Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. There are several industries in Canada. Under manufacturing industry aerospace and defense is one of them. Canadian aerospace and defense, space and defense firms, have built successful businesses in Canada for domestic and global markets. Canadian priorities encourage investment in knowledge-based businesses across the industrial spectrum, and a strong focus on innovation. Canada supports its aerospace and defense, space and defense industries through attractive investment fundamentals; leading-edge knowledge infrastructure; risk-sharing investments in technology development; commitment to investing in skills and research; and new business opportunities. Aerospace and defense is a vital and growing component of Canada's economy, a leading employer and contributor to research and development as well as the country's top exporter of advanced technology. Canada is one of only a handful of nations with a full range of aerospace and defense design and manufacturing capabilities. Although a number of companies are subsidiaries of foreign corporations, in many cases they have been assigned and capitalized on - mandates to manufacture for the world market. The industry represents the best in aircraft, electronics, avionics, communications, simulators, space technology, repair and overhaul, gas turbine engines and engineering.


2. Country Analysis
2.1 Country Profile:
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean. Spanning over 9.9 million square kilometers, Canada is the world's second-largest country by total area, and its common border with the United States is the longest land border in the world. Canada is a federation under a system of parliamentary monarchy. They are ruled by Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain, who is represented by the Governor General, a symbolic figure with no real authority. Executive authority lies with the prime minister, who is generally the leader of the political party with the greatest number of benches in the House of Commons. The prime minister in turn names his cabinet positions from the House (Enciso 2007, 104). Canada is divided into ten provinces: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Farmer, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Saskatchewan. There are also three territories: the Northwest, the Yukon, and Nunavut. Canada covers most of the North American continent with a surface area slightly greater than that of the United States. Canada shares an 8,893 kilometer border with the same, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west. Canada covers 41% of North America and has the second most surface area of any country on Earth .It has a varied topography and is rich in natural resources. Canada has huge reserves of oil and large quantities of fresh water – sixty percent of the world’s lakes are in Canada. The southern part of the country boasts a robust agricultural sector. At that time most of the population was French but in the following decades thousands of British colonists immigrated to Canada from the British Islands and the American colonies. In 1873 a parliamentary federal Canada was proclaimed an government was established under the British crown.

independent dominion within the British Empire in December of 1931. The British crown became monarch of Canada. The British parliament granted direct authority to the Canadian parliament to run day-to-day operations, although important legal decisions were still made back in the United Kingdom. Canada finally obtained its constitutional autonomy in 1982.


3% from 7.6% jump in oil and gas extraction though the mining support component soared 16.6% rise in June have more than offset the 1.9% following a revised 0. This in part reflected a 2.7% drop in goodsproduction that occurred in May where various factors including wildfires in Northern Alberta weighed on the mining sector. Within-service-producing industries.100) and manufacturing (-48.2. 2.2 Macro-environmental Factors: A macro environmental analysis can be completed alone or in a brainstorming session. Canadian employment fell by 54.4%).000 in October. In terms of the other major goods producing industries. These increases along with a 0.6%. this was offset by sizeable declines in wholesale trade (1.5% in the month reflecting increased drilling activity. The former followed a 1. The labor force contracted by 13.1 Economic Trends: GDP output in August rose 0.4% in the month despite motor vehicle production rising a robust 3. originally reported as up 0. However. Construction (-20. a good start is to list all of the trends you can think of or can find and indicate whether they will have a positive impact or negative impact on the size of your industry. Service-producing industries were unchanged in August though this followed an upwardly revised 0.8% after a 1.2.3%. The strength in goods-producing industries largely reflected a 3.9%. The offset was mainly in various nondurables.1%.4%) and the arts and entertainment component (1. Components declining in the month including: non-metallic mineral products. Manufacturing fell 0.3% jump in mining output.3% following an upwardly revised 0. financial services managed to rise 0.7% gain in July (was 0. utilities fell 0.4% rise in July.400) jobs were 3 .8% jump in July.1% in September.2% previously). The latter three components all showed sizeable gains in July. wood products.4%). The October report showed a decline in employment in the goods producing industries where the number of employed fell by 51.800 in October and the unemployment rate rose to 7. All of the strength in the month was in the goods-producing side of the economy where activity rose 0.4% jump in July while construction was up a modest 0. To simplify the Macro Environment Analysis the following 6 broad heading will provide some structure. however doing some research before starting. chemicals and paper products.900.3% gain in July (0.

4 .800 positions.700. or legal problem. and competitive practices. Part-time employment rose by 17.6% pace and still well below the average 2. but could well exceed $100 billion annually. However. The philosophy of the political parties in power influences business practices.000. regulatory agencies include the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).2. employee relations. The year-over-year gain in average hourly wages for permanent workers slipped to 1.200 in 2011.2 Political and Legal Factors The political-legal dimension of the general environment also affects business activity. Powerful U.3%. employment dipped by 2. Many of these costs are passed to consumers. Still. In the services side of the economy. costs of legal expenses and settlements may not be incurred for years and are not likely to be paid by consumers of the product or owners of the company when the violation occurred.S.700 positions cut. the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). On net.500 surge. Private sector employment reported 32. a tad slower than September's 1. The legal environment serves to define what organizations can and cannot do at a particular point in time.000 jobs cuts. potential legal action often results in higher prices for consumers and a more conservative attitude by business executives. The legal environment facing organizations is becoming more complex and affecting businesses more directly.100 following the 38. the environment. and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Many of the laws also have an associated regulatory agency. The number of self-employed individuals was down by 18. The public sector shed 3. A very brief listing of significant laws that affect business would include legislation in the areas of consumerism. 2.3% in the first half of the year. All jobs lost were fulltime with 71.900 increase in September.cut in the month. regulation. Estimates of the cost of compliance vary widely. It has become increasingly difficult for businesses to take action without encountering a law. Still. full-time employment is still up by 198. the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). the declines over the three month period only reversed 71% of July's 94.

Technological changes may create new opportunities for the firm. Although NAFTA dramatically improved US-Canada trade relations. 5 . Asbestos-related illnesses have severely limited asbestos as a resource used in heat-sensitive products such as hair dryers.3 Technological Factors: Technology is another aspect of the environment a firm should consider in developing strategic plans. Technology may also cause certain products to be removed from the market. personal computers are commonly used by smaller firms and individuals for uses not even imagined fifteen years ago. a number of chemicals that have been commonly used by farmers to control insects or plants are prohibited from use or require licensure as a consequence of those chemicals appearing in the food chain. its production processes. Similarly. and raw materials. Bilateral trade between Canada and the US increased by 52 percent between 1989 (when the US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) came into effect) and 1994 (when the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was implemented). Whereas computers were traditionally used only by large organizations to handle data processing needs. Changing technology may affect the demand for a firm's products and services. Lower prices allow computers to be marketed to the general public rather than to business.1 percent of imports came from the US. 75. Technology can change the lifestyle and buying patterns of consumers. or threaten the survival of a product. Recent developments in the field of microcomputers have dramatically expanded the potential customer base and created innumerable opportunities for businesses to engage in business via Internet. the US is by far its largest and most important trade partner. Further.2.3 Goods Are Traded: Although Canada is heavily involved in international trade. new developments in technology led to a reduction in prices for computers and expanded the potential market.02 percent of Canadian exports were directed to the US. scientific. firm. or industry. 2.2. In 2009. and professional users—the initial market. softwood lumber. Technological innovation continues to move at an increasingly rapid rate. tomatoes and other agricultural products. disputes still remain that pertain to intellectual property rights. while 51. beef.

Machinery and equipment. chemicals. industrial machinery. wood pulp. wood pulp.8 billion Primary exports . aluminum Primary exports partners: US (75. motor vehicles and parts. Mexico (4. UK (3. aluminum Primary exports partners: US (75. its resources. crude petroleum. by product Figure 4: Imports. SWOT is commonly used as part of strategic planning and looks at: 1. timber. and its environment.02 percent).4 billion Primary imports . industrial machinery.02 Total values of exports: US$406. crude petroleum.commodities: motor vehicles and parts. Chemicals and plastics. 2. 4. Forestry products. fertilizers.88 percent). Energy products.4 Country SOWT analysis according to economic condition: SWOT analysis is a method for analyzing a business. chemicals. Industrial goods and materials. timber. by product Figure 3: Exports of goods on a balance-of-payments basis.8 billion Primary exports . chemicals. 2. exports and trade balance of goods on a balance-of-payments basis.Canada’s Imported and Exported goods Indicators and statistics at a Glance (2010): Total value of Exports: US$406.56 percent) Statistical data’s are given in Appendix through Appendix– Figure 1: Revenues from sales of environmental goods and services. Internal strengths Internal weaknesses Opportunities in the external environment Threats in the external environment 6 . electricity. Primary imports partners: US (51.1 percent). electricity. Agricultural and fishing products Fruits and vegetables. plastics. fertilizers. natural gas. durable consumer goods. telecommunications equipment. by Country or country group.commodities: machinery and equipment. plastics. by industry Figure 2: Imports of goods on a balance-of-payments basis. electricity.commodities: motor vehicles and parts. aircraft.37 percent). Crude petroleum.09 percent) Total value of Imports: US$406. China (10. natural gas. 3. Metals and metal ores. crude oil. Other agricultural and fishing products. aircraft. telecommunications equipment. China (3.

linked to economic fallout of WMD attack on the US .strong GDP .SWOT can help management in a business discover: 1.WMD .flexibility in national approach Figure 1: Canada SWOT analysis 3.pandemics .world-wide financial crisis supplementary .increasing global leadership .small population & budget . 2.low crime rate THREATS . energize NATO .need for immigrants .free ride off US security enhancements .aging population . 3.strong alliances .vulnerable to US pollution spillovers .linked to US in eyes of terrorists .bridge transatlantic gap.low corruption .difficult control of territory . Industry Analysis: On the base of goods and services Canada include four types of industries: • • • Manufacturing Industries Resource Industries Service Industries and Consumer Products 7 .lingering threat of Quebec secession .natural disasters .planned security enhancements .formidable natural boundaries/barriers .transnational organized crime .no internal or external armed conflicts .stable parliamentary democracy .life expectancy 80 years .99% literacy rate .rich in natural resources .climate change in some regions .sound financial system .little leadership in the world-wide scene OPPORTUNITIES .strong economic future (oil.critical infrastructure vulnerabilities . fresh water) . 4. What the business does better than the competition What competitors do better than the business Whether the business is making the most of the opportunities available How a business should respond to changes in its external environment STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES .terrorism .

Home to leading aviation and space companies. Aerospace Industries Products and services: i. avionics. . Aircraft Engines & Components . Canada is a world leader in producing regional aircraft. commercial helicopters.From auxiliary power units to turbo shaft engines. and space systems and offers extensive Aircraft Maintenance Repair and Overhaul expertise. In addition. major Hydrogen and fuel cells Information and communications technologies Medical devices Oil and gas Pharmaceuticals Primary metals Rubber Shipbuilding and industrial marine Sporting goods Textiles 3. Aircraft Avionics & Electronics . recreational Chemicals Commercial printing Footwear Forest industries Fuel cells (see Hydrogen and fuel cells) Furniture Giftware and crafts • • • • • • • • • • • Household appliances. there several categories in manufacturing industry. The categories are listed below Manufacturing Industries: • • • • • • • • • • • • Aerospace and defense Apparel Assistive devices Automotive Boats.From actuators to window glazing and lenses. flight simulation. Components & Materials . ii.From airborne radar to redoes.• Technologies Above the sectors mentioned. business jets.1 Canadian Aerospace and Defense industry profile: Canadian aerospace and defense companies offer aerospace and defense products and services to Canada and the world. Aircraft Structures. leading aerospace and defense companies from around the world choose to perform their manufacturing and research and development activities in Canada. aircraft engines. 8 iii. landing gear.

Aircraft. vi. vi.From airport information systems to passenger handling systems and equipment. xi. viii. ix.From aerial application systems and components to wing strike protection systems. ii. viii. Airport Equipment . Computer Systems & Equipment . Composites & Plastics .iv. v. Fixed & Rotary Wing . iv.From airport planning consultants to tax services. iii.From computer equipment to real-time 3D graphical displays. Aircraft Systems & Components . Consulting Services . Defense Security Systems & Electronics . vii. Air Traffic Control & Management Systems & Equipment . xii.From aerial application and fire fighting to wind tunnel testing.From amphibious aircraft to unmanned vehicles. the Canadian Aerospace and defense industry includes: i. Aerospace and defense Industry's Structure In general.From air navigation systems and equipment to radar systems. aircraft and engine manufacturing components and parts manufacturing aircraft maintenance airframe repair and overhaul avionics electronics and information systems precise machining and metal fabrication composites and exotic metals component production specialty coatings 9 .From C3I to weapons systems Aerospace and defense Services . vii. v.From composite bonding to plastic components. x.

2 Aerospace and Defense Industry Statistics: Canada is an aerospace and defense world leader. Since 1990. aircraft engines. xi. xii. reaching $23. aircraft. these aerospace and defense companies employ more than 80. xiii. flight simulation. Collectively. space satellites simulation training testing consulting services Aerospace and defense also includes airlines. landing gear.000 Canadians. avionics. 3. Figure: Aerospace Industrial statistics Services offered by Aerospace industry of Canada:      Airframe structural assemblies Wing structure assemblies Power conversion and distribution systems Integrated electronic controls Environmental conditioning systems 10 .ix. In addition. Canadian aerospace and defense industry sales have more than doubled. and space systems. The Canadian aerospace and defense industry comprises more than 400 firms located in every region of the country. business jets.6 billion in 2008. x. civil aviation and other buyers and users of aerospace and defense goods and services. the Canadian aerospace and defense industry is the country’s leading advanced technology exporter – Canada exports more than 80 per cent of its aerospace and defense output. Aerospace and defense companies in Canada are global market leaders in regional commercial helicopters. military.

with a long history of innovation and success throughout the world. 3. iii. China. Some of the key developed markets in the global aerospace and defense industry are: i. Brazil. US. and 3. 11 . v. The countries listed above are chosen based on three criteria: 1. India. and a highly skilled workforce. iii. and Russia. As a result. 2. iv. It is anticipated that many of these developing nations will be heavily supported by their governments in the hopes of creating a strong domestic aerospace and defense industry. Availability and consistency of relevant industry data. Global importance of the country’s aerospace and defense industry. ii. These countries are: i.3 Canada’s competitiveness: The evaluation of the aerospace and defense industry in other leading nations is critical in understanding the current position of the Canadian aerospace and defense industry globally. Representative mix of the different types of aerospace and defense markets. France.  Air traffic control and management systems Aviation communications systems Canadian aerospace and defense firms offer innovative solutions backed by sustained investment in research and development. Canada’s aerospace and defense industry is robust and dynamic. There is an additional group of nations that are becoming increasingly relevant. iv. ii. and Japan. UK. Germany.

674 51. 3. and 12 . Canada’s aerospace and defense industry ranks among the top 10 globally by almost every measure.3% 4. Comparing to other industry aerospace standing is remarkable.Canada’s aerospace and defense industry plays a critical role in the domestic Canadian economy. This analysis shows that Canada relies more heavily on the aerospace and defense industry for revenue and employment than most other countries. Table 17 lists the top 5 countries in terms of revenues generated from aerospace and defense manufacturing and Table 18 lists the top 5 countries in terms of aerospace and defense employment.856 22. which we can see in below statistics. Once normalized by GDP. Aerospace is one of the largest industries.7% 0. three aerospace and defense companies – • • Pratt & Whitney Canada.8% -0.5% 0.542 50. A similar story is seen in employment once one normalizes by each country’s population with Canada also ranking second among the top five countries in terms of aerospace and defense manufacturing employment.2% % Change 2009-2010 0.7% Figure: Comparing Manufacturing Industries 3.084 26.5 Comparison among aerospace Businesses: Research and development spending by the aerospace and defense sector also plays a critical role in the Canadian economy.2% 6.6% 5.930 29.9% 2.9% -1.4 Comparing among manufacturing industries There are several industries under manufacturing sector. Forestry.740 Compound annual growth rate 2001-2010 0. Canada ranks second among the top five countries in terms of aerospace and defense revenue. Manufacturing Sector Agriculture.357 53. Fishing and Hunting Mining and Oil and Gas Extraction Utilities Construction Aerospace GDP (millions of chained 2002 dollars) 2001 2010 24.384 45.236 27.845 63. For example. Bombardier.

) hhj Figure: Aerospace business comparison The aerospace and defense industry generates a significant fraction of Canada’s total exports at just under 4% in 2008. 3. the importance of Canada’s aerospace and defense industry is reflected in Canada’s reputation as a leader in other countries. services. Finally.6 Regional Economic Integration: Regional Economic Integration: agreements between groups of countries in a geographic region to reduce. Free Trade Agreement (CUSFTA) *now 13 "In Force" Date / Status 01-Jan-1994 01-Jan-1989 . and ultimately remove.U.• CAE (Canadian Aviation Electronics Ltd. and factors of production between each other.S. By entering into regional agreements groups of countries aim to reduce trade barriers more rapidly than can be achieved under the auspices of the WTO. tariff and nontariff barriers to the free flow of goods. The specter of the EU and NAFTA turning into economic fortress” that shut out foreign producers with high tariff barriers is particularly worrisome to those who believe in the value of unrestricted free trade World Trade Organization Agreement Partners and Link to Detail World Trade Organization (WTO) "In Force" Date / Status 01-Jan-1995 Free Trade Agreements Agreement Partners and Link to Detail North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Canada .

Thailand Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPA) Canada .Costa Rica Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPA) Canada .Venezuela Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPA) Canada .Egypt Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPA) Canada .Chile Free Trade Agreement (CCFTA) Canada .Uruguay Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPA) Canada . which includes Mexico) Signed 14-May-2010 Signed 28-June-2009 Signed 21-Nov-2008 01-Aug-2009 1-Jul-2009 01-Nov-2002 05-Jul-1997 01-Jan-1997 Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPAs) Agreement Partners and Link to Detail "In Force" Date / Status 20-Jun-2007 30-Jan-2001 29-Sep-1999 19-Jun-1999 02-Jun-1999 Signed 31-May-1999 29-Mar-1999 24-Sep-1998 13-Feb-1998 28-Jan-1998 03-Nov-1997 06-Jun-1997 11-Feb-1997 Canada .Romania Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPA) 14 .Costa Rica Free Trade Agreement (CCRFTA) Canada .Panama Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPA) Canada .Colombia Free Trade Agreement Canada .Armenia Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPA) Canada .Israel Free Trade Agreement (CIFTA) (superseded by NAFTA.Peru Free Trade Agreement Canada .Ecuador Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPA) Canada .Jordan Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Canada .El Salvador Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPA) Canada .Croatia Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPA) Canada .Lebanon Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPA) Canada .NAFTA Canada-Panama Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Canada .European Free Trade Association (EFTA) Canada .Peru Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPA) Canada .

Consumer spending. textiles and clothing.8% in the previous quarter. peanut butter.the lowest level in the past three decades. refined sugar. compared to other developed economies. steel products and weapons. agricultural products.9% in the first quarter but more than double the average pace of growth in the last three quarters of 2006. the unemployment rate was 6% . However. However.Barbados Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPA) Canada .Philippines Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPA) Canada . In August. Domestic demand growth remained solid in the second quarter.7. whereas the Export Controls List contains agricultural products. certain commodities are prohibited from importation under the provisions of the Canadian Customs Tariff regulations. The Export and Import Controls Bureau (TPI) is responsible for administering the Export and Import Permits Act. with 4. and helps explain Canada's good economic performance during the last several years.4%. while others are regulated under the Export and Import Permits Act. 15 .2 Import Controls and Licensing Most Aerospace goods can enter the Canada market without import restrictions.7 Trade Regulations of Aerospace Industries: 3. Certain trade barriers still persist in some agricultural activities. weapons and nuclear energy materials and technology. 3. productivity growth remains relatively slow. dangerous goods etc. The import Controls List comprises textiles and clothing.7. In the second quarter of 2007 gross domestic product grew 3. down from 3.3% growth compared to 2.Trinidad and Tobago Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection (FIPA) 17-Jan-1997 13-Nov-1996 08-Jul-1996 3. residential investment and business fixed investment all showed healthy gains.1 Trade Policy and Economy Canada's liberal trade regime has facilitated the economy's successful adjustment to a number of external shocks.Canada .

7. If certification of an Aerospace and Defense product is required. and some petroleum products. A provincial sales tax is assessed on all imports to British Columbia (7. Dealer's name and place of business must also appear on the labels. Goods with no proper country of origin indication cannot be released from Customs until they are suitably marked. All commercial imports are subject to customs duty and the goods and services tax (GST) unless exempted. royalties and transportation to the Canada point. Excise taxes are also charged on automobiles. automobile air-conditioners. and implementing standards in Canada and the Aerospace industries maintaining standard in all types of products to provide best to their customers. In addition. 3. Prince Edward Island (10%). the Government imposes countervailing duties on imported goods that cause injury to Canadian industry through subsidies in the country of 16 . Quebec (7.5 Customs Tariff and Tax Canada adopts the Harmonized System (HS) of the Tariff Schedules. showing product identity declaration in common generic name.7. Additional and requirements may be imposed at the provincial level. Manitoba (7%).7. these taxes were combined to form a harmonized sales tax at a standard rate of 15% for all goods and services. 3. packing.5% of the duty paid value). Under the Special Import Measures Act.4 Marking and Labeling Country of Origin marking is required on many categories of imported merchandise.3. The contact point in Canada concerning product standards and requirements is the Standards Council of Canada. it should be obtained before the goods are imported into Canada. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia). Duties are assessed on the transaction value (the price actually paid or payable for the goods). brokerage. a broad-based value added sale tax.3 Product Standards and Requirements The National Standards System is the system for developing. Aerospace requires bilingual labeling in English and French for most products. known as the goods and services tax is levied at 7%. Hong Kong and China origin goods are eligible for the preferential tariffs under the Canadian General Preferential Tariff Scheme. and net quantity declaration expressed in metric units of weight volume or numerical count. promoting. as applicable. In the three Atlantic Provinces (Newfoundland. including commission.5%) and Saskatchewan (6%).

carbon steel fasteners. value for duty. 4.6 Documentary Requirements A complete documentary package should be presented to the Customs when the imported goods arrive at the country's border. The Canada Revenue Agency can assist traders to determine the proper tariff classification. price and detailed description of the goods with quantity and unit price. seller. Pre-shipment Inspection and pro-forma Invoice as requested. Cargo Control Document prepared by the carrier based on the shipper's information. Commercial Invoice indicating the buyer. Recently Canada also the Aerospace industry imposes anti-dumping duties on several imports from the Chinese mainland including. and all restricted or controlled drugs require an import permit from Health Canada. and the duty and tax rates that apply.7 Consumer Protection 17 . Certificates of Origin for claiming lower customs duty rates for goods from USA and Mexico (under North American Free Trade Agreement). the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade requires import permits for textiles and clothing. 5. Israel (under Canada-Israel Free Trade Agreement) or Chile (under Canada-Chile Free Trade Agreement) or Form A Certificate of Origin applies to goods covered by the Generalized System of Preferences. Bill of Lading to satisfy the direct shipment condition of preferential tariff treatment goods must be shipped on a through bill of lading from the country of origin to a consignee in Canada. hot rolled carbon steel and high-strength low alloy steel plate. 3. the Canadian Food Inspection Agency examines and gives permits for some meat products. 2.g.7. origin. laminated flooring. Import permits. Other documents include Insurance Certificate. Packing List. health certificates and examinations as required by other Federal government departments: e. 3. 3.7. wood slats. and will provide written rulings on request. country of origin. hot rolled carbon and alloy steel sheet and strip etc.origin and anti-dumping duties on goods at prices that are less than their selling price in the country of origin. The package includes: 1. 6.

All this led to the development of Global Human Resource Management. organizations . or advertised in Canada. they have become global. structure and controls. Enumerate the objectives of global HRM as follows: 1. They are in one way or the other dependent upon organizations that may even not have heard about.8 International HRM Policies With the advent of globalization. 3. labeling and packaging of a wide range of products likely to be in danger to the health or safety of the public. however the same wants a domestic touch in the host country and there lies the challenge. 18 . explosive or corrosive is also regulated. including any products or substance that is poisonous.The Federal Hazardous Products Act prohibits certain items as being too dangerous to permit their usage. There is interdependence between organizations in various areas and functions. These items can be imported. advertising. Even those organizations who consider themselves immune to transactions across geographical boundaries are connected to the wider network globally. This has increased the workforce diversity and cultural sensitivities have emerged like never before. To exemplify. any multinational / international company would not like to be called as local. sold or advertised only as stated under regulations. flammable. 3. These goods cannot be imported. 2.big or small have ceased to be local. Training upon cultures and sensitivities of the host country. Generating awareness of cross cultural sensitivities among managers globally and hiring of staff across geographic boundaries. Create a local appeal without compromising upon the global identity. sold. toxic. The strategic role of Human resources Management in such a scenario is to ensure that HRM policies are in tandem with and in support of the firm’s strategy. The manner of selling. The preliminary function of global Human Resource Management is that the organization carries a local appeal in the host country despite maintaining an international feel.

2. Ethnocentric: Here the Key management positions are filled by the parent country individuals. Also. the deciding upon the top management or key positions gets very tricky. when we talk of structures and controls the following become worth mentioning in the context of Global HRM. The challenge here is developing tools to promote a corporate culture that is almost the same everywhere except that the local sensitivities are taken care of. and finally whether or not to have a uniform hiring policy globally remains a big challenge. 2. Polycentric: In polycentric staffing policy the host country nationals manage subsidiaries whereas the headquarter positions are held by the parent company nationals. Whether to choose a local from the host country for a key position or deploy one from the headquarters assumes importance. Geocentric staffing policy it seems is the best when it comes to Global HRM. Decision Making: There is a certain degree of centralization of operating decision making. Geocentric: In this staffing policy the best and the most competent individuals hold key positions irrespective of the nationalities. The flip side is that human resources become a bit expensive when hired on a geocentric basis. 1. Integrating Mechanisms: Many integrating mechanisms operate simultaneously. the core competencies are centralized and the rest are decentralized. Co-ordination: A high degree of coordination is required in wake of the cross cultural sensitivities. The human resources are deployed productively and it also helps build a strong cultural and informal management network. Compare this to the International strategy. Global HRM Policy: Here also the role is no different hiring individuals with requisite skills to do a particular job.Specifically. Nevertheless an organization can choose to hire according to any of the staffing policies mentioned below: 1. 3. 19 . There is in addition also a high need for cultural control. 3. Besides the national immigration policies may limit implementation.

and less so from survey respondents based in Ontario and Manitoba. This finding is especially pronounced among survey respondents based in Quebec and B. with the remaining 27. Conclusion This report provides an overview of the current environment of the global aerospace and defense industry. Aero Strategy LLC. and one with implications for Canada. the job is half done. A 2009 study by aerospace and defense consultant.9 billion.3% being spent on property. If one is able to strike the right chord in designing structures and controls. and 20 .7% of total investment. survey respondents also indicate that they expect factors such as the general economic recovery. providing funding for an estimated 33. 4. is the growing collaboration between aerospace and defense companies and foreign governments to create high value aerospace and defense clusters within their respective countries. and equipment (“PPE”).. The aerospace and defense industry is very capital intensive. different subsidiaries can function operate coherently only when it is enabled by efficient structures and controls. and requires substantial research and development (“R&D”) activities. as well as provides a profile of the Canadian aerospace and defense industry and the future trends predicted by Canadian aerospace and defense companies. The majority of survey respondents indicate that this level of governmental funding is not sufficient when compared to the funding provided to aerospace and defense companies from foreign governments. suggests that another developing trend globally.C. Subsidiaries are held together by global HRM.Global HRM therefore is a very challenging front in HRM.142 This means that global competition faced by the Canadian aerospace and defense industry will continue to increase due to foreign competitors ‟ collaboration with their own domestic governments. The Government of Canada has various programs designed to fund aerospace and defense R&D activities. constituting 72. plant. the price of fuel and technological innovations. the health of airlines. The role of government in the aerospace and defense industry is widely recognized as being of strategic importance.8% of the total aerospace and defense R&D spend in Canada in 2009. In 2009 aerospace and defense companies invested an estimated total of C$1. In addition. The R&D component is the largest type of investment.

access to qualified labor and capital. The Aerospace Industry polices Canadian Govt. should take to promote  In the freedom of fair and open trade between sovereign nations. The products which are harmful in Aerospace industry. The recommendation for the Manufacturing Industries of Canada.  In the freedom and open exchange of thoughts and cultural ideas  They should increase their efficiency level.  The movement of the factors of Industry should be flexible. formulate and implement a firm and clear regulatory and policy framework to ensure the continuity and sustainability of this national resource.the level of military activity worldwide. those goods cannot be imported. and suggests how this might be done. explosive or corrosive is also regulated by the Govt. sold or advertised only as stated under regulations. including any products or substance that is poisonous. or advertising in for in Canada. flammable. to drive demand for Canadian aerospace and defense products and services over the next three years. and to increase its impact on Canada's economic. Similarly. From the information and statistics we have found that Canada has a large impact on world export import industry. Recommendation The study discussed about the Canada and its Aerospace Industry based on the information from different sources. survey respondent’s note that factors such as access to low cost global supply chains. increased foreign competition and government funding will drive the supply of Canadian aerospace and defense products and services over the next three years. sold. toxic. social and strategic well-being. The Canadian Industry should increase its efforts to promote the importance of Canada’s Aerospace policy and programs to Canadians. These items can be imported. 21 .  They should increase their productivity level both for civil and military sector. 5. in concert with other departments of the Canadian Government.

gc.org www. website of “Aerospace and defense” and also from magazines.  In the freedom of development of scientific knowledge. and  In the freedom to democratically elect governments to uphold our Canadian values 6.com/world/North+America/Canada/aerospace and defense--G0/ http://www.html#ixzz1eeI2FuWZ 22 .nsf/eng/home http://www.ca/about/ http://www. Bibliography/ References We collected our dates’ from different types of book on journals.aiac.googlesearch.manta.com/management/Log-Mar/MacroenvironmentalForces.org/wiki/Canada http://www.referenceforbusiness.ca/resources-and-publications/fmp/ http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com http://en. They should increase their supplier channel in other nations so that their products can be available.wikipedia.cfm? PgNm=TCE&Params=a1ARTA0000051 http://www.yahoosearch.  In the freedom of development and exchange of information on issues of global concern.wikipedia.aiac. The websites we searched data from are: www.ca/eic/site/ad-ad.aiac.com www.com/index. news papers.ca/resources-and-publications/ http://www.ic. technical know-how and intellectual property.

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