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AN ANALYSIS OF THE READING COMPREHENSION SKILLS OF THE THIRD YEAR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF ST.JOHN PAROCHIAL SCHOOL, TIAONG, QUEZON DURING THE SCHOOL-YEAR 2012-2013.
A Research Proposal Submitted to the Faculty of the College of Education Tayabas Western Academy Candelaria, Quezon
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSED)
DELOSREYES EUFRACINA AZON DIGMA AARON CHRISTOPER ALOG MARCH 2013
In partial fulfillment for the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education, major in English, this research paper entitled “AN ANALYSIS OF READING COMPREHENSION SKILLS OF THE THIRD YEAR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF ST.JOHN PAROCHIAL SCHOOL,TIAONG, QUEZON DURING THE SCHOOL-YEAR 2012-2013.” has been prepared and submitted by EUFRACINA DELOS REYES and AARON CHRISTOPER A. DIGMA who are hereby recommended for oral examination. MR.RAUL AGARAN (Research Adviser) Approved by the oral examination Committee with a grade of _____on March _____, 2013. ____________________________ ______________________________
____________________________ DR.THELMA O.MAGNAYON Chairman
Accepted and approved in partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education, Major in English (BSed) ________________________________ DR.THELMA O.MAGNAYON Chairman
This dissertation would not have been possible without the guidance and the help of several individuals who in one way or another contributed and extended their valuable assistance in the preparation and completion of this study. First and foremost, our utmost gratitude to our dear instructor Mr. Raul Agar an sincerity and encouragement we will never forget. Mr.Agaran has been our inspiration as we hurdle all the obstacles in the completion of this research work. Second, the Administrators, teachers and personnel of the St.John Parochial School for their untiring effort in helping us in materializing our research.
Thirdly, to the third year students of the said school for their sincere cooperation in answering each questionnaire given. Last but not the least, our family, our friends and the one above all of us, the omnipresent God, for answering our prayers, and for giving us the strength to continue on despite our constitution wanting to give up, thank you so much Dear Lord.
I dedicate this dissertation work to my family and many friends. A special feeling of gratitude to my loving father, Domingo Delos Reyes whose words of encouragement and push for tenacity ring in my ears. My brothers, who have never left my side and are very special,
I also dedicate this dissertation to my many friends and personnel in St.John Parochial School- the institution where I belong for past four years which
I dedicate this work and give special thanks to my special best friend for serving as inspiration.John Parochial School during the school year 2012-2013. . I will always appreciate all they have done. EUFRACINA DELOS REYES ABSTRACT The main purpose of this study was to analyze the situation of Reading Comprehension Skills of the third year high school students of St.supported and believed in me throughout my study. Thank you for always being there.
John Parochial School. What is the profile of third year high school students in St.The subject of this study was the third year students of St.The researchers focus on the representative respondents who were chosen .Specifically the study sought to answer the following questions. Tiaong.John Parochial School in terms of gender and age? What are the reading comprehension level of male and female high school students according to selected Reading comprehension skills such as: -Noting details -Getting the main idea -Making generalization -Predicting outcomes -Drawing conclusions What are the difficulties in Reading Comprehension of the students according to the selected skills? Is there significant difference between difficulties of male and female students in Reading Comprehension? The descriptive type of research was employed in the course of the study . Quezon during the school year 2012-2013.
it revealed that male subjects had a higher mean performance which was _compared to female subjects who got _. The standard deviation obtained which was _for female and _ for male subjects indicated that females were grouped more heterogeneously than males: however _ subjects had higher achievement than _subjects.As to English Performance of the respondents group by sex before the treatment.through random sampling . it revealed that _ subjects had a higher mean performance of _compared to subjects who got only _.The respondents were compose of _male students which comprise the 50% of the total respondents and _females which comprise 50% of the total respondents. FINDINGS The salient findings of the study were: 1.The overall mean performance of the groups was _ and the standard deviation was _ As to English Performance of the controlled group before the treatment. The sources of the data are the respondent’s answer in the research questionnaire. .
). 9. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Defining Reading Comprehension. S.:V. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Publishers. Dechant E. New York: Harper and Brother. Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education Flesch. (1955). Winstons and Sons. Al-Rufai. IDELTI Journal. Culture and Reading Comprehension. R. Burns. J. Psychology in Teaching Reading (2nd Ed. M. Carroll. Why Johnny Can't Read. and Smith. Chicago: Rand McNally. Washington. (1977). Language Comprehension and Acquisition of Knowledge. 44-46.BIBLIOGRAPHY Abdur Rauf.M. (1976). C. English Reading Forum. D. Reading and Learning. 49. (1988).H. The Effect of Reading Comprehension on The Acquisition of Literary Appreciation and Criticism. xxvi. (1977). . D. Teaching Reading in Today's Elementary Schools. H. (1973). P. In Carroll and Roy (Ed.). and Roe.
In Lunzer.). The Effective Use of Reading. (1977).Lunzer. E. and Gardner. and Brewer. T. Listening Comprehension Training in Teaching English to Beginners. Rinehart and Winston. New York: Holt. F. Smith. Teaching Reading to non-speakers of English. Bruce. G. Rivers. Waite. F. Inc. Understanding Reading: Psycholinguistic Analysis of Reading and Learning to Read. E. Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon Inc. and Robinson.. (Eds. J. and Dolan. Hillsdale N. E. Teaching Foreign Language Skills (2nd ed. Thiele. (1970). London: Hodder and Stoughton.). London: Heinemann Educational Books. (1980). H. Improving Reading in Every Class (2nd ed. Spiro. Pumfrey. B. System Thomas. (1979). Sources.). Theoretical Issues in Reading Comprehension. (1977). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. and Applications. Comprehension and Comprehension Tests. P. K. and Herzic.. The University of Chicago Press. . A. Publishers. R. W. E.. (1981). (1983). Thonis. (1978).. London: Collier MacMillan. M. Measuring Reading Abilities: Concepts.
Tinker. (1975). and Mc Gullough. c. TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE APPROVAL SHEET ACKNOWLEDGEMENT DEDICATION ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES CHAPTER I-THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING INTRODUCTION . Teaching Elementary Reading (4th ed). New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. M.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY RESEARCH PARADIGM STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY SCOPE AND DELIMINATION DEFINITION OF TERMS CHAPTER II-REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE RELATED LITERATURE RELATED STUDIES CHAPTER III-METHODOLOGIES RESEARCH DESIGN SOURCES OF DATA DATA GATHERING INSTRUMENT .
CONCLUSION. AND RECOMMENDATIONS SUMMARY FINDINGS BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES .CONSTRUCTION OF THE INSTRUMENT DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE STATISTICAL TREATMENT CHAPTER IV-PRESENTATION. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA CHAPTER V-SUMMARY.
CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING INTRODUCTION .
Reading in this sense is not the mere mouthing of words and decoding of every word in every sentence. Accordingly. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY . Moreover. It is rather the activity that enables the students to go deeper and deeper to get the meaning which is intended by the author. imagining. and problem solving. It is reading comprehension that enables students to pursue their studies and to meet their interests in all fields of knowledge. this study attempts to make students aware of the fact that reading comprehension is a process of thinking. evaluating. It is the activity that depends largely on comprehension. judging. The importance of this study is to help students realize that they are literary readers and their attempts to go beyond the literal meaning are very limited. developing reading comprehension is one of the great aims of teaching English. Thus. reading comprehension should receive more emphasis throughout the teaching process.Reading is an essential skill for students not only because it is a source of pleasure and getting information but also because it helps them widen and deepen their knowledge of language.
Poor reading comprehension skills have been also been linked to poverty and crime. . analyzing. The term basically describes reading and writing skills that make it very difficult to manage daily living and work in an environment that requires reading beyond the most elementary level. but their reading comprehension level is so low they can’t manage the everyday aspects of life. and applying the information gathered through reading.S prison system have reading skills at or below the fourth grade level. People with such skills may not be purely illiterate. And even more alarming: • Nearly 2/3 of students who reach the fourth grade without proficient reading skills end up on welfare or in prison. Academic progress depends on understanding. Consider these facts: • Over 60% of inmates in the U. 43% set of adults with extremely low reading skills live at or below the poverty line.There is a term known as functional illiteracy that has been discussed in academic and political circles for some time. But it goes much further than that. • • 85% of U. meaning they can read and write in some capacity. The lack of strong reading comprehension skills obviously affects a student’s success in school.S juveniles in prison are functionally illiterate.
The words on the page have no meaning. Living safely and productively is only one of the many outcomes of proper reading comprehension skills. Being able to derive meaning from the written word also enables students to develop intellectually. professional. imagine not being able to read the label on a bottle of medicine or a container of dangerous chemicals. they do send a message that is loud and clear: developing strong reading comprehension skills is essential for a rich academic. ‘’The goal of reading is to derive meaning “Obviously. learning a new skill. or how to follow road signs. or for pleasure. your mortgage agreement. Even worse. They don’t possess adequate reading comprehension skills to do what is expected of them. and emotionally – something we all want for our children. reading is simply following words on a page from left to right while sounding them out. and personal life. Without comprehension. And while people read for many different reasons. Imagine trying to survive and thrive in a society where you couldn’t comprehend the basic meaning of your cable bill. this is an extreme example but sadly. the chief goal is to derive some understanding of what the writer is trying to convey and make use of that information – whether for fact gathering. That’s why reading comprehension skills are so .While these statistics are not meant to shock you. classrooms across the nation are interspersed with students who experience the same type of frustration every day. socially.
These basics must be mastered but at the same time reading comprehension should be emphasized in the process. Without them the reader cannot gather any information and use it to efficiently function and enjoy the richness of life. monitor their understanding of content. Quezon during the school year 2012-2013. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The main purpose of this study was to determine the state of Reading Comprehension in English by the third year high school students of St. sequence or characters. John Parochial School. clarify confusing parts of the text. Reading is a multifaceted process that develops only with practice. Tiaong. What are the demographic profile of third year high school students in St. And that is what true comprehension is all about.John Parochial School in terms of gender and age? . which can be learned in a few years. Specifically the study sought to answer the following questions.important. such as fluency and word recognition. or connect what they’re reading to their own experience or prior knowledge. Students can parrot words on a page all day long but if they don’t have the necessary comprehension skills they will not be able to make predictions about what will happen next. There are certain aspects of reading.
the result . What are the reading comprehension level of male and female high school students according to selected Reading comprehension skills such as: -Noting details -Getting the main idea -Making generalization -Predicting outcomes -Drawing conclusions What are the difficulties in Reading Comprehension of the students according to the selected skills? Is there significant difference between difficulties of male and female students in Reading Comprehension? What types of readers are the majorities of the respondents? SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Since this study projected the analysis of the state of reading comprehension of students in English 3 of St. John Parochial School.
was the springboard in recommending pedagogical strategies for the improvement of teaching the subject English. the teachers could devise ways and means to develop the reading comprehension skill. which may be important enough as a contribution to the state-of-the-art in research. The study also hopes to provide beneficial results to the following: Teachers of English. The suggested solutions to the problems can be incorporated in formulating policies for the English program of the school. The School Administrators. With this information from this study. John Parochial School during . This will serve as reference for future study. By knowing the state or the real situation of both teachers and students in reading comprehension in English. The findings of the study will make them aware of the actual difficulties the students face in reading comprehension and their different views on the activities done involving reading. SCOPE AND DELIMINATION OF THE STUDY The study focuses on the Analysis of the Reading Comprehension in English to Third year High School students of St. Future Researchers.
The school was selected to help the research yield feasible and functional result. John Parochial School. It reveals the reading comprehension level of the students and their difficulties in reading comprehension. The respondents are chosen for the reason that they are on the critical stage of learning and that they are closest to the tertiary level of education to which the ability of reading comprehension is a commodity. DEFINITION OF TERMS For better understanding of this study. _______( ) males and ____ ( ) females who were chosen purposively in terms of age. result of which was used as a basis for selection of pedagogical strategies in teaching English. Tiaong. the researchers had defined the following terms operationally: . The result of this study is limited only to the third year High School Students of St. Quezon for the school year 2012-2013 which consisted of ________( ) students. and gender.the school year 2012-2013.
- Classification of the respondents of this study as being a COMPREHENSION The term is most Act of or capacity for grasping with the intellect.are the building blocks of language. VOCABULARY - is the set of words within a language that are familiar to that person.g. Acquiring an extensive vocabulary is one of the largest challenges in learning a second language. boy or girl. and serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge.AGE. usually expressed in years. often used in connection with tests of reading skills and language abilities. A vocabulary usually develops with age. GRAMMATICALSTRUCTURE . though other abilities (e. PASSAGES ..The length of time which the respondents existed. . SEX. mathematical reasoning) may also be examined.Brief portion of a written work or speech that is relevant to a point under discussion or noteworthy for content or style. . These structures can be broken down into phrases and clauses.
does not easily comprehend what he reads c.not rely on dictionary for words due to large recognition of vocabulary CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter deals with the review of literature which provides relevant information which regards to the Analysis of Reading Comprehension Skill of the Third year High School students of St.TONE (literature) -literary technique which encompasses the attitudes toward the subject and toward the audience implied in a literary work that is compatible with the other drive.easily comprehend what he reads b. Good Reader . John Parochial School. Regressive Reader . Skillful Reader . KINDS OF READERS: a. Tiaong. Quezon .
These skills are interrelated and the acquisition of certain ones will pave the road for acquiring others. defines "reading comprehension" as comprising the ability to: 1) follow the sequence of ideas . . 2) Careful and critical reading to identify details necessary to answer specific questions. 'the researcher introduces below some lists of reading comprehension skills. 3) catch the general significance and implications of statements made. Kelly and Greene (1953: 2) consider seven skills to be indispensable to effective reading: 1) Skimming to locate passages containing answers to specific questions.RELATED LITERATURE To many experts and specialists the '' reading comprehension '' process can be broken into a number of skills. To explain the difficulty of giving a unified definition for the term ''reading comprehension'. Each list gives a number of skills which are considered essential to comprehend a piece of writing. for instance. Hildreth (1965:455). 2) grasp details . and 4) to evaluate them and make inferences from them .
7) Remembering material read in the light of a specific purpose Many of those who are involved in studying the comprehension process hold the belief that comprehension skills can be classified into different levels. 2) Interpretive skills. 4) Making generalization from a series of related statements. the efficient reader is the one who not only recognizes the meanings he gets from the written materials. Zintz (1980: 230) holds the same view. takes place at different levels of complexity according to the nature of the materials and the purpose for which the reading is intended”. 6) Summarizing in a few words the gist of a paragraph. 3) Evaluative skills. and reflect upon those meanings.3) Selecting the central idea or theme of a paragraph or a passage. namely literal. or the understanding of what the author has written. 5) Drawing inferences from material read. Then he classifies the skills into the following: 1) Literal comprehension or the pre-interpretive skills. . ( Ibid :231) Accordingly. He states that “comprehension. for instance. Burns and Roe (1976: 208). and creative. interpretive. but also the one who has the ability to interpret. evaluate. mention three of them.
3) Grasping the sequence of time. 1967: 139). it is an essential one because it constitutes the first step towards a complete understanding of a written message. the ''reading comprehension skills'' can be classified into the following three levels: 1) Literal level. such as dates. and with all that can easily state and comprehend. .. once the meaning of unknown words is known. events .etc. Nevertheless. the literal level is called ''receptive level. names. ideas. 4) Understanding and following directions. 3) Critical level. 2) Understanding main ideas.. since this type of comprehension involves merely the ntake of information'' (Herber. The literal level of comprehension is the direct level in which one identifies what the words say. For Thomas and Robinson (1977: 133) four skills are essential to gain the literal meaning.According to Logan et al (1972: 372) and Spache (1961: 52). It deals with facts. These are: 1) Grasping directly stated details or facts. place. Sometimes. 2) Inferential level. places. it does not involve determining what the words beyond their literal meaning mean.
an inference. arriving at something that was not directly communicated. which is to the Critical. ''a highly personal process''.'' (Durkin. It may be a conclusion. or Evaluative level of ''reading comprehension''. The inferential level of comprehension is commonly defined as ''. the reader . 1978:441) The inferential level is the reaction of the reader to what is read. such as applied. identification of cause. Tinker and McGullough (1975: 23) emphasize Gans's view by stating that the ''interpretation of word meanings is often in terms of the reader's related experience''. as Gans (1963: 198) says.. When dealing with the critical level of comprehension. and expressive.A number of studies have shown that most of the directed questions to students inside the classroom tend to test mainly literal comprehension. so it is. this means that he goes deeper and deeper toward the third one. creative. yet fail to motivate them to cope with problems concerning the inferential and critical levels. a predication. This level is identified by a variety of names. They add that ''a reader will react in his own individual ways to the textual material and its wider references and implications in proportion as his background of experience is uniquely his own'' (Ibid) When the student reaches the second level in his reading process.. associational. What the something is depends on the explicit context.
or general quality of the writer. what the author meant by what is said. illustrations. the choice of vocabulary. what the author has said. This view is emphasized by Herber (1970: 63) who believes that the reader ''takes the product of literal. and applies it in some pragmatic exercises. Teaching students to be critical is not an easy job. sentence organization. 3) discovering evidence of bias of prejudice and other evaluation skills. 2) distinguishing between facts and opinions. paragraph structure. because understanding sentences and paragraphs does not necessarily mean that the students completely comprehend the reading materials. He adds that ''critical reading may be concerned with the form of presentation of the ideas.makes use of the skills which belong to the literal and interpretive levels. He gets the facts and information from the first level and the interpretation of these facts from the second.'' (Ibid) Teachers and experts of ''reading comprehension'' believe that the critical level is essential for students. ''because of lack of classroom time or adequate regard of its importance or because the teacher .'' Durrell (1949: 203) explains that the critical level includes such skills as: 1) judging suitability of material for particular purposes. and the interpretive.
on the contrary. (Gans. and Brewer (2002: XV) emphasize this fact. He found that poor readers made an average of 5. the critical level should be emphasized by teachers in the classroom. There are no readily available syntheses of the relevant work in the diverse discipline of cognitive psychology. and the other one is not only understanding but in some sense thinking. More relevant is the fact that in 51 . and reading education.1 errors per 100 words. good readers made only 2. Fairbanks (2005: 81) shows this close relationship between ''comprehension'' and ''reading''.8 oral errors per 100 words. Bruce.is unsure of his ability to pursue it''.'' This means that the reader does two things in his reading process. They write ''one problem faced by anyone seeking to understand current beliefs about comprehension is the interdisciplinary nature of research in this area. linguistics.'' For Lunzer and Dolan (2004: 257) ''comprehension'' is conceived of as ''a measure of the pupil's ability and willingness to reflect on whatever it is he is reading. RELATED STUDIES Spiro. one of them is certainly reading. 1963: 198) In spite of being difficult to be taught. artificial intelligence.
The good readers also corrected their own errors more often than the poor readers did. Fairbanks concludes that the basic problem of the poor readers is the lack of comprehension. No one can put a firm border between them. but also one of seeking the meanings beyond the surface level of the graphic symbols. but the errors of the good readers never did. Tinker and McGullough (2003: 197) point out:''The fundamental goal in seeking to produce nature readers is to have them able to comprehend whatever printed materials will serve their purpose. and of verbal facility in general. no matter how difficult these materials may be. The acquisition of a sight vocabulary and of skill in recognizing words. and the sequence of skills is therefore almost impossible to determine accurately'' The interrelated nature of the reading comprehension skills makes it difficult to see them as separate entities. effective reading is not only a process in which the reader reconstructs a message put in graphic symbols by the writer. because the comprehension of a piece of writing is the immediate outcome .percent of the cases the errors of the poor readers tended to change the meaning. all are aimed at promoting the understanding and interpretation of the meanings embodied in printed symbols. All comprehension skills are interrelated. Thus.'' Lewis and Sisk (2002: 111): ''No matter how one lists the various reading abilities [skills]. it is practically impossible to isolate them or to give priority to one skill.
good readers are active in their reading. 'the researcher introduces below some lists of reading comprehension skills. many people would name the ability to grasp main ideas. But by what process does one arrive at the main idea except by putting together details? And one must understand the relationship of these details to one another. Duke and Pearson (2002) according to them . Lewis and Sisk cite an example of the interrelation of comprehension skills: ''if asked to state the first or basic comprehension skills required. and draw on their prior knowledge to assist them in comprehension. make comparisons.'' (Ibid) To explain the difficulty of giving a unified definition for the term ''reading comprehension'. (2005) according to their studies. students taught in a more direct and explicit fashion on decoding skills improves faster than students taught in a more implicit fashion. Each list gives a number of skills which are considered essential to comprehend a piece of writing. (2005) stated that students learn more and better when they have previous knowledge or experience with a topic under study. as the ability to weigh the comparative importance of details. They ask questions about new words and concepts. This helps them use top-down processing to extend their neural networks in semantic . Foorman & Torgesen. Therefore. Matlin. the ability to select details is basic.of the interrelationship between these different skills.
memory.The researchers gathered all pertinent information through a questionnaire as the primary instrument in finding out some fact regarding the topic. They use bottom-up processing to connect to the former nodes and links in their networks CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGIES This chapter deals with the method and procedures utilized by the researchers in order to arrive to a valid conclusion and to show how this paper is systematically created out of the output gathered. . RESEARCH DESIGN The researchers used the descriptive method of research in order to analyze the state or real situation of reading comprehension skill of the THIRD YEAR high school students .
twenty-five (25) males and twenty-five(25) females who are enrolled at ST. JOHN PAROCHIAL SCHOOL.SOURCES OF DATA The respondents are third year high school consists of__ students . They are selected through purposive random sampling. DATA GATHERING INSTRUMENT The data gathering instrument of the study is the 25 item test that was focused on five developing reading skills as follow: -Noting details -Getting the main idea -Making generalization -Predicting outcomes -Drawing conclusions .
The body of information gathered has provided the researcher with additional insights as to the instrument to be used in gathering data. to DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE At the outset of the study. the researcher delivered a letter of request for the conduct of the study to the principals of the identified high school.The test content was taken from various reading materials utilized by public school teachers in which the test content measured the level of the possessed skill on the five (5) identified reading comprehension skills. the researcher engaged in the gathering information related to the research variables. the researcher selected the respondents. CONSTRUCTION OF THE INSTRUMENT The data gathering instruments is constructed in consonance with the statement of the problem. After . To start the study. Upon the approval of the request. Each answer to the questions reflects the___ the predicament being researched about.
To get the mean age of the respondents. summed up and analyzed. The findings were extracted and analyzed based on the processed data. the researcher. 1. The data gathered was tabulated and treated statistically particularly using arithmetic mean and standard deviation. STATISTICAL TREATMENT The responses of the subjects in the reading comprehension skills test were checked and tallied. the following formula were used: = ∑x n . gathered the respondents in one place for the administration of the instrument. Information and response of the students were processed and subjected to statistical treatment. in coordination with the adviser of the selected class. The respondents were assigned to read the selection and answer the test which is composed of 5 items for each skills.identifying the respondents. based on the objective of the study.
Where: = mean age ∑x = sum of all the values n = no. To construct the frequency distribution. the researchers used the following procedures and formula: a.) Determining the number of classes: k = 1 + 3.3 log n where: k = number of classes n = number of respondents c.) Getting the value of Range: R= H – L where: R = range H = highest rating L = Lowest rating b. of respondents 2.) Determining the size of class intervals: .
the variance for grouped data was first determined: s² = ∑f ( – ) ² n where: x = midpoint of each class interval = mean . To get the Standard Deviation. To get the mean for the grouped data.c=R k where: c = class intervals R = range of difference between the highest and lowest value of rating k = number of classes 3. the Midpoint method were used: = ∑fx n where: f = frequency of each class x = midpoint of each class n = total number of frequencies 4.
the researchers used the formula: Rs = 1 – 6 ∑D² N3 – N where: Rs = spearman coefficient of correlation ∑D2 = sum of the squared differences between ranks N = total number of cases This formula was also used in determining the relationship of the male and female subjects. .n = number of respondents *Standard Deviation = square root of the variance. the percentage were obtained using the formula: Percentage ( % ) = number of correct responses total number of subjects 6. predicting outcomes and drawing conclusion. therefore I s= wherein : s = Standard Deviation s² = variance 5. getting the main idea. To determine the difficulties of male and female subjects in terms of noting details. determining the cause and effect. To validate the test.
RANGE 97-99 94-96 91-93 88-90 85-87 82-84 79-81 76-78 73-75 70-72 F M fM .ANALYSIS. TABLE 1 The Mean score of Students Performance in Reading Comprehension Skill. Tables were used for more systematic presentation.AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of data as references to the personal data.CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION .
we got the score of___as the mean of the group.1 Ranking in Most Difficult part in Reading Comprehension Skills. CATEGORY PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS WITH CORRECT ANSWERS RANK Noting Details Getting the Main Idea Inferring Making Generalization Predicting Outcomes Tayabas Western Academy Candelaria. After careful calculations. and the product of frequency (f) and the midpoint (M) to get the mean. TABLE 1. Quezon .X= The table shows the grouped data in tabular form with the frequency midpoint.
JOHN PAROCHIAL SCHOOL. O. Varonn.John Parochial School Tiaong. In this connection.Cecilia P. Very truly yours. DELOS REYES EUFRACINA A. Directress/Principal . and presently enrolled in the subject AB 103 Research Seminar.Cecilia P.Varonn.” Rest assured that all information and data gathered would be carefully studied and treated with confidentiality. Quezon Madam: Greetings in the most precious name of our LORD SAVIOR JESUS CHRIST! We are the third year students of TAYABAS WESTERN ACADEMY taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in English. Raul Agar an Research Adviser _____________________________ Mrs. we would like to ask permission from your office to conduct a research study entitled “AN ANALYSIS OF THE READING COMPREHENSION SKILLS OF THIRD YEAR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF ST.P. We are hoping to your kind consideration and favorable action. Directress/Principal St. Thelma O. O. TIAONG QUEZON DURING THE SCHOOL-YEAR 2012-2013.Sr. DIGMA AARON Noted: ____________________________ Mr.P.Magnayon Approved: ____________________________ Sr.
Please put a check (√) inside the brackets before the answer that is acceptable to you. 1 is (a) or (b).vocabulary b.The lesson of reading comprehension is: () () () a-most important b. you usually pay more attention to: () () () a.reading comprehension lessons help you to understand the grammatical s tructures.understanding the other culture .the less important 2.When you read a topic in class. is this because: () () () () a.reading comprehension lessons motivate you to think critically about what you have read 3.If your answer to item no.grammatical sentences c. c. 1.reading comprehension help you to understand other culture d.as important as any other lessons c.reading comprehension lessons help you to understand the meanings of vocabulary b.
knowing the general meaning f.Do you face any problems with reading comprehension lessons a.the deep meaning of the passage 5.If your answer to question no.to some extent ( ) c.() () d.the grammatical structures c.getting the general meaning e.the meaning of words b.The questions you usually want to answer deal mainly with: () () () () a.no ( ) 7.writing c.yes ( ) b.pronunciation b.The activities which you are interested with concentrate on: () () () () () ( )` a.knowing the meaning of words d.knowing the deep meaning 6.the general meaning of the passage d.knowing the grammatical structures e.getting the deep meaning 4. 6 is either (a) or (b) is this because of .
both students' and the teacher's choice 11.() () () a.yes b.If you will be given a chance to choose .grammar c.no .the topics 9.methods of teaching c.the foreign culture d.the teacher's choice c.If your answer to question no.do you prefer to read in the reading comprehension lessons topic of: () () () a.to some extent c.students' choice b.Do you think that the textbook in your hand reflects your interest in reading () () () a. 7 is (a) is this because of () () () () a.your previous knowledge of English 8.the textbook b.vocabulary b.
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