and so the HV winding is plainly wound. In the case of 250 KVA and above the last layer is provided with tappings or loops which are later used for fixing an off-load tap changer The HV coil ends are terminated in short pieces of copper wires to provide good flexibility and connectivity to bushing rods etc.

2)Carpentry
The carpentry section is now used for cutting press board sheets and craft papers to different sections or sizes which are later used for insulating purposes and binding at various levels of winding. One can see workmen doing the same using lathes, cutting machines etc.

3)Core formation area

In the core section all the cores are assembled out of exact and cut sections purchased by outsourcing. The core sections are made of M3 ( 0.23mm thickness) and M4 (0.27mm) CRGO sheets, pressed on either side with about 20 microns thick high quality insulation called CARLITE insulation (a material of high resistance sustaining very well even at high temperatures) Actually the CRGO sheet pressed with Carlite insulations are manufactured in one piece . Presently all CRGO sheets in India are now imported. It Is said that CRGO silicon steel is manufactured in only 14 centers in the world. The following are the weights of cores for different KVA ratings of transformers. 25KVA 63KVA 100KVA 250KVA Weight of core(in Kg) 73 142 179 440

The core sections consist of 5 pieces. They are designated as horizontals (2 numbers),verticals (3 numbers). The sections are so assembled that there is an overlapping over the sides by a few mm and joints are transposed in different lines. This overlapping is done alternatively. Ie. If overlapping is done at the left side in one set of 5 pieces, it is done at the right side in the next set of 5 pieces. The assembled horizontals are kept in shape (since the sections are very thin) by bolting to 4 channels of appropriate sizes ,and are called top and bottom yokes The verticals are kept in shape by cotton tapes wound all round.. Thus the cores are fully assembled and sent for windings-assembly section.

4)Core coil assembly area.


Here the top yoke and channels are disassembled and the windings are inserted and ratio tests performed. The ratio should be 44 0.5%. (note ; At this stage some yoke sections are placed temporarily to close the magnetic paths and later removed). If there is any discrepancy in the ratio, the active part is sent back to the winding assembly section for necessary correction. Later the disassembled top yoke and channels are fully assembled as before, thus completing the active part construction. After words Hilum wedges are inserted and force driven so that there is no any relative movements of any part of the windings with reference to the core and channels.

5) connection
The next activity is delta and star formation of HV and LV respectively. For the purpose the beginning and ends of LV as well as HV coils are clearly indicated. (The free lengths of start of the windings are same and shorter than those of the ends) In the LV sides the beginnings of each coil is connected to 2U, 2V, and 2W bushings. The ends of all the three coils are interconnected and connected to 2N bushing. In the case of HV the beginning of first HV coil is connected to the end of second HV coil. This interconnection is connected to 1U bushing. Next the beginning of second HV coil is connected to the end of third HV coil and this interconnection is connected to 1V bushing. Finally the remaining terminals (beginning of third HV coil and end of first HV coil) are interconnected and led to 1W bushing. In the case of 250 KVA and above Off-load tap changers are also fixed and wired. All the joints are brazed. 6) Vacuum chamber After formation of star-delta and connecting (in the case of 250 KVA) off load tap changer, the active parts are sent to a large oven where there is a hot air (70 to 80c) is circulated for 12 to 14 hours. Later the oven interiors are vaccumised for about 2 hours duration After taking out of the oven the active parts are meggered. The main criterion is the LV to ground. If the megger values of the same are about 1000 mega ohms, the drying aspect is taken as completed.

7) active part lowering


Immediately after taking the active parts out of the oven and in the next few hours active part lowering, wiring and oil filling is done so that the winding insulation resistances are sustained. Pre-panted transformer tanks welded over two channel bases with earth bolts are procured by BPO process. The colour of the paints used are as below. Sl.No 1 2 3 4 Transformer Capacity 25KVA 63KVA 100KVA 250 KVA Col our Sky-Blue Silver gray Green DA Grey (DA: Dark Admirral)

But now-a-day some escoms are prescribing different colours other than as above. The tanks of 25 KVA transformers are constructed to provide for side bushings and the top plates are fitted over an air cushion. Here oil level indicators are fixed to the tank itself. as there are no conservator tanks. The tanks of 63 and above KVA transformers are constructed and provided with top bushings The top plates are also fitted with oil-conservator tanks with oil-inlet valves at the tops. Oil level indicators are fixed at these conservator tanks. A 30c mark is made in these oil level indicators. It is mandatory that the initial oil filling is done to this mark or above levels only. Now-a-days the conservators are provided with, apart from the oil-inlet cork an outlet cork at the bottom of the conservator so that transil oil can be let out in case the conservator is filled fully, by chance. a RICS (rubber impregnated cork sheets)are used as gasket materials to serve as oil seals. Complete wiring is done to the HV and LV bushings, brass bushing rods , oil seals, bolts and nuts etc.. A small piece of copper tape is used for connecting the cores to the top channels and the channels are bolted to the tank. This is for the purpose of earthing the cores when the tank is earthed at site The entire transformer tank and cores are held at ground potential. From the point of view of pilferation of transil oil the tank-bottoms are not provided with oil-drian valves, with an exception in the case of 250 KVA tanks. However each tank is provided with de-aeration plugs. The oil filling is normally from the conservator tank with de-ariation plugs open . once oil filling is done with full deaeriation the de-ariation plugs are closed tightly with RICS pieces. The bushings used for both HV and LV are same for 25, 63 and 100 KVA transformers. They are different for the 250 KVA transformers. Then oil filling is done and later covered with top plate using RICS-gaskets to form a leak-proof transformer. All the transil oil used are of BDV of 60 KV The unfiltered-oil received will normally be of 35 KV BDV. It s filtered to have 60 KV BDV. The top pate in the case of 25 KVA and conservator tanks in the case of others are fitted with silica gel breather with oil barriers. In the case of 25 KVA transformer the oil is filled up to about 2 inches above the active part and top plate fitted with air buffer.

8) testing
All the transformers finally arrive at the testing zone where each transformer is tested for megger results, ratio winding resistance, vector group, dielectric tests like separate source high voltage and induced over voltage test (popularly known as DYDF double voltage double frequency). In view of the importance, most of the customers witness the core loss tests 100% and reject those that have losses exceed the above limits. To this extent purchase clauses normally include the above losses condition All tested good transformers are notified to the purchasing customer. In the customers presence the transformers or again tested 100% sometimes or random numbers. This depends on the conditions of purchase by the customer.

Quality and Kavika : Almost all transformer manufacturers are in private sectors. With about 4 decades of experience by the author it can be said that they all believe in duping one way or the other resulting in their own financial gains. But in KAVIKA (A state government factory with all the employees salaried)no such motives can be attributed to any of the employees. Hence one can get a quality product here. A typical set of transformers are supposed to have the following losses. Sl. No 1 2 3 4 Transforme Permissible r Capacity Losses inwatts. 25KVA 100 63KVA 180 100KVA 260 250KVA 500

9)Dispatch.
Later the transformers are shipped to customer premises. Transformers & STAR ratings : Most of the transformers manufactured pertain to IS. For example the allowable losses as per Is is as below. Capacity. NL losses 25 kva 63 kva 100 watts. 180 watts Load loss 685 watts. 1235 watts Total loss. 785 watts. 1415 watts

During January 2007 BEE (Bureau of energy efficiency, ministry of power GOI.) recommended manufacture and use of 3 \ 4 \ 5 star rated transformers. The criteria is reduction in the losses (lower than those of IS. listed as in the above table) thus leading to improving efficiency levels. The manufacturing standards are made more and more qualitative as one progresses from star 3 to star 5. The process of course involves higher level of manufacturing costs. Though there is increase in costs, the costs it is found can be recovered in a few years by the savings in the energy-costs of losses. In this factory three \ four \ five star rated transformers are also manufactured.

.G. A. Narayana Swamy B. E.

Address for correspondence: The Manager ,Personnel & administration | legal, KAVIKA, PB. No.2610, Mysore Road Bangalore-26.ph;26748274,26743331,26987200,26742337 Fax :26744291,email md@kavika.co.in ;MD Vijaya Narasimha 9448463999