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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print), ISSN

N 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)
ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 209-216 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

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THEORITICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF INJECTION PRESSURE IN A FOUR STROKE DI DIESEL ENGINE WITH ALCOHOL AS FUEL
S.Sunil Kumar Reddy1 and Dr. V. Pandurangadu2
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Associate Professor, Mechanical Department, N.B.K.R.I.S.T, Vidyanagar, Nellore, A.P Professor, Mechanical Department, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur. A.P

ABSTRACT An intensive search for alternate fuels is going on due to the stringent emission legislation all over the world for diesel engines which produce more environmental pollution. The major pollutants from these engines are oxides of nitrogen (NOx), smoke and particulate matter. The difficulty in meeting the increasingly stringent limitations on emissions has stimulated interest in alcohol -fueled diesel engines because it is a renewable bio-based resource and it is oxygenated, thereby providing the potential to reduce particulate emissions in compressionignition engines and ethanol diffusion flames produce virtually no soot. With the high latent heat of vaporization, alcohol absorbs heat from the combustion chamber and makes it cools. This reduces the efficiency of the engine. So, more amount of fuel cannot be injected in to combustion chamber. But due to the low viscosity of alcohol more fuel will be injected in to the combustion chamber with the available fuel injection pump, which normally operates at 180 bar pressure. This makes the starting of the engine difficult. In order to compensate this, the fuel injection pressure is to be reduced. So an attempt is made to find an injection pressure for the suitability of using alcohol in diesel engines. In the present theoretical investigation, the performance parameters for normal diesel engines are obtained by using a computer program. Then the performance of the diesel engine is compared with alcohol at different injection pressures. The injection pressure of alcohol fuel is selected for the further experimental work in such a way that the injection pressure at which the performance of alcohol and diesel fuel are in close agreement. So to study the effect of injector opening pressures, five injector opening pressures (180, 175, 170, 165 and 160 bar) are considered. From the theoretical results, it is observed that the injector opening pressure of 165 bar results in higher brake thermal efficiency and is in close agreement with diesel fuel.
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

KeyWords: alcohols, fuel pump, injection pressures and emissions INTRODUCTION During recent years INDIA imported 75% of crude oil from other countries to meet energy requirements. This intensified the research for discovering the new type of engine design and alternative fuels for better control over pollution, and further leads to the stringent emission norms. Alcohols are being considered to be supplementary fuels to the petroleum fuels in India because these are derived from indigenous sources and are renewable. Due to the high self-ignition temperature and latent heat of alcohols, it requires abnormally high compression ratios to use them in conventional diesel engines [2]. J P Subrahmanyam [6] developed a computer simulation model for the single cylinder DI diesel engine with diesel and alcohol as fuel. This model illustrates the simulation of overall cycle consisting of compression, combustion, expansion and exhaust processes and predicts various combustion and performance parameters. Further, this model is validated with available experimental results. Nadir Yilmaz et al [3] identified some of the practical problems encountered during the usage of alcohol in the diesel engines due to its characteristics (high latent heat of vaporization, high auto ignition temperature) in which the reaction transport mechanism is absent. He developed a model which measures the chemical reactions in the combustion, which further models cylinder pressure and attendant extent of reaction. Saeed et al [5] conducted experiments with alcohol in single cylinder diesel engine to find effect of alcohol to diesel fuel on the ignition delay period and concluded that with increasing the alcohol content ignition delays are prolonged and this can be reduced by air preheating and/or supercharging. For the complete combustion in the diesel engine very short time is available. So the liquid fuel should be injected in droplets of smallest size to obtain largest surface-volume ratio. But the rate of burning depends primarily upon the rate at which the products of combustion can be removed from the combustion chamber and replaced by fresh oxygen. So in diesel engines for the efficient combustion, fuel injection pump plays an important role [7]. An attempt is made for theoretical investigations with different injection pressures for suitability of using alcohol in diesel engines. The diesel engine performance is obtained with a computer programming. In such analysis, if all the variables are taken into account, the computer capability and time required will be beyond those available for this work. Hence the aim of this theoretical analysis is restricted only to identify the important variables affecting the performance of the insulated engine and to know the trends. The general assumptions that are made in developing this model for the diesel engines are as follows [4]: (a) The charge inside the cylinder at any instant consists of a non-reacting mixture of air and residual gases. (b) The fuel is assumed to mix homogeneously with air. (c) The pressure and temperature are spatially uniform. The performance equations used for the development of computer program for the diesel engine at various stages is explained below briefly

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

COMPRESSION PERIOD During the compression period the charge consists of air and residual gas. The general equation for the work can be written as follows WCOMP = NA CVR (T2-T 1) Assumed wall temperature is the temperature at the end of the compression stroke. With this value of P ( +d ) and knowing the value of index and pressure P ( ) and the temperature T ( +d ) can be computed. T ( +d ) = [ P( + d ) ]( r 1 / r ) * T ( ) P ( ) COMBUSTION PERIOD The combustion model for the simulation is based on the following assumptions and simplifications. i) The ideal gas law is applicable. ii) The cylinder content consists of a homogeneous mixture of air and combustion products at all times. Work done is calculated using the equation. WCOMB = ((P + P)/2) V EXPANSION PERIOD During this process the computations carried out are all similar to the computations carried out earlier during the compression period. HEAT TRANSFER MODEL The heat transfer (hc) in the engine can be calculated with the HOHENBERG RELATION hc = 0.13 * V-0.06 * [P(W+1.4)]0.8 T-0.4 ( KW / m2 K) HEAT RELEASE MODEL The rate of heat release (Hr) is calculated using an empirical relation Hr = WC * C1 (m+1) exp (-WC ( / C) m IGNITION DELAY MODEL Ignition delay is understood as being the period of time elapsing between the start of injection nozzle needle lift and the rise in cylinder pressure which is indicated by a marked deviation of the cylinder pressure from the compression pressure. ID (CA) = [0.044 exp (45 / T) / P 1.1] * RPM

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

FRICTION MODEL Because of various parameters like gas pressure, wall tension of rings, blow by loss, pumping losses, throttling loss etc;, the frictional mean effective pressure varies in the combustion chamber and is given by the GOSCH equation. FMEP = 0.6 (CR-4) + RPM / 200 +1.1x10 6 V2 COMPUTER PROGRAM The computer program for this model is written in C language. The computer Graphics has been developed to plot various output parameters on the monitor theoretically [1]. The various engine geometry parameters such as bore, stroke, connecting rod length and combustion chamber geometry are given as inputs to the program. The engine variables such as compression ratio, intake temperature, intake pressure, injection advance, calorific value and combustion duration are also given as inputs. For the practical results experiments are conducted on 4-stroke 3.68 KW Kirloskar water cooled DI Diesel engine at various loads with an injection pressure of 180 bar. Air suction rate and exhaust air flow rates were measured with the help of an air box method. Temperatures at the inlet and exhaust valves are monitored using Nickel-Nickel Chromium thermocouple thermocouples. Time taken to consume 20 cc of fuel was noted using a digital stop watch.

Figure1. Experimental set up of Engine Test Rig Engine RPM is measured using an electro-magnetic pick up in conjunction with a digital indicator of AQUTAH make. The experimental set up used is as shown the following Figure.1.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

RESULTS Pressure The computed values of the engine parameters for the normal engine are evaluated. The computed values of pressure during compression and expansion at various crank angles for
120 100
Pressure (bar)

Practi Theo

80 60 40 20 0 -120 -60 0 60 120

Crank Angle (degree)

Exhibit 1 Variation of Pressure with Crank angle theoretical and practical normal engine are shown in Exhibit 1 and are observed that the peak pressure is higher for the theoretical engine than for the practical normal engine and increases substantially with increase of crank angle. The cycle peak pressure for a normal practical engine is 72.76 bar and for theoretical engine it is 79.34 bar. Temperature Exhibit 2 shows the cycle peak temperature for theoretical and practical normal engines. The cycle peak temperature for a normal practical engine is 1156 K and for theoretical engine it is 1375 K. The rise is about 219K at the peak value. At the end of the expansion the cycle temperature for the practical engine is 719 K and for theoretical engine it is 790 K. The rise is about 69 K for the theoretical engine.
1600 1200 800 400 0 -120
Practic al

Temperature (K)

-60 0 60 Crank Angle (degree)

120

Exhibit 2 Variation of Temperature with Crank angle


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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

This concludes that both the theoretical and experimental values are in close agreement. So this program can be used to verify at which injection pressure the diesel engine has better performance characteristics when Alcohol is used as fuel. In the computer program instead of diesel fuel properties, alcohol properties are introduced with different injection pressures to know at which injection pressure the alcohol performance will be in close agreement with diesel fuel. Injection pressures are varied from 180 bar to 160 bar to test the performance of the engine. The optimum alcohol pressure obtained is used in diesel engines for the further experimental investigations. Brake Thermal Efficiency The variation of Brake Thermal Efficiency with power output using alcohol as fuel is shown in exhibit.3 with different injection pressures and the same is compared with diesel fuel performance. It is evident from the graph that diesel has the highest Brake Thermal Efficiency. Brake Thermal Efficiency depends on combustion process which is very complex phenomenon that depends on chamber design, viscosity of the fuel, latent heat of vaporization and the fuel injection pressure. It is observed that at 165 bar injection pressure, the brake thermal efficiency is slightly better than the other and is in close agreement with

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Brake Thermal Efficiency (%)

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4

Pure diesel Alcohol-180 Alcohol-175 Alcohol-170 Alcohol-165 Alcohol-160

Power (KW)

Exhibit 3 Comparison of Brake Thermal Efficiency with Power Output with Different Injection Pressures diesel fuel. The remaining values of Brake Thermal Efficiency of alcohol are in between 180 bar and 165 bar pressure. Indicated Thermal Efficiency It is evident from the graph that diesel has the highest Indicated Thermal efficiency. From the graph shown in exhibit 4, it is observed that at 165 bar injection pressure, the indicated thermal efficiency is maximum compared to other injection pressures. This is due to the amount of alcohol entered in to the combustion chamber is reduced with the reduction of
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

fuel injection pressure. This further reduces the amount of heat absorbed by the alcohol for the evaporation from the combustion chamber. At 160 bar fuel injection pressure, the amount of alcohol injected is less and this reduces the power output. So at 165 bar fuel injection pressure, optimum amount of fuel is injected in such way that the indicated thermal

45
Indicated Thermal Efficiency (%)

40 35

Pure diesel Alcohol-180

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 Power (KW) 3 4
Alcohol-175 Alcohol-170 Alcohol-165 Alcohol-160

Exhibit 4 Comparison of Indicated Thermal Efficiency with Power Output with Different Injection Pressures efficiency is higher. The remaining values of Indicated Thermal Efficiency of alcohol are in between 180 bar and 165 bar pressure. CONCLUSIONS The pure Alcohol at 165 bar pressure has higher Brake Thermal Efficiency and indicated thermal efficiency than all other. This is due to the entering of optimum amount of alcohol in to the combustion chamber and at the remaining pressures more amount of alcohol is entered and made the combustion chamber cool. It is concluded that Alcohol can be used in diesel engines with 165 bar pressure at which the performance of alcohol is in close agreement with diesel fuel. At this pressure the low viscosity of the alcohol is compensated. So the same fuel injection pump can be used for the experiments by reducing the injection pressure to 165 bar.

REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. Y.Miyairi, Computer Simulation of an LHR DI diesel engine, SAE Paper No.880187. Dr.V.Ganesan., Internal Combustion Engines Nadir Yilmaz, A. Burl Donaldson Modeling of Chemical Processes in a Diesel Engine with Alcohol Fuels, Journal of Energy Resources Technology, December 2007, Volume 129, Issue 4, pp 355-359. Dr.V. Ganeshan, C.I. Engine Simulation Saee, M.N, Henein, N.A Combustion phenomenon of alcohols in C.I. Engines, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol/Issue 111:3, 1999.
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

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J P Subrahmanyam, Rafiqul Islam computer simulation studies of an alcohol-fueled, Low hear Rejection, Direct- Injection diesel engine, SAE 972976 Roy Kamo, Nagesh S Injection characteristics that improve performance of ceramic coated diesel engines, SAE 1999-01-0972 Ram Chandra, T.K. Bhattachary, Performance Characteristics of a Stationary Constant Speed Compression Ignition Engine on Alcohol-diesel Micro emulsions, Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR E Journal, Vol VIII, June 2006. Shri. N.V. Hargude and Dr. S.M. Sawant, Experimental Investigation of Four Stroke S.I. Engine Using Fuel Energizer for Improved Performance and Reduced Emissions, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 244 257, ISSN Print : 0976 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 - 6359. A. P. Patil and H.M.Dange, Experimental Investigations of Performance Evaluation of Single Cylinder, Four Stroke, Diesel Engine, using Diesel, Blended with Maize Oil, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 653 - 664, ISSN Print : 0976 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 - 6359. N.V. Hargude, An Experimental Investigation for Performance Analysis of Four Stroke S.I. Engine using Oxyrich Air, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 532 - 542, ISSN Print : 0976 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 - 6359.

NOMENCLATURE V = Cylinder volume, m3 P = Cylinder pressure, atm. W = Mean piston speed, ms-1 T = Cylinder temperature, K WC = Wibes constant (6.908) m = constant (0-2) = crank angle under consideration (CAD) C = combustion duration (CAD) C1 = FKG* HV/COMDUR CA = Crank angle T = Temperature in the combustion chamber P = Pressure in the combustion chamber RPM = Speed of the engine FMEP = frictional Mean Effective pressure CR = Compression ratio

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