Types of Paper

Paper is often characterized by weight. The weight assigned to a paper is the weight of a ream (500 sheets) of varying "basic sizes", before the paper is cut into the size it is sold to end customers. Density of Paper:The density of paper ranges from 250 kg/m3 (16 lb/ft3) for tissue paper to 1500 kg/m3 (94 lb/ft3) for some speciality paper. Printing paper is about 800 kg/m3 (50 lb/ft3).

Types Of Paper
1. Bank Paper 2. Bond Paper 3. Book Paper 4. Construction Paper/ Sugar Paper 5. Cotton Paper 6. Electronic Paper 7. Fish Paper (Vulcanized fibres for electrical insulation) 8. Ink jet Paper 9. Kraft Paper 10. Laid Paper 11. Leather Paper 12. Mummy Paper 13. Tyvek Paper 14. Paper Towels

15. Wall Paper 16. Washi 17. Wax Paper 18. Wet and Dry Paper 19. Wove Paper 20.Coated Paper: glossy and matt surface

1 - Bank Paper
Bank paper is a thin strong writing paper of less than 50g/m2 commonly used for typewriting and correspondence.

2 - Bond Paper
Bond paper is a high quality durable writing paper similar to bank paper but having a weight greater than 50 g/m2.It is used for letterheads and other stationery and as paper for electronic printers. Widely employed for graphic work involving pencil, pen and felt-tip marker. It is largely made from rag pulp which produces a stronger paper than wood pulp.

3 - Book Paper
A book paper (or publishing paper) is a paper which is designed specifically for the publication of printed books. Traditionally, book papers are off white or low white papers (easier to read), are opaque to minimize the show through of text from one side of the page to the other and are (usually) made to tighter caliper or thickness specifications, particularly for case bound books. Typically, books papers are light weight papers 60 90gsm and often specified by their caliper/substance ratios (volume basis).

4 - Construction Paper / Sugar Paper
Construction paper or sugar paper, is a type of coarse colored paper typically available in large sheets. The texture is slightly rough, and the surface is unfinished. Due to the nature of the source material from which the paper is manufactured, small particles are visible on the paper’s surface.

5 - Cotton Paper
Cotton paper is made from 100% cotton fibers. Cotton paper is superior in both strength and durability to wood pulp-based papers, which may contain high concentrations of acids.May also be known as cotton rag or ragged paper. Cotton fiber papers is known to last several hundred years without fading, discoloring, or deteriorating; so is often used for important documents such as the archival copies of dissertation or thesis. As a rule of thumb, each percentage point of cotton fiber, a user may expect one year of resisting deterioration by use (the handling to which paper may be subjected).(reference - Southwest Paper Co). Legal document paper typically may contain 25% cotton.Cotton paper is also used in banknotes.

6 - Electronic Paper/ E- Paper
Electronic Paper is a display technology designed to mimic the appearance of ordinary ink on paper.Electronic paper reflects light like ordinary paper and is capable of holding text and images indefinitely without drawing electricity, while allowing the image to be changed later.E-paper can be crumpled or bent like traditional paper. Pixels on epaper are image stable, or bistable, so that the state of each pixel can be maintained without a constant supply of power.

7 - Inkjet Paper
Inkjet paper is paper designed for inkjet printers, typically classified by its weight, brightness and smoothness, and sometimes by its opacity.

8 - Photo Paper
Photo paper is a category of inkjet paper designed specifically for reproduction of photographs. The best of these papers, with suitable pigment-based ink systems, can match or exceed the image quality and longevity of traditional materials used for printing color photographs, such as Fuji CrystalArchive (for color prints from negatives) and Cibachrome/Ilfochrome (for color prints from positive transparencies). For printing monochrome photographs, traditional silver-based papers are widely felt to retain some advantage over inkjet prints.

9 - Kraft Paper
Kraft paper is paper produced by the Kraft process from wood pulp. It is strong and relatively coarse. Kraft paper is usually a brown colour but can be bleached to produce white paper. It is used for paper grocery bags, multiwall sacks, envelopes and other packaging.

10 - Laid Paper
Laid paper is a type of paper having a ribbed texture imparted by the manufacturing process.Laid paper is still commonly used by artists as a support for charcoal drawings.

11 - Tyvek / Tyvex
Tyvek is a brand of flash spun high-density polyethylene fibers, a synthetic material; the name is a registered trademark of the DuPont Company. The material is very strong; it is difficult to tear but can easily be cut with scissors or any other sharp object. Water vapor can pass through Tyvek, but not liquid water, so the material lends itself to a variety of applications: medical packaging, envelopes, car covers, air and water intrusion barriers (housewrap) under house siding, labels, wristbands, mycology, and graphics. Tyvek is sometimes erroneously referred to as "Tyvex."

12 - Paper Towel
A paper towel is a disposable product made of paper. It serves the same general purposes as conventional towels, such as drying hands, wiping windows and dusting. Because paper towels are disposable, they are often chosen to avoid the contamination of germs.

13 - Wall Paper
Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste.Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. Wallpaper printing techniques include surface printing, gravure printing, silk screen-printing, and rotary printing."Wallpaper" is also a term for computer wallpaper.

14 - Washi
Washi or Wagami is a type of paper made in Japan. Washi is commonly made using fibers from the bark of the gampi tree, the mitsumata shrub (Edgeworthia papyrifera), or the paper mulberry, but also can be made using bamboo, hemp, rice, and wheat. Washi comes from wa meaning Japanese and shi meaning paper, and the term is used to describe paper made by hand in the traditional manner.Washi is generally tougher than ordinary paper made from wood pulp, and is used in many traditional arts.

15 - Wax Paper
Wax paper (also called waxed paper) is a kind of paper that is made moisture proof through the application of wax.The practice of oiling parchment or paper in order to make it semi-translucent or moisture-proof goes back at least to medieval times. Thomas Edison claimed to have invented wax paper in 1872, but what he really invented was a cheap and efficient means to manufacture such paper.Wax paper is commonly used in cooking, for its non-stick properties, and wrapping food for storage, as it keeps water out or in. It is also used in arts and crafts.

16 - Wove Paper
Wove paper is a writing paper with a uniform surface, not ribbed or watermarked.

17 - Coated Paper
Coated paper is paper which has been coated by an inorganic compound to impart certain qualities to the paper, including weight and surface gloss, smoothness or ink absorbency. Kaolinite is the compound most often used for coating papers used in commercial printing. One function of coating is to protect against ultraviolet radiation.

Paper Properties and Uses
Used in a wide variety of forms, paper and paperboard are characterized by a wide range of properties. In the thousands of paper varieties available, some properties differ only slightly and others grossly. The identification and expression of these differences depend upon the application of standard test methods, generally specified by industry and engineering associations in the paper making countries of the world.

Substance and Quantity Measurement
Weight or substance per unit area, called basis weight, is a fundamental property of paper and paperboard products. From the first uses of paper in the printing trades, it has been measured in reams, originally 480 sheets (20 quires) but now more commonly 500 sheets (long reams). The term ream weight commonly signifies the weight of a lot or batch of paper. Since the printing trades use a variety of sheet sizes, there can be numerous ream weights for paper having the same basis weight. To determine basis weight, the sample is brought to equilibrium under standard conditions (24º C or 75º F; 50 percent relative humidity). The paper specimens must consist of at least 10 sheets with a total area of not less than about 600 square centimetres (100 square inches). Since the properties of paper change with moisture content, all tests are conducted under standard conditions. The caliper (thickness) of paper or paperboard in fractions of a millimetre or inch is measured by placing a single sheet under a steady pressure of 0.49 to 0.63 kilogram per square centimetre (seven to nine pounds per square inch) between two circular and parallel plane surfaces, the smaller of which has an area of 1.6 square centimetres (0.25 square inch). The density or specific gravity of paper is calculated from the basis weight and caliper and may vary over wide limits. Glassine, for example, may be 1.4 grams per cubic centimetre and creped wadding, used for packaging breakables, only 0.1 gram per cubic centimetre. Most common papers are in the range of 0.5 to 0.7 gram per cubic centimetre.

Classification of Stationery
Stationery can be classified as business stationery, school stationery, office stationery etc. At home also personalized stationery products like scissors, scale, paper etc are commonly used. School Stationery Products include writing instruments like pens, pencils, book, writing pad, eraser, sharpener and other curricular products for all types of schools and colleges that are often used by students. Desktop Stationery or Office Stationery comprises of a pen holder, multi-function electronic clock, calculator, calendar, letterhead, papers, stapler, folders, writing pads, conference pads, gum pads, scribble pads, business cards, pens, files, note pads, diaries, calendars, erasers, note books and many other office stationery products. Business Stationery includes business cards, letterhead and envelopes which is backbone of any business. Office stationeries are essential for business organizations without which things can slow down or grind to a halt.Stationery products by different manufacturers may not be unique, but they all provide a level of personal service unparalleled by other competitors. Available in corporate design, office stationery or business stationery products are suited for a small home office and even a corporate office environment. Office stationery products can be customized or designed as per individual requirements. Business stationery products are also used as promotion tools and corporate gifting.

Stationery for artists is also offered in reasonable prices and these include paintbrush, plate, paint bottle etc. Customized stationery products can also be designed to make the products personal or gift them to someone. Stationery products are ideal for promoting products. By extension the term stationery has been applied to decorative backgrounds that may be attached to e-mail correspondence or to describe templates typically used by home users in desktop publishing software to make, for example, party invitations.

Stationery Market
The stationery market is mostly influenced by macroeconomic development, national income and population growth. The word stationery incorporates each and every commodity like files, folders, erasers, sharpeners, schoolbooks, notebooks etc. It does not limit its spectrum of action but formulates developed innovations in industry. Stationery industry produces much more influence as compare to any other.

Specifications of Market
The whole stationery ratio in the market depends upon the overall economical environment. The domestic as well as the international market scenario mobilizes more and more rapport with other market happenings. The stationery market also includes wide arena of products comprising paper products, writing instruments, computer stationary, school stationary, office stationery etc. All these varieties have undergone various changes in passage of time by the virtue of new international and modern.

Classifications
In the international arena the industry of stationery provides more scope for development and trends. Very often the stationery industry ranks as one of the evolutionary aspect of market that produces more and regular changes. As compare to Indian market the international market scenario calls for more innovative trends. The specifications in this regard may be wide which are affected by numerous market values. To look in the international environment the stationery market has witnessed tremendous dynamic changes. Especially the countries like China, U.K., U.S.A. etc, which are leading exporters for stationery products, is the major subject of concern for Indian market. In the product varieties like writing instruments, paper products, leather accessories these countries have lot more shares in world market as compare to any other international participant. In the last decade the Indian market has increase in the imported varieties in market. Especially in the electronic items from South Asian countries like Japan, Malaysia, Korea, Singapore, we have produced big market percentage. These product varieties mainly includes calculators, computers, printer etc. The main reason behind this may be difference in nature but they generate healthy and strong competitions in Indian market. Cheap availability of raw material, low cost for human resources, increased and modern technology participation etc can be looked as some of these reasons.

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