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Editor In Chief Elsie Ijorogu Reed Managing Editor Coordinator Kirthi Jayakumar Contributors Obiomachi Madukoma Shruthi Dhanwantary

Aiswarya Chandrashekar Stephanie Smith Designer Kirthi Jayakumar Runs Girls and the Women Pimps
In his article discusses sex trafficking in the Nigerian context, Jrgen Carling describes the trade route of the sex trade from Nigeria to Italy. Along this route, major players are involved before the woman reaches the final destination. These key players include a contact person, the Madam in Nigeria, Ohen (a native

priest), the Trolley (transportation middlemen), the Madams black boy (working for the Madam in Italy) and the Madam in Italy. With horribly poor living conditions many Nigerians face, the Madams do not need to hunt for victims. Some young women opt to join the trade to better the lot of their families. Once the decision is made, a contact person who might be a friend or relative establishes contact with the Madam in Nigeria on behalf of the young woman. Afterwards, the young woman and the Madam make a pact sealed by the Ohen, and in some cases a contract is signed with the young womans family land or house as collateral.

Several analysts have debated this pact as the main reason for the reluctance to quit the trade. Out of fear of spiritual attacks if they break their pact, the women choose to stay until their debts to the Madam is paid in full; some debts up to $100,000. Sometimes, the women are able to pay off their debts in 3 years, however the period might be lengthened

as punishment for bad behaviour. Having established themselves from the gains of their trade, these women often graduate to become Madams themselves, thus perpetuating the sex trafficking cycle. In his article, Carling points out that some young women get into the trade so young that they become Madams around the age of 20; the average age of Madams ranging between 25 35 years old.

prowess or cooking skills, but by her ability to develop and utilize her skills and talents to better herself and her community without having to resort to selling her body for money. Perhaps, when Nigerian women are given equal opportunities as men, they would realize their full potentials and break the cycle of poverty that engulfs many in the nation.

By Obiomachi Madukoma

If many women go into this trade with their eyes wide open, then why this discussion? First of all, it must be established that although the women are willing participants, very many of them would opt out if they felt they had other options. These women become slaves for the number of years it takes to be free from their debts to the Madams, are subject to abuse including rape and beatings, and may even end up in foreign jails. Who really wants to live like this?

Nigeria: A hub of sex trafficking

An 18 year old Nigerian girl spent twentysix long and painful months in various parts of Europe as a sex slave after being transported and sold to many locals. There she often lived in small rooms with several girls just like her sunken, jittery and morose. Like her, ten thousands of young girls and women are transported each year from Nigeria to various parts of the world for mainly sexual purposes and the number is incessantly on the rise. Till today, Nigeria remains one of the most atrisk countries when it comes to sex trade. According to statistics, 45,000 Nigerian women are trafficked to the west yearly to engage in vicious and demeaning sex related acts. Here in the country not only women but also children who should ordinarily be in school are lured or forced into what has come to be known as modern day slavery. Various reasons are attributed to this appalling act. Economic burden and

First, we must address the state of women in our society. In addition to formal education, we must strive to help our women develop a strong sense of self-esteem and self-worth. Aside from the possibility of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, physical abuse or being arrested and jailed, sex trafficking undermines a womans worth and her capacity to contribute positively to her society. In a society where a woman is valued as much as a man, the woman easily sees herself as capable of achieving great things. In such a society, she is given equal opportunities to excel, is taught that her worth is not measured by her sexual

deepening poverty for most families of low-lying areas is one of the main sources for entering themselves or the girls of their families voluntarily into the sex-trade business while on the other side of the story many women are lured into it by traffickers who promise them dubious offers in the name of career, education etc. What is becoming particularly common lately is the trafficking of young girls as they are easy to manipulate and trade. Another issue in this matter is the concentration of women trafficking in the state of Edo in the south central part of the country because of the disadvantaged economic situation of families living in most parts of it. Looking at these issues, it can be seen that sex traffickings main enemy is awareness and the desperation from utter poverty and hence young women, some innocent some knowingly risk their lives and freedom in a bid to find a better life. Whatever the reason for being victimized in this inhuman act it is without doubt that sex trafficking is a menace in the country. And a disturbing fact is that the traffickers are extremely organized in carrying out their activities and thus eradicating this menace is a serious challenge.
Since recent times though, the government has sustained stringent law enforcement efforts in order to

tie the loose-ends of the nations law in the matter such as passing a bill for stricter punishment for sex-trafficking offenders. These efforts would help curtail the menace to an extent notwithstanding the fact that the Nigerian government must also take a more holistic approach and focus even on factors such as poverty, unemployment and awareness so that the fight against sex trafficking is deep-rooted and only then can the country start seeing an impact for its efforts which would ultimately inhibit this downtrodden hazard.

By Shruthi Dhanwantary An Overview of Sex Trafficking in Nigeria

Nigeria has been a hub of sex trafficking for several decades. The trafficking of both women and children has happened internally and externally. What is most disturbing about this trend is that 92% of sex trafficked women and children are from Edo and Delta states, according to a UNESCO report. Whats more is that 50% of these victims are under the age of 18, an appalling statistic that needs to be changed. Sex Trafficking within Nigeria.

Within Nigieria, girls and women are usually forced into domestic work, become farm labourers or in the worst case, prostitutes. Families, and individuals, often sell or send their daughters off to work as a means of survival. Some families simply cannot afford another mouth to feed, while some are recent orphans with no other means to take care of themselves.

Bisi, a 14 year old who was sent to work in a city by her mother is from a family who could not afford to keep her. Bisi worked as a domestic servant until she was one day raped by one of the men in the household that she was working in, according to a UNESCO report. She became pregnant and had to return to her parents house, but was unable to name her attacker lest some other violence befall her or her family. Even though Bisi was to be house help her vulnerable situation was taken advantage of by the very family who swore to protect her and take her in. Sex Trafficking Externally Some women and children are lured into dreams of travel and working in Europe. Some see it as a quick way to make cash, and see the world, others just want to see and do something different. Very few, if any, know what they are really getting themselves into. These women and girls are told that they will work as domestic servants, or nannies, in a European country like Italy, Britain, Germany; or closer to home in countries like Cote dIvoire, Cameroon, or Saudi Arabia. What awaits them couldnt be farther from the truth.
Many women visit priests before beginning their journey. Some priests are tricking girls into obedience before they even leave. Take the case of Osezua Osolase who has just received a 20 year sentence in the United

Kingdom for smuggling Nigerian orphan girls into Europe to work as prostitutes, according to the UK edition of The Guardian. He coerced the girls into obedience by performing juju rituals, if the girls disobeyed there was a chance that misfortune or even death would befall them or someone in their family. Why? Sex trafficking is an incredibly lucrative business that generates income of $7-8 billion annually, according to a UNESCO report. Repercussions for these acts are few and far between, and due to the secrecy and extension of some of these trafficking networks; even when there is a raid theres a good chance at least one person from the network lives to see another day. For this to change, there must be more stringent laws and punishments against those that force women and children into sex trafficking. Only a collective effort by the people to change this will make this change happen.

By Stephanie Smith

PROJECT EYE-CARE Instead of just giving them reading glasses, since some dont read and just use it to see numbers on their mobile phones, they cannot do their daily chores or business with it, we would like to ensure that they have a convenient system to rely on. Delta Women also learned that some complained that we have added more problems to them as they now have to go to the hospital as prescribed, but have not realized that it is for their own health. Delta Women need volunteers to help spread awareness and to build the planning stages. This project is being jointly headed by Elsie Ijorogu-Reed and volunteer Kirthi Jayakumar. OKUIJOROGU SCHOOL Delta Women is proud to inform you that we are monitoring the progress or paper work, for the award and start of work, and that we will be updating our members soon with dates of commencement of work on the school premises, once it is given to us! EMPOWERMENT PROGRAM Delta Women will be working towards empowering the youth of Adeje, Nigeria, by giving them renovation and building skills to enable them to renovate their town center and acquire skills. Anybody interested in assisting the youths of adeje should contact us at: We are also planning a medical out-reach for the people of Oku-ijorogu between July and August who till date have no medical center and have to travel miles for medical attention. WELCOME, NEW VOLUNTEERS! Delta Women welcomes 6 new volunteers, who join our team this month to work on our various projects.