You are on page 1of 54

A STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN MADRAS CEMENTS Pvt. Ltd., a PROJECT REPORT submitted to S.R.

M School of Management for partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION By C.Kalaiselvi (Reg no: 35104135) S.R.M School of Management, S.R.M Nagar, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram District. May-2006

S.R.M SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT S.R.M INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (Deemed University) S.R.M Nagar, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram District – 603203. Tamilnadu. Phone: 044-27451317, 27453901, 27453804, 27453377, 27452270. E-mail: srmec@vsnl.com Internet: www.srmec.ac.in Dr.Jayashree Suresh Professor & HOD Date:

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report titled “EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION IN MADRAS CEMENTS” is the bonafide work of C.KALAI SELVI who carried out the project under my supervision. Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported here in does not form part of any other project or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was confirmed on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate.

Signature of the Guide Professor Dr.Velu External In-charge

Signature of HOD Dr. Jayashree Suresh

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my profound gratitude to Dr.Velu Ph.D., Professor of Department of Management Studies for his expert guidance in this project. And my sincere thanks to Dr. Jayashree Suresh, B.A, M.B.A, PH.D, Dean, the H.O.D of SRM School of Management Studies who has also enabled me to carry out my project. I wish to express my sincere thanks to Mr. Varadharajan (D.G.M – Management system), Mr. Hudson for their help and co-operation during the course of the project. I also thank the entire staff members, for their valuable suggestions towards the completion of this project. Last but not least I thank my parents for their encouragement and support.

PLACE : DATE :

SIGNATURE

DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project has been prepared by me during the period 1 Feb 2006 to 29 Apr 2006 under the guidance of Dr.Velu Ph.D., Professor of st Department of Management Studies. I also declare that this project has not been submitted at anytime to any other university or institute for the award of any degree or diploma.

th

PLACE : DATE :

SIGNATURE

TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter No. Description 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Meaning 1 1.2 Concepts of Job Satisfaction 4 1.3 Process of Job Satisfaction 4 1.4 Need for the study 1.5 Scope of the study 6 1.6 Objectives of the study 2. 7 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 7 2.1 Theories of job satisfaction 8 2.2 The effect of job satisfaction on employee 10 performance 2.3 Components of job satisfaction 3. 14 5 1 1 Page No.

4. 19 COMPANY PROFILE 19 20 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4.1 Research design 4.2 Data collection method 5. 21

BIBLIOGRAPHY 54 II. QUESTIONNAIRE . APPENDICES 52 53 53 I. 50 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS 7. CONCLUSION 8.DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 6.

12 enough freedom 32 . 5. Title Of Table 5.4 5.8 5.7 5.11 payment 31 Distribution of respondents based on the Job provides 5.6 5.5 5.1 5.3 5.2 5.LIST OF TABLES Serial No.9 Distribution of respondents based on Age wise 21 distribution Distribution of respondents based on the year of 22 service Distribution of respondents based on the Educational 23 qualification Distribution of respondents based on Working 24 condition Distribution of respondents based on the Relationship 25 between Management and union Distribution of respondents based on the Relationship between Management and Employee 26 Distribution of respondents based on the type of Training Distribution of respondents based on the Level of 27 satisfaction Distribution of respondents based on the Job security 28 Distribution of respondents based on the Promotion policy 29 30 Page No.10 Distribution of respondents based on the Grievance handled Distribution of respondents based on the One time 5.

16 5.15 5.13 5.5.19 5.14 5.20 Distribution of respondents based on the Pay system Distribution of respondents based on the Social 33 interaction Distribution of respondents based on the Welfare 34 measures Distribution of respondents based on the Safety 35 measures Distribution of respondents based on the Motivation 36 level Distribution of respondents based on the Training 37 and Development Distribution of respondents based on the Satisfactory 38 level 39 40 CHAPTER-I JOB SATISFACTION OF THE EMPLOYEES IN MADRAS CEMENTS Ltd.18 5. INTRODUCTION Job satisfaction one of the most crucial but controversial issues in industrial psychology and behavioral management in organization. It ultimately decides the extent of employee motivation through the development of organizational climate of environment. (MCL) 1.17 5. .

1. Spontaneous “TOP TO BOTTOM” and “BOTTOM TO TOP” Communication pattern. . the job will be satisfying. Creativity and innovative ideas of job security.1 MEANING The term “Job Satisfaction” refers to an employee’s general attitude towards his job. canteen etc. The job satisfaction depends upon the individual mind. The important factors contribute to the higher level of job satisfaction. 1. The satisfied workers produce more. A source. which provides satisfaction to some employees.” To the extent that a person’s job fulfils his dominant need and is consistent with his expectations and values. uniform. The satisfied workers are creative and innovative. Challenging and responsible job.” It may be defined as “The satisfaction where in one derives from doing his which is the composite product of favorable attitude. Impartial treatment by the management. Locke defines job satisfaction as a “Pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences. Attractive salary and perks. It is also a fact that job satisfaction is nothing but the favourable attitude or high industrial morale. But “job satisfaction” is an elaborate composite concept including individual’s mental disposition. The factors that contribute to the positive morale and attitude also result in higher degree of job satisfaction. high level morale and the positive job related and even social factors.” Job satisfaction is an important factor in industrial environment. may not give satisfaction to others. Participative management.2 CONCEPTS OF JOB SATISFACTION There are so many definitions regarding job satisfaction. Job satisfaction can be measured through. Welfare facilities like medical. interpersonal relations that exists in the industry. But in general the above-mentioned factors are having correlation with the job satisfaction. the industrial climate is relatively smooth and conductive. Numerous promotional opportunities. Freedom in work situation.

appropriate steps are to be taken to reinforce the existing job satisfaction in certain areas. seminars 3. Data collection through self appraisal 5. Expert approach 6. In absence of introduction of appropriate corrective measures the dissatisfied workers contribute to: High labour turn over Indiscipline Low quality and quantity of production Industrial conflicts and violence like strikes. 1. Surveys with proper questionnaires 4.3 PROCESS OF JOB SATISFACTION Every human being has his own needs and desires of them. Interviews Closed interviews Open ended interviews 2.1. Industrial Spy etc. Break down of communication system Disrespect of superiors No scope for good interpersonal and industrial relations So all the precautionary measures and care to be taken in case the study shows negative results. some are conscious and some are unconscious. These needs become strong in the individual and create . In such cases immediate corrective measures are to be introduced after implementation of such measures for further reforms and modifications. Whenever the survey and research are conducted on job satisfaction area. lockouts etc. Discussions.

as my project work. It won’t be extravagant to state that a sound and successful management is the result of job satisfaction of the cross section of its employees. Specific individual targets. which influence job satisfaction. This also has relevant to the cultural economical. are like. ecological environment. for this purpose a unit was chosen by the company and the study was confined in that unit of Madras Cement Ltd (Chennai). But all needs never completely of permanently satisfied entertains extraordinary high hope and needs which are beyond his capacity to fulfill. which stimulate a behavior towards fulfilling those needs.4 NEED FOR THE STUDY The doctrine of moder n management laid its emphasis on effective human resource management. Targets or other types of yardstick to measure one’s performance. The modern school of management lay its stress on the need for human resource management and human resource development as it is the fulcrum of management. Eventually management policy should be in consonance with deriving maximum job satisfaction.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY This project aims on eliciting the job satisfaction of the employees of Madras Cement Ltd. In these unit 80 employees has been chosen randomly by random sampling method.tension. Specific work environment. Compensation package. Some of the factors. 1. Capacity of an individual. Hence the choice of the topic job satisfaction in HRD of Madras Cements Pvt Ltd. . 1. Job satisfaction is in a way of feeling of fulfillment that one gets on performing or doing one’s job.

CHAPTER-2 2. To study about the motivation level in Madras Cement Ltd. The person with the high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitude towards the job.C.P.6 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main objective is to analyse whether the employees are satisfied with their job in Madras cement Ltd. To assess the level of satisfaction of the employee on what type of training undergone in the company. 1.TRIPATHI the term “job satisfaction refers to an employee’s general attitude towards his job. while a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds only negative attitude about the job. To find out the employee’s level of satisfaction association with nature of job and working atmosphere. Job satisfaction is nothing but the individual’s general attitude towards his or her job. To study management-employee relationship. The questionnaire was carefully prepared to evaluate the skills. To analyse the employee’s grievance in the organization. .” The job will be satisfactory if the individual’s job fulfills his dominant need and if it is consistency with his expectations.The data have been collected through questionnaire and analysed by constructing tables and diagrams.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Different authors have defined job satisfaction differently. According to Dr. communication level and rewards gained by the employee. which would lead them to get complete job satisfaction.

2 THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION MASLOWS’ THEORY According to this theory. He asked people to describe. job satisfaction is generated by individual’s perception of how well his job satisfies his basic needs on the whole. PHYSIOLOGICAL: Includes security and Protection from physical and emotional needs. ESTEEM: Includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect autonomy and achievement and external factors such as status. The m need for satisfaction is it brings high productivity. in detail. In fact. situations in which they felt exceptionally good or bad about their jobs. SAFETY: Includes security and Protection from physical and emotional harm. 2.According to KEITH DAVIS . he should be satisfied with his work. . 4.For the person to be productive. 3. belongingness. From the categorized responses. 2. Herzberg conducted a study with 200 engineers and accountants employed in a firm. It is related to human needs and their fulfillment throughout the work. job satisfaction is a very important motivating factor for all the organizations. Herzberg concluded a theory. 5. This response were then tabulated and categorized. Thus. Turnover and interest towards the job . there is hierarchy of five needs they are.” Thus job satisfaction represents an attitude rather than behaviour. “job satisfaction expresses the attitude towards one’s job. the difference between the amount of rewards workers receive and the amount that they believed that should receive. recognition and attention. HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY In 1950. acceptance and friendship. 1. SELF-ACTUALISATION: The drive to become hat one is capable of becoming includes growth. SOCIAL: Includes affection. achieving one’s potential and self-fulfillment.

the concept of human relations assumed that high job satisfaction leads to high productivity but later research indicated that it was an incorrect perception. Finally. company policies. relationship with others and job security were characterized by Herzberg as “Hygiene Factors”. promotion etc. he concludes that if the needs of the worker like pay. people will not be dissatisfied. seem to be related to job satisfaction. conditions surrounding the job such as quality of supervision. are satisfied in the above said job. The question that has been often raised is whether job satisfactions leads to performance or performance leads to job’ satisfaction. Herzberg divides the factor contributing to job satisfaction in to two sets. Extrinsic factors such as supervision. physical working condition. He will be motivated to work out of his needs are satisfies and production would be increased. while extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction. and opposite of “Dissatisfaction” is “ No dissatisfaction”. the factors leading to job satisfactions are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction. When these factors are adequate. pay.In this theory. Out of this study. ”A satisfied worker is a productive worker”. Those factors. According to Herzberg. are also called as “Motivation Factors”. Intrinsic factors such as the work itself. As a result. one called intrinsic factors and other called as extrinsic factor. CORNELL in his studies said. SATISFACTION AND ABSENTEEISM AND TURNOVER: . which are contributing to job satisfaction. 2. responsibility and the achievement. They are • High Productivity • Turn Over • Less Absenteeism SATISFACTION AND PRODUCTIVITY: Historically.3 THE EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE The following are the effect of job satisfaction on employee performance. Lawrence and Porter have developed a model suggesting that “Productivity leads to job satisfaction”. seem to be related to job dissatisfaction. Herzberg suggested that the opposite of “Satisfaction” is “No satisfaction”. company policies and working conditions. he will be a productive worker. Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction. pay.

pay. promotional opportunities. and interaction and work group. They are: Organizational Variables Personal Variables The individual variables are occupational level. . The personal variables are age. the trend may be different. One study indicated that those who had not completed high school were more satisfied. Satisfying the needs of the worker can reduce the labour turnover and absenteeism . considerate leadership. and family size and service with the company.4 COMPONENTS OF JOB SATISFACTION According to Abraham A. From the consensus of Indian studies. job contents. This relationship has been attributed to a combination of factors including the termination of employment by dissatisfied older personnel and a kind of conservation are resignation with advancing age to the realities of life and job. • EDUCATION: There is a great deal of conflicting evidence on the relationship between education and job satisfaction. The following are some of the job factor that is taken into consideration in developing job satisfaction job satisfaction scales. job satisfaction tends to increase with age but in some job. educational level.Rost and Alwin F. there are two types of variables that determine the job satisfaction of an individual. Indian studies have generally shown that there is only less job satisfaction for a more educated worker. sex.The study conducted by C. The worker will satisfied when his heed are satisfied.Aander explains that satisfied worker will stay in the same job for a long time. 2. But the education and intelligence is connected with age in giving satisfaction to workers. There are three types of job factors which includes: Personal factors Factors inherent in the job Factors controllable by management PERSONAL FACTORS • AGE: There is some evidence indicating increases job satisfaction with increased employees age. Korhan.

and opportunities to use the skill. higher the incentives. It is common to all the people in the organization. It affects there along with the management practices and various other factors. a small organization cannot attain effectiveness by being small one. People expect the salary for their work. responsible. • OCCUPATIONAL STATUS: Occupational status is usually found to arrange themselves in hierarchy according to their relative status. Higher the productive skills. As a determinant it cannot be operated alone. It is the steadiness of the employment. Although the type of work must be consider as a important determinant of job satisfaction. • SIZE OF THE PLANT: Size of the organization does not independently affect the employees. To get the incentives. It is positive when the employee feels that he has reasonable chances of working under the condition of company stability. personal characteristics. Occupational status and job satisfaction are related together but not identical with each other. Thus. It can be operated together with the kind of work. an incentive is a difference between the extra efforts they put in and extra benefit they get it. • WORK ENVIORNMENT: The condition under which a person works is consider as the working conditions. occupational status. Simply saying. • PRODUCTION INCENTIVES : Incentive is to increase production and to serve the economic needs of the employees. the employee must be skilled person. Salary plays in important role in job satisfaction. FACTORS CONTROLLABLE BY MANAGEMENT: • SECURITY : Security can be provided by the organization to the employee. the working condition must be safe and secure and pleasant.FACTORS INHERENT IN THE JOB: • TYPE OF WORK: The type of work is most important factor inherent in the job. Some studies have shown that people will be more satisfied with the job involving changes than involving routine monotonous work. in Indian organization. Security on job gives him opportunity to feel that he has satisfaction over his job. . • SKILL: Skill is one or the major determinants of job satisfaction. • SALARY: Salary is defined as the wages given to the employees for their work. prestige or values to the particular society. For an employee.

J. • COMMUNICATION: Communication is defined as the “the Transference and understanding of meaning”. Open door policy may be useful in the case of small units. open door type and stepladder type. In an open door policy the management asserts that no employee is prevented from going to it directly with his grievance. beliefs or even feels as unfair. By using this bridge a person can safely cross the river of misunderstanding that separate the peoples. opinion. It acts as a bridge between the communicator and listener. and even meet the head of the concern in an effort to have his grievance properly attended to.Jucius defines that” a grievance can be a discontent or dissatisfaction. status of union. messages etc. “A grievance is defined as any thing that an employee thinks or feels is wrong generally accompanied by a actively disturbing feeling.. It does not have to be justified’.R. doubts and fears etc.M.Calhoon. unjust or in equalitable. There are two types of grievance procedure viz. whether valid or not arising out of any thing connected with the company that an employee thinks.• PERSONNEL POLICY: Personnel policies refer to what the management wants to accomplish in a management or personnel. • GRIEVANCE PRODCEDURE : According to Prof. A policy is predetermined and accepted course of thought and action that is define and establish as a guide towards accepted goals and objectives. Grievance can be caused due to difference of opinion. . The communication will be effective and perfect only if the listener understood the message communicated by the speaker exactly. working condition. whether expressed or not.P. grievance procedure is the formal method of dealing with grievance. Prof. It is tool to express the ideas.

It was termed “Portland Cement” as it resembled the “Portland Stone”.. Improvement in thermal efficiency was obtained by installation of preceptors . etc. “Cement” is genetic term used for all powdered material which. “Portland Cement. Lime and volcanic ash formed “cement” in the construction of classic Roman and Greek structures. He also called his cement by the same name. These two machines made it possible of manufacture Portland cement in large quantities of consistent quality and of high strength. when mixed with water has a plastic form. Aspadin manufactured cement in a rudimentary form by burning mixture of limestone and clay. a popular limestone used for building in England.” It was only in 1900 that further impetus was given for development of the cement industry mainly because of two factors. In 1857. Evidence exists of it’s the Indus Civilization of Mohenjodaro Credit for the invention of “cement” goes to an English-man by the name of Joseph Aspadin of England in 1984. transportation. equipment.1 COMPANY PROFILE ABOUT CEMENT INDUSTRY: Cement. The wet kilns slowly began yielding their place to dry kilns. the most predominant construction material in usage all over the bridges and skyscrapers owe their existence to cement. One consisted of the use of a Rotary kiln for making clinker and the other was the use of a tube mill for the grinding of cement. through research work done by two French chemists. “Construction and Cement” have become synonymous. two very important mechanical inventions were made around the turn of the century. Burnt gypsum was the “cement” used for the pyramids for Egypt. the structure gaining strength building and bonding properties with age. in the cement field. Secondly. Cement is an ancient building material. Over the year. reducing fuel cost to 70 percent.CHAPTER-3 3. numerous developments took place in technology. but becomes a solid structure within a few hours. Another quarter of a century passed before yet another English man Issac Charles Johnson produced a slightly better quality of cement in 1850. viz. directed towards reducing cost of cement enabling it to be competitive not only in the national market but also in the international area. Firstly it had become feasible. an American named David Saylor improved the mix design of limestone and clay resulting in a much more superior quality of cement. to procedure Portland cement of such a uniform quality that if could win the common faith of the building industry.

cotton yarn.Ramasubramaneya Rajha is the present Chairman of the Group. Regardless of time Zones”. software systems. Starting with less than a 1000 tones annum in (1914). the cement industry has passed through various phases of acute foreign and indigenous completion. the group turn over is about Rs. stagnation of capacity. However.4. Shri PAC Ramasamy Raja of Rajapalaiyam founded the Ram co Group. STATUS OF INDIAN CEMENT INDUSTRY TODAY SUMMARIZED BELOW THE RAMCO GROUP: Ram co Group is one of the South India’s Strongest and most respected industrial group. . Commissional 100 tones per day rotary kiln at Porbandar (Gujarat). Consequently the growth has neither been uniform over the years.2. “Rajapalaiyam Mills” is the first company of the group Shri P. In a 30 tones per day plant. A fiercely competitive global market space.R. Ram co group feels proud to say ‘‘we are delivering quality to our highly discerning customers worldwide. and low profitability was also prolonged years of price controls.R. nor has the capacity utilization been consistently high. In 2002-2003.Ramasubramaneya Rajha is the present Chairman of the Group. low productivity. Finally computerization and quality control of raw material resulted in optimal usage of fuel and power. surgical dressings etc. the three factories together were able to procedure about 85. In addition to Industrial activities. assets worth Rs. In October 1914 another enterprise. 000 million. cement production is expected to reach capacity of over 60.000 the group is looking towards the future from position of strength.and further efficiency was achieved with the use of precalcinatory. the Ram co Group is also well known for its charity activities. this venture failed.1400 Crores.”Rajapalayam Mills” is the first company of the group. The next couple of years saw the emergence of two new factories when plants at Katni (MadhyaPradesh) and Lakher (Rajasthan) were commissioned. The Ram co Group was founded by Shri PAC Ramasamy raja of Rajapalayam. With a total turnover of Rs. 500 million and personnel numbering over 6.00 million tones per annum by the end of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1989-90).. fiber cement products. The First World War gave a fidllip to the cement industry and by 1918. Ltd. challenging the status quo. The group has well diversified business interest like cement. Shri P. ORIGIN OF THE INDUSTRY IN INDIA In India Portland the South India Industrial Ltd first manufactured cement in 1904 near Madras. Indian Cement co. Ram co group is creating new markets. It has nine companies and 16 Business Units under its fold.000 tones per year. During these 80 years.

800 crores per annum and poised for high growth in years to come. Dalal Street Journal etc. He realized that it was only education that could crase poverty and the pitiable condition of the people. Money to him was secondary. He also started hospitals for the benefit of the people. “For PACR. Is the flagship company of the Ram co GroupTechnoligical excellence. which today educate over 7000 students.270 Crores. MADRAS CEMENTS LTD Madras Cements Ltd. business was intended more as a service to the community by providing much needed to many.The former President of India. Colleges and polytechnics. Commitment to Quality and the inherent faith in the infinite potential of Human resources are the three corner stones of the success of the company. the present turn over of Madras Cements Ltd is about Rs. For Ramasamy Raja religion and Charity were part and parcel of his life. As a financially and fundamentally strong corporate entity. GROUP OF COMPANIES AT A GLANCE Rajapalaiyam mills ltd and its divisions Rajapalaiyam (SpintextDivision) Rajapalaiyam Textiles Shri Ram co Biotech Madras Cements Ltd Ram co Industries Ltd that includes Ram co Lanka (Private) Ltd (Subsidiary) Sri Ram co spinners (Division) Ram co Systems Ltd Sandhya spinning Mill Ltd. It has a consistent dividend paying record and has won national level awards for its financial performance from such renowned groups such as Economic Times. R. . Madras Cements ltd is built on an asset base of rS.Venkataraman says.. So he formed a trust and started various schools.1445 Crores and its not Worth stands at Rs. An indication of his dedication to his work and his people”.

Jayanthipuram in A. the company is a pioneer and trend-setter and can boast of many firsts in the industry – such as setting trend for larger capacity kilns in the south. It is leader and the pioneer in the Blended Cement segment more than 905 of cement produced by the company is the Blended cement variety. The cement plants of the MCL employ the state of the art technologies such as vertical mills for cement grinding. ethics and values that are the foundations of MCL’s marketing.R. The cost of production is the lowest for the total industry. It is known for its customer service. He kiln is fitted with crossbar cooler.The combined capacity of these two put together is about 35 MW which makes Ram co Winfarm as one of the largest private sector wind farm in South Asia. The Alathiyur Plant has world-class features. which are sold under the brand name “Ram co”. The plant is designed for the lowest power consumption and emissions. Ram co is the single largest cement brand is south.The most modern manufacturing facilities are located at R. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research in common parlance refer to a search for knowledge . to install ESP for pollution control to use surface miners etc. to change of dry process.Nagar and Alathiyur in T. bag filters etc. which is the first outside the USA. one can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a scientific topic. In the year 1999. Also. . The cement is sold through a network of about 4000 cement dealers all throughout the South Asia. to implement pre-calcinations technology in-house. Madras cements have proved its engineering abilities when it has set up its 15 MTA second line at Alathiyur in a record time of just nine months. X-ray Analysers. Madras Cements Ltd manufactures both OPC and blended cement varieties.MCL commissioned the most sophisticated Ready mix Concrete Plant in Medavakkam in South Chennai and a second RMc plant Vichur in north Chennai. The vertical cement grinding will is the biggest of its class in whole of’ Asia.P and Mathod in Karnataka. fuzzy logic. This was followed by another wind farm was setup in Poolavadi near Coimbatore in 1995. which is the largest for any cement company in the country. MCL setup the Ram co Winfarm in 1993 at Muppandal in Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu. The four plants together are capable of producing 60 lakh tons of cement per annum. Being an eco-friendly company.N. surface miners. CHAPTER-4 4.

which was self-developed so as to measure the job satisfaction of the employees in the organization. TYPES OF SAMPLING NON-RANDOM SAMPLING Non-probability sampling is that sampling procedure which does not afford any basis for estimating the probability that each item in the population has of being included in the sample.2 DATA COLLECTION METHOD QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD The researcher used a questionnaire. and at last carefully testing the conclusions of determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis”. to develop hypothesis rather than to generalize to large population. Questionnaire to be used must be prepared very carefully so that it may prove to be effective in collecting the relevant information. 4.. The researcher has used judgement-sampling method for selecting 80 respondents from Madras Cement Ltd.1 RESEARCH DESIGN For this research study a descriptive research design was used the factors that are affecting the employees in work environment is studies and the findings were described in detail.According to clifford woody research “ comprises defining and redefining problems. JUDGEMENT SAMPLING In judgement sampling the researcher’s judgement is used for selecting items. marking deductions and reaching and conclusions. 4. collecting. which he considers as representative of the population. formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions. Non-probability sampling is also known by different names such as deliberate sampling. The statisticals tools like Chi-square test were applied for data analysis. purposive sampling and judgement sampling. Chennai judgement sampling is used quite frequently in qualitative research where the desire happens to be. . organizing and evaluation data.

50 and above 8 10 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 Percentage (%) . A chi-square distribution method is used for judging the significant different between observed and expected frequencies.5 4. it can be used to determine if categorical data shows dependency or the two classifications are independent. 30-40 48 60 3. The graphic rating scale is quite simple and is commonly used in practice. Under it the various points are usually put along the line to form a continuum and rather indicates this rating by simple marking a mark. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION TABLE-5.1 : Classification based on Age wise distribution S. CHAPTER-5 5. 20-30 10 12. STATISTICAL TOOLS USED The data collected were carefully analysed & interpreted statistical technologychi-square test is applied to draw meaningful references.SCALING TECHNIQUE The questionnaire measures four dimensions of the job satisfaction with the help at itemized. graphic rating scale techniques. 40-50 14 17. As a non-parametric test.no Age (Year) No.5 2. Of Respondents (No) 1.

5% of the respondents were in the year of service 20 and above. TABLE-5.5% of the respondents were in the age group 20-30 and the majority of the respondents (around 48%) were in the age group 30-40 year of the age remaining of 27.25 5. Of Respondents (No) (%) Percentage 1.5% of the respondents were in the year of service less than 5. 15-20 13 16.5 2.5% of the respondents were in the year of service 10-15. 21.5 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 27.no Year of Service No. 22. 16.25 4.5% of the respondents were in the year of service 5-10. 5-10 18 22. 10-15 17 21.25 of the respondents were in the year of service 15-20. Remaining 12.2: Classification based on Year of Service S. 20 and above 10 12.The above table shows that 12.5 3.5% of the respondents were in the age group of 40-50 and 50 and above. . Less than 5 22 27.

no 1.3: Classification based on Educational qualification Particular S.25 4.5 5. Diploma 16 20 No.5% of the respondents were in the educational qualification of Professional. 21.25 3. Post-Graduate 13 16. .TABLE-5. Graduate 17 21.25% of the respondents were in the educational qualification of Post graduate. Profession 22 27. Others 12 15 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 20% of the respondents were in the educational qualification of Diploma. 27. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 2.25% of the respondents were in the educational qualification of Graduate 16. Remaining 15% of the respondents were in the educational qualification of others.

25 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 26.4: Classification based on working condition Particular S. Remaining 6.17.TABLE-5. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1.25% of the respondents were in the working conditions were highly satisfied.25 2. Dis-satisfied 9 11.25 5.5% of the respondents were in the working conditions were satisfied.no No.5 4.25% of the respondents were in the working conditions were dissatisfied. Highly satisfied 21 26. 38. Highly dissatisfied 5 6. 11. Average 14 17.75 3.25% of the respondents were in the working conditions were highly satisfied.5% of the respondents were in the working conditions were average. . Satisfied 31 38.

Low 12 15 4. 35% of the respondents were in the relationship between management and union of cordial.25 2. Cordial 28 35 3. . Remaining 15% of the respondents were in the relationship between management and unions are better cordial. 8.TABLE-5.no No.75 5. Highly cordial 21 26. Better cordial 12 15 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 26.5: Classification based on Relationship between Management and Union Particular S. 15% of the respondents were in the relationship between management and unions are low. Not-cordial 7 8.25% of the respondents were in the relationship between management and union are highly cordial.75% of the respondents were in the relationship between management and unions are not cordial. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1.

Better cordial 10 12.5 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 21. Low 11 13.no No.25 2. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. 38. Cordial 31 38. Highly cordial 17 21.75% are both respondents in the relationship between management and employees are low and not cordial.75 3. Not-cordial 11 13.75 4.25% of the respondents were in the relationship between management and employees are highly cordial.7: Classification based on Types of training undergone by the employee when joining the company . 13. TABLE-5.75 5.75% of the respondents were in the relationship between management and employees of cordial.6: Classification based on Relationship between Management and Employee Particular S.TABLE-5.5% of the respondents were in the relationship between management and employees are better cordial. Remaining 12.

Remaining 10% of the respondents were in the types of training of others.no 1.75 3. 17. Management 14 17.5% of the respondents were in the types of training undergone by the employee in technical.25 No. TABLE-5. Others 8 10 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 17.25% of the respondents were in the types of training of on-job. On-job 21 26. 28.5% of the respondents were in the types of training in management. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 4. Technical 14 17.8: Classification based on Level of satisfaction . Soft-skill 23 28.75% of the respondents were in the types of training in soft skill. 26.5 5.Particular S.5 2.

75 2. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1.25 5. Highly satisfied 23 28.5% of the respondents were in the level of satisfaction of highly satisfied. TABLE-5.25% of the respondents were in the level of satisfaction of dissatisfied. Average 11 13.25 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 17.5% of the respondents were in the level of satisfaction of average.no No. 6. 13.25% of the respondents were in the level of satisfaction of highly dissatisfied. Satisfied 36 45 3.9: Classification based on Job security . Highly dissatisfied 5 6.45% of the respondents were in the level of satisfaction of satisfied. Dis-satisfied 5 6. Remaining 6.75 4.Particular S.

25 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 17.75 .no No.no No.5% of the respondents were in the job security of highly satisfied. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. TABLE-5. Highly satisfied 11 13. Average 17 21.25% of the respondents were in the job security of satisfied. Highly satisfied 9 11.25 3. 25% of the respondents were in the job security of dissatisfied. 26.25 2.25% of the respondents were in the job security of average. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly dissatisfied 13 16. 21. Dis-satisfied 20 25 5.25 4. Remaining of the respondents was in the job security of highly dissatisfied.Particular S.10: Classification based on Promotion policy Particular S. Satisfied 21 26.

30% of the respondents were in promotion policy of satisfied.5 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 13.5 of the respondents were in promotion policy of highly dissatisfied.25 3.75% of the respondents were in promotion policy of highly satisfied. 25% of the respondents were in promotion policy of average. TABLE-5.2.75 5.no No. Satisfied 24 30 3.75% of the respondents were in promotion policy of dissatisfied. Satisfied 21 26. Highly satisfied 12 15 2. Remaining 12. Average 24 30 . 18. Dis-satisfied 15 18. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly dissatisfied 10 12. Average 20 25 4.11: Classification based on Grievance Particular S.

30% of the respondents were in Grievance handled of average.40% of the respondents were in the one time payment of .12: Classification based on one time payment Particular S. 18.75 5.4.75 4. Highly dissatisfied 5 6.75% of the respondents were in Grievance handled of dissatisfied. 26.75 2. Satisfied 32 40 3. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1.25% of the respondents were in Grievance handled of satisfied.25 5. Highly satisfied 23 28.75% of the respondents were in the one time payment of highly satisfied. TABLE-5. Average 15 18.no No.25 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 28. Dis-satisfied 15 18. Remaining 10% of the respondents were in Grievance handled of highly dissatisfied. Dis-satisfied 5 6. Highly dissatisfied 8 10 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 15% of the respondents were in Grievance handled of highly satisfied.

Average 15 18. Satisfied 22 27.5 3. TABLE-5.75 4.75% of the respondents were in the one time payment of average. Dis-satisfied 12 15 5. 27. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1.25% of the respondents were in the job provides enough freedom to discharge your responsibility of highly satisfied.5% of the respondents were in the job provides enough freedom of highly dissatisfied. Highly satisfied 25 31. 15% of the respondents were in the dissatisfied. Highly dissatisfied 6 7. 18.75% of the respondents were in the job provides enough freedom of highly average.25% of the respondents was in the one time payment of dissatisfied and highly dissatisfied. Remaining 7.satisfied. .25 2.no No.5 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table show that 13.5% of the respondents were in the satisfied.18.13: Classification based on Job provides enough freedom Particular S. Remaining both of 6.

14: Classification based on Pay system Particular S.25 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 30% of the respondents were in the pay system of highly satisfied.25 5.no No. Highly satisfied 24 30 2. Average 12 15 4. Remaining 11. . 15% of the respondents were in the pay system of average. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1.25% of the respondents were in the pay system of both dissatisfied highly dissatisfied.TABLE-5. Dis-satisfied 9 11.5% of the respondents were in the pay system of satisfied. Highly dissatisfied 9 11.5 3. Satisfied 26 32. 32.

no No.75% of the respondents were in the social interaction of average. 30% of the respondents were in the social interaction of satisfied.5% of the respondents were in the social interaction of highly satisfied. Satisfied 24 30 3. 18. Highly dissatisfied 8 10 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 27.75 4.TABLE-5.5 2.75 5. TABLE-5. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Dis-satisfied 11 13. Highly satisfied 22 27.16: Classification based on Welfare measure . Remaining 10% of the respondents were in the social interaction of highly dissatisfied.75% of the respondents were in the social interaction of dissatisfied. 13.15: Classification based on social Interaction Particular S. Average 15 18.

Average 15 18. 15% of the respondents were in the welfare measures of dissatisfied.75 4.25 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 30% of the respondents were in the welfare measures of highly satisfied. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1. Highly dissatisfied 9 11. Remaining 11.no No. Highly satisfied 24 30 2. 25% of the respondents were in the welfare measures of satisfied. Dis-satisfied 12 15 5.17: Classification based on Safety measures . 18.75% of the respondents were in the welfare measures of average.25% of the respondents were in the welfare measures of highly dissatisfied TABLE-5. Satisfied 20 25 3.Particular S.

25% of the respondents were in the safety measures of satisfied. Average 13 16. Highly dissatisfied 8 10 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 21. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) 1.25 3.18: Classification based on Motivation level in the organization .25 2. Dis-satisfied 13 16.25% of the respondents were in the safety measures of highly satisfied.25% of the respondents were in the safety measures of average. Highly satisfied 17 21. Remaining 10% of the respondents were in the safety measures of highly dissatisfied.Particular S. 16.25 4. Satisfied 29 36.25 5. TABLE-5.no No. 36.

5% of the respondents were in the motivational level in the organization of highly satisfied. Average 15 18. Dis-satisfied 13 16. Average 9 11. TABLE-5. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) S. Highly satisfied 22 27.75% of the respondents were in the motivational level in the organization of average.25% of the respondents were in the motivational level in the organization of dissatisfied.no 1.no 1.5 3.5% of the respondents were in the motivational level in the organization of highly dissatisfied. 25% of the respondents were in the motivational level in the organization of satisfied.Particular No. 16.75 4.25 5.5 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 27. Satisfied 25 32. Highly satisfied 23 28. 18.19: Classification based on Training and development given by the organization Particular No.5 4. Satisfied 28 35 3. Of Respondents (No) S. Remaining 12. Highly dissatisfied 8 10 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 Percentage (%) . Dis-satisfied 12 15 5.5 2. Highly dissatisfied 10 12.75 2.

Satisfied 29 36.25% of the respondents were in the satisfactory level of satisfied.25 2.25% of the respondents were in the training and development of average. Dis-satisfied 10 12. 15% of the respondents were in the training and development of dissatisfied.5% of the . Highly satisfied 21 26. 35% of the respondents were in the training and development of satisfied.75% of the respondents were in the training and development of highly satisfied.15% of the respondents were in the satisfactory level of average.20: Classification based on satisfactory level Particular No. 12. Remaining of the respondents was in the training and development of highly dissatisfied.5 5. 11.The above table shows that 28.25 3. Of Respondents (No) Percentage (%) S. 36.no 1. Average 12 15 4.25% of the respondents were in the satisfactory level of highly satisfied. Highly dissatisfied 8 10 Total 80 100 Source: Field survey-2006 The above table shows that 26. TABLE-5.

D.S H. Alternative Hypothesis (H ) 1 .respondents were in the satisfactory level of dissatisfied. Remaining 10% of the respondents were in the satisfactory level of highly dissatisfied. TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS CHI-SQUARE TEST To test the classification based on year of service and the level of significance. Test – 1 Year of Service LEVEL Less 5-10 10-15 15-20 20 TOTAL OF SIGNIFICANCE than5 &ABOVE H.S 6 5 5 12 8 8 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 5 2 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 5 5 23 36 11 Total 22 18 17 13 10 80 Null Hypothesis (H ) 0 There is no association between the classification based on year of service and the classification based on level of satisfaction.S S Average D.

There is association between the classification based on year of service and the classification based on level of satisfaction Chi-square Test X= i i E i = Observed frequency i E = Expected frequency i E=RC i t * t G t R = Row total t C = Column total t G = Grand total t )2 2 Expected frequency .

01621 ) ) 2 2 5 5 4 5.1 0.0484 0.0272 0.65 0.5 0.9 4.3969 0.78 1.7225 2.4225 0.4454 8 8.0733 .17 4.37 2.0289 0.1235 0.25 1.0121 0.1675 1.5 3.85 4.35 1.1024 0.2897 0.0816 0.0195 3 2.89 0.73 0.04 .3558 0.1225 0.0160 5 3 2 3 2 2 2 1 5.37 1.0729 0.31 0.01 0.3969 0.89 3.01 12 9.32 0.0025 0.1798 0.0289 0.41 0.0012 8 7.0056 0.E i i i i i i E i 6 6.0961 0.

f = 16 Tabulated value of X 0.2329 0.f at 5% level of significance is 26.2329 X= i i i = E ) 2.06 0.04 0.06 0.8 0.04 0.22 1.62 0. . we conclude that there is no association between the 0 classifications based on year of service and the classification based on the level of satisfaction.8 0.0034 0.1444 0. So.05 0.1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1. null hypothesis ( H ) is accepted.036 0.62 1.0036 0.0396 0.05 0.9593 2 2 d.07396 0.144 0.22 1.0733 0.3 2 Conclusion: Since the calculated value ( Cv ) is less than the tabulated value ( Tv ).31 1.0484 0.0961 0.05 d.0034 0.f (or) r = (r-1) (c-1) = (5-1) (5-1) = 4*4 d.084 0.

D.C 3 3 2 2 1 11 Better cordial 3 3 2 1 1 10 Total 21 31 14 9 5 80 H.S S TOTAL Average D. Chi-square Test X= i i E i )2 2 .S 4 7 3 2 1 17 S 8 15 5 2 1 31 Average 3 3 2 2 1 11 N.S Null Hypothesis (H ) 0 There is no association between the classification working condition and the classification based on relationship between management and employee. Alternative Hypothesis (H ) 1 There is association between the classification working condition and the classification based on relationship between management and employee.S H.Test . Particulars (relationship) Qualification H.2 To test the classification based on educational qualification and the relationship between management and employee.

1764 0.0196 0.7443 5 5.01 0.0024 15 12.6361 0.0034 8 8.0036 0.98 1.01 8.001 0.89 2.47 0.94 2.0121 0.0325 2 1 3 3.= Observed frequency i E = Expected frequency i E=RC i t * t G t R = Row total t C = Column total t G = Grand total t Expected frequency E i i ) i i ) 2 i i E i 0.42 0.2201 0.0041 .0053 1 1.2209 7 3 2 6.0494 2 4 4.1681 0.9 0.9401 0.4554 0.14 0.49 1.0255 0.8836 0.06 0.59 2.0004 0.

04 0.3041 X= i i i = E ) 4.5876 0.1764 0.4658 0.24 0.71 2.9 1.1521 0.13 0.0841 0.0361 0.3726 1.01 0.26 1.0582 0.4658 0.53 1.24 0.26 1.4942 2 2 d.0052 0.1184 0.0222 0.3 2 2 1 3 4.5876 0.0052 0.7744 0.0149 0.1995 0.9 1.01 0.81 1.5776 0.0128 3 2 2 1 3 3 2 1 1 4.71 2.5776 0.3726 0.0169 0.88 1.8 1.0841 0.61 3.f (or) r = (r-1) (c-1) .1184 0.

• 38. So. 27. we conclude that there is no association between the 0 classifications based on working condition and the classification based on the job security 6.5 of the respondents in the year of service 5-10.05 d.5% of the respondents in the year of service less than 5.f at 5% level of significance is 26.3 2 Conclusion: Since the calculated value ( Cv ) is less than the tabulated value ( Tv ).5% 5 of the respondents in the year of service 20 and above. • 35% of the respondents were relationship between management and union.75% of the respondents are satisfied with their working condition.25% 5 of the respondents in the year of service 15-20. 22.5% had more than educational qualification of professional. 60% had more than 30-40 of Age group. 21.25% 5 of the respondents in the year of service 10-15.= (5-1) (5-1) = 4*4 d.e. • 45% of the respondents are satisfied with their current job. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS FINDINGS • Majority of the respondents’ i.e. 16. • 27. null hypothesis ( H ) is accepted. • 26. • 30% of the respondents are satisfied with their promotion policies. Remaining 12. . • Majority of the year respondents’ i.25% of the respondents are satisfied with their job security.f = 16 Tabulated value of X 0.

In this research study 12. SUGGESTIONS Promotion Rearrangement of individual to a job higher rank provides work force with flexibility and mobility. 18.5% of the respondents are highly satisfied to the motivation level in the organization.25% of the respondents were highly satisfied to the providing enough freedom to the job. • 30% of the respondents are highly satisfied to the welfare measures provided by the organization. • 32.5% are dissatisfied with the promotional policy. Any organization needs to have Grievance handling system to reduce discontent or dissatisfaction.75% of the respondents have expressed pessimism towards Grievance handling system. Additional or special attention need to taken care by the management so as to have an efficient and effective Grievance handling system. • 31. • 30% of the respondents are satisfied to the social integration in this organization.5% of the respondents are satisfied with the pay systems.5% of the respondents are satisfied with the safety measures in the organization. • 36. • 27. . It suggested that the management need to look into the promotion system and necessary steps for the correction and rectification if any. Since Grievance handling system play a major role in the performance of employees in the organization.• 40% of the respondents were satisfied with their one time payment.

e. CONCLUSION Thus.PRASAD ORGANISATION BEHAVIOUR .M.STEPHEN P. ROBBINS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY . Any change in any of the M is reflected in the output. Therefore the first M men need to be looked at constantly for the better performance of the enterprise APPENDICES 1.R KOTHARI HUMAN BEHAVIOUR AT WORK . from the above study it is concluded that the employees at Madras Cements Limited were satisfied in almost all the expect in promotion policy and grievance handling system.7.L. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS: HUMAN RESOURSES MANAGEMENT . men.C. machine money and material. Any organization functions with the integration of 4M’s i.KEITH DAVIS .

QUESTIONNAIRE Age Sex Marital status No. What is your Year of service in this company? Less than 5 5-10 10-15 20 & above 2. of dependents : : : : 1.2. How is the relationship between management and union? Highly cordial Cordially Low Not cordial Better cordial . Are you satisfied with your working conditions? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 4. What is your Educational and Technical qualification? Diploma Graduate Post graduate Professional Others 3.

How is the relationship between management and employee? Highly cordial Cordially Low Not cordial Better cordial 6. Comparing with the other companies this company treat well? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 9. Are you satisfied with your current job? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 10.5. What is the level of affairs that the company provides to the family members? Excellent Good Fair Average Poor 7. Do you find your job is a challenging one? Highly challenging Challenging Average . What type of training you have undergone when you join in this company? Technical Soft-skill On-job Management Others 8.

What is your opinion about bonus/one time payment? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 14. Is the pay system in the organization is competitive with the industry? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 15. How is the motivation level in the organization? .Not challenging None 11. What do you feel about your job security? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 12. What do you feel about promotion policy? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 13. How is the social interaction among the colleagues? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 16.

How is the training and development given by the organization to the employee? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 18.Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 17. I gain more information from my job? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 20. If you get any other good job I will switch over to other company? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied . How is the satisfactory level regarding existing communication system in the organization? Highly satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied 19.